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topographical

topographical Sentence Examples

  • above sea level, the elevation of the Plaza de Bolivar, its topographical centre, being 3025 ft.

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  • Glockedon, the author of an interesting road-map of central Europe (1soi), Sebastian Munster (1489-1552), Elias Camerarius, whose map of the mark of Brandenburg won the praise of Mercator; Wolfgang Latz von Lazius, to whom we are indebted for maps of Austria and Hungary (1561), and Philip Apianus, who made a survey of Bavaria (1553-1563), which was published 1568 on the reduced scale of 1:144,000, and is fairly described as the topographical masterpiece of the 16th century.

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  • Their speed must obviously depend greatly on topographical conditions.

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  • The great development of photography has been a notable aid to explorers, not only by placing at their disposal a faithful and ready means of recording the features of a country and the types of inhabitants, but by supplying a method of quick and accurate topographical surveying.

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  • From the descriptive or topographical point of view, geometrical form alone should be con- Land sidered; but the origin and geological structure of forms. land forms must in many cases be taken into account when dealing with the function they exercise in the control of mobile distributions.

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  • His account, drawn up from notes taken in the main from personal observation, possesses an especial importance for topographical research, owing to his method of describing each object in the order in which he saw it during the course of his walks.

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  • 14.1), who never deviates without reason from the topographical order of his narrative, mentions the Enneacrunus in the midst of his description of certain buildings which were undoubtedly in the region of the Agora, and unless he is guilty of an unaccountable digression the Enneacrunus which he saw must have lain west of the Acropolis.

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  • Broadly speaking, they may be divided into two classes, of which the first includes topographical, chorographical and general maps, the second the great variety designed for special purposes.

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  • Mappa mundi was the medieval Latin for a map of the world which the ancients called Tabula totius orbis descriptionem Topographical maps and plans are drawn on a scale sufficiently large to enable the draughtsman to show most objects on a scale true to nature.

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  • XWpa, country or region) and general maps are either reduced from topographical maps or compiled from such miscellaneous sources as are available.

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  • Thus a scale of i,000,000 signifies that each unit of length on the map 2 Close, " The Ideal Topographical Map," Geog.

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  • In the case of topographical maps sheets bounded by meridians and parallels are to be commended.

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  • The meridian of Greenwich has been universally accepted as the initial meridian, but in the case of most topographical maps of foreign countries local meridians are still adhered to - the more important among which are: The outline includes coast-line, rivers, roads, towns, and in fact all objects capable of being shown on a map, with the exception of the hills and of woods, swamps, deserts and the like, which the draughtsman generally describes as " ornament."

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  • The declivities of the ground are still indicated in most topographical maps by a system of strokes or hachures, first devised by L.

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  • Distances such as these can be measured only on a topographical map of a fairly large scale, for on general maps many of the details needed for that purpose can no longer be represented.

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  • Another process, photoor heliogravure, for obtaining an engraved image on a copper plate, was for the first time employed on a large scale for producing a new topographical map of the Austrian Empire in 718 sheets, on a scale of I: 75,000, which was completed in seventeen years (1873-1890).

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  • Dicaearcus of Messana in Sicily, a pupil of Aristotle (326-296 B.C.), is the author of a topographical account of Hellas, with maps, of which only fragments are preserved; he is credited with having estimated the size of the earth, and, as far as known he was the first to draw a parallel across a map. 4 This parallel, or dividing line, called diaphragm (partition) by a commentator, extended due east from the Pillars of Hercules, through the Mediterranean, and along the Taurus and Imaus (Himalaya) to the eastern ocean.

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  • We learn from Cicero, Vitruvius, Seneca, Suetonius, Pliny and others, that the Romans had both general and topographical maps.

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  • The so-called " Nancy globe " is of chased silver, richly ornamented, the earliest works are a map of Palestine (1537), a map of the world on a double heart-shaped projection (1525), and a topographical map of Flanders based upon his own surveys (1540), a pair of globes (1541, diam.

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  • The records preserved in each city were examined, topographical information was diligently collected, and the Jesuit fathers checked their triangulation by meridian altitudes of the sun and pole star and by a system of remeasurements.

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  • Probably these plans gained for him an appointment (loth of August) in the topographical bureau of the committee of Public Safety.

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  • Latin and its nearest congeners, like Faliscan); and (d) Umbrian (or, as it may more safely be called, Iguvine), two principles of classification offer themselves, of which the first is purely linguistic, the second linguistic and topographical.

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  • Topographical Surveys.

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  • By the middle of the 19th century topographical maps of the various German states had been completed, and in several instances surveys of a more exact nature had been completed or begun, when in 1878 the governments of Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Wurttemberg agreed to supersede local maps by publishing a map of the empire (Reichskarte) in 674 sheets on a scale of i:roo,000.

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  • The original surveys, carefully revised, have been published since 1870 as a Topographical Atlas of Switzerland - the so-called Siegfried Atlas, in 552 sheets.

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  • The results have been published on a scale of 1:25,000 (776 sheets, since 1866), 1:50,000 (Topographic and Military Map, 62 sheets, 1850-1864, and a Waterstaatskaart, 1864-1892), and 1:200,000 (Topographical Atlas, 21 sheets, 1868-1871).

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  • Modern surveys in Sweden date from the organization of a corps of " Landematare," known since 1874 as a topographical department of the general staff.

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  • In Norway a geographical survey (Opmaaling) has been in progress since 1783, but the topographical map of the kingdom on a scale of :ioo,000 in 340 sheets, has not yet been completed.

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  • Surveys in Asiatic Russia are conducted by the topographical departments organized at Orenburg, Tashkent, Omsk, Irkutsk and Tiflis.

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  • Revenue surveys for land settlement are published on a scale of 1:4000, but the usual scale for topographical maps is 1:63,360.

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  • has been in progress since 1870, but of the map of [[[Topographical Surveys]] Berlin, 1885-1890) or Bretschneider's Map of China (1:4,600,000) a new edition of which appeared at St Petersburg in 1900.

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  • There are good survey maps of the British colony of Hong-Kong, of Wei-hai-Wei and of the country around Kiao-chou, and the establishment of topographical offices at Peking and Ngan-king holds out some promise of native surveys.

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  • The primary triangulation was completed in 1880, a topographical map coloured geologically (1 :200,000) was published 1889-1897, and in addition to this there are being published an agronomical map on a scale of 1:100,000 (since 1887) and others.

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  • Of Java we possess an excellent topographical map based upon surveys made1850-1887(I:100,000).

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  • It has published a topographical map of the Nile valley (1:50,000), an irrigation map (I:10o,000), a general map (1: 2 50,000), numerous cadastral plans, &c. Work on similar lines is carried on in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

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  • In Madagascar a topographical bureau was established by General J.

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  • and the publication of parish and township or county maps keeps pace with the settlement of the country; but with the exception of Victoria none of these states is in possession of a topographical map equal in accuracy to similar maps published in Europe.

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  • He publishes the topographical maps (i :63,366) since 1906.

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  • The surveyor-general issues also " sectional maps " (1:190,000 and 1:40,000) and so-called " Standard " topographical maps for the thinly peopled west, on scales of 1:250,000 and 1:500,000.

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  • The intelligence branch of the Canadian department of military defence is publishing since 1904 topographical maps on scales of 1:63,366 and 1:126,730, with contours.

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  • Powell, rightly conceived that it was necessary to produce good topographical maps before a geological survey could be pursued with advantage.

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  • A useful map of Central America has been published by the topographical section of the British general staff on a scale of i: 170,300.

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  • In Brazil little or nothing is done by the central government, but the progressive states of Sao Paulo and Mines Gerdes have commissaos geographicos e geologicos engaged in the production of topographical maps.

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  • As the proboscis-gut appears to have undoubtedly skeletal properties, and as it also has topographical relations with the mouth, it has been designated in English by the non-committal term stomochord.

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  • His travels had convinced him that a full and comprehensive knowledge of classical antiquity could only be acquired by a thorough acquaintance with Greek and Roman monuments and works of art, and a detailed examination of the topographical and climatic conditions of the chief localities of the ancient world.

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  • Amongst his topographical works mention may be made of: Topographie von Aiken (1841); Beschreibung der Ebene von Troja (1850), a commentary on a map of the locality executed by T.

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  • through the centre of Kafiristan, has never been accurately traced; but: its topographical conformation is evidently a continuation of that which has been observed in the districts of Badakshan to the west of the Khawak.

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  • Livy's account of the siege, too, is full of topographical difficulties (Lupus, 214 sqq.).

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  • Architectural remains of earlier date than the Norman period are very few, and of historical rather than topographical importance.

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  • The administration of parks and open spaces in and round London, topographical details of the principal of which are given in Section I., is divided between the Office of Works, the London County Council, the City Corporation and the borough councils.

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  • Locks (East London Advertiser, 1902); Philip Norman, London vanished and vanishing (1905); Records of the London Topographical Society; Monographs of the Committee for the Survey of the Memorials of Greater London.

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  • They continued to enjoy all the topographical advantage in respect to position.

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  • Rawlinson's Natural History and Antiquities of Surrey (1719); his antiquarian notes on Wiltshire were printed in Wiltshire; the Topographical Collections of John Aubrey, corrected and enlarged by J.

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  • Jackson (Devizes, 1862); part of another MS. on "The Natural History of Wiltshire" was printed by John Britton in 1847 for the Wiltshire Topographical Society; the Miscellanies were edited in 1890 for the Library of Old Authors; the "Minutes for Lives" were partially edited in 1813.

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  • Rich had already done useful topographical work.

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  • In 1842 he was appointed a second lieutenant in the corps of the topographical engineers.

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  • Until the Civil War he was engaged in various engineering works, mainly in connexion with lighthouses, and later as a captain of topographical engineers in the survey of the northern lakes.

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  • Except in the neighbourhood of Aden, no regular surveys exist, and professional work is limited to the marine surveys of the Indian government and the admiralty, which, while laying down the coast line with fair accuracy, give little or no topographical information inland.

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  • Manzoni in 1887 have led to a fairly complete knowledge of all that part of the province west of the capital Sana; while in 1902-1904 the operations of the Anglo-Turkish boundary commission permitted the execution of a systematic topographical survey of the British protectorate from the Red Sea to the Wadi Bana, 30 m.

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  • Burton's topographical descriptions are fuller, and his march to Mecca from Medina by the eastern route led him over ground not traversed by any other explorer in Hejaz: this route leads at first south-east from Medina, and then south across the lava beds of the Harra, keeping throughout its length on the high plateau which forms the borderland between Hejaz and Nejd.

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  • Interesting archaeological discoveries were made, and a valuable topographical survey was carried out, covering the whole Midian coast from the head of the Gulf of Akaba to the mouth of the Wadi Hamd, and including both the Tehama range and the Hisma valley behind it; while the importance of the W.

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  • Huber's journal, published after his death from his original notes, contains a mass of topographical and archaeological detail of the greatest scientific value: his routes and observations form, in fact, the first and only scientific data for the construction of the map of northern Arabia.

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  • His narrative thus, while containing much of general interest on the climate and on the animal life of northern Arabia, its horses and camels in particular, adds little to those of his predecessors as regards topographical detail.

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  • Topographical Details.

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  • The principal evidence which Humboldt adduced in its support was the possibility of explaining a vast number of the ancient topographical names of Spain, and of other asserted Iberian districts, by the forms and significations of Basque.

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  • The topographical labours of Cosme Bueno and Unanue were ably continued at Lima by Admiral Don Eduardo Carrasco, who compiled annual guides of Peru from 1826.

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  • He notes the convenience of the method for solar observations and its previous use by some of the observers already mentioned, as well as its advantages for easily and accurately copying on an enlarged or reduced scale, especially for chorographical or topographical documents.

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  • Although the Finns are not Sla y s, on topographical grounds mention may here be made of Wainamoinen, the great magician and hero of the Finnish epic Kalevala (" land of heroes ").

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  • He served in the Black Hawk and Seminole wars, and left the army in 1837 to become a civil engineer, but a year afterwards he was reappointed to the army as first lieutenant, Topographical Engineers, and breveted captain for his conduct in the Seminole war.

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  • In the earlier part of the Civil War Humphreys was employed as a topographical engineer with the Army of the Potomac, and rendered conspicuous services in the Seven Days' Battles.

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  • He was awarded a prebend at Minden for his services as a topographical engineer on the day of Valmy, and after serving through the campaigns of 1793 and 1794 he published a number of memoirs on the military history of these years.

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  • The usual changes of station and detached duty made him acquainted with the geography of all the Southern states, and Sherman improved the opportunity by making topographical studies which proved of no small value to him later.

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  • But the first real important work was undertaken by the Swedish naturalist, Georg Wahlenberg (1780-1851), who in 1813 explored the central Carpathians as a botanist, but afterwards also made topographical and geological studies of the system.

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  • 68-70; and since the walls are not yet built, the topographical details in Neh.

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  • The important topographical list in ch.

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  • Dodwell, Classical and Topographical Tour (1819), i.

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  • Gradually, from Eratosthenes to Tycho, Hipparchus playing the most important part among ancient astronomers, the complex astrolabe was evolved, large specimens being among the chief observa tory instruments of the 15th, 16th and even 17th centuries; while small ones were in use among travellers and learned men, not only for astronomical, but for astrological and topographical purposes.

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  • Turner; Reports of the New York Geological Survey from 1842 to 1854 (Albany); Reports of the Topographical Survey of the Adirondack Region of New York (Albany, 18731880); Reports of the New York Meteorological Bureau (1889 sqq.); and publications of the United States Weather Bureau.

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  • And as to the vivid accuracy of many of his topographical and social details, the predominant critical verdict now is that he betrays an eye-witness's knowledge of the country between Sichem and Jordan and as to Jerusalem; he will have visited these places, say in 90, or may have lived in Jerusalem shortly before its fall.

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  • Hasted, History and Topographical Survey of Kent (4 vols.

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  • Doumergue, La Geneve Calviniste (containing a minute topographical description of 16th-century Geneva, and forming vol.

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  • Dyer frequently visited Greece and Italy, and his topographical works are probably his best; amongst these mention may be made of Pompeii, its History, Buildings and Antiquities (1867, new ed.

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  • c. 1222), the author of topographical and historical writings on Ireland and Wales, and of other works teeming with quotations from the Latin classics.

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  • - Maryland is crossed from north to south by each of the leading topographical regions of the east section of the United States - the Coastal Plain, the Piedmont Plateau, the Appalachian Mountains, and the Appalachian Plateau - hence its great diversity of surface.

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  • For an early description, see Gilbert Imlay, A Topographical Description of the Western Territory of North America (London, 3rd ed., 1797), in which John Filson's " Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke " (1784) is reprinted.

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  • The many topographical details furnished by exploration when compared with the building inscriptions and the indications given by deeds of sale will doubtless enable us ultimately to map out the principal features of the ancient city, but much more systematic exploration is needed, as well as further publication of existing documents.

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  • Its inner border affords admirable examples of topographical discordance where it sweeps north-westward square across the trend of the piedmont belt, the ridges and valleys, and the plateau of the Appalachians, which are all terminated by dipping gently beneath the unconformable cover of the coastal The, lain strata.

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  • In the same way the western side of the em- Mississippi ~ayment, trending south and south-west, passes along the Emba.vmeni.lower south-eastern side of the dissected Ozark plateau of southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, which in many ways resembles the Appalachian plateau, and along the eastern end of the Massern ranges of the Ouachita mountain system in central Arkansas, which in geological history and topographical form present many analogies with the ridges and valleys of the Appalachians; and as the coastal plain turns westward to Texas it borders the Arbuckle hills in Oklahoma, a small analogue of the crystalline Appalachian belt.

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  • The island is incidentally described with no small variety of detail, picturesque and topographical; the Homeric localities for which counterparts have been sought are Mount Neritos, Mount Neion, the harbour of Phorcys, the town and palace of Odysseus, the fountain of Arethusa, the cave of the Naiads, the stalls of the swineherd Eumaeus, the orchard of Laertes, the Korax or Raven Cliff and the island Asteris, where the suitors lay in ambush for Telemachus.

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  • Strategically it is an important topographical feature, for it divides the basin of the Kabul river and the Khyber route from the valley of Kurram, leaving no practicable pass across its rugged crest to connect the two.

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  • - Inscriptions, coins, topographical names preserved by Greek and Latin writers, names of persons and the Punic passages in the Poenulus of Plautus, all show conclusively that the Phoenician language belonged to the North-Semitic group, and to that subdivision of it which is called the Canaanite and includes Hebrew and the dialect of Moab.

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  • A topographical work, with the somewhat misleading title Mappa mundi, completes the list of his more important writings.

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  • The chief topographical feature of the burgh is its length, from which it is called the "Lang toun."

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  • Raynolds, of the United States Corps of Topographical Engineers, with full knowledge of Bridger's accounts, was ordered to explore the region in 1859, and yet, chiefly because of the persistent incredulity with which the accounts of the phenomena were received, the region remained practically unknown until 1870.

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  • It should be borne in mind that the limits adopted above refer purely to the topographical aspect of the Alps as they exist at the present day.

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  • Hence the passes that can be shown to have been certainly known to them are comparatively few in number: they are, in topographical order from west to east, the Col de l'Argentiere, the Mont Genevre, the two St Bernards, the Spliigen, the Septimer, the Brenner, the Radsta.dter Tauern, the SOlkscharte, the P16cken and the Pontebba (or Saifnitz).

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  • We give below that which seems to us to be the most satisfactory (based very largely on personal acquaintance with most parts of the range), considering, as in the case of the limits of the chain, only its topographical aspect, as it exists at the present day, while leaving it to geologists, botanists and zoologists to elaborate special divisions as required by these various sciences.

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  • Our selected divisions relate only to the High Alps between the Col de Tenda and the route over the Radstddter Tauern, while in each of the 18 subdivisions the less elevated outlying peaks are regarded as appendages of the higher group within the topographical limits of which they rise.

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  • But the most splendid Government map of all is that put forth by the Swiss Federal Topographical Bureau, under the title of Siegfried Atlas (scale 1 :50,000 for the Alpine districts), which has quite superseded the Dufour Map (scale 1: loo,000), the history of which was published in 1896.

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  • Books of travel include some of considerable topographical as well as literary interest, from Lodovico Guicciardini (1567) down to Edmondo de Amicis (Holland, translated from the Italian, London, 1883); H.

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  • Yonge, The Site of Old" James Towne," 1607-1698 (Richmond, 1904), embodying the results of the topographical investigations of the engineer in charge of the river-wall built in 1900-1901.

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  • The explanation of the comparative insignificance of Moab, however, is not to be found in purely topographical considerations.

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  • Townsend, The Town and Borough of Leominster (1863), and John Price, An Historical and Topographical Account of Leominster and its Vicinity (Ludlow, 1715).

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  • The old shore cliffs and gravel bars of these glacial lakes are still well-marked topographical features, and provide favourite sites for towns and cities.

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  • Ray himself published an account of his foreign travel in 1673, entitled Observations topographical, moral, and physiological, made on a Journey through part of the Low Countries, Germany, Italy, and France.

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  • For further details see also the separate topographical headings (for JJ excavations, &c.), and the general articles on the m various arts and art id...

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  • The works of many of the authors enumerated are topographical and biographical as well as purely historical.

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  • (6) The articles of war correspondents must be confined to topographical descriptions and generalities.

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  • - There has been most archaeological activity at Athens, where its results have been mainly topographical.

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  • But the dominant cause in the determination of the topographical prominences and depressions of the district has been the relative hardness and softness of the rocks.

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  • - apparently the dominant characteristic - but the valleys which have been opened through them by the agencies of water and weather, and which are therefore its fundamental topographical element.

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  • The plications of the Highlands and the chief dislocations of the country have followed the same general direction, and hence the parallelism and north-easterly trend of the main topographical features.

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  • The final survey of the Pamir region (wherein the heads of all the chief tributaries of the river lay hidden), by the Pamir boundary commission of 1895 established the following topographical facts in connexion with this question.

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  • 4to), an historical and topographical account of Denmark, was mostly posthumous.

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  • superficiality of his descriptions of sites, and by some rash and untenable identifications: but it is at once a standard and the foundation of all subsequent topographical work in the country.

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  • (London, 1907); Geological and Topographical Report on Kharga Oasis (1899), on Farafra Oasis (1899), on Dakhla Oasis (1900), on Baharia Oasis (1903), all issued by the Public Works Department, Cairo.

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  • Strabo follows up the topographical data with a few brief historical statements - "OaKot €t ov Kai raur'v Kai 111v e0-js no,u?rniav.

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  • Further topographical details are supplied by Strabo, who, after speaking about Naples, continues iX6 P dEvov cpo, pL6v fUTLY 'HpcLKXELOv Ekkel,f1 V9]v Kpav g KaralrvE6 b lEvov Oav j eorWS 15yLElv1% v 7rotEav T?

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  • In July 1838 he was appointed second lieutenant of Topographical Engineers in the United States army, and for the next three years he was assistant to the French explorer, Jean Nicholas Nicollet (1786-1843), employed by the war department to survey and map a large part of the country lying between the upper waters of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers.

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  • Its area according to the calculations of the Topographical Bureau of Batavia (1894) comprises 293,496 sq.

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  • The topographical and architectural results are disappointing, and show either that the site always retained its primitive simplicity, or else that whatever buildings once existed have been very completely destroyed.

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  • Eleven topographical and climatic divisions are recognized by the United States Weather Bureau within its borders, including the several parks, the continental divide, and various river valleys.

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  • For purposes of general topographical description Chile may be divided into three regions: the desert region of the north, the central agricultural region between the provinces of Coquimbo and Llanquihue, and the heavily-forested rainy region south of lat.

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  • It should, however, be added that very valuable topographical exploration has been carried out in the environs of Ephesus by members of the Austrian expedition, and that the Ephesian district is now mapped more satisfactorily than any other district of ancient interest in Asia Minor.

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  • The description of Pausanias was written at a time when the lower city was deserted, and only the temples and the gates left; and the references to Thebes in the Attic dramatists are, like those to Mycenae and Argos, of little or no topographical value.

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  • J Y Y explored from Lhasa to the sources of the Brahmaputra and Indus, at the conclusion of the Tibetan mission in 1904, conclusively prove that Mount Everest, which appears from the Tibetan plateau as a single dominating peak, has no rival amongst Himalayan altitudes, whilst the very remarkable investigations made by permission of the Nepal durbar from peaks near Kathmandu in 1903, by Captain Wood, R.E., not only place the Everest group apart from other peaks with which they have been confused by scientists, isolating them in the topographical system of Nepal, but clearly show that there is no one dominating and continuous range indicating a main Himalayan chain which includes both Everest and Kinchinjunga.

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  • Independently of the enormous variety of topographical conformation contained in the Himalayan system, the vast altitude of the mountains alone is sufficient to cause modifications of climate in ascending over their slopes such as are not surpassed by those observed in moving from the equator to the poles.

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  • The economic ~ questions which attend the production of, silver and the influence which gold and silver exercise 'on prices are treated in the articles Money and Bimetallism; the reader is referred to the former article for the history of silver production and to the topographical headings for the production of specific countries.

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  • The topographical or local series comprises the seals of cities„ of towns and boroughs and of corporate bodies.

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  • 3 A separate topographical notice is given under the heading Wales, but the consideration of certain points affecting Wales as linked with England is essential in this article.

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  • Each county is treated in a separate article in the topographical, geological, economical and historical aspects.

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  • Further topographical details are given in separate articles on the more important hill-systems, rivers, &c.

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  • The principal ports for the shipping of coal for export, set down in order of the amount shipped, also fall very nearly into topographical groups, thus: - Newcastle, South Shields and Blyth in the Northern District; Newport in Monmouthshire; Sunderland in the Northern District, Hull, Grimsby and Goole on the Humber, which forms the eastern outlet of the Yorkshire coal-fields; Hartlepool, in the Northern District, and Liverpool.

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  • Britton and others, Beauties of England and Wales, or, Original Delineation, Topographical, Historical and Descriptive, of each County (1801-1818; both the authors named wrote other descriptive works on special localities; Britton wrote Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain, 1835); Daniel Lysons (with the collaboration of his brother Samuel), Magna Britannia, Topographical Account of the several Counties of Great Britain (1806-1822; the counties were taken alphabetically but on the death of Samuel Lysons in 1819 the work was stopped at Devonshire); Sir G.

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  • See Victoria County History: Yorkshire; William Grainge, The Vale of Mowbray: a historical and topographical account of Thirsk and its neighbourhood (1859).

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  • Victoria County History (London, 1904, &c.); Fishe, Collections, Historical, Genealogical and Topographical, for Bedfordshire (London, 1812-1816, and also 1812-1836); J.

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  • The history of Scotland from 1436 to 1561 owes much, in its earlier chapters, to the accounts of Hector Boece and John Major, though no small portion of the topographical matter is first-hand.

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  • Graham of the U.S. topographical engineers; and as the western part of the boundary was not marked by stones, and local disputes arose, the line was again surveyed between 1901 and 1903 under the direction of a commission appointed by Pennsylvania and Maryland.

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  • - The topographical features of the state exhibit considerable diversity, ranging fro g $ wide treeless plains in the W.

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  • BIBLI0GRAPHY.The following works are mainly topographical and descriptive: G.

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  • He was a voluminous author, and his works included topographical and biographical treatises, commentaries on Helvius Cinna and the poems of Virgil, and disquisitions on agriculture and bee-keeping.

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  • As instances of his careful attention to geography and topography we have not only the fact of his widely extended travels, from the African coast and the Pillars of Hercules in the west, to the Euxine and the coasts of Asia Minor in the east, but also the geographical and topographical studies scattered throughout his history.

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  • The peculiar topographical conditions made the three sections of the state almost separate commonwealths, and demand for better means of communication was insistent.

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  • In addition, candidates should have a clear knowledge of topographical anatomy as demonstrated by modern imaging techniques.

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  • Current Status Biological status lowland beech and yew woodland spans a variety of distinctive vegetation types reflecting differences in soil and topographical conditions.

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  • If, however, you want topographical maps of say the Italian dolomite hiking trails then availability of digital maps is a problem.

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  • The Russell Society is Britain's leading society focusing on topographical mineralogy (the study of minerals by geographic location ).

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  • Topographical and geophysical survey, surface collection and geochemical sampling were used to further investigate the topography and chronology of the site.

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  • Besides the historical narrative, there were works mainly geographical or topographical left by persons like Baeton and Diognetus, whom Alexander had employed (as Onyarcaral.) to survey the roads over which he passed.

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  • above sea level, the elevation of the Plaza de Bolivar, its topographical centre, being 3025 ft.

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  • The limited knowledge which we possess of the original features of the ground within the area of the city makes a reconstruction of the topographical history of the latter a difficult task; and, as a natural result, many irreconcilable theories have been suggested.

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  • Latin and its nearest congeners, like Faliscan); and (d) Umbrian (or, as it may more safely be called, Iguvine), two principles of classification offer themselves, of which the first is purely linguistic, the second linguistic and topographical.

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  • Geography is a synthetic science, dependent for the data with which it deals on the results of specialized sciences such as astronomy, geology, oceanography, meteorology, biology and anthropology, as well as on topographical description.

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  • His division of geography was into two parts - (i.) General or universal, dealing with the earth in general, and explaining its properties without regard to particular countries; and (ii.) Special or particular, dealing with each country in turn from the chorographical or topographical point of view.

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  • The records preserved in each city were examined, topographical information was diligently collected, and the Jesuit fathers checked their triangulation by meridian altitudes of the sun and pole star and by a system of remeasurements.

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  • The great development of photography has been a notable aid to explorers, not only by placing at their disposal a faithful and ready means of recording the features of a country and the types of inhabitants, but by supplying a method of quick and accurate topographical surveying.

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  • From the descriptive or topographical point of view, geometrical form alone should be con- Land sidered; but the origin and geological structure of forms. land forms must in many cases be taken into account when dealing with the function they exercise in the control of mobile distributions.

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  • 3 law schools, 4 veterinary institutes, 4 agricultural colleges, 2 mining institutes, 4 engineering institutes, 2 universities for women (93 o students at St Petersburg), 3 technical pedagogic schools, to technical institutes, I forestry and 1 topographical school.

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  • Their speed must obviously depend greatly on topographical conditions.

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  • See primarily Bible: Old Testament; the articles on the contents and literary structure of the several books; the various biographical, topographical and ethnical articles, and the separate treatment of the more important subjects (e.g.

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  • The state lies wholly within the three leading topographical regions of the eastern portion of the United States: the Coastal Plain Region, which occupies approximately the eastern half, the Piedmont Plateau Region, which occupies about 20,000 sq.

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  • Probably these plans gained for him an appointment (loth of August) in the topographical bureau of the committee of Public Safety.

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  • Beacon Hill, so called from its ancient use as a signal warning station, is still the most conspicuous topographical feature of the city, but it has been changed from a bold and picturesque eminence into a gentle slope.

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  • His account, drawn up from notes taken in the main from personal observation, possesses an especial importance for topographical research, owing to his method of describing each object in the order in which he saw it during the course of his walks.

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  • 14.1), who never deviates without reason from the topographical order of his narrative, mentions the Enneacrunus in the midst of his description of certain buildings which were undoubtedly in the region of the Agora, and unless he is guilty of an unaccountable digression the Enneacrunus which he saw must have lain west of the Acropolis.

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  • Broadly speaking, they may be divided into two classes, of which the first includes topographical, chorographical and general maps, the second the great variety designed for special purposes.

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  • Mappa mundi was the medieval Latin for a map of the world which the ancients called Tabula totius orbis descriptionem Topographical maps and plans are drawn on a scale sufficiently large to enable the draughtsman to show most objects on a scale true to nature.

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  • XWpa, country or region) and general maps are either reduced from topographical maps or compiled from such miscellaneous sources as are available.

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  • Thus a scale of i,000,000 signifies that each unit of length on the map 2 Close, " The Ideal Topographical Map," Geog.

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  • In the case of topographical maps sheets bounded by meridians and parallels are to be commended.

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  • The meridian of Greenwich has been universally accepted as the initial meridian, but in the case of most topographical maps of foreign countries local meridians are still adhered to - the more important among which are: The outline includes coast-line, rivers, roads, towns, and in fact all objects capable of being shown on a map, with the exception of the hills and of woods, swamps, deserts and the like, which the draughtsman generally describes as " ornament."

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  • The declivities of the ground are still indicated in most topographical maps by a system of strokes or hachures, first devised by L.

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  • Measurements made on a topographical map yield the most satisfactory results.

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  • Distances such as these can be measured only on a topographical map of a fairly large scale, for on general maps many of the details needed for that purpose can no longer be represented.

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  • Another process, photoor heliogravure, for obtaining an engraved image on a copper plate, was for the first time employed on a large scale for producing a new topographical map of the Austrian Empire in 718 sheets, on a scale of I: 75,000, which was completed in seventeen years (1873-1890).

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  • Dicaearcus of Messana in Sicily, a pupil of Aristotle (326-296 B.C.), is the author of a topographical account of Hellas, with maps, of which only fragments are preserved; he is credited with having estimated the size of the earth, and, as far as known he was the first to draw a parallel across a map. 4 This parallel, or dividing line, called diaphragm (partition) by a commentator, extended due east from the Pillars of Hercules, through the Mediterranean, and along the Taurus and Imaus (Himalaya) to the eastern ocean.

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  • We learn from Cicero, Vitruvius, Seneca, Suetonius, Pliny and others, that the Romans had both general and topographical maps.

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  • Glockedon, the author of an interesting road-map of central Europe (1soi), Sebastian Munster (1489-1552), Elias Camerarius, whose map of the mark of Brandenburg won the praise of Mercator; Wolfgang Latz von Lazius, to whom we are indebted for maps of Austria and Hungary (1561), and Philip Apianus, who made a survey of Bavaria (1553-1563), which was published 1568 on the reduced scale of 1:144,000, and is fairly described as the topographical masterpiece of the 16th century.

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  • The so-called " Nancy globe " is of chased silver, richly ornamented, the earliest works are a map of Palestine (1537), a map of the world on a double heart-shaped projection (1525), and a topographical map of Flanders based upon his own surveys (1540), a pair of globes (1541, diam.

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  • Topographical surveys are gradually extending, and explorers of recent years are better trained for their work than they were a generation ago, whilst technical processes of recent invention - such as lithography, photography and heliogravure - facilitate or expedite the completion of his task.

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  • Topographical Surveys.

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  • A third topographical map of France is being published in accordance with the recommendation of a committee presided over by General de la Noix in 1897.

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  • By the middle of the 19th century topographical maps of the various German states had been completed, and in several instances surveys of a more exact nature had been completed or begun, when in 1878 the governments of Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Wurttemberg agreed to supersede local maps by publishing a map of the empire (Reichskarte) in 674 sheets on a scale of i:roo,000.

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  • The original surveys, carefully revised, have been published since 1870 as a Topographical Atlas of Switzerland - the so-called Siegfried Atlas, in 552 sheets.

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  • The results have been published on a scale of 1:25,000 (776 sheets, since 1866), 1:50,000 (Topographic and Military Map, 62 sheets, 1850-1864, and a Waterstaatskaart, 1864-1892), and 1:200,000 (Topographical Atlas, 21 sheets, 1868-1871).

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  • Modern surveys in Sweden date from the organization of a corps of " Landematare," known since 1874 as a topographical department of the general staff.

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  • In Norway a geographical survey (Opmaaling) has been in progress since 1783, but the topographical map of the kingdom on a scale of :ioo,000 in 340 sheets, has not yet been completed.

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  • Surveys in Asiatic Russia are conducted by the topographical departments organized at Orenburg, Tashkent, Omsk, Irkutsk and Tiflis.

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  • Revenue surveys for land settlement are published on a scale of 1:4000, but the usual scale for topographical maps is 1:63,360.

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  • has been in progress since 1870, but of the map of [[[Topographical Surveys]] Berlin, 1885-1890) or Bretschneider's Map of China (1:4,600,000) a new edition of which appeared at St Petersburg in 1900.

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  • There are good survey maps of the British colony of Hong-Kong, of Wei-hai-Wei and of the country around Kiao-chou, and the establishment of topographical offices at Peking and Ngan-king holds out some promise of native surveys.

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  • The primary triangulation was completed in 1880, a topographical map coloured geologically (1 :200,000) was published 1889-1897, and in addition to this there are being published an agronomical map on a scale of 1:100,000 (since 1887) and others.

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  • Of Java we possess an excellent topographical map based upon surveys made1850-1887(I:100,000).

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  • It has published a topographical map of the Nile valley (1:50,000), an irrigation map (I:10o,000), a general map (1: 2 50,000), numerous cadastral plans, &c. Work on similar lines is carried on in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

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  • In Madagascar a topographical bureau was established by General J.

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  • and the publication of parish and township or county maps keeps pace with the settlement of the country; but with the exception of Victoria none of these states is in possession of a topographical map equal in accuracy to similar maps published in Europe.

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  • He publishes the topographical maps (i :63,366) since 1906.

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  • The surveyor-general issues also " sectional maps " (1:190,000 and 1:40,000) and so-called " Standard " topographical maps for the thinly peopled west, on scales of 1:250,000 and 1:500,000.

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  • The intelligence branch of the Canadian department of military defence is publishing since 1904 topographical maps on scales of 1:63,366 and 1:126,730, with contours.

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  • Powell, rightly conceived that it was necessary to produce good topographical maps before a geological survey could be pursued with advantage.

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  • A useful map of Central America has been published by the topographical section of the British general staff on a scale of i: 170,300.

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  • In Brazil little or nothing is done by the central government, but the progressive states of Sao Paulo and Mines Gerdes have commissaos geographicos e geologicos engaged in the production of topographical maps.

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  • Great Britain has likewise taken the lead in those deep-sea explorations which reveal to us the configuration of the sea-bottom, and enable us to construct charts of the ocean bed corresponding to the contoured maps of dry land yielded by topographical surveys.

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  • Long bar-like " islands " (conspicuous high land rising above the marsh and prairie) - Orange, Petite Anse, Grand Cote, Cote Blanche and Belle Isle - offer very interesting topographical and geological problems. " Trembling prairies "- land that trembles under the tread of men or cattle - are common near the coast.

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  • As the proboscis-gut appears to have undoubtedly skeletal properties, and as it also has topographical relations with the mouth, it has been designated in English by the non-committal term stomochord.

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  • His travels had convinced him that a full and comprehensive knowledge of classical antiquity could only be acquired by a thorough acquaintance with Greek and Roman monuments and works of art, and a detailed examination of the topographical and climatic conditions of the chief localities of the ancient world.

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  • Amongst his topographical works mention may be made of: Topographie von Aiken (1841); Beschreibung der Ebene von Troja (1850), a commentary on a map of the locality executed by T.

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  • Spratt (see Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, xii., 1842); Topographia Thebarum Heptapylarum (1854); Erkldrung der Ilias (1884), on the basis of the topographical and physical peculiarities of the plain of Troy.

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  • through the centre of Kafiristan, has never been accurately traced; but: its topographical conformation is evidently a continuation of that which has been observed in the districts of Badakshan to the west of the Khawak.

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  • Livy's account of the siege, too, is full of topographical difficulties (Lupus, 214 sqq.).

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  • Architectural remains of earlier date than the Norman period are very few, and of historical rather than topographical importance.

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  • The administration of parks and open spaces in and round London, topographical details of the principal of which are given in Section I., is divided between the Office of Works, the London County Council, the City Corporation and the borough councils.

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  • Locks (East London Advertiser, 1902); Philip Norman, London vanished and vanishing (1905); Records of the London Topographical Society; Monographs of the Committee for the Survey of the Memorials of Greater London.

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  • They continued to enjoy all the topographical advantage in respect to position.

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  • Rawlinson's Natural History and Antiquities of Surrey (1719); his antiquarian notes on Wiltshire were printed in Wiltshire; the Topographical Collections of John Aubrey, corrected and enlarged by J.

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  • Jackson (Devizes, 1862); part of another MS. on "The Natural History of Wiltshire" was printed by John Britton in 1847 for the Wiltshire Topographical Society; the Miscellanies were edited in 1890 for the Library of Old Authors; the "Minutes for Lives" were partially edited in 1813.

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  • Rich had already done useful topographical work.

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  • In 1842 he was appointed a second lieutenant in the corps of the topographical engineers.

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  • Until the Civil War he was engaged in various engineering works, mainly in connexion with lighthouses, and later as a captain of topographical engineers in the survey of the northern lakes.

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  • Except in the neighbourhood of Aden, no regular surveys exist, and professional work is limited to the marine surveys of the Indian government and the admiralty, which, while laying down the coast line with fair accuracy, give little or no topographical information inland.

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  • Manzoni in 1887 have led to a fairly complete knowledge of all that part of the province west of the capital Sana; while in 1902-1904 the operations of the Anglo-Turkish boundary commission permitted the execution of a systematic topographical survey of the British protectorate from the Red Sea to the Wadi Bana, 30 m.

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  • Burton's topographical descriptions are fuller, and his march to Mecca from Medina by the eastern route led him over ground not traversed by any other explorer in Hejaz: this route leads at first south-east from Medina, and then south across the lava beds of the Harra, keeping throughout its length on the high plateau which forms the borderland between Hejaz and Nejd.

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  • Interesting archaeological discoveries were made, and a valuable topographical survey was carried out, covering the whole Midian coast from the head of the Gulf of Akaba to the mouth of the Wadi Hamd, and including both the Tehama range and the Hisma valley behind it; while the importance of the W.

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  • Huber's journal, published after his death from his original notes, contains a mass of topographical and archaeological detail of the greatest scientific value: his routes and observations form, in fact, the first and only scientific data for the construction of the map of northern Arabia.

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  • His narrative thus, while containing much of general interest on the climate and on the animal life of northern Arabia, its horses and camels in particular, adds little to those of his predecessors as regards topographical detail.

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  • Topographical Details.

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  • The principal evidence which Humboldt adduced in its support was the possibility of explaining a vast number of the ancient topographical names of Spain, and of other asserted Iberian districts, by the forms and significations of Basque.

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  • The topographical labours of Cosme Bueno and Unanue were ably continued at Lima by Admiral Don Eduardo Carrasco, who compiled annual guides of Peru from 1826.

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  • He notes the convenience of the method for solar observations and its previous use by some of the observers already mentioned, as well as its advantages for easily and accurately copying on an enlarged or reduced scale, especially for chorographical or topographical documents.

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  • Although the Finns are not Sla y s, on topographical grounds mention may here be made of Wainamoinen, the great magician and hero of the Finnish epic Kalevala (" land of heroes ").

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  • He served in the Black Hawk and Seminole wars, and left the army in 1837 to become a civil engineer, but a year afterwards he was reappointed to the army as first lieutenant, Topographical Engineers, and breveted captain for his conduct in the Seminole war.

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  • In the earlier part of the Civil War Humphreys was employed as a topographical engineer with the Army of the Potomac, and rendered conspicuous services in the Seven Days' Battles.

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  • He was awarded a prebend at Minden for his services as a topographical engineer on the day of Valmy, and after serving through the campaigns of 1793 and 1794 he published a number of memoirs on the military history of these years.

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  • The usual changes of station and detached duty made him acquainted with the geography of all the Southern states, and Sherman improved the opportunity by making topographical studies which proved of no small value to him later.

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  • But the first real important work was undertaken by the Swedish naturalist, Georg Wahlenberg (1780-1851), who in 1813 explored the central Carpathians as a botanist, but afterwards also made topographical and geological studies of the system.

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  • 68-70; and since the walls are not yet built, the topographical details in Neh.

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  • The important topographical list in ch.

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  • Dodwell, Classical and Topographical Tour (1819), i.

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  • Gradually, from Eratosthenes to Tycho, Hipparchus playing the most important part among ancient astronomers, the complex astrolabe was evolved, large specimens being among the chief observa tory instruments of the 15th, 16th and even 17th centuries; while small ones were in use among travellers and learned men, not only for astronomical, but for astrological and topographical purposes.

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  • Turner; Reports of the New York Geological Survey from 1842 to 1854 (Albany); Reports of the Topographical Survey of the Adirondack Region of New York (Albany, 18731880); Reports of the New York Meteorological Bureau (1889 sqq.); and publications of the United States Weather Bureau.

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  • And as to the vivid accuracy of many of his topographical and social details, the predominant critical verdict now is that he betrays an eye-witness's knowledge of the country between Sichem and Jordan and as to Jerusalem; he will have visited these places, say in 90, or may have lived in Jerusalem shortly before its fall.

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  • Hasted, History and Topographical Survey of Kent (4 vols.

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  • Doumergue, La Geneve Calviniste (containing a minute topographical description of 16th-century Geneva, and forming vol.

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  • Dyer frequently visited Greece and Italy, and his topographical works are probably his best; amongst these mention may be made of Pompeii, its History, Buildings and Antiquities (1867, new ed.

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  • c. 1222), the author of topographical and historical writings on Ireland and Wales, and of other works teeming with quotations from the Latin classics.

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  • - Maryland is crossed from north to south by each of the leading topographical regions of the east section of the United States - the Coastal Plain, the Piedmont Plateau, the Appalachian Mountains, and the Appalachian Plateau - hence its great diversity of surface.

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  • For an early description, see Gilbert Imlay, A Topographical Description of the Western Territory of North America (London, 3rd ed., 1797), in which John Filson's " Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke " (1784) is reprinted.

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  • The many topographical details furnished by exploration when compared with the building inscriptions and the indications given by deeds of sale will doubtless enable us ultimately to map out the principal features of the ancient city, but much more systematic exploration is needed, as well as further publication of existing documents.

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  • Its inner border affords admirable examples of topographical discordance where it sweeps north-westward square across the trend of the piedmont belt, the ridges and valleys, and the plateau of the Appalachians, which are all terminated by dipping gently beneath the unconformable cover of the coastal The, lain strata.

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  • In the same way the western side of the em- Mississippi ~ayment, trending south and south-west, passes along the Emba.vmeni.lower south-eastern side of the dissected Ozark plateau of southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, which in many ways resembles the Appalachian plateau, and along the eastern end of the Massern ranges of the Ouachita mountain system in central Arkansas, which in geological history and topographical form present many analogies with the ridges and valleys of the Appalachians; and as the coastal plain turns westward to Texas it borders the Arbuckle hills in Oklahoma, a small analogue of the crystalline Appalachian belt.

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  • The island is incidentally described with no small variety of detail, picturesque and topographical; the Homeric localities for which counterparts have been sought are Mount Neritos, Mount Neion, the harbour of Phorcys, the town and palace of Odysseus, the fountain of Arethusa, the cave of the Naiads, the stalls of the swineherd Eumaeus, the orchard of Laertes, the Korax or Raven Cliff and the island Asteris, where the suitors lay in ambush for Telemachus.

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  • Strategically it is an important topographical feature, for it divides the basin of the Kabul river and the Khyber route from the valley of Kurram, leaving no practicable pass across its rugged crest to connect the two.

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  • - Inscriptions, coins, topographical names preserved by Greek and Latin writers, names of persons and the Punic passages in the Poenulus of Plautus, all show conclusively that the Phoenician language belonged to the North-Semitic group, and to that subdivision of it which is called the Canaanite and includes Hebrew and the dialect of Moab.

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  • A topographical work, with the somewhat misleading title Mappa mundi, completes the list of his more important writings.

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  • In the geographical books Varro is supplemented by the topographical commentaries of Agrippa which were completed by the emperor Augustus; for his zoology he relies largely on Aristotle and on Juba, the scholarly Mauretanian king, studiorum claritate memorabilior quam regno (v.

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  • The chief topographical feature of the burgh is its length, from which it is called the "Lang toun."

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  • Raynolds, of the United States Corps of Topographical Engineers, with full knowledge of Bridger's accounts, was ordered to explore the region in 1859, and yet, chiefly because of the persistent incredulity with which the accounts of the phenomena were received, the region remained practically unknown until 1870.

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  • It should be borne in mind that the limits adopted above refer purely to the topographical aspect of the Alps as they exist at the present day.

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  • Hence the passes that can be shown to have been certainly known to them are comparatively few in number: they are, in topographical order from west to east, the Col de l'Argentiere, the Mont Genevre, the two St Bernards, the Spliigen, the Septimer, the Brenner, the Radsta.dter Tauern, the SOlkscharte, the P16cken and the Pontebba (or Saifnitz).

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  • We give below that which seems to us to be the most satisfactory (based very largely on personal acquaintance with most parts of the range), considering, as in the case of the limits of the chain, only its topographical aspect, as it exists at the present day, while leaving it to geologists, botanists and zoologists to elaborate special divisions as required by these various sciences.

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  • Our selected divisions relate only to the High Alps between the Col de Tenda and the route over the Radstddter Tauern, while in each of the 18 subdivisions the less elevated outlying peaks are regarded as appendages of the higher group within the topographical limits of which they rise.

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  • But the most splendid Government map of all is that put forth by the Swiss Federal Topographical Bureau, under the title of Siegfried Atlas (scale 1 :50,000 for the Alpine districts), which has quite superseded the Dufour Map (scale 1: loo,000), the history of which was published in 1896.

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  • Books of travel include some of considerable topographical as well as literary interest, from Lodovico Guicciardini (1567) down to Edmondo de Amicis (Holland, translated from the Italian, London, 1883); H.

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  • Yonge, The Site of Old" James Towne," 1607-1698 (Richmond, 1904), embodying the results of the topographical investigations of the engineer in charge of the river-wall built in 1900-1901.

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  • The explanation of the comparative insignificance of Moab, however, is not to be found in purely topographical considerations.

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  • Townsend, The Town and Borough of Leominster (1863), and John Price, An Historical and Topographical Account of Leominster and its Vicinity (Ludlow, 1715).

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  • The old shore cliffs and gravel bars of these glacial lakes are still well-marked topographical features, and provide favourite sites for towns and cities.

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  • Ray himself published an account of his foreign travel in 1673, entitled Observations topographical, moral, and physiological, made on a Journey through part of the Low Countries, Germany, Italy, and France.

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  • For further details see also the separate topographical headings (for JJ excavations, &c.), and the general articles on the m various arts and art id...

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  • The works of many of the authors enumerated are topographical and biographical as well as purely historical.

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  • (6) The articles of war correspondents must be confined to topographical descriptions and generalities.

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  • p. 268 et seq.), were forty-two in number, and were subdivided into six divisions, of which the first, containing ten books, was in charge of the " prophet " and dealt with laws, deities and the education of priests; the second, consisting of the ten books of the stolistes, the official whose duty it was to dress and ornament the statues of the gods, treated of sacrifices and offerings, prayers, hymns, festive processions; the third, of the " hierogrammatist," also in ten books, was called " hieroglyphics," and was a repertory of cosmographical, geographical and topographical information; the four books of the " horoscopus " were devoted to astronomy and astrology; the two books of the " chanter " contained respectively a collection of songs in honour of the gods and a description of the royal life and its duties; while the sixth and last division, consisting of the six books of the " pastophorus," was medical.

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  • - There has been most archaeological activity at Athens, where its results have been mainly topographical.

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  • But the dominant cause in the determination of the topographical prominences and depressions of the district has been the relative hardness and softness of the rocks.

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  • - apparently the dominant characteristic - but the valleys which have been opened through them by the agencies of water and weather, and which are therefore its fundamental topographical element.

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  • The plications of the Highlands and the chief dislocations of the country have followed the same general direction, and hence the parallelism and north-easterly trend of the main topographical features.

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  • The final survey of the Pamir region (wherein the heads of all the chief tributaries of the river lay hidden), by the Pamir boundary commission of 1895 established the following topographical facts in connexion with this question.

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  • 4to), an historical and topographical account of Denmark, was mostly posthumous.

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  • superficiality of his descriptions of sites, and by some rash and untenable identifications: but it is at once a standard and the foundation of all subsequent topographical work in the country.

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  • (London, 1907); Geological and Topographical Report on Kharga Oasis (1899), on Farafra Oasis (1899), on Dakhla Oasis (1900), on Baharia Oasis (1903), all issued by the Public Works Department, Cairo.

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  • Strabo follows up the topographical data with a few brief historical statements - "OaKot €t ov Kai raur'v Kai 111v e0-js no,u?rniav.

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  • Further topographical details are supplied by Strabo, who, after speaking about Naples, continues iX6 P dEvov cpo, pL6v fUTLY 'HpcLKXELOv Ekkel,f1 V9]v Kpav g KaralrvE6 b lEvov Oav j eorWS 15yLElv1% v 7rotEav T?

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  • In July 1838 he was appointed second lieutenant of Topographical Engineers in the United States army, and for the next three years he was assistant to the French explorer, Jean Nicholas Nicollet (1786-1843), employed by the war department to survey and map a large part of the country lying between the upper waters of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers.

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  • Its area according to the calculations of the Topographical Bureau of Batavia (1894) comprises 293,496 sq.

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  • The topographical and architectural results are disappointing, and show either that the site always retained its primitive simplicity, or else that whatever buildings once existed have been very completely destroyed.

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  • Eleven topographical and climatic divisions are recognized by the United States Weather Bureau within its borders, including the several parks, the continental divide, and various river valleys.

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  • For purposes of general topographical description Chile may be divided into three regions: the desert region of the north, the central agricultural region between the provinces of Coquimbo and Llanquihue, and the heavily-forested rainy region south of lat.

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  • It should, however, be added that very valuable topographical exploration has been carried out in the environs of Ephesus by members of the Austrian expedition, and that the Ephesian district is now mapped more satisfactorily than any other district of ancient interest in Asia Minor.

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  • The description of Pausanias was written at a time when the lower city was deserted, and only the temples and the gates left; and the references to Thebes in the Attic dramatists are, like those to Mycenae and Argos, of little or no topographical value.

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  • J Y Y explored from Lhasa to the sources of the Brahmaputra and Indus, at the conclusion of the Tibetan mission in 1904, conclusively prove that Mount Everest, which appears from the Tibetan plateau as a single dominating peak, has no rival amongst Himalayan altitudes, whilst the very remarkable investigations made by permission of the Nepal durbar from peaks near Kathmandu in 1903, by Captain Wood, R.E., not only place the Everest group apart from other peaks with which they have been confused by scientists, isolating them in the topographical system of Nepal, but clearly show that there is no one dominating and continuous range indicating a main Himalayan chain which includes both Everest and Kinchinjunga.

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  • Independently of the enormous variety of topographical conformation contained in the Himalayan system, the vast altitude of the mountains alone is sufficient to cause modifications of climate in ascending over their slopes such as are not surpassed by those observed in moving from the equator to the poles.

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  • The economic ~ questions which attend the production of, silver and the influence which gold and silver exercise 'on prices are treated in the articles Money and Bimetallism; the reader is referred to the former article for the history of silver production and to the topographical headings for the production of specific countries.

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  • The topographical or local series comprises the seals of cities„ of towns and boroughs and of corporate bodies.

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  • 3 A separate topographical notice is given under the heading Wales, but the consideration of certain points affecting Wales as linked with England is essential in this article.

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  • Each county is treated in a separate article in the topographical, geological, economical and historical aspects.

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  • Further topographical details are given in separate articles on the more important hill-systems, rivers, &c.

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  • The principal ports for the shipping of coal for export, set down in order of the amount shipped, also fall very nearly into topographical groups, thus: - Newcastle, South Shields and Blyth in the Northern District; Newport in Monmouthshire; Sunderland in the Northern District, Hull, Grimsby and Goole on the Humber, which forms the eastern outlet of the Yorkshire coal-fields; Hartlepool, in the Northern District, and Liverpool.

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  • divided into Circuits or Journeys (1724-1727); various works of Thomas Pennant, published between 1741 and 1820, and, at the same period, of Arthur Young (topographical treatises on agriculture, &c.); W.

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  • Britton and others, Beauties of England and Wales, or, Original Delineation, Topographical, Historical and Descriptive, of each County (1801-1818; both the authors named wrote other descriptive works on special localities; Britton wrote Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain, 1835); Daniel Lysons (with the collaboration of his brother Samuel), Magna Britannia, Topographical Account of the several Counties of Great Britain (1806-1822; the counties were taken alphabetically but on the death of Samuel Lysons in 1819 the work was stopped at Devonshire); Sir G.

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  • See Victoria County History: Yorkshire; William Grainge, The Vale of Mowbray: a historical and topographical account of Thirsk and its neighbourhood (1859).

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  • Victoria County History (London, 1904, &c.); Fishe, Collections, Historical, Genealogical and Topographical, for Bedfordshire (London, 1812-1816, and also 1812-1836); J.

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  • The history of Scotland from 1436 to 1561 owes much, in its earlier chapters, to the accounts of Hector Boece and John Major, though no small portion of the topographical matter is first-hand.

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  • Graham of the U.S. topographical engineers; and as the western part of the boundary was not marked by stones, and local disputes arose, the line was again surveyed between 1901 and 1903 under the direction of a commission appointed by Pennsylvania and Maryland.

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  • - The topographical features of the state exhibit considerable diversity, ranging fro g $ wide treeless plains in the W.

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  • BIBLI0GRAPHY.The following works are mainly topographical and descriptive: G.

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  • It perhaps means "boundary" or "frontier," a somewhat ambiguous term, which illustrates the topographical problems. First (a), E.

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  • He was a voluminous author, and his works included topographical and biographical treatises, commentaries on Helvius Cinna and the poems of Virgil, and disquisitions on agriculture and bee-keeping.

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  • As instances of his careful attention to geography and topography we have not only the fact of his widely extended travels, from the African coast and the Pillars of Hercules in the west, to the Euxine and the coasts of Asia Minor in the east, but also the geographical and topographical studies scattered throughout his history.

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  • The peculiar topographical conditions made the three sections of the state almost separate commonwealths, and demand for better means of communication was insistent.

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  • Topographical and geophysical survey, surface collection and geochemical sampling were used to further investigate the topography and chronology of the site.

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  • Choose from physical or topographical maps and political maps that reference capitals and major cities.

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  • Reference - Looking for historic maps or topographical maps of a certain country or of the world?

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  • Besides the historical narrative, there were works mainly geographical or topographical left by persons like Baeton and Diognetus, whom Alexander had employed (as Onyarcaral.) to survey the roads over which he passed.

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  • The limited knowledge which we possess of the original features of the ground within the area of the city makes a reconstruction of the topographical history of the latter a difficult task; and, as a natural result, many irreconcilable theories have been suggested.

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  • 3 law schools, 4 veterinary institutes, 4 agricultural colleges, 2 mining institutes, 4 engineering institutes, 2 universities for women (93 o students at St Petersburg), 3 technical pedagogic schools, to technical institutes, I forestry and 1 topographical school.

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  • Measurements made on a topographical map yield the most satisfactory results.

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  • A third topographical map of France is being published in accordance with the recommendation of a committee presided over by General de la Noix in 1897.

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