Above sea level, the elevation of the Plaza de Bolivar, its topographical centre, being 3025 ft.
Glockedon, the author of an interesting road-map of central Europe (1soi), Sebastian Munster (1489-1552), Elias Camerarius, whose map of the mark of Brandenburg won the praise of Mercator; Wolfgang Latz von Lazius, to whom we are indebted for maps of Austria and Hungary (1561), and Philip Apianus, who made a survey of Bavaria (1553-1563), which was published 1568 on the reduced scale of 1:144,000, and is fairly described as the topographical masterpiece of the 16th century.
The great development of photography has been a notable aid to explorers, not only by placing at their disposal a faithful and ready means of recording the features of a country and the types of inhabitants, but by supplying a method of quick and accurate topographical surveying.
From the descriptive or topographical point of view, geometrical form alone should be con- Land sidered; but the origin and geological structure of forms. land forms must in many cases be taken into account when dealing with the function they exercise in the control of mobile distributions.
Their speed must obviously depend greatly on topographical conditions.
His account, drawn up from notes taken in the main from personal observation, possesses an especial importance for topographical research, owing to his method of describing each object in the order in which he saw it during the course of his walks.
14.1), who never deviates without reason from the topographical order of his narrative, mentions the Enneacrunus in the midst of his description of certain buildings which were undoubtedly in the region of the Agora, and unless he is guilty of an unaccountable digression the Enneacrunus which he saw must have lain west of the Acropolis.
Broadly speaking, they may be divided into two classes, of which the first includes topographical, chorographical and general maps, the second the great variety designed for special purposes.
Mappa mundi was the medieval Latin for a map of the world which the ancients called Tabula totius orbis descriptionem Topographical maps and plans are drawn on a scale sufficiently large to enable the draughtsman to show most objects on a scale true to nature.
XWpa, country or region) and general maps are either reduced from topographical maps or compiled from such miscellaneous sources as are available.
Thus a scale of i,000,000 signifies that each unit of length on the map 2 Close, " The Ideal Topographical Map," Geog.
In the case of topographical maps sheets bounded by meridians and parallels are to be commended.
The meridian of Greenwich has been universally accepted as the initial meridian, but in the case of most topographical maps of foreign countries local meridians are still adhered to - the more important among which are: The outline includes coast-line, rivers, roads, towns, and in fact all objects capable of being shown on a map, with the exception of the hills and of woods, swamps, deserts and the like, which the draughtsman generally describes as " ornament."
The declivities of the ground are still indicated in most topographical maps by a system of strokes or hachures, first devised by L.
Distances such as these can be measured only on a topographical map of a fairly large scale, for on general maps many of the details needed for that purpose can no longer be represented.
Another process, photoor heliogravure, for obtaining an engraved image on a copper plate, was for the first time employed on a large scale for producing a new topographical map of the Austrian Empire in 718 sheets, on a scale of I: 75,000, which was completed in seventeen years (1873-1890).
Dicaearcus of Messana in Sicily, a pupil of Aristotle (326-296 B.C.), is the author of a topographical account of Hellas, with maps, of which only fragments are preserved; he is credited with having estimated the size of the earth, and, as far as known he was the first to draw a parallel across a map. 4 This parallel, or dividing line, called diaphragm (partition) by a commentator, extended due east from the Pillars of Hercules, through the Mediterranean, and along the Taurus and Imaus (Himalaya) to the eastern ocean.
We learn from Cicero, Vitruvius, Seneca, Suetonius, Pliny and others, that the Romans had both general and topographical maps.
The so-called " Nancy globe " is of chased silver, richly ornamented, the earliest works are a map of Palestine (1537), a map of the world on a double heart-shaped projection (1525), and a topographical map of Flanders based upon his own surveys (1540), a pair of globes (1541, diam.
A third topographical map of France is being published in accordance with the recommendation of a committee presided over by General de la Noix in 1897.
By the middle of the 19th century topographical maps of the various German states had been completed, and in several instances surveys of a more exact nature had been completed or begun, when in 1878 the governments of Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Wurttemberg agreed to supersede local maps by publishing a map of the empire (Reichskarte) in 674 sheets on a scale of i:roo,000.
The original surveys, carefully revised, have been published since 1870 as a Topographical Atlas of Switzerland - the so-called Siegfried Atlas, in 552 sheets.
The results have been published on a scale of 1:25,000 (776 sheets, since 1866), 1:50,000 (Topographic and Military Map, 62 sheets, 1850-1864, and a Waterstaatskaart, 1864-1892), and 1:200,000 (Topographical Atlas, 21 sheets, 1868-1871).
Modern surveys in Sweden date from the organization of a corps of " Landematare," known since 1874 as a topographical department of the general staff.
In Norway a geographical survey (Opmaaling) has been in progress since 1783, but the topographical map of the kingdom on a scale of :ioo,000 in 340 sheets, has not yet been completed.
Surveys in Asiatic Russia are conducted by the topographical departments organized at Orenburg, Tashkent, Omsk, Irkutsk and Tiflis.
Revenue surveys for land settlement are published on a scale of 1:4000, but the usual scale for topographical maps is 1:63,360.
Has been in progress since 1870, but of the map of [[[Topographical Surveys]] Berlin, 1885-1890) or Bretschneider's Map of China (1:4,600,000) a new edition of which appeared at St Petersburg in 1900.
There are good survey maps of the British colony of Hong-Kong, of Wei-hai-Wei and of the country around Kiao-chou, and the establishment of topographical offices at Peking and Ngan-king holds out some promise of native surveys.
The primary triangulation was completed in 1880, a topographical map coloured geologically (1 :200,000) was published 1889-1897, and in addition to this there are being published an agronomical map on a scale of 1:100,000 (since 1887) and others.
Of Java we possess an excellent topographical map based upon surveys made1850-1887(I:100,000).
It has published a topographical map of the Nile valley (1:50,000), an irrigation map (I:10o,000), a general map (1: 2 50,000), numerous cadastral plans, &c. Work on similar lines is carried on in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
In Madagascar a topographical bureau was established by General J.
And the publication of parish and township or county maps keeps pace with the settlement of the country; but with the exception of Victoria none of these states is in possession of a topographical map equal in accuracy to similar maps published in Europe.
He publishes the topographical maps (i :63,366) since 1906.
The surveyor-general issues also " sectional maps " (1:190,000 and 1:40,000) and so-called " Standard " topographical maps for the thinly peopled west, on scales of 1:250,000 and 1:500,000.
The intelligence branch of the Canadian department of military defence is publishing since 1904 topographical maps on scales of 1:63,366 and 1:126,730, with contours.
Powell, rightly conceived that it was necessary to produce good topographical maps before a geological survey could be pursued with advantage.
A useful map of Central America has been published by the topographical section of the British general staff on a scale of i: 170,300.
In Brazil little or nothing is done by the central government, but the progressive states of Sao Paulo and Mines Gerdes have commissaos geographicos e geologicos engaged in the production of topographical maps.
"Trembling prairies "- land that trembles under the tread of men or cattle - are common near the coast.
As the proboscis-gut appears to have undoubtedly skeletal properties, and as it also has topographical relations with the mouth, it has been designated in English by the non-committal term stomochord.
His travels had convinced him that a full and comprehensive knowledge of classical antiquity could only be acquired by a thorough acquaintance with Greek and Roman monuments and works of art, and a detailed examination of the topographical and climatic conditions of the chief localities of the ancient world.
Amongst his topographical works mention may be made of: Topographie von Aiken (1841); Beschreibung der Ebene von Troja (1850), a commentary on a map of the locality executed by T.
Through the centre of Kafiristan, has never been accurately traced; but: its topographical conformation is evidently a continuation of that which has been observed in the districts of Badakshan to the west of the Khawak.
Livy's account of the siege, too, is full of topographical difficulties (Lupus, 214 sqq.).
Architectural remains of earlier date than the Norman period are very few, and of historical rather than topographical importance.
The administration of parks and open spaces in and round London, topographical details of the principal of which are given in Section I., is divided between the Office of Works, the London County Council, the City Corporation and the borough councils.
Locks (East London Advertiser, 1902); Philip Norman, London vanished and vanishing (1905); Records of the London Topographical Society; Monographs of the Committee for the Survey of the Memorials of Greater London.
They continued to enjoy all the topographical advantage in respect to position.
Rawlinson's Natural History and Antiquities of Surrey (1719); his antiquarian notes on Wiltshire were printed in Wiltshire; the Topographical Collections of John Aubrey, corrected and enlarged by J.
Besides the historical narrative, there were works mainly geographical or topographical left by persons like Baeton and Diognetus, whom Alexander had employed (as Onyarcaral.) to survey the roads over which he passed.
The limited knowledge which we possess of the original features of the ground within the area of the city makes a reconstruction of the topographical history of the latter a difficult task; and, as a natural result, many irreconcilable theories have been suggested.
The records preserved in each city were examined, topographical information was diligently collected, and the Jesuit fathers checked their triangulation by meridian altitudes of the sun and pole star and by a system of remeasurements.
3 law schools, 4 veterinary institutes, 4 agricultural colleges, 2 mining institutes, 4 engineering institutes, 2 universities for women (93 o students at St Petersburg), 3 technical pedagogic schools, to technical institutes, I forestry and 1 topographical school.
Probably these plans gained for him an appointment (loth of August) in the topographical bureau of the committee of Public Safety.
Measurements made on a topographical map yield the most satisfactory results.