I'd have thought you had tons of friends.
Toby had tons of them in his small bedchamber off hers.
The vessels fitted out for this purpose were the " Eendracht," of 360 tons, commanded by Jacob Lemaire, and the " Hoorn," of 110 tons, under Willem Schouten.
The most extensive fields are in the Mittagong, Wallerawang and Rylstone districts, which are roughly estimated to contain in the aggregate 12,944,000 tons of ore, containing 5,853,000 tons of metallic iron.
Dieu," of 1000 tons burden, making an epoch in its history.
Black coal has been discovered in Victoria, and about 250,000 tons are now being raised.
They yield as much as 12 tons per acre.
It looked like real food packed on the low tables with meat, gravies, and tons of dishes of what might have been casseroles of varying colors.
I authorized the dispersal of two tons of water and twenty cases of rations from the emergency site in Raleigh along with hazmat drivers and twelve vehicles.
We don't owe millions, or have lovers, or rare diseases, or tons of life insurance, or work for the CIA, or do drugs or any of that.
The borough is finely situated in the Wyoming Valley among the rich anthracite coalfields of eastern Pennsylvania, and its inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the coal industry; in 1906 and 1907 (when it shipped 24,081,4 9 1 tons) Luzerne county shipped more anthracite coal than any other county in Pennsylvania.
In 1909 the acreage of hay alone was 675,000 acres, and the crop was 844,000 tons, valued at $11,225,000.
The total production in 1905 was 149,431 tons; the average price of salt for the island in 1905 was 22d.
In 1898 the list comprised only 1416 sailing vessels of all classes, from Io tons up, with a total tonnage of 118,894 tons, and 222 steamships, of 36,323 tons.
In 1892 the frozen mutton exported was 25,500 tons, and this had increased in 1901 to 63,013 tons.
In 1901 the production of sugar was 151,639 tons, of which 58,000 tons were exported.
Production per Acre (Tons).
(Thousands of Metric Ton Metric Tons).
For the years I8961905-this was 1,010,000 tons, including both rock- and sea-salt.
Production (in metric tons) 43,200 24,100 7,600
Vessels of 2 net tons and upwards are enumerated.
At the beginning of 1908 the total was 17,193 (tonnage, 1,402,647); of these 13,601 (tonnage, 81,833) were vessels of less than 20 tons, while 502 (tonnage, 1,014,506) were over 800 tons.
It is estimated that at one time 2000 tons were produced annually, but the mine was closed ' in 1879.
For many years the average output was from 10,000 to 13,000 tons of ore, yielding from 22 to 23% of copper.
For the period of thirty years during which the mine was worked the production of ore amounted to 234,648 tons, equal to 51,622 tons of copper, valued at £4,749,924.
The more important mines are those of Cobar, where the Great Cobar mine produces annually nearly 4000 tons of refined copper.
Extensive deposits, which are being developed successfully, occur in Tasmania, it being estimated that there are, within easy shipping facilities, 17,000,000 tons of ore.
The coal has been treated and found to be of good quality, and there are grounds for supposing that there are 250,000,000 tons in the field.
The coal mines of New South Wales give employment to 14,000 persons, and the annual production is over 6,600,000 tons.
The quantity of coal extracted annually in Australia had in 1906 reached 7,497,000 tons.
1050 steamers, with a tonnage of 2,629,000, and 1062 sailers, tonnage 1,090,000; the total of both classes was 3,719,000 tons.
The tonnage of goods carried amounts to about 16,000,000 tons, or 4 tons per inhabitant, which must be considered fairly large, especially as no great proportion of the tonnage consists of minerals on which there is usually a low freightage.
" Endeavour," the vessel fitted out for the voyage, was a small craft of 370 tons, carrying twenty-two guns, and built originally for a collier, with a view rather to strength than to speed.
The total area under cotton in 1916, including that grown in Khiva and Bukhara, was 1,838,215 acres, yielding about 18,000,000 poods or 290,000 tons of raw cotton.
The tonnage of the commerce of this port amounted, according to the reports of the United States army engineers, to 107,421 tons in 1904 and to 249,174 tons in 1908, of which in the latter year nearly 80% was lumber.
in a minute or 9 tons 1 ft.
That the quantity of heat to be got rid of may become very considerable is seen when it is considered that the energy of a load of 60 tons descending through 50 ft.
This method of working is very suitable for electric dock-side cranes of capacities up to about 5 or 7 tons, and for overhead travellers where the height of lift is moderate.
feet per minute, and T the load in tons.
Hammer-headed cranes are generally constructed in large sizes, up to 200 tons.
in.; the test strain required for the iron wire is about 222 tons.
The subjection of the core to a hydraulic pressure of four tons to the square inch and an electric pressure of 5000 volts from an alternating-current transformer has been adopted, by one manufacturer at least, to secure the detection of masked faults which might develop themselves after submergence.
This fleet of cable ships now numbers over forty, ranging in size from vessels of 300 tons to 10,000 tons carrying capacity.
In 1904, exclusive of coasters and small craft trading with north-west Africa, 562 ships of 604,208 tons entered the port of Cartagena, 259 being British and 150 Spanish; while 90 vessels were accommodated at Porman.
The, importation has, however, enormously increased since 1882from 164,600 to 1,126,368 tons; while the extent of land devoted to corn cultivation has slightly decreased.
The production of maize is, however, insufficient, and 208,719 tons were imported in 1902about double the amount imported in 1882.
The exportation of cornflour pastes sank, however, from 7100 tons to 350 between 1882 and 1902.
Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) is used as fodder, and yields about 10 tons per acre.
The yield for 1901 was 5528 tons, but a large increase took place subsequently, eleven million new plants having been added in southern Italy in 1905.
Flax covers about 160,000 acres, with a product, in fibre, amounting to about 20,000 tons.
During the period 1900190 the average annual production of silk cocoons was 53,500 tons, an of silk 5200 tons.
The importation of machinery amounted to over 5000 tons in 1901.
For sponge fishing no accurate statistics are available before 1896; in that year 75 tons of sponges were secured, but there has been considerable diminution since, only 31 tons being obtained in 1902.
In 1902 there were 48 tunny fisheries, employjng 3006 men, and 5116 tons of fish worth 80,000 were caught.
The total salt production in 1902 was 458,497 tons, of which 248,2i5 were produced in the government salt factories and the rest in the free salt-works of Sicily.
In 1898-1899, 5972 tons were produced, while in 1905 the figure, had risen to 93,916.
Among the steamers the increase has chiefly taken plac in vessels of more than 1000 tons displacement, but the number of large sailing vessels has also increased.
' As Billion has well said: - " L'idee de ramener l'explication de tons les phenomenes a des principes mecaniques est assurement grande et belle,ce pas est le plus hardi qu'on peut faire en philosophic, et c'est Descartes qui l'a fait."
On a second voyage, in 1556, Chancellor was drowned; and three subsequent voyages, led by Stephen Burrough, Arthur Pet and Charles Jackman, in small craft of 50 tons and under, carried on an examination of the straits which lead into the Kara sea.
An acre used to yield on an average 300 tons of phosphatic nodules, value £750.
deep. The mines employ over loon workers, and yield about 60,000 tons annually.
In 1885 Uruguay imported most of her breadstuffs; now not only is wheat grown in sufficient quantities to meet the local demand, but a surplus (about 20,000 metric tons in 1908-9) is annually available for export.
burns for about two months, and yields about 200 tons of sulphur.
above the treaty port of Yo-chow, and between which mart and Han-kow steamers of 500 tons burden run; and (3) Chang-te Fu, on the Yuen-kiang.
Beetroot (6-8 million tons annually) for sugar is especially cultivated in Poland, the governments of Kiev, Podolia, Volhynia, Kharkov, Bessarabia and Kherson.
About 100,000 tons of tobacco are grown annually in the S.
Transcaucasia supplies, chiefly from the government of Erivan, some 12,000 tons of raw cotton annually.
As a producer of iron Russia nevertheless runs France neck and neck for the fourth place amongst the iron-producing countries of the world, her annual output having increased from 1,004,800 metric tons in 1891 to 2,808,000 in 1901 and to 2,900,000 in 1904.
The production of pig-iron nearly doubled between 1890 and 1900, increasing from 446,800 tons in the former year to 801,600 in the latter; but since 1900 the output has declined, the total for 1904 (inclusive of Siberia) being 644,000 tons.
The annual increase is but small, 261,300 tons having been the total in 1891, and 517,000 tons the total in 1904.
The output for the year is less than 4000 tons.
At one time all Russia was supplied with salt from the Urals, but at the present time the output is extremely small, less than 350 tons annually.
Out of an average of some 2,700,000 tons of pig-iron produced annually in the whole of the Russian empire, 61.5% is produced in the basin of the Donets, and out of an average of 2,160,500 tons of worked iron and steel 48.7% are prepared in the same region.
It is estimated that for domestic purposes nearly 150,000,000 tons of wood are consumed every year, while the steamships, railways and factories consume another 20 or 25 million tons.
The growth of the sugar industry is shown by the fact that in 1888-93 the average annual production of sugar was 444,520 tons, in 1902-3 it was 1,180,293 tons.
The total mercantile marine of Russia does not aggregate 700,000 tons; and it is distributed in the following proportions: 35'4% in the Caspian Sea, 34'7% in the Black Sea and Shipping.
whilst in 1894 it amounted to an aggregate of 23,293,400 tons, in 1904 it reached a total of 38,720,240, or an increase of over 66% in the ten years.
In the Volga section of the Caspian Sea fish are caught to the value of about £I,000,000 annually; in the Ural section over 40,000 tons of fish and nearly 1500 tons of caviare are obtained.
At its opening, on the 27th of September 1825, a train of thirtyfour vehicles, making a gross load of about go tons, was drawn by one engine driven by Stephenson, with a signalman on horseback in advance..
A train weighing 92 tons could be drawn by one engine at the rate of 5 m.
The engine drew a train weighing 13 tons 35 m.
In 1831 the Baltimore & Ohio Company offered a prize of $4000 for an American engine weighing 32 tons, able to draw 15 tons at 15 m.
The maximum weight which one pair of wheels are usually allowed to carry on a first-class track is from 18 to 20 tons.
value of the tractive force is required than this provides for, namely from 4 to 5 tons, the driving-wheels are coupled to one or more pairs of heavily loaded wheels, forming a class of what are called " coupled engines " in contradistinction to the " single engine " with a single pair of loaded driving-wheels.
p. 1275), by Barbier, for some experiments made on the Northern railway of France with a train of 157 tons mean weight; they are valid between 37 and 77 m.
For example, suppose it is required to start a train weighing 200 tons from rest and bring it to a speed of 30 m.
The weight of the engine may be assumed in advance to be 80 tons.
Then the tractive force is, from (25), (149 X 19 2 X2.166)/6.25 =18,600lb =8.3 tons.
Assuming that the frictional resistance at the rails is given by the weight on the wheels, the total weight on the driving-wheels necessary to secure sufficient adhesion to prevent slipping must be at least 8.3 X5 =41.5 tons.
This would be distributed between three coupled axles giving an average of 1.38 tons per axle, though the distribution might not in practice be uniform, a larger proportion of the weight falling on the driving-axle.
It will be seen at once that with a tractive force of 7400 lb a weight of 37,000 lb (=16.5 tons) would be enough to secure sufficient adhesion, and this could be easily carried on one axle.
high; they weighed 3 or 4 tons, and were divided into three compartments holding six persons each, or eighteen in all.
Their weight was in the neighbourhood of 10 tons.
long, holding seventy persons in seven compartments and weighing nearly 18 tons, and sixwheeled bogie composite carriages, 54 ft.
long and weighing 23 tons, which included 3 first-class and .4 third-class compartments, with a cupboard for luggage, and held 58 passengers.
of the length and requires over 31 tons of dead weight to be hauled.
An ordinary slow suburban train may weigh about loo tons exclusive of the engine, and may be timed at an inclusive speed, from the beginning to the end of its journey, as low as 12 or 15 m.
an hour, and made up of the heaviest and strongest rolling stock, do not much exceed 300 tons in any country, and are often less.
In Great Britain the mineral trucks can ordinarily hold from 8 to io tons (long tons, 2240 lb), and the goods trucks rather less, though there are wagons in use holding 12 or 15 tons, and the specifications agreed to by the railway companies associated in the Railway Clearing House permit private wagon owners (who own about 45% of the wagon stock run on the railways of the United Kingdom) to build also wagons holding 20, 30, 40 and 56 tons.
On the continent of Europe the average carrying capacity is rather higher; though wagons of less than io tons capacity are in use, many of those originally rated at io tons have been rebuilt to hold 15, and the tendency is towards wagons of 15-20 tons as a standard, with others for special purposes holding 40 or 45 tons.
About 1875 their average capacity differed little from that of British wagons of the present day, but by 1885 it had grown to zo or 22 short tons (z000 ib) and now it is probably at least three times that of European wagons.
An ordinary British 10-ton wagon often weighs about 6 tons empty, and rarely much less than 5 tons; that is, the ratio of its possible paying load to its tare weight is at the best about 2 to 1.
Coal trains, excluding the engine, weigh up to Boo or 900 tons, and travel at from 18 to 22 m.
an hour; ordinary goods or merchandise trains, weighing 430 tons, travel at from 25 to 30 m.
an hour; and quick merchandise trains with limited loads of 300 tons make 35 to 40 m.
an hour, may weigh up to about 4000 tons, and loads of 2000 tons are common.
Such trains, therefore, range in weight from 600 to 1800 tons or even more, and the journey speeds from terminus to terminus, including stops, vary from 15 to 30 m.
gauge, and laid with rails weighing from 50 to 70 lb per yard; a flat-footed 60 lb rail, with the axle load limited to 14 tons, has the advantage for such lines that it permits the employment of a proportion of the locomotives used on main lines.
The orders actually granted have allowed 50 lb, 56 lb, 60 lb and 70 lb rails, with corresponding axle loads of 10, 12, 14 and 16 tons.
0.5 in.); weight of rails, 12 (26.45 lb) to 20 (44 lb) kilos; mean load per axle, 6 tons; minimum curve, 70 m.
4.85 in.); locomotives, maximum weight per axle 6 tons, rigid wheel base 1 .
A sub-bituminous lignite is mined in Esmeralda county (800 tons in 1906; 330 tons in 1907).
It is circular internally and decagonal externally, in two storeys, built of marble blocks, and surmounted by an enormous monolith, brought from the quarries of Istria and weighing more than 300 tons.
It would take 20 tons of coal a day burned on each square foot of the sun's surface to supply the daily radiation.
high, has a bell weighing 64 tons.
The estuary of the Urr, known as Rough Firth, is navigable by ships of from 80 to 100 tons, and small vessels can ascend as far as the mouth of Dalbeattie Burn, within a mile of the town.
The hay and forage crop increased from 80,528 tons in 1879 to 246,820 tons in 1899; and in 1909 the hay crop was 242,000 tons.
In 1908 the product amounted to 48,522 long tons (all magnetite), and was valued at $76,877; almost the entire product is from the Cranberry mines, near Cranberry, Mitchell county.
The state has two small areas in which bituminous coal occurs; one in the basin of the Dan and one in the basin of the Deep. Very little coal was produced in the state until the Civil War, when, in 1862 and again in 1863, 30,000 short tons were obtained for the relief of the Confederate government, an amount which up to 1905, when the yield was only 1557 short tons (falling off from 7000 short tons in 1904), had not since been equalled; in 1906, in 1907 and in 1908 no coal was mined in the state.
Ashland has an excellent harbour, has large iron-ore and coal docks, and is the principal port for the shipment of iron ore from the rich Gogebec Range, the annual ore shipment approximating 3,500,000 tons, valued at $12,000,000, and it has also an extensive export trade in lumber.
The semi-centennial of this debate was celebrated in 1908, when the Illini Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, caused a suitably inscribed boulder weighing 23 tons to be set up in Washington Park as a memorial.
The cultivation of the palm is indeed the principal occupation; and though the dates are inferior to those of the Barbary States, upwards of 2 2, 500 tons are annually exported.
south of Batum), at Akhtala south of Tiflis, and at Kedabek in Elisavetpol; manganese to a considerably greater extent (over 400,000 tons annually) at Chiaturi in the Kvirila valley in Kutais.
About 50,000 tons of coal of very poor quality are, however, extracted annually, and the same quantity of salt in the Armenian highlands and in Kuban.
But all these are insignificant in comparison with the mineral oil industry of Baku, which in normal times yields annually between ten and eleven million tons of crude oil (naphtha).
This gave a stimulus to the trade in imported hay, which rose from 61,237 tons in 1892 to 263,050 tons in 1893, and despite some large home-grown crops in certain subsequent years (1897 and 1898) this expansion has never since been wholly lost.
Similar details for potatoes, roots and hay, brought together in Table VIII., show that the TABLE VIII.-Estimated Annual Total Produce of Potatoes, Roots and Hay in the United Kingdom, 1890-1905-Thousands of Tons.
The extent to which the annual production of the leading fodder crop may vary is shown in the table by the two consecutive years 1893 and 1894; from only nine million tons in the former year the production rose to upwards of fifteen million tons in the latter, an increase of over 70%.
The mean values at the foot of the table-they are not, strictly speaking, exact averages-indicate the average yields per acre in the United Kingdom to be about 31 bushels of wheat, 33 bushels of barley, 40 bushels of oats, 28 bushels of beans, 26 bushels of peas, 44 tons of potatoes, 134 tons of turnips and swedes, 184 tons of mangels, 32 cwt.
are sometimes grown, amounting occasionally to loo tons per acre, the general average yield of 184 tons is about 5 tons more than that of turnips and swedes.
- Home Product and Imports of Sheep and Mutton into the United Kingdom - Thousands of Tons.
It was of about 180 tons burden, and in company with the "Speedwell" sailed from Southampton on the 5th of August 1620, the two having on board 120 Pilgrims. After two trials the "Speedwell" was pronounced unseaworthy, and the "Mayflower" sailed alone from Plymouth, England, on the 6th of September with the zoo (or 102) passengers, some 41 of whom on the lzth of November (o.s.) signed the famous "Mayflower Compact" in Provincetown Harbor, and a small party of whom, including William Bradford, sent to choose a place for settlement, landed at what is now Plymouth, Massachusetts, on the 11th of December (21st N.s.), an event which is celebrated, as Forefathers' Day, on the 22nd of December.
Coal was discovered here as early as 1770, and the mining of it was begun not later than 1828, but no accurate account of the output was kept until 1872, in which year it was 5,315,294 short tons; this was increased to 18,988,150 short tons in 1900, and to 26,270,639 short tons in 1908 - in 1907 it was 32,142,419 short tons.
There is some iron ore in the eastern and south-eastern parts of the state, and the mining of it was begun early in the 19th century; but the output decreased from 254,294 long tons in 1889 to only 26,585 long tons (all carbonate) in 1908.
The total tonnage in foreign trade entering and leaving in 1907 was 5,148,429 tons; and in the same year 9616 coasting vessels (tonnage, 10, 261,474) arrived in Boston.
Dacca is watered by a network of rivers and streams, ten of which are navigable throughout the year by native cargo boats of four tons burthen.
On the basis, therefore, of a cotton crop of io,000,000 bales of 500 lb each, there are produced 5,000,000 tons of cotton seed.
If about 3,000,000 tons only are pressed, there remain to be utilized on the farm 2,000,000 tons of cotton seed, which, if manufactured, would produce a total of $100,000,000 from cotton seed.
For a long time these shells or hulls, as they are called, were burned at oil mills for fuel, 22 tons being held equal to a cord of wood, and 43 tons to a ton of coal.
There is an important fishery in the river, and the harbour is accessible to vessels of loo tons burden.
A famous fountain in the Groznyi oil field in the northern Caucasus, which began to flow in August 1895, was estimated to have thrown up during the first three days 1,200,000 poods (over 4,500,000 gallons, or about 18,500 tons) of oil a day.
Although the economic value of the phosphate deposits was first realized about 1889, between 1894 and 1907 Florida produced, each year, more than half of all the phosphate rock produced in the whole United States, the yield of Florida (1,357,365 long tons) in 1907 being valued at $ 6, 577,757; that of the whole country at $10,653,558.
The process of soap-boiling is carried out in large iron boilers called " soap pans " or " coppers," some of which have capacity for a charge of 30 tons or more.
The number of ships entered and cleared in 1905 was 5020 with a tonnage of 5,796,590 tons, of which 416, with a tonnage of 609,822 tons, were British.
But this company, after extracting some 150,000 tons of ore in 1888-1889, went into liquidation in the latter year.
The output of ore was insignificant until 1892, when it stood at 178,000 tons; but in 1902 it amounted to 1,074,000 tons.
In 1909 there were 185,927 acres of sugar, yielding 2 44, 2 57 tons for exportation, and valued at $18,432,446.
The mines once produced 3000 tons of metal annually, copper smelting being largely carried on, but have now almost ceased working.
In 1903-1904 there was a total yield of 160,000 tons, valued at about £45,000.
S.W., where the harbour admits vessels of 500 tons.
The neighbouring Coemeterium Ostrianum was anciently known as " Tons S.
In1907-1908all the sugar produced from cane grown in the United States came from Louisiana (335,000 long tons) and Texas (12,000 tons); in the same year cane sugar from Hawaii amounted to 420,000 tons, from Porto Rico to 217,000 tons and from the Philippines to 135,000 tons; and the total yield of beet sugar from the United States was 413,954 tons.
The average product of the ten seasons1894-1904was 299,745 tons.
Inside the bar at its mouth (formed by a storm in 1616) ships of 200 tons can still ascend to Cauto.
The most profitable unit is calculated to be a daily consumption of 1500 tons of cane, or 150,000 in a grinding season of loo days, which implies a feeding area not above 6000 acres.
In the season of 1904-1905, which may be taken as typical, 179 estates, with a planted area of 431,056 acres, produced 11,576,137 tons of cane, and yielded - in addition to alcohol, brandy and molasses-1,089,814 tons of sugar.
Of this amount 416,862 tons were produced by 24 estates yielding more than i r,000 tons each, including one (planting 28,050 acres) that yielded 33,609, and 4 others more than 22,000 tons each.
The production of the island from 1850 to 1868 averaged 469,934 tons yearly, rising from 223,145 to 749,000; from 1869 to 1886 (continuing high during the period of the Ten Years' War), 632,003 tons; from 1887 to 1907 - omitting the five years 1896-1900 when the industry was prostrated by war,-909,827 tons (and including the war period, 758,066); and in the six harvests of 1901-1906, 1,016,899 tons.
Before 1 Other countries taking only 27,462 long tons out of a total of 5,7 1 9,777 in the seven fiscal years 1899-1900 to 1905-1906.
The shipments from Santiago province from 1884 to 1901 aggregated 5, 0 53, 8 47 long tons, almost all going to the United States (which is true of other mineral products also).
After 1900 production was greatly increased and by 1906 had come to exceed half a million tons annually.
The peculiar two-wheeled carts of the country, carrying enormous loads of 4 to 6 tons, destroy even the finest road.
Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., and the battleship " Messudiyeh " (9100 tons displacement) reconstructed by the firm of Ansaldo (Genoa) in 1902, and re-armed by Vickers, Sons & Maxim, formed the only really effective war-ships at the disposal of Turkey in 1910, although a few armoured ships in addition might still serve for coast defence at a pinch, and a few more for training ships.
Taking all into account, the available strength of the fleet might be put at 7 armour-clad ships, of which the " Messudiyeh " was one, the six others varying in displacement from 2400 to 6400 tons; two cruisers (unarmoured) of 3800 tons displacement; some 18 gunboats; 12 destroyers, 16 first-class torpedo boats and 6 second-class torpedo boats.
In1897-1898the number of steamers was 39,680 of 32,446,320 tons, the number of sailing vessels being 134,059 of 2,207,137 tons, thus giving a total tonnage of 34,653,457.
In1904-1905the number of steamers was 49, 2 35 of 44,180,000 tons.
and of sailing vessels 133,706, with a tonnage of 2,506,000 tons, the total tonnage being thus 46,686,000 tons.
The number of steamships belonging to Turkey in1899-1900was 1 77 of 55,93 8 tons, as compared with 87 of 46,498 tons in 1897-1898, the number of sailing Value of Goods Imported into, and Exported from, together with Number vessels in the same years being respectively 2205 of 141,055 tons and Tonnage of Vessels cleared at, Principal Ports of Turkish Empire.
and 1349 of 252,947 tons.
Specimens may be sent to Europe for expert examination up to an aggregate weight of 2000 tons, on paying the requisite duties.
Above Bagdad there are no steamers on the Tigris, but sailing vessels of 30 tons and more navigate the river to Samarra and beyond.
The municipal garbage plant (destructor) collects and reduces to fertilizer 200 tons of garbage per day.
The commerce of the harbour of Cleveland in 1907 was 12,872,448 tons.
The heaviest nodule weighed over 20 tons.
In 1897 Peary brought the largest nodule to New York; it was estimated to weigh nearly loo tons.
The Rhymney railway to Cardiff was completed in 1858 and the trade of the port so vastly increased that the shipment of coal and coke went up from 4562 tons in 1839 to 1,796,000 tons in 1860.
There is ample equipment of fixed and movable staiths and cranes of various sizes up to 70 tons, the Lewis-Hunter patent cranes being largely used for shipping coal owing to their minimizing the breakage of coal and securing its even distribution.
The total exports of the Cardiff docks in 1906 amounted to 8,767,502 tons, of which 8, 433, 629 tons were coal, coke and patent fuel, 151,912 were iron and steel and their manufactures, and 181,076 tons of general merchandise.
What Cardiff lacks is a corresponding import trade, for its imports in 1906 amounted to only 2,108,133 tons, of which the chief items were iron ore (8 9 5,610 tons), pit-wood (303,407), grain and flour (298,197).
draught and 5000 tons weight), which was built in Glasgow and was sent out to Callao in 1863.
in maximum breadth, capable of holding a vessel of 17,500 tons and draught not exceeding 29 ft., so constructed and equipped that in time of need (war) it could be floated down to Cuxhaven.
His Sunday sermons were taken down in shorthand, corrected by him on Monday, and sold by his publishers, Messrs Passmore & Alabaster, literally by tons.
In 1909 the total production of rubber is stated to have been about 70,000 tons, of which more than one-half came from tropical America, about one-third from Africa, whilst the remainder was chiefly of Asiatic origin, including " plantation " rubber from Ceylon and Malaya, which amounted to about 3000 tons.
In 1902 some 1800 dairies were at work, the greater number in West Siberia, and 40,000 tons of butter were exported.
Vessels of 200 tons can lie at the wharves near the bridge.
Down the river Cauto, then open to the sea for vessels of 200 tons, and through Manzanillo, Bayamo drove a thriving contraband trade that made it at the opening of the 17th century the leading town of Cuba.
-At the beginning of the 19th century the bulk of the world's supply of lead was obtained from England and Spain, the former contributing about 17,000 tons and the latter 10,000 tons annually.
Germany, Austria, Hungary, France, Russia and the United States began to rank as producers during the second and third decades; Belgium entered in about 1840; Italy in the 'sixties; Mexico, Canada, Japan and Greece in the 'eighties; while Australia assumed importance in 1888 with a production of about 18,000 tons, although it had contributed small and varying amounts for many preceding decades.
In 1850 England headed the list of producers with about 66,000 tons; this amount had declined in 1872 to 61,000 tons.
Since this date, it has, on the whole, diminished, although large outputs occurred in isolated years, for instance, a production of 40,000 tons in 1893 was followed by 60,000 tons in 1896 and 40,000 in 1897.
The output in 1900 was 35,000 tons, and in 2905, 25,000 tons.
Spain ranked second in 1850 with about 47,000 tons; this was increased in 1863, 1876 and in 1888 to 84,000, 127,000 and 187,000 tons respectively; but the maximum outputs mentioned were preceded and succeeded by periods of depression.
In 1900 the production was 176,000 tons, and in 1905, 179,000 tons.
The United States, which ranked third with a production of 20,000 tons in 1850, maintained this annual yield, until 1870, when it began to increase; the United States now ranks as the chief producer; in 1900 the output was 253,000 tons, and in 1905, 3 1 9,744 tons.
Germany has likewise made headway; an output of 12,000 tons in 1850 being increased to 120,000 tons in 1900 and to 152,590 in 1905.
Mexico increased its production from 18,000 tons in 1883 to 83,000 tons in 1900 and about 88,000 tons in 1905.
The Australian production of 18,000 tons in 1888 was increased to 58,000 tons in 1891, a value maintained until 1893, when a depression set in, only 21,000 tons being produced in 1897; prosperity then returned, and in 1898 the yield was 68,000 tons, and in 1905, 120,000 tons.
Canada became important in 1895 with a production of io,000 tons; this increased to 28,654 tons in 190o; and in 1905 the yield was 25,391 tons.
Italy has been a fairly steady producer; the output in 1896 was 20,000 tons, and in 1905, 25,000 tons.
It puts through 9-12 tons of ore in twenty-four hours, reducing the percentage of sulphur to 2-4%, and requires four to six men and about 2 tons of coal.
at the tuyeres, with a working height of 17-20 ft., will put through in twenty-four hours, with twelve men, 12% coke and 2 lb blast-pressure, 85 -100 tons average charge, i.e.
Most kettles at present hold 30 tons of lead; some, however, have double that capacity.
deep, about 6 tons of lead are cupelled in twenty-four hours.
A furnace is served by three men, working in eight-hour shifts, and requires about 2 tons of coal, which corresponds to about 110 gallons reduced oil, air being used as atomizer.
In the Pattinson process the argentiferous lead is melted down in the central cast iron kettle of a series 8-15, placed one next to the other, each having a capacity of 9-15 tons and a separate fire-place.
The plant consists of two tilting oval metal pans (capacity 7 tons), one cylindrical crystallizing pot (capacity 22 tons), with two discharging spouts and one steam inlet opening, two lead moulds (capacity 31 tons), and a steam crane.
long, 27,000 tons) in the German mercantile marine, were built; and also sugar, cement and other factories.
With suitable arrangements of iron and coil and a sufficiently strong current, the intensity of the temporary magnetization may be very high, and electromagnets capable of lifting weights of several tons are in daily use in engineering works.
in diameter, and weighing up to nearly 5 tons.
In 1901 the merchant navy included 228 steamers of 91,465 tons net, and 343 sailing vessels of 76,992 tons net.
The principal sugar-producing states are Alagoas, Sergipe, Pernambuco, Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, and the production is between 200,000 and 300,000 tons, the greater part of which is consumed in the country.
The annual production is about 240,000 tons.
It contains manufactories of chemicals, machinery, starch, white lead and various other articles, but is chiefly noted for its extensive salt springs and works, which produce about 75,000 tons of salt per annum.
Mort's dock, another large dry dock, is at Mort's Bay, Balmain, while there are five floating docks with a combined lifting power of 3895 tons, and the three patent slips in Mort's Bay can raise between them 3040 tons.
In 1905 the production of wattle bark was 13,620 tons, and the area planted with the tree over 60,000 acres.
In 1896 the total output of coal was 216,106 tons (valued at £108,053 at the pit's mouth), in 1908 it had increased to 1,669,774 tons (valued at the pit's mouth at £737,169).
There is a considerable trade in bunker and export coal at Durban, the coal bunkered having increased from 118,740 tons in 1900 to 710,777 in 1908.
In the last-named year 446,915 tons of coal were exported.
The shipping, which in 1874 was 126,000 tons, was in 1884 1,013,000; in 1894, 1,463,000; in 1904 4,263,000; and in 1908, 5,028,000.
They brought with them 3 tons of ivory.
The production of coal and iron trebled during the period 1880-1900, amounting in 1900 to 6,600,000 tons, and 463,000 tons respectively.
Between 3,000,000 and 3,200,000 tons of wheat-flour are produced annually.
It consisted in 1905 of 434 vessels with a tonnage of 91,784 tons and with crews of 2 359 persons.
Of these 95 vessels with a tonnage of 89,161 tons were steamers.
Fifty-four vessels with 84,844 tons and crews numbering 1168 persons were sea-going; 134 with 6587 tons were coasting-vessels, and 246 with 353 tons were fishing vessels.
At all the Hungarian ports in 1900 there entered 19,223 vessels of 2,223,302 tons; cleared 19,218 vessels of 2,226,733 tons.
The passengers carried in 1907 numbered 107,171,000, the goods traffic was 61,483,000 tons; the traffic receipts for the year were £16,420,000.
The corresponding figures for 1880 were as follows: passengers carried, 9,34 6, 00 0; goods carried, 11,225,000 tons; traffic receipts, £4,300,000.
If 4 tons last year cost 1045., how much does a ton cost this year ?
In 1904, 400 vessels, of 200,000 tons, entered the harbour.
St Winifred's holy well, one of the wonders of Wales, sends up water at the rate of 21 tons a minute, of an almost unvarying temperature, higher than that of ordinary spring water.
Sea-going vessels of about 70 tons frequent the port of Broach, but they are entirely dependent on the tide.
deep. The output in 1893, the first year in which statistics are available, was 548,534 tons (of 2000 lb); in 1898 it was 1,907,808 tons, and for the year ending 30th of June 1909 was 3,312,413 tons, valued at £851,150.
During the 18th century the world's supply of tin was mainly drawn from the deposits of England, Saxony and Bohemia; in 1801 England produced about 2500 tons, while the supplies of Saxony and Bohemia had been greatly diminished.
The English supply increased, with some oscillations, to between six and seven thousand tons annually in the period 1840-1860, when it suddenly rose to about io,000 tons, and this figure was fairly well sustained until about 1890, when a period of depression set in; the yield for 1900 was 4336 tons, and for 1905 about 4200 tons.
In the opening decades of the 19th century supplies began to be drawn from Banka; in 1820 this island contributed 1200 tons; the production was increased to 12,000 tons in 1900, when a diminution set in, 9960 tons being the output during 1905.
Billiton became of note in 1853 with a production of 40 tons, which increased to 6000 in 1900 and has since declined to about 3000 tons in 1905.
The Straits Settlements ranked as an important producer in 1870 with 2337 tons; it now supplies the greater part of the world's supply, contributing 46,795 tons in 1900, and over 60,000 tons in 1905.
Australian deposits were worked in 1872, and in the following year the production was 3000 tons; the maximum outputs were in 1881-1883, averaging 10,000 tons annually; but the supply declined to 2420 tons in 1898 and has since increased to about 5028 tons in 1905.
Bolivia produced 501 tons in 1883, 10,245 in 1900 and 12,500 in 1905.
The world's supply in 1900 was 72,911 long tons; this increased in 1904 to 97,790 tons, but in 1905, principally owing to a shortage in the supplies from the Straits and Banka, the yield fell to 94,089 tons.
The thickness of the salt is unknown; the mines yield about 11,000 tons annually.
Faversham Creek is navigable up to the town for vessels of 200 tons.
An official work (Veloz Goiticoa, Venezuela, Washington, 1904)1904) gives the number of coffee trees in Venezuela as 250,000,000 belonging to 33,000 estates; the output was 42,806 tons in 1907.
The exportation of 1907 was about 14,000 tons.
The annual output is about 3000 tons.
The output from 1878 to 1891 was 329,218 tons of ore and 53,053 tons of regulus, valued at £2,794,986.
The natives engaged in the fishery used some 400 sailboats of 3 to 15 tons capacity, and the beds were raked in search of pearl oysters.
In 1869 the maximum burden of the vessels which were able to ply on the upper Elbe was 250 tons; but in 1899 it was increased to Boo tons.
6 weight of the rafts passing the station of Schandau on the Saxon Bohemian frontier amounting in 1901 to 333,000 tons.
It is thus able to accommodate vessels up to Boo tons burden; and the passage from Lubeck to Lauenburg occupies 18 to 21 hours.
In the first year of its being open (June 1900 to June 1901) a total of 115,000 tons passed through the canal.'
Above Spires, however, the river craft are comparatively small, but lower down vessels of 500 and 600 tons burden find no difficulty in plying.
The boats which ply up and down the river itself, without venturing upon the open sea, are mostly craft of Too to 200 tons, owned in the great majority of cases by their captains, men principally of German or Dutch nationality.
This fleet is computed to number some 8500 craft, with an aggregate capacity of over 2 million tons, of which about one-tenth are steamships.
The traffic at the chief German ports of the river aggregated 4,489,000 tons in 1870, but by 1900 this had grown to a total of 17,000,000 tons, thus distributed: Ruhrort, 6,512,000 tons; Duisburg, 3,000,000 tons; Cologne, 1,422,000 tons; and Mannheim, 6,021,000 tons.
The amount of traffic which passed the town of Emmerich near the Dutch frontier, both ways, increased from an annual average of about 6 million tons in 1881-85 to over 214 million tons in 1899.
Boats carrying as much as 600 tons are often able to proceed as far up stream as Strassburg, and smaller craft get as far as Huningen, a little above Basel.
Vessels entered and cleared (foreign and colonial trade): - In the coastwise trade, in 1881, 38,953 vessels of 4,545,904 tons entered; in 18 95, 43,7 0 4 vessels of 6,555,618 tons; but these figures include vessels trading within the Thames estuary (ports of London, Rochester, Colchester and Faversham), which later returns do not.
Omitting such vessels, therefore, the number which entered in the coastwise trade in 1905 was 16,358 of 6,374,832 tons.
In the United States cars in the coal and iron mines hold from 2 to 4 tons.
ordinary steel rope has a breaking strength of about 32 tons, which, with a' factor of safety of six gives a safe working load of 54 tons.
plow-steel rope has breaking and working strengths respectively of at least 48 and 8 tons.
Skips are sometimes of very large capacity, holding 5, 7, and even 10 tons of ore; such are used, for example, in several shafts at Butte, Montana, in the Lake Superior copper district, and in South Africa.
will be 500 tons, and at 13,000 ft.
r000 tons; and as the mineral is mined the weight on the pillars left will be proportionately greater.
These laws are enforced by mine inspectors of the timber produces falls of ground, making necessary the excavawho are empowered to call upon the courts and other government tion and removal at times of hundreds of tons of heated rock and burning coal, in order to reach the fire.
This was by now active, four other seagoing boats having followed U21 from the North Sea, and it is claimed that 50,000 tons of shipping were sunk in the Mediterranean and Aegean during Sept.
In 1895 the quantity of rice exported in the foreign and coastal trade amounted to 1,419,173 tons valued at Rs.9,77, 66, 1 3 2, and in 1905 the figures were 2,187,764 tons, value Rs.
In 1900 over one million tons of rice were shipped to India during the famine there.
m., are estimated to yield about io,000,000 tons annually, and give employment to nearly 50,000 men.
Thus the dimensions of the largest glass tanks greatly exceed those of the largest steel furnaces; glass furnaces containing up to 250 tons of molten sible to work glass-tanks continuously for many months together; on the other hand, glass is not readily freed from foreign bodies that may become admixed with it, so that the absence of detachable particles is much more essential in glass than in steel melting.
Rollers up to 5 tons in weight are employed and are now generally driven by power.
Yet tons of caustic soda are fused daily in chemical works in iron pots without thereby suffering contamination, which seems to show that (clean) iron, like gold and silver, is attacked only by the joint action of fused alkali and air, the influence of the latter being of course minimized in large-scale operations.
The output of copper rose from 997 tons in 1911 to 27,462 tons in 1917; it was 22,000 tons in 1919 and 19,000 tons in 1920.
The ore is smelted at Lubumbashi, where in 1918 were seven furnaces with a producing capacity of 40,000 tons a year.
In 1910 the export of palm kernels was 6,141 tons, of palm oil 2,160 tons; in 1916 the figures were 22,391 tons and 3,852 tons respectively.
Cocoa, rice and cotton were also increasingly cultivated and the fall in the value of rubber led to a much larger collection of copal, the amount exported, 2,139 tons in 1911, being 8,719 in 1916.
During that period rubber fell from being 77% to 15 in value of the exports of produce of the colony, though the quantity exported-3,000-4,000 tons - was about the same.
In 1911-3 a pipe-line was laid from Matadi, on the Congo estuary, to Stanley Pool to supply the river steamers with petroleum for fuel and reservoirs capable of holding 8,000 tons of oil were built.
Suppose P tons is moved c ft.
across the deck of a ship of W tons displacement; the C.G.
" Achilles " of 9000 tons displacement it was found that moving 20 tons across the deck, a distance of 42 ft., caused the bob of a pendulum 20 ft.
A narrow-gauge railway connects these with Port Penrhyn, at the mouth of the stream Cegid (hemlock, "cicuta"), which admits the entry of vessels of 300 tons to the quay at low water.
Fareham has a considerable trade in corn, timber and coal; the creek being accessible to vessels of 300 tons.
ft., or roc) tons to an acre.
In the neighbourhood there are numerous large collieries, and coal is shipped from wharves on the riverside, vessels of 300 or 400 tons being able to reach the quays at high tide.
For example, a factory able to evaporate 622 tons of water in 24 hours could treat I 000 tons of canes yielding juice of 9° B., and make therefrom too tons of sugar in that time; but this same factory, if supplied with canes giving juice of 6° B., could not treat more than 935 tons of canes in 24 hours, and would only make therefrom 62.2 tons of sugar.
The canes in each case are assumed to contain 88% of juice and 12% of fibre, and the extraction by milling to be 75% of the weight of canes - the evaporative power of the factory being equal to 622 tons per 24 hours.
The factory expenses are taken at £30,000 per annum, or £3 per ton on a crop of 10,000 tons (the sugar to cost £8 per ton all told at the factory) - equivalent to £300 per day for the loo working days of crop time.
a ton, any more than it would pay a factory to make only 62.2 tons of sugar in 24 hours, or 6220 tons in the crop of loo days, instead of 10,000 tons.
Here the tropical heat is tempered by constant trade winds, there is perfect immunity from hurricanes, the soil is peculiarly suited for cane-growing, and by the use of specially-prepared fertilizers and an ample supply of water at command for irrigation the land yields from 50 to 90 tons of canes per acre, from which from 12 to 14% of sugar is produced.
By the adoption of this system in one large plantation in the West Indies, crushing upwards of 1200 tons of canes per day, the labour of sixty-four hands was dispensed with, and was thus made available for employment in the fields.
On the other hand, the advocates of admitting the feed into a vacuum pan in many minute streams appeal rather to the ignorant and incompetent sugarboiler than to a man who, knowing his business thoroughly, will boil 150 tons of hot raw sugar in a pan in a few hours, feeding it through a single pipe and valve io in.
There were 173 of these factories working in Cuba in 1908-1909, among which the " Chaparra," in the province of Oriente, turned out upwards of 69,000 tons of sugar in the crop of about 20 weeks, and the " Boston " had an output of about 61,00o tons in the same time.
The average weight per acre was over 252 tons, and the mean percentage of pure sugar in the juice exceeded Isl.
The weight per acre, the saccharine contents of the juice, and the quotient of purity compared favourably with the best results obtained in Germany or France, and with those achieved by the Suffolk farmers, who between 1868 and 1872 supplied Mr Duncan's beetroot sugar factory at Lavenham; for the weight of their roots rarely reached 15 tons per acre, and the percentage of sugar in the juice appears to have varied between 10 and 12.
A very usual size of cistern forming a convenient unit is one that will hold 20 tons of char.
A cistern well packed with 20 tons of char will hold, in addition, about io tons of syrup, and after settling, this can be pressed out by allowing second quality syrup, also heated to nearly boiling point, to enter the cistern slowly from the top, or it may be pressed out by boiling water.
The increase in the consumption is exemplified by the fact that, while in 1700 the amount used in Great Britain was ro,000 tons, in 1800 it had risen to 150,000 tons, and in 1885 the total quantity used was almost 1,roo,000 tons.
The annual aggregate output of cane and date sugar in India was short of 4,000,000 tons.
When, in April 1908, Mr Asquith became premier, and Mr Lloyd George chancellor of the exchequer, the sugar convention The world's trade in cane and beet sugar in tons avoirdupois at decennial periods from 1840 to 1870, inclusive, and yearly from 1871 to 1901 inclusive, with the percentage of beet sugar and the average price per cwt.
Tons avoirdupois of 2240 lb = 1016 kilogrammes.
Quantities of raw and refined cane and beet sugar in tons avoirdupois imported into the United Kingdom in 1870 and in 1875, and yearly from 1880 to 1901 inclusive, with the consumption per head of the population in lb and the price per cwt.
Russia, which gave bounties, was to be allowed to send into European markets not more than i,000,000 tons within the next five years, and Great Britain undertook to give certificates guaranteeing that sugar refined in the United Kingdom and exported had not been bounty-fed.
She had formerly sent to England about 40,000 tons of sugar yearly; she might now send 200,000 tons.
in tons of 2240 lb.
In the case of fair average farm crops it has been shown that for the production of one ton of dry matter contained in them from 300 to 500 tons of water has been absorbed and utilized by the plants.
Quicklime is best applied, perhaps, in spring at the rate of one ton per acre every six or eight years, or in larger doses-4 to 8 tons - every 15 to 20 years.
Thus in 1906 from Cavalla and Xanthi 11,000 tons were exported of a value of about £1,101,000, the range of the various qualities per kilo (2·1 lb) being Ghienbek.
Belgium entered in 1837 with an output of about 2000 tons; England in 1855 with 3000; and the United States in 1873 with 6000 tons.
Germany produced 155,799 tons in 1900, and 198,208 in 1905; Belgium, 120,000 in 1900 and 143,165 in 1905; the United States, 111,000 in 1900 and 183,014 in 1905.
The world's supply was 445,438 tons in 1900, and 654,367 in 1905.
They yield yearly an average of 80,000 lb of silver and 1900 tons of lead.
In 1903 the harbour was entered by 66 vessels of about 25,000 tons, engaged in the exportation of grain, rice and fruit, and the importation of guano.
The export of phosphates rose from 445,000 tons in 1904 to 1,267,000 tons in 1908.
The export of coal in that year was 74,000 tons, and copper ore 937 tons (vide supra, § Minerals).
About half the shipping trade is in the hands of the French; in 1908, of the total tonnage of ships entered, 4,155,000, French vessels represented 1,905,000 tons, Italian vessels 1,422,000 tons and British vessels 299,000 tons.
At the outbreak of the war the production was about 80,000 tons; in 1905 the production of sugar and molasses amounted to 161,851 metric tons, of which 134,344 were exported.
In 1906 the total production reached 169,418 metric tons.
Production is steadily increasing, the export having been 8000 metric tons in 1900, 17,386 in 1905 and 20,000 in 1906.
Local consumption required about 2500 tons in 1905.
Owing to the export tax on rubber (8 cents per kilogram on jebe and 5 cents on caucho) it is probable that the official statistics do not cover the total production, which was returned as 2539 metric tons in 1905, valued at £913,989.
The export of cinchona, or Peruvian bark, is not important in itself, being only 64 tons, valued at £1406 in 1905.
The deposits have been partially exhausted by the large shipments of over a half-century, but the export in 1905 was 73,369 tons, valued at £285,729.
The mine first named has been worked since 1566 and its total production is estimated at 60,000 tons, the annual product being about 670 tons for a long period.
A smelting plant was erected in the vicinity of Cerro de Pasco designed to treat moo tons of ore daily, a railway was built to Oroya to connect with the state line terminating at that point, and a branch line 62 m.
In addition to the smelting works at Cerro de Pasco there are other large works at Casapalca, between Oroya and Lima, which belong to a British company, and smaller plants at Huallanca and Huinac. The production of copper is steadily increasing, the returns for 1903 being 9497 tons and for 1906 13,474 tons, valued respectively at £476,824 and £996,055.
In 1889 the total foreign debt, including arrears of interest, was £54,000,000, and in the following year a contract was signed with the Peruvian Corporation, a company in which the bondholders became shareholders, for the transfer to it for 66 years of the state railways,, the free use of certain ports, the right of navigation on Lake Titicaca, the exploitation of the remaining guano deposits up to 3,000,000 tons, and thirty-three annual subsidies of £80,000 each, in consideration of the cancellation of the debt.
In June the Confederates set to work to raise one of these abandoned vessels, the frigate "Merrimac" of 3500 tons and 40 guns, and to rebuild it as an iron-clad.
The "Monitor's" displacement was about 1 200 tons and her armament was two II in.
The port admits vessels of 2000 tons to Victoria Docks, 3 m.
Reichenhall possesses several copious saline springs, producing about 850o tons of salt per annum.
Many tons of these flowers are exported from the Scilly Isles to the London markets in spring.
Of the 278,000 tons of shipping which entered the port in 1905, 244,000 were British.
Donaghadee harbour admits vessels up to 200 tons.
in height were it standing erect, and its weight is about 550 tons.
and have a capacity for 16,850 waggons carrying upwards of 174,000 tons of coal.
Eight hydraulic hoists, of the most up-to-date pattern, are capable of shipping 5,600 tons of coal per hour.
In 1905, exclusive of passenger and mail boats, there entered the port 848 vessels of 312,477 tons and cleared 857 of 305,284 tons, these being engaged in the general carrying trade of the port.
Ships of 500 tons may enter the harbour at all times.
In 18 99, 57 62 stamps were in operation, crushing 7,331,446 tons of ore, and yielding £15,134,000, equivalent to 25.5% of the world's production.
The ores, having been broken and ground, generally in tube mills, until they pass a 150 to 200-mesh sieve, are transferred to the leaching vats, which are constructed of wood, iron or masonry; steel vats, coated inside and out with pitch, of circular section and holding up to woo tons, have come into use.
are sulphur mines (product in 1907 about 362,000 tons), which with those of Sicily produce a large part of the total product of the world.
In 1905 nearly 180,000 tons of shipping cleared the port.
deep, was opened in 1889, and the extensive improvements (including the York Dock, where vessels carrying 10,000 tons can discharge in four to six days) have been effected from time to time, making the harbour one of the most commodious in the United Kingdom.
Its merchants in 1686 owned forty ships, of a total carrying power of 3300 tons, and the customs collected were close upon X20,000.
The shipping cleared in1905-1906was 3524 vessels of 3,718,168 tons.
The port of Ancona was entered in 1904 by 869 steamships and 600 sailing vessels, with a total tonnage of 961,612 tons.
In 1919 he exhibited a head of Lincoln cut from a block weighing six tons.
gallons of wine (mostly sweet wine), and 'goo tons of dried raisins, to the value of £34,720, were exported.
At the beginning of the 20th century an average of about 5,000,000 tons was produced every year, and many large foundries were at work.
Philip Francklin: 1902, 14,200 tons, 2 9 2-in., 16 6-in., 21 knots) and " Monmouth " (Capt.
Frank Brandt: 1903, 9,800 tons, 14 6-in., 22.3 knots), the light cruiser " Glasgow " (Capt.
John Luce: 1910, 4,800 tons, 2 6-in., io 4-in., 25 knots), and the armed merchant cruiser " Otranto " (Capt.
The German squadron consisted of the armoured cruisers " Scharnhorst " (flag) and " Gneisenau " (both 1908, 11,420 tons, 8 8-in., 6 5.9-in., 202 knots) and the light cruisers " Leipzig " (1906, 3,200 tons, io 4.1-in., 20 knots), " Nurnberg " (1908, 3,39 6 tons, 10 4.1-in., 22 knots) and " Dresden " (1908, 3,544 tons, 12 4.1-in., 25 knots).
In 1875 1568 sailing ships and 698 steamers (with a total of 740,731 tons) entered and 1588 sailing ships and 700 steamers (with a total of 756,807 tons) cleared this port; in 1883 3379 sailing and 1126 steam vessels (with a total of 1,056,201 tons) entered and 3276 sailing and 1120 steam vessels (with a total of 960,229 tons) cleared.
If this estimate is correct there exists dissolved in the ocean a quantity of silver equal to T3,300 million metric tons, that is to say 46,700 times as much silver as has been produced from all the mines in the world from the discovery of America down to 1902.
of the surface, amounted to 90,207,285,398 tons.
as the minimum workable thickness, and after making all necessary deductions, estimated the available quantity of coal in the proved coalfields of the United Kingdom as 100,914,668,167 tons.
Although in the years 1870-1903 the amount raised was 5,694,928,507 tons, this later estimate was higher by 10,707,382,769 tons than that of the previous commission, the excess being accounted for partly by the difference in the areas regarded as productive by the two commissions, and partly by new discoveries and more accurate knowledge of the coal seams. In addition it was estimated that in the proved coalfields at depths greater than 4000 ft.
there were 5,239,433,980 tons, and that in concealed and unproved fields, at depths less than 4000 ft.
there were 39,4 8 3, 8 44, 000 tons, together with 854,608,307 tons in that part of the Cumberland coalfield beyond 5 m.
of high-water mark, and 383,024,000 tons in the South Wales coalfield under the sea in St Bride's Bay and part of Carmarthen Bay.
The present annual output is in round numbers 230 million tons, and the calculated available resources in the proved coalfields are in round numbers 100,000 million tons, exclusive of the 40,000 million tons in the unproved coalfields, which we have thought best to regard only as probable or speculative.
The freezing machines were kept at work for 200 days, and 2191 tons of coal were consumed in supplying steam for the compressors and circulating pumps.
The large trepan or cutter weighs about 16 tons, and cuts a hole of from 9 to 15 ft.
In another system introduced by the Mannesmann Tube Company the prop is made up of weldless steel tubes sliding telescopically one within the other, which are fixed at the right height by a screw clamp capable of carrying a load of 15 to 16 tons.
In one instance the quantity of water required to keep down the dust in a mine raising 850 tons of coal in a single shift was 28.8 tons, apart from that required by the jets and motors.
tubs or 4 tons of coal.
to 4 tons attached to the lower bar.
in thickness, weighed 14.3 tons, and another at Anzin, intended to lift a gross load of 15 tons from 750 metres, is 221 in.
thick at the drum end, and weighs 18 tons.
This engine draws a net load of 52 tons of coal from a depth of 625 yds.
in 45 seconds, the gross weight of the four trams, cage and chains, and rope, with the coal, being 20 tons 12 cwt.
In the United Kingdom the drawing of coal is generally confined to the day shift of eight hours, with an output of from 100 to 150 tons per hour, according to the depth, capacity of coal tubs, and facilities for landing and changing tubs.
With Fowler's hydraulic arrangement 2000 tons are raised 600 yds.
It is said that the output of single shafts has been raised by this method to 3500 and 4500 tons in the double shift of sixteen hours.
Some characteristic figures of the yield for British collieries in 1898 are given below: Albion Colliery, South t 551,000 tons in a year for one Wales s shaft and one engine.
Silksworth Colliery, North535,000 tons in a year for shaft umberland 580 yds.
Bolsover Colliery, Derby 598,7 9 8 tons in 279 days, shaft 365 yds.
Denaby Main Colliery, 629,947 tons in 281 days, maxiYorkshire mum per day 2673 tons.
At Cadeby Main colliery near Doncaster in 1906, 3360 tons were drawn in fourteen hours from one pit 763 yds.
Modern screening and washing plants, especially when the small coal forms a considerable proportion of the output, are large and costly, requiring machinery of a capacity of ioo to 150 tons per hour, which absorbs 350 to 400 H.P. In this, as in many other cases, electric motors supplied from a central station are now preferred to separate steam-engines.
The yield per man on the working faces was 4.5 tons, and for the whole of the working force underground, o 846 tons, which is not less than that realized in shallower mines.
per minute under such conditions, and the number of working places would thus be restricted, and consequently the output reduced to about 500 tons per shift of Io hours, which could be raised by a single engine at the surface without requiring any very different appliances from those in current use.
The principal rivers are the Sind, Betwa, Ken, Baighin, Paisuni, Tons, Pahuj, Dhasan, Berma, Urmal and Chandrawal.
Still farther to the east flows the Ken, followed in succession by the Baighin, Paisuni and Tons.
(valued at $7,717,000); the acreage under hay was 618,000, the crop being 587,000 tons and its value $6,985,000.
The value of the bituminous coal output was $465,900 (184,440 short tons) in 1890; $1,581,914 (968,373 short tons) in 1900; $ 2, 77 8, 811 (1,648,069 short tons) in 1907; and $3,419,481 (1,805,377 short tons) in 1908.
These are little mined at present, only 110 tons of lead ore and 516 tons of zinc ore being taken from the mines in 1908.
From 216,191 register tons in 1873 the tonnage of the port had increased to 303,109 in 1880, and in 1904 the figures rose to J32,869 tons.
long and a patent slip for vessels up to 1500 tons.
The trade of the port in tons was 1,276,350 in 1899 and 1,413,471 in 1904.
The voyage of Thomas Forrest (1774) in the " Tartar galley " of 10 tons, and his account of New Guinea (Voyage to New Guinea and the Moluccas, London, 1780), are still full of interest.
m., with a total output of nearly 13,000,000 tons annually).
The principal granite quarries are in Milford, ' The yield of cereals and of such other crops in 1907 as are recorded in the Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture was as follows: Indian corn, 1,584,000 bushels; oats, 245,000 bushels; barley, 64,000 bushels; buckwheat, 42,000 bushels; potatoes, 3,600,000 bushels; hay, 760,000 tons; tobacco, 7,167,500 lb.
The output of lime in 1908 was 107,813 tons, valued at $566,022.
Before 1840 a ship of 500 tons was a large ship, but after the discovery of gold in California the size of vessels increased rapidly and their lines were more and more adapted to speed.
The limit of size was reached in an immense clipper of 4555 tons, and the greatest speed was attained in a passage from San Francisco to Boston in seventy-five days, and from San Francisco to Cork in ninety-three days.
About 4,000,000 tons of merchandize pass through Breslau (up and down) on the Oder in the year.
The elaborately carved choir is also enclosed by tumbago railings made in Macao, weighing 26 tons.
In building the fortress of Sacsahuaman, heights had to be scaled; in Tiahuanaco stones weighing 4 00 tons were carried seventeen miles; in the edifices of 011antaytambo not only were large stones hauled up an ascent, but were fitted perfectly.
Those localities where chipping was done reveal hundreds of tons of splinters and failures, and these are often counted as ruder implements of an earlier time.
A thick bed of excellent rocksalt is worked here to the extent of about 10o,000 tons annually.
in 1529, but remained unfinished for nearly two hundred years, extends from Tudela to El Burgo de Ebro, a distance of 80 m.; it has a depth of 9 ft., and an average breadth of 69, and is navigable for vessels of about 80 tons.
The harbour, sheltered by a breakwater, will admit vessels of 300 tons at high water; and the river has been dammed to form a basin for the canal which runs to Launceston.
The total tonnage of the exports in 1906 was 9,757,380 (all of which, except 26,491 tons, was coal), and of the imports 506,103 tons.
The "Constitution" was a fine ship of 1533 tons, originally designed for a two-decker, but cut down to a frigate.
The "Guerriere" was of 1092 tons and very ill-manned, while the "Constitution" had a choice crew.
The amount of gold melted in an ordinary day's work is two tons to two and a half tons, of the value of £250,000 to £300,000.
From 1500 to 3500 tons of apatite are obtained yearly in Norway from these veins.
The total output of Canada in 1907 was only 680 tons.
It has been estimated that 500,000 tons of phosphate were obtained in Aruba, 1,000,000 tons from Curacoa since the deposits were discovered in 1870, and Christmas Island in 1907 yielded 290,000 tons.
In 1908 Florida produced 1,673,651 tons of phosphate valued at 11 million dollars.
All the other states together produce less phosphate than Florida, and among them Tennessee takes the first place with an output of 403,180 tons.
The joint production of Tunis and Algeria in 1907 was not less than a million tons.
The production is on the whole diminishing in Belgium (180,000 tons in 1907), but in France it is still large (375,000 tons in 1907).
As much as 200,000 tons of phosphate have been raised in these provinces, but in 1906 the total production of Spain was only 1300 tons.
In 1909 the amount of the hay crop (5,002,000 tons) was greater than that of any other state except Iowa, and its value ($71,028,000) was greater than in any other state.
The total output of the state increased from 651,228 long tons in 1884 to 1,253,393 long tons in 1890, decreased to 179,951 long tons in 1898, again increased to 1,375,020 long tons in 1907, when only three states produced more, and was only 697,473 long tons in 1908 when the state held the same rank as in 1907.
The Western Inland Lock Navigation Company, chartered by the state in 1792, completed three canals within about four years and thereby permitted the continuous passage from Schenectady to Lake Ontario of boats of about 17 tons.
The Erie Canal was begun by the state in 1817 and opened to boats of about 75 tons burden in 1825.
As, however, this decline was accompanied with a considerable decrease in the proportion of the country's exports which passed through the port of New York, interest in the canals revived, and in 1903 the electorate of the state authorized the issue of bonds to the amount of $101,000,000 for the purpose of increasing the capacity of the Erie, the Champlain and the Oswego canals, to make each navigable by barges of 1000 tons burden.
But the increase of tonnage in the eleven years was from 614,000 tons to 1,243,000; while the crews rose from 20,000 to 32,500.
The chief factory industries come under the following heads: meat-freezing and tallow; tanning and wool-scouring; flax mills, saw-mills and grain-mills; boots and shoes; woollen and clothing; butter and Tons.
Boats of 350 tons can ascend generally as far as Mi.inden.
in length and weighs 3 tons; and there is another smaller instrument.
high and weighs about 1500 tons.
The first important coal-mining was near Bellingham Bay, in Whatcom county, where coal was discovered in 1852 and where 5374 tons were mined in 1860.
Between 1850 and 1860 coal was found on the Stilaguamish river (Snohomish county) and on the Black river (near Seattle) and in 1863 at Gilman (King county); but it was not until between 1880 and 1885, when the Green river field in King county and the Roslyn mines in Kittitas county were opened, that commercial production became important: the output was 3,024,943 tons (valued at $6,690,412) in 1908, when nearly onehalf (1,414,621 tons) of the total was from Kittitas county and most of the remainder from the counties of King (931,643 tons) and Pierce (551,678 tons).
A small quantity of zinc (7 tons in 1906) is occasionally produced.
Before 1905 the mines were little worked; in that year the output was 118,000 tons, while in 1907 over 500,000 tons were raised.
of the city are the Cornwall (magnetite) iron mines, from which about 18,000,000 tons of iron ore were taken between 1740 and 1902, and 804,848 tons in 1906.
Other discoveries about Butte followed, and the output of copper increased from I I,01I long tons in 1883 to 129,805 long tons in 1906, more than 99.6% from Silverbow county.
Coal was discovered in Montana before 1880, when 224 tons were mined.
In 1907 the output was 2,016,857 tons, and in 1908 1,920,190 tons.
The output steadily increased until 1895 when it was 1,504,193 short tons; but from then to 1905, when it was 1,643,832 short tons, the quantity varied little from year to year.
The bones of the animals consumed as food at this station were found in such numbers that 5 tons were collected in the construction of a watercourse which crossed the site.
in diameter; each weighs about 1116 tons, and has a nominal breaking strength of 22,320 tons, the actual breaking strength being the floor into rectangles 3 ft.
The bascules rotate through an angle of 82°, and their rear ends in the bascule chambers of the piers carry 365 tons of counterweight, the total weight of each being 1070 tons.
The four cables support a dead load of 7140 tons and a live load of 4017 tons.
long and weighs 4680 tons.
The total weight of iron and steel in three spans was about 5000 tons.
The outer ends of the shore cantilevers are loaded to balance half the weight of the central girder, the rolling load, and 200 tons in addition.
The amount of steel used was 38,000 tons exclusive of approach viaducts.
The back guys are the most heavily strained part of the structure, the stress provided for being 1200 tons.
Total weight of metal about 32,000 tons.
Weight of centre span 727 tons.
The total weight of ironwork was 3200 tons and the cost X124,000 (Annales des travaux publiques, 1884).
The main span weighed 1629 tons, the side spans 154 and 166 tons (Buck, Proc. Inst.
span capable of carrying 10 tons was used in erection.
The weight of ballast in the short arms of the bascules is 365 tons.
The weight of each leaf including ballast is about 1070 tons.
The girders weighing 2000 tons carry a double track for trains between the girders and on each side on cantilevers a trolley track, roadway and footway.
This gives a load of 50 tons per eccentric. One motor is placed at each end of the span to operate the eccentrics and also to release the latches and raise the rails of the steam track.
The displacement of each pontoon is 180 tons and its weight 22 tons.
of timber and 5 tons of bolts.
The bridge superstructure weighed 2150 tons, so that 38 cub.
If w is the weight of a locomotive in tons, r the radius of curvature of the track, v the velocity in feet per sec.; then the horizontal force exerted on the bridge is wv 2 /gr tons.
In manufacturing districts and near large towns loads of 30 tons may come on road bridges, and county and borough authorities insist on provision being made for such loads.
gauge weighed at most 35 to 45 tons, and their length between buffers was such that the average load did not exceed 1 ton per foot run.
Thus a consolidation engine may weigh 126 tons with a length over buffers of 57 ft., corresponding to an average load of 2.55 tons per ft.
Also long ore wagons are used which weigh loaded two tons per ft.
For the lightest class, he takes a locomotive and tender of 93.5 tons, 52 ft.
between buffers (average load 1.8 tons per ft.
run), and for the heaviest a locomotive and tender weighing 144.5 tons, 52 ft.
between buffers (average load 2.77 tons per ft.
Wagons he assumes to weigh for the lightest class 1.3 tons per ft.
run and for the heaviest 1.9 tons.
Waddell's tons are short tons of 2000 Ib.
In railway bridges the weight of sleepers, rails, &c., is 0.2 to 0.25 tons per ft.
run for each line of way, while the rail girders, cross girders, &c., weigh 0.15 to 0.2 tons.
run, all in tons; 1= span in ft.; s =average stress in tons per sq.
- For a long time engineers held the convenient opinion that, if the total dead and live load stress on any section of a structure (of iron) did not exceed 5 tons per sq.
Practical experience taught engineers that though 5 tons per sq.
for iron, or 62 tons per sq.
For Iron And 9 Tons Per Sq.
For the Dufferin bridge (steel) the working stress was taken at 6.5 tons per sq.
in bottom booms and diagonals, 6 o tons in top booms, 5.
o tons in verticals and long compression members.
in compression boom, 7 o tons in tension boom, 5 o tons in vertical struts, 6.5 tons in diagonal ties, 8 o tons in wind bracing, and 6.5 tons in cross and rail girders.
in., but in members in which the stress changes sign 4 tons per sq.
In the Forth bridge for members in which the stress varied from o to a maximum frequently, the limit was 5.0 tons per sq.
in., or if the stress varied rarely 5.6 tons per sq.
or 5 tons per sq.
-- a --- --- A, < a B 5 tons 0 0 C) 4 -H 49.
of span, and w is in tons per ft.
run in tons, is wa = (wl+w2)1r/(K-lr) according to a formula already given, then w 3 becomes infinite if k-lr =o, or if 1 = K/r, F I --xJ- ----- ---- -?
Coal from the Oviedo mines is exported coastwise, and in 1904 the shipments from Aviles for the first time exceeded those from Gijon, reaching a total of more than 290,000 tons.
(Thousands of tons.) We must consider, in this connexion, that the prosperity of certain industries depends directly upon the results of the harvest.
(Thousands of tons) In Table III.
(Thousands of tons.) The price of sugar in Vienna showed in 1913 a considerable fall following the good harvest.
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