A number of tombs belonging to the Roman necropolis were discovered in 1883.
Close to these tombs smaller round enclosures, about 4 ft.
The tombs of their inhabitants are of two classes - the so-called tombe dei giganti, or giants' tombs, and the domus de gianas, or houses of the spirits.
It contains among other tombs that of John Hunyady.
of Palo is a row of large mounds called I Monteroni, which belong to tombs of the Etruscan cemetery.
It stands in relation to Danish history somewhat as Westminster Abbey does to English, containing the tombs of most of the Danish kings from Harold I.
at Abini near Teti; and Spain has yielded objects recognized as Aegean from tombs near Cadiz and from Saragossa.
A good deal of anthropometric investigation has been devoted to human remains of the Aegean epoch, especially to skulls and bones found in Crete in tombs of Period II.
Studies (1901) and "Prehistoric Tombs of Knossos" in Archaeologia (1905); F.
Inside the fortress lies the old Protestant burying-ground, with tombs of Sackville, of John Murray, of Sir Francis Vincent, last ambassador but one from Great Britain to the republic, of Consul Smith, whose collection of books forms the nucleus of the King's library in the British Museum, and of Catherine Tofts, the singer, Smith's first wife.
Three cemeteries remain intact - King's chapel burying ground, with the graves of John Winthrop and John Cotton; the Old Granary burial ground in the heart of the city, where Samuel Sewall, the parents of Franklin, John Hancock, James Otis and Samuel Adams are buried; and Copp's Hill burial ground, containing the tombs of the Mathers.
These tombs, which lie outside the city and overlook it from the surrounding hills, a feature characteristically Arabic, remain the most interesting monuments of Palmyra.
Roman milestones and aqueducts also are found, and close by the now famous tomb of Apollophanes, with wall-paintings of animals and other ornamentation, was discovered in 1902; a description of it will be found in Thiersch and Peters, The Marissa Tombs, published by the Palestine Exploration Fund.
The myriads who built the pyramids to be the tombs of the Pharaohs were fed on garlic, and it may be were not decently buried themselves.
The enemy is advancing to destroy Russia, to desecrate the tombs of our fathers, to carry off our wives and children.
On the east and west the ravines already mentioned afforded, in the main, a sufficient protection, so that a massive wall was unnecessary, while near the south-eastern angle a breastwork was formed by the excavation of the natural rock, 2 which in later times was honeycombed with tombs.
On the east the site is approached by an ancient road, flanked by tombs.
and baldacchini, choir-screens, paschal candlesticks, ambones, tombs and the like, all enriched with sculpture and glass mosaic of great brilliance and decorative effect.
Besides the more mechanical sort of work, such as mosaic patterns and architectural decoration, they also produced mosaic pictures and sculpture of very high merit, especially the recumbent effigies, with angels standing at the head and foot,, in the tombs of Ara Coeli, S.
Cleitarchus, who can scarcely have visited the place himself, with his usual recklessness of statement, confounded the tombs behind the palaces with those of Nakshi Rustam; indeed he appears to imagine that all the royal sepulchres were at the same place.
Eu has three buildings of importance - the beautiful Gothic church of St Laurent (12th and 13th centuries) of which the exterior of the choir with its three tiers of ornamented buttressing and the double arches between the pillars of the nave are architecturally notable; the chapel of the Jesuit college (built about 1625), in which are the tombs of Henry, third duke of Guise, and his wife, Katherine of Cleves; and the château.
It was formerly the seat of a Greek bishopric, removed to Czernowitz in 1786, and possesses a cathedral (1402) with the tombs of several Moldavian princes.
He crossed the Tigris, destroyed the towns and spoiled the tombs of Arbela; but when Artabanus advanced at the head of an army, he retired to Carrhae.
The crusaders did something to develop it by establishing a bishopric with a large church, which still exists (as a mosque); here were shown the tombs of Elisha, Obadiah and St John the Baptist.
deep. The crusaders' church remains almost intact, and numerous fragments of carved stone are built into the village houses, beneath which in some places are some interesting tombs.
It has been found in Mycenaean tombs; it is known from lake-dwellings in Switzerland, and it occurs with neolithic remains in Denmark, whilst in England it is found with interments of the bronze age.
Some of the so-called " Orphic tablets," metrical inscriptions engraved on small plates of gold, chiefly dating from the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C., have been discovered in tombs in southern Italy, Crete and Rome.
The town was the capital of the former duchy of Zweibrucken, and the Alexander-Kirche contains the tombs of the dukes.
THOLOS (06Xos), the term given in Greek architecture to a circular building, with or without a peristyle; the earliest examples are those of the beehive tombs at Mycenae and in other parts of Greece, which were covered by domes built in horizontal courses of masonry.
Lastly, Peisistratus carried out the purification of Delos, the sacred island of Apollo of the Ionians; all the tombs were removed from the neighbourhood of the shrine, the abode of the god of light and joy.
A little to the south of a village called Deir Diwan, and one hour's journey south-east from Bethel, is the site of an ancient place called Khirbet Haiydn, indicated by reservoirs hewn in the rock, excavated tombs and foundations of hewn stone.
The influence of Hellenism over them is shown by finds in the tombs and the fact that they spoke the Greek language as well as their own (bilingues in Ennius).
But the contents of early tombs and dwellings and indications supplied by such objects as stone vases and seal-stones show that the Cretans had already attained to a considerable degree of culture, and had opened out communication with the Nile valley in the time of the earliest Egyptian dynasties.
The contents of the royal tombs, on the other hand, reveal a wholesale correspondence with the fabrics of the first, and, to a less degree, the second Late Minoan age, as illustrated by the relics belonging to the Middle Period of the later palace at Cnossus and by those of the royal villa at Hagia Triada.
The chronological centre of the great beehive tombs seems to be slightly lower.
These ancient indications of a Minoan connexion with Sicily have now received interesting confirmation in the numerous discoveries, principally due to the recent excavations of P. Orsi, of arms and painted vases of Late Minoan fabric in Bronze Age tombs of the provinces of Syracuse and Girgenti (Agrigentum) belonging to the late Bronze Age.
of the town, at a spot called Zafer Papoura, an extensive Late Minoan cemetery was excavated in 1904 (Evans, The Prehistoric Tombs of Knossus, 1906), and on a height about 2 m.
The contents of a series of tombs at Mochlos throw an entirely new light on the civilization of the Early Minoan age.
customs, notably the rite of cremation in place of the older corpse-burial, are introduced, and in many cases the earlier tombs were pillaged and re-used by new corners.
There is, besides, a Roman cemetery known as the Aliscamps (Elysii Campi), consisting of a short avenue once bordered by tombs, of which a few still remain.
Etruscan tombs have been found in the neighbourhood, but it is not certain that the present town stands on an ancient site.
Meanwhile, in 1868, tombs at Ialysus in Rhodes had yielded to M.
As a rule the buildings of Palmyra do not possess any architectural individuality, but these tombs are an exception.
In this connexion Yaqui tells a curious story of the opening of one of the tombs by the caliph, which in spite of fabulous incidents, recalling the legend of Roderic the Goth, shows some traces of local knowledge.
Some rock tombs hard by may be of earlier than Roman date.
Later tombs are piled upon and cut through the old ones.
The earliest known description of Athens was that of Diodorus, o ireptryris, who lived in the second half of the 4th century B.C. Among his successors were Polemon of Ilium (beginning of 2nd century B.C.),whose great irepco)ynvcs gave a minute account of thevotiveofferings'on the Acropolis and the tombs on the Sacred Way; and Heliodorus (second half of the 2nd century) who wrote fifteen volumes on the monuments of Athens.
Among the monuments of this age discovered in the surrounding districts are the rock hewn tombs of Spata, accidentally revealed by a landslip in 1877, and the domed sepulchre at Menidi, near the ancient Acharnae, excavated by Lolling in 1879.
They consist of chambers of various sizes, some of which were evidently human habitations, together with cisterns, channels, seats, steps, terraces and quadrangular tombs, all cut in the rock.
Some of the rock chambers originally intended for tombs were afterwards converted, perhaps under pressure of necessity, into habitations, as in the case of the so-called " Prison of Socrates," which consists of three chambers horizontally excavated and a small round apartment of the " beehive " type.
In view of the ancient law which forbade burial within the city, the tombs within the circuit of the city walls must either be earlier than the time of Themistocles or several centuries later; in the similar rocktombs on the neighbouring slopes of the Acropolis and Areopagus both Mycenaean and Dipylon pottery have been found.
But the numerous vertically excavated tombs outside the walls are of late date and belong for the most part to the Roman period.
The north slope of the Areopagus, where a number of early tombs were found, was also explored, and the limits of the Agora on the south and north-west were approximately ascertained.
The famous seat of the Platonic philosophy was a gymnasium enlarged as a public park by Cimon; it lay about a mile to the north-west of the Dipylon Gate, with which it was connected by a street bordered with tombs.
In this neighbourhood were found a great number of tombs containing vases of all periods, which furnish a marvellous record of the development of Attic ceramic art.
By 1856 over 15,000 tombs had, it was calculated, been opened.
a large Etruscan necropolis was found in 1874, dating from the 5th century B.C. The tombs, constructed of blocks of stone and arranged in rows divided by passages (like houses in a town), often had the name of the deceased on the facade.
Tombs with paintings have also been found to the W.
Etruscan tombs have been found on the Isola Bisentina, in the lake; and on the west bank was the town of Visentium, Roman inscriptions belonging to which have been found.
in diameter and halls on each side divided into two aisles, each compartment being covered with a dome, in this respect also not following the early normal type, in which domes were only found over tombs.
These explorations of the mastaba tombs of the III.-VI.
56 Among other tombs Lord Carnarvon has found the long-sought sepulchre of Amenhotep I.
57 At Thebes important work in the copying of tombs has been done by Mr. and Mrs. de Garis Davies for Dr. A.
Gardiner, who publishes with them the tombs of Amenemhet and Antefoker, under the auspices of the Egypt Exploration Society.
As it stands it is of the highest interest, showing remarkable Decorated work, with windows of beautiful and unusual design, and a magnificent series of canopied tombs.
Yet general sentiment seems to have given a stronger sanction to this sort of connexion; the names of husband and wife are freely used in relation to slaves on the stage, and even in the laws, and in the language of the tombs.
John Clayton, afterwards chaplain of the Collegiate Church of Manchester, who remained a strong High Churchman; James Hervey, author of Meditations among the Tombs, and Theron and Aspasio; Benjamin Ingham, who became the Yorkshire evangelist; and Thomas Broughton, afterwards secretary of the S.P.C.K., were members of the Holy Club, and George Whitefield joined it on the eve of the Wesleys' departure for Georgia.
from the boulevard to the railway station is the mosque of Nebi Daniel, containing the tombs of Said Pasha and other members of the khedivial family.
Other catacombs and tombs have been opened in Kom es-Shugafa Hadra (Roman) and Ras et-Tin (painted).
The earliest literary papyrus is that known, from the name of its former owner, as the Prisse papyrus, and now preserved at Paris, containing a work composed in the reign of a king of the fifth dynasty, and computed to be itself of the age of upwards of 2500 years B,C. The papyri discovered in Egypt have often been found in tombs, and in the hands, or swathed with the bodies, of mummies.
Passages destitute of tombs.
It is impossible not to be struck with the remarkable analogy between these rock-hewn chairs and those discovered in the Etruscan tombs, of the purpose of which no satisfactory explanation has been given.
Interment in rock-hewn tombs, " as the manner of the Jews is to bury," had been practised in Rome by the Jewish settlers for a considerable period anterior to the rise of the Christian Church.
The greater part of the tombs stand on either side of the galleries in square recesses (like the table-tombs of the Roman catacombs), and are rudely fashioned to imitate sarcophagi.
The rock-hewn tombs of Etruria scarcely come under the category of catacombs, in the usual sense, being rather independent family burial-places, grouped together in a necropolis.
(From Dennis.) occasionally forming " a spacious square or piazza surrounded by tombs instead of houses " (Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, ii.
The construction of the tombs commonly keeps up the same analogy between the cities of the living and those of the dead.
As a typical example of the Etruscan tombs we give the plan and section (figs.
The tombs in some instances form subterranean groups more analogous to the general idea of a catacomb.
Caruana, Ancient Pagan Tombs and Christian Cemeteries in the Islands of Malta (Malta, 1898), and A.
A few tombs of the Roman period are preserved.
Here are tombs of several rulers and princes of Saxony, including those of Albert and Ernest, the founders of the two existing branches of the Saxon house.
Not far off, similar relics were found at Sobunar, Zlatiste and Debelobrdo; iron and bronze ornaments, vessels and weapons, often of elaborate design, occur in the huts and cemeteries of Glasinac, and in the cemetery of Jezerine, where they are associated with objects in silver, tin, amber, glass, &c. Among the numerous finds made in other districts may be mentioned the discovery, at Vrankamer, near Bihac, of 98 African coins, the oldest of which dates from 300 B.C. Many vestiges of Roman rule survive, such as roads, mines, ruins, tombs, coins, frescoes and inscriptions.
The date of these walls has not as yet been ascertained, recent excavations, which led to the discovery of a few tombs in which the earliest objects showing Greek influence may go back to the 7th century B.C., not having produced any decisive evidence on the point.
The two great domes above the tombs, the four lofty minarets and part of the facade of this shrine, are overlaid with gold, and from whatever direction the traveler approaches Bagdad, its glittering domes and minarets are the first objects which meet his eye.
In 1819 he returned to England, and published in the following year an account of his travels and discoveries entitled Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia, &c. He also exhibited during 1820-1821 facsimiles of the tomb of Seti I.
In 1829 his widow published his drawings of the royal tombs at Thebes.
Margherita, founded in 1197, has fine canopied Gothic tombs of the Falcone family.
Souvigny possesses the church of a famous Cluniac priory dating from the 11th-12th and 15th centuries, and containing the splendid tombs (15th century) of Louis II.
The sacred road from Epidaurus, which is flanked by tombs, approaches the precinct through a gateway or propylaea.
Under the foundations of the church are tombs hewn out of the solid rock.
A few vases of the first period were found, but practically all the tombs explored in 1898 belonged to the fourth period (70050o B.C.) and show the gradual process of Hellenization among the Sicels.
It possesses a beautiful parish church, which contains the tombs of the Potocki family.
Others poured libations on the tombs of deceased relatives.
The Perpendicular church of St Mary contains a number of interesting tombs and effigies dating from the 15th century onwards, and much excellent carved work.
Wolfram von Eschenbach even mentions the tombs which studded the field of battle.
The doctrine of the immortality of the soul was accompanied by that of the resurrection of the flesh; the struggle between good and evil was one day to cease, and the divine bull was to appear on earth, Mithras was to descend to call all men from their tombs and to separate the good from the bad.
Ancient Amasia has left little trace of itself except on the castle rock, on the left of the river, where the acropolis walls and a number of splendid rock-cut tombs, described by Strabo as those of the kings of Pontus, can be seen.
In the porch of the church is the most interesting of the extant old tombs, namely, the recumbent effigy of Alexander Stewart, the Wolf of Badenoch (1 3431405; the inscription refers his death to 1394, but this is said to be an error).
The parish church contains the tombs of the Forresters, of old the leading family of the district, with full-length sculptured figures, and at the base of Corstorphine Hill - from one point of which (" Rest and be Thankful ") is to be had one of the best views of Edinburgh - are the seats of several well-known families.
The summit of the promontory (748 ft.) is reached by the old line of the Via Appia, which is flanked by tombs and by remains of an ancient defensive wall with circular towers (currently attributed to Theodoric, but probably a good deal earlier in date).
of the Via Appia are numerous ancient tombs, and the fertile valley to the N.E.
She built for him, in Halicarnassus, a very magnificent tomb, called the Mausoleum, which was one of the seven wonders of the world, and from which the name mausoleum was afterwards given to all tombs remarkable for their grandeur.
Siena was probably founded by the Etruscans (a few tombs of that period have been found outside Porta Camollia), and then, falling under the Roman rule, became a colony in the reign of Augustus, or a little earlier, and was distinguished by the name of Saena Julia.
Tong church, of fine early Perpendicular work, contains a remarkable series of ornate tombs, mainly of the 15th and 16th centuries, to members of the Vernon and Stanley families, former owners of the castle.
Outside the north gate is a street of tombs, in some of which were found arms, vases and fine mural paintings (now in the Naples Museum).
The ancient city walls have been almost entirely destroyed in recent times to provide building material,' and the place is famous for the discoveries made in its tombs.
Small obelisks have been found in tombs of the age of the Old Kingdom.
The Scyths having fallen upon them from the north-east, the Cimmerians appear to have given way in two directions, towards the southwest, where the tombs of their kings were shown on the Tyras (Dniester) and one body joined with the Treres of Thrace in invading Asia Minor by the Hellespont; and towards the south-east where another body threatened the Assyrians, who called them Gimirrai (Hebrew Gomer; Gen.
The tombs of the kings were in the land of Gerrhus near the great bend of the Dnieper where the chief tumuli have been excavated.
The description is generally borne out by the evidence of the tombs opened in the Scythic area.
Tombs to which the name Scythic is generally applied form a welldefined class.
They are preceded over the whole area by a much simpler form of burial marked by the practice of staining the bones with red ochre, and the presence of one or two rude pots and nothing more: yet that some were tombs of great chiefs is shown by the great size of the barrows heaped over them.
The Scythic tombs can be roughly dated by the objects of Greek art that they contain.
These, as has been seen, spoke a cognate dialect, and the tombs which belong to their period show exactly the same culture with Greek and Siberian elements.
In times of persecution the martyrs were buried among the rest of the faithful, but one can understand that their tombs, at which gatherings took place at least on the day of their anniversary, were distinguished from the ordinary tombs by some sign.
But a close-fitting skirt or tunic was more usual, and the Semites on the famous Beni-Hasan tombs (about the 10th or 10th century B.C.) wear richly decorated cloth FIG.
- Asiatics visiting Egypt (Beni-Hasan Tombs).
For archaeological parallels one may compare the tombs of Rekhmire (15th cent.
In Egyptian tombs have been found linen bands no less than 30 ft.
The have been identified by Helbig with small spirals of gold wire, such as are found in early Etruscan tombs lying near the head of the skeleton.
Purple, pale green and white, richly embroidered, are favourite colours in the dresses represented on the painted tombs.
Damasus showed great zeal in discovering the tombs of martyrs, adorning them with precious marbles and monumental inscriptions.
On their death their sanctity is transferred to their tombs (also called marabouts), where chapels are erected and gifts and prayers offered.
is the so-called Piano del Fusco, an extensive necropolis, in which over six hundred tombs, mostly of the 7th and 6th centuries B.C., have been found.
4 It is remarkable that hardly any tombs of the 5th century B.C. have come to light.
The whole valley seems to have been originally occupied by Celtic tribes, who have left traces of their presence on the contents of tombs and in the forms of names (Moguntiacum or Mainz, Borbetomagus or Worms); but at the beginning of the historical period we find the Celts everywhere in retreat before the advancing Teutons.
It is the scene from time to time of splendid ceremonies, and contains the tombs of many great men; but in this respect it cannot compete with the peculiar associations of Westminster Abbey.
In the beautiful rural cemetery, north of the city, are the tombs of President Chester A.
It was found in a house in the Street of Tombs at Pompeii in the year 1839, and is now in the Royal Museum at Naples.
It is probable that the glass drinking-vessels, which have been found in pre-Christian Anglo-Saxon tombs, were introduced from Germany.
Many of the tombs, which were built of crude brick, were provided with gardens, and there were shelves or altars on which were placed the offerings to the dead.
As the older tombs decayed a fresh city of tombs arose on their ruins.
No tombs certainly Hittite have been found,' though it is possible that some of the reliefs (e.g.
A group of Italic cremation tombs a pozzo of the Villanova period were found under the pavement of the medieval Vicolo del Campidoglio.
It is of interest to note that grape-stones have been found with mummies in Egyptian tombs of not later age than 3000 years.
Almost all the Guanches used to wear garments of goat-skins, and others of vegetable fibres, which have been found in the tombs of Grand Canary.
Discoveries of ruins and tombs have also been made.
There are several churches, among them the Alexanderkirche, containing the tombs of the princes of Grubenhagen, and a synagogue.
Travelling down from Damascus in 1875 with the Haj caravan, he stopped at El Hajr, one of the pilgrim stations, with the intention of awaiting the return of the caravan and in the meantime of exploring the rock-cut tombs of Medain Salih and El Ala.
Having successfully completed his investigations and sent copies of inscriptions and drawings of the tombs to Renan in Paris, he determined to push on farther into the desert.
The road is a mere camel track across the desert, the chief places passed are Ma`an on the Syrian border, a station on the old Sabaean trade route to Petra, and Medain Salih, the site of the rock-cut tombs and inscriptions first brought to notice by Doughty.
ii.), travelling in northwest Arabia, saw stones of granite in a row and " flagstones set edgewise " (though he does not regard these as religious), also " round heaps, perhaps barrows," and " dry-built round chambers," which may be ancient tombs.
Mecca itself was taken; plundering was forbidden, but the tombs of the saints and all objects of veneration were ruthlessly destroyed, and all ceremonies which seemed in the eye of the stern puritan conqueror to suggest the taint of idolatry were forbidden.
Outside the walls, over the sterile sand plateau, stretch great fields of tombs and graves, for Nejef is so holy that he who is buried here will surely enter paradise.
Among its most striking features are the fine and lofty tower (450(450 ft.), rebuilt in 1860-64; the extensive catacombs, in which the emperors were formerly interred; the sarcophagus (1513) of Frederick III.; the tombs of Prince Eugene of Savoy; thirtyeight marble altars; and the fine groined ceiling.
Since his time the anthropological researches of Broca, Thurnam and Davis, Huxley, Busk, Beddoe, Virchow, Tubino and others have proved the existence in Europe, from Neolithic times, of a race, small of stature, with long or oval skulls, and accustomed to bury their dead in tombs.
The earliest remains hitherto found on the site are tombs of the early Iron Age period of Graeco-Phoenician influences (1000-600 B.C.).
The brick enclosure wall of the temple is still plainly visible near the little village of Sa el hagar (Sa of stone) on the east bank of the Rosetta branch, but the royal tombs and other monuments of Sais, some of which were described by Herodotus, and its inscribed records, have all gone.
The Eremitani is an Augustinian church of the 13th century, distinguished as containing the tombs of Jacopo (1324) and Ubertino (1345) da Carrara, lords of Padua, and for the chapel of SS James and Christopher, illustrated by Mantegna's frescoes.
de Paris in the 18th century, the little town of Kevelaer from 1641 onwards, the tombs of St Louis, Francis of Assisi, Catherine of Siena and others.
Many other splendid mosques and royal tombs adorned the city, and justified the Turkish proverb, "See all the world; but see Konia."
Solon also ordered that the tombs of the heroes should be treated with the greatest respect, and Cleisthenes sought to create a pan-Athenian enthusiasm by calling his new tribes after Attic heroes and setting up their statues in the Agora.
and his queen Eleanor, were removed in the 17th century from their tombs to another part of the church.
The interior contains the tombs of Bonif ace, the first archbishop of Mainz, of Frauenlob, the Minnesinger, and of many of the electors.
This church also contains a large number of fine sculptured tombs of the 14th and 15th centuries, with noble effigies and reliefs of saints and sacred subjects.
This is exemplified in the magnificently sculptured tombs of the Della Scala lords, designed with steadily growing splendour, from the simple sarcophagus of Martino I.
The recumbent effigies and decorative details of these tombs are very beautiful, but the smaller figures of angels, saints and virtues are rather clumsy in proportion.
One characteristic of the 14th and 15th centuries in Verona was the custom, also followed in other Lombardic cities, of setting large equestrian statues over the tombs of powerful military leaders, in some cases above the recumbent effigy of the dead man, as if to represent him in full vigour of life as well as in death.
In the Jewish section, which is walled off from the rest of the burying-ground, the most remarkable tombs are those of the Rothschild family.
The chief towns in the interior were Amasia, on the Iris, the birthplace of Strabo, the capital of Mithradates the Great, and the burial-place of the earlier kings, whose tombs still exist; Comana, higher up the river, a famous centre of the worship of the goddess Ma (or Cybele); Zela, another great religious centre, refounded by Pompey, now Zilch; Eupatoria, refounded by Pompey as Magnopolis at the junction of the Lycus and Iris; Cabira, Pompey's Diospolis, afterwards Neocaesarea, now Niksar; Sebastopolis on the Scylax, now Sulu Seral; Sebasteia, now Sivas; and Megalopolis, a foundation of Pompey, somewhere in the same district.
This building contains an archaeological museum with a collection of Roman stone monuments; the archives of the town; and the principal museum, which, besides valuable paintings and other works of art, contains the magnificent tombs of Philip the Bold and John the Fearless, dukes of Burgundy.
In very early inscriptions the funerary prayers in the tombs are addressed to him almost exclusively, and he always took a leading place in them.
An approach to literature was made in the Annales Maximi, records of private families, funeral orations and inscriptions on busts and tombs such as those of the Scipios in XVI.
The abbey, though greatly mutilated, is full of interesting details, and includes a lofty tower, a marble screen, a chapter-house, a notable east window, several fine tombs and an altar of St Francis.
of the medieval town, on the hill which, from the tumuli raised above the tombs, bears the name of Monterozzi.
The tombs themselves are of various kinds.
The oldest are tombe a pozzo, or shaft graves, containing the ashes of the dead in an urn, of the Villanova period, the oldest of them probably pre-Etruscan; in some of these tombs hut urns, like those of Latium, are found.
Next come the various kinds of inhumation graves, the most important of which are rock-hewn chambers, many of which contain well-preserved paintings of various periods; some show close kinship to archaic Greek art, while others are more recent, and one, the Grotta del Tifone (so called from the typhons, or winged genii of death, represented) in which Latin as well as Etruscan inscriptions appear, belongs perhaps to the middle of the 4th century B.C. Fine sarcophagi from these tombs, some showing traces of painting, are preserved in the municipal museum, and also numerous fine Greek vases, bronzes and other objects.
The Kamal Maula is an enclosure containing four tombs, the most notable being that of Shaikh Kamal Maulvi (Kamal-ud-din), a follower of the famous 13th-century Mussulman saint Nizam-ud-din Auliya.'
Outside the gate, apparently, was the famous Craneion, shaded by cypress trees, and near it the tombs of Lais and Diogenes, a precinct of Bellerophon and of Athena Melaenis.
This disaster was soon retrieved by General Sir Henry Tombs, and the Bhutias were compelled to sue for peace, which was concluded on the i ith of November 1865.
The capital is named after its founder, the Grand Master de la Valette, but from its foundation it has been called Valletta (pop. 1901, 24,685); it contains the palace of the Grand Masters, the magnificent Auberges of the several " Langues " of the Order, the unique cathedral of St John with the tombs of the Knights and magnificent tapestries and marble work; a fine opera house and hospital are conspicuous.
Those that have been mentioned seem to have been sanctuaries (some of them in part dwelling-places), but Halsaflieni was an enormous ossuary, of which others may have existed in other parts of the island; for the numerous rock-cut tombs which are everywhere to be seen belong to the Phoenician and Roman periods.
To the Phoenician period, besides the tombs already mentioned, belong some remains of houses and cisterns, and (probably) a few round towers which are scattered about the island, while the important Roman house at Cittavecchia is the finest monument of this period in the islands.
The identical character of the pottery found in the sesi with that found in the prehistoric village proves that the former are the tombs of the inhabitants of the latter.
Punic tombs have also been discovered, and the votive terra-cottas of a small sanctuary of the Punic period were found near the north coast.
The earliest tombs (tombe a pozzo, shaft tombs) are previous to the beginning of Greek importation.
The most remarkable group of tombs is, however, that of Poggio Gaiella, 3 m.
Other noteworthy tombs are those of the Granduca, with a single subterranean chamber carefully constructed in travertine, and containing eight sarcophagi of the same material; of Vigna Grande, very similar to this; of Cone Casuccini (the ancient stone door of which is still in working order), with two chambers, containing paintings representing funeral rites; of Poggio Moro and Valdacqua, in the former of which the paintings are almost destroyed, while the latter is now inaccessible.
Among the later tombs bilingual inscriptions are by no means rare, and both Etruscan and Latin inscriptions are often found in the same cemeteries, showing that the use of the Etruscan language only died out gradually.
The present Palazzo Comunale, a Renaissance edifice, contains a fine museum, chiefly remarkable for the contents of prehistoric tombs found in the district (including good bronze fibulae, necklaces, amulets, &c., often decorated with amber), and a large collection of acorn-shaped lead missiles (glandes) used by slingers, belonging to the time of the siege of Asculum during the Social War (89 B.C.).
Near Ascoli is Castel Trosino, where an extensive Lombard necropolis of the 7th century was discovered in 1895; the contents of the tombs are now exhibited in the Museo Nazionale delle Terme at Rome (Notizie degli scavi, 18 95, 35).
Some remains of the town walls still exist, and also two ancient bridges, both belonging to the Via Clodia, and many tombs hewn in the rock - small chambers imitating the architectural forms of houses, with beams and rafters represented in relief.
Doubtless there were many who bore the name of John in the early Christian communities; we read, for instance, of ` John, whose surname was Mark,' and there may have been a second John in Asia, since at Ephesus, we are told, there were two tombs said to be John's..
Their monuments were erected by Queen Elizabeth, who found the choir and tombs in ruins.
5, so the Septuagint), or as Caphtorim replace the earlier Avvim 1 Peters and Thiersch, Painted Tombs in the Necropolis of Marissa (1905).
Bricked vault tombs were discovered containing bodies outstretched (not contracted); the deposits were of an unusually fine character and comprised silve, alabaster and even iron.
It contains the tombs of the princes of the house of Saxe-Weimar, including those of the elector John Frederick the Magnanimous and his wife, and of Duke Bernhard of Weimar, a hero of the Thirty Years' War.
Besides the Gothic cathedral (1480-1511), with the tombs of the marquises, the churches of San Giovanni (formerly San Domenico), San Bernardo and the Casa Cavazza, now the municipal museum, are noteworthy.
Ancient tombs with fragments of vases have also been found, and there are cases which have been used as primitive tombs or dwellings, and a group of some fifty tumuli near Altamura.
The church of St Martin (1420) contains several fine tombs of the 15th-17th centuries.
The size of the ancient town at its largest can be roughly fixed by its tombs.
Other ruins - of a circus, of tombs, &c., exist, and there are also considerable remains of villas in the neighbourhood.
The church of All Saints is mainly Perpendicular, and contains some fine woodwork, mostly of the 17th century, and some good memorial tombs.
The founders of Megara Hyblaea settled here temporarily, according to Thucydides, in the winter of 729-728 B.C., but it seems to have remained almost if not entirely uninhabited until the Athenians used it as a naval station in their attack on Syracuse early in 414 B.C. A number of tombs were excavated in 1894, containing objects belonging to a transitional stage between the second and third Sicel period, attributable roughly to r000-goo B.C., and with a certain proportion of Mycenean importations.
When the insurgents under Duke Otto were joined by the Thuringians, Henry was compelled in 1074 to release Magnus and to make a number of concessions as the price of the peace of Gerstungen; which, however, was short-lived, as the peasants employed in pursuance of its terms in demolishing the forts, desecrated the churches and violated the ducal tombs.
Mariette's excavation of the Serapeum at Memphis revealed the tombs of over sixty animals, ranging from the time of Amenophis III.
No ruins are visible, the mounds of the old city being for the most part hidden under modern buildings; but the slopes of the limestone hills behind it are pierced with an infinity of rock-cut tombs, some of which were large and decorated with sculptures, paintings and long inscriptions.
The archaeological commission of the Description de l'Egypte visited them in 1799, when the walls of many of the large tombs were still almost intact; in the first half of the 19th century (and to some extent later) an immense amount of destruction was caused by blasting for stone.
Three of the tombs illustrate one of the darkest periods in Egypt's history, when the princes of Siut played a leading part in the struggle between Heracleopolis and Thebes (Dyns.
Many of these tombs have been opened, and their contents are in the Athens museum.
There can, however, be no doubt that they were the tombs of princely families.
It is generally supposed that these tombs, as well as those excavated in the rock, belong to a later date than the shaft-tombs on the Acropolis.
Savinus with reliefs showing scenes from his life, of fine and fresh execution, by Benedetto da Maiano; and later tombs by P. Bariloto, a local sculptor.
Tombs of the pre-Etruscan or Villanova period have been found within its circuit, but only at the north-west extremity near S.
The museum contains a very valuable collection of Etruscan antiquities, especially cinerary urns from the ancient tombs N.
Chinese tombs are among the objects that strike the traveller's attention at Amboyna and other ancient settlements.
Agostino, containing works of sculpture in honour of the house of Este) is a baroque building by Bibbiena; it also contains the tombs of Sigonio and Muratori.
The Way of the Tombs at Athens was lined with stelae, some of them in memory of prominent citizens.
Attached to it is a mausoleum, which contains the tombs of many of the khans.
In 1868 Count Constantine Tyszkiewicz published a valuable monograph on the Tombs of Lithuania and Western Ruthenia.
116) they comprised as many as 112 different tribes, and from the remains discovered in the tombs at Hallstatt, La Tene and other places, they appear to have been fairly civilized.
The first series of caves, dedicated to St Anthony, contains eighty saints' tombs; the second, dedicated to St Theodosius, a saint greatly venerated in Russia, about forty-five.
Arise, and begone !") The bodies are sent to Cornwall, and Mark, learning the truth, has a fair chapel erected and lays them in tombs, one at each side of the building, when a sapling springs from the heart of Tristan, and reaching its boughs across the chapel, makes its way into the grave of Iseult.
are remains of villas of the Roman period, and here tombs have been found.
Outside the town to the west is a public garden in which are several Roman tombs with inscriptions.
The tombs date from the 5th to the 7th century of the Christian era, and lie in two distinct groups between Tiaret and Frenda, a distance of 35 m.
Two Roman bridges and several tombs were found above the falls in 1826.
At a very early date the great prophets became a kind of saints or welis, and the respect paid to the tombs of the prophets, which ultimately took in almost every particular the place of the old local shrines (Matt.
In Etruria it probably appears in tombs as 12.45 (25); perhaps in Roman Britain; and in medieval England as 12.47 (25).
It has a State Hospital for the Insane (opened 1880), a fine County Court House, a general hospital, a Friends' Home, a home for aged women, St Joseph's Protectory (Roman Catholic) for girls, and the Norristown and McCann public libraries; in Montgomery cemetery are the tombs of General Winfield Scott Hancock and General John Frederick Hartranft (1830-1889), a distinguished Federal officer in the Civil War and governor of Pennsylvania in 1873-1879.
The objects discovered in its extensive necropolis, where over r 000 tombs have been excavated, are now in the museums of Grosseto and Florence.
The tombs were rebuilt, and the whole of the injured part of the church restored, mostly very clumsily, a few years after the fire.
On the north of the choir are the tombs of Margaret, wife of William I., and her two sons Roger and Henry, together with an urn containing the viscera of St Louis of France, who died in 1270.
The floods caused by the Husur were frequent and destructive, on one occasion sweeping away the palace terrace at Nineveh and exposing the tombs of the kings, on another isolating Khorsabad.
The interior is richly adorned with stained-glass windows of modern date, costly shrines, paintings and tombs.
It contains a huge high altar, the masterpiece of Veit Stoss, who was a native of Cracow, executed in 1 477 - 1489; a colossal stone crucifix, dating from the end of the 15th century, and several sumptuous tombs of noble families from the 16th and 17th centuries.
It was a favourite residence of the emperor Frederick II., whose second and third wives, lolanthe and Isabella of England,'`were buried in the cathedral dedicated to St Richard, who is believed to have come from England in 492; their tombs, however, no longer exist.
Until recently he was looked upon as semi-mythical, but the discovery of the tombs of many kings of the 1st Dynasty including probably that of Menes himself, as well as an abundance of remains of still earlier ages in Egypt has given him a personality.
In the Catacombs, the arcosolia or bench-like tombs are said (though the statement is doubtful) to have been used to serve this purpose.
269-274) decreed that " mass should be celebrated above the tombs of martyrs " - an observance probably suggested by the passage in Revelation vi.
On the whole, however, the skeletons found in German and Scandinavian tombs dating even from the earliest period do not show any very remarkable differences from those of the present day.
Throughout the stone age inhumation appears to have been universal, many of the neolithic tombs being chambers of considerable size and constructed with massive blocks of stone.
Here are also the tombs of A.
Other places had been honoured by the presence and preaching of these great leaders of new-born Christianity; but it is at Rome that they had borne witness to the Gospel by the shedding of their blood; there they were buried, and their tombs were known and honoured.
The pope, General Position of as officiating in these holiest of all sanctuaries, the Papacy as guardian of the tombs of St Peter and St Paul in Theory.
From the tombs at Akhmim.
In the interior of the church are the tombs of Luther and Melanchthon, and of the electors Frederick the Wise, by Peter Vischer the elder (1527), and John the Constant, by Hans Vischer; also portraits of the reformers by Lucas Cranach the younger.
Since 1880 several notices of the Haram, within which are the tombs of the Patriarchs, have appeared.
The tombs are subterranean chambers of varied and often irregular form, sometimes arranged in two storeys, sometimes in several rows one behind the other.
The mouths of the tombs were walled up and covered with slabs, and occasionally cippi (Phoen.
" spindles," above the tombs near Amrit, have peculiarities of their own; some of them are adorned with lions at the base and with roofs of pyramidal shape.
Numerous Etruscan tombs have been discovered within the lower portion of the area of the modern town, which appears to correspond in site with the Roman (C.I.L.
There are also traces of a theatre and rock-cut tombs.
Adjoining it to the north is the Cappella Colleoni, with a richly sculptured polychrome façade, and a modernized interior, containing the fine tombs of Bartolommeo Colleoni (c. 1400-1475), a native of Bergamo, and his daughter Medea.
It is asserted, too, that some of the earliest tombs of the necropolis of Alba Longa were found beneath a stratum of peperino.
Both are outside the limits of the Campagna in the narrower sense; but similar tombs were found (though less accurately observed) in travertine quarries between Rome and Tivoli.
some archaeologists assign to the 1 I th, others (and with far better reasons) to the 8th century B.C., the earliest tombs of the Alban necropolis and the coeval tombs of the necropolis recently discovered in the Forum at Rome.
From the south end of Kongens Nytorv, a street called Holmens Kanal winds past the National Bank to the Holmens Kirke, or church for the royal navy, originally erected as an anchor-smithy by Frederick II., but consecrated by Christian IV., with a chapel containing the tombs of the great admirals Niels Juel and Peder TordenskjOld, and wood-carving of the 17th century.
The chapel contains the tombs of abbot John Hamilton and of the children of the 1st lord Paisley, and the recumbent effigy of Marjory, daughter of Robert Bruce, who married Walter, the Steward, and was killed while hunting at Knock Hill between Renfrew and Paisley (1316).
At Drah abu'l nagga, opposite to it, are tombs of its princes under the VIth Dynasty.
developed Karnak, and on the west bank built the great funerary temple of Deir el Bahri and smaller temples as far south as Medinet Habu, and began the long series of royal tombs in the famous Valley of the Tombs of the Kings far back in the desert behind Deir el Bahri.
The tombs of the XVIIIth Dynasty on the west bank and the sculptures in the temples reflect the brilliancy of these days, but even the reign of Rameses II.
For the rest there are the tombs of many kings in the Biban el Moluk and a good deal of comparatively petty construction and tinkering, with the help of stone robbed from older structures.
The finest tombs are of the XVIIIth Dynasty.
Far behind Medinet Habu are the Tombs of the Queens, where royal relatives of the XXth Dynasty are buried; and immediately behind the lofty cliffs of Deir el Bahri, but accessible only by a very circuitous route from Kurna, are the tombs of the kings (from Tethmosis I.
This, with its rather handsome cupola, and the twelve minor tombs of Ahmad Shah's children grouped around, contains a few good specimens of fretwork and of inlaid inscriptions.
In the northern quarter stands the great mosque founded by Sidi Okba ibn Nafi, and containing his shrine and the tombs of many rulers of Tunisia.
A few lotus trees and some rock-cut tombs are here found beside a miserable mud hamlet on the hill slope, with a modern tombhouse (kubbeh).
Rugged valleys enclose the site on the north and south; broken sarcophagi and rock-cut tombs are found beneath the ruin.
He died on the 6th of June 1820, and was buried in Westminster Abbey close to the tombs of Pitt and Fox.
Barnabei, La Villa pompeiana di P. Fannio Sinistore; Rome, 1901.) The road leading from the Porta Ercolanese towards Herculaneum is bordered on both sides for a considerable extent by rows of tombs, as was the case with all the great roads leading into Rome, and indeed in all large Roman towns.
These tombs are in many instances monuments of considerable pretension, and of a highly ornamental character, and naturally present in the highest degree the peculiar advantage common to all that remains of Pompeii, in their perfect preservation.
Hardly any scene even in this extraordinary city is more striking than the coup d'csil of this long street of tombs, preserving uninjured the records of successive generations eighteen centuries ago.
These are visited annually by tens of thousands of pilgrims, not only from the surrounding regions, but also from Persia and India; many of whom bring their dead to be buried in the neighbourhood of the sacred tombs.
The city survived the fall of Assyria, and extensive buildings as well as tombs of the Parthian age have been found upon the site.
The Welsh triads know no fewer than three Gwenhwyfars; Giraldus Cambrensis, relating the discovery of the royal tombs at Glastonbury, speaks of the body found as that of Arthur's second wife; the prose Merlin gives Guenevere a bastard half-sister of the same name, who strongly resembles her; and the Lancelot relates how this lady, trading on the likeness, persuaded Arthur that she was the true daughter of Leodegrance, and the queen the bastard interloper.
In conformity with the decrees of the council of Trent, he cleared the cathedral of its gorgeous tombs, rich ornaments, banners, arms, sparing not even the monuments of his own relatives.
It has two Protestant churches of which the convent church (Stiftskirche) contains the tombs of famous abbesses, a palace (now used as law courts) and the famous abbey (now occupied by provincial government offices).
The construction of the Via Venti Settembre gave occasion for the discovery of a number of tombs, 85 in all, the bulk of which dated from the end of the 5th and the 4th centuries B.C. The bodies had in all cases been cremated, and were buried in small shaft graves, the interment itself being covered by a slab of limestone.
Whereas other remains attributable to their villages or settlements are rare, their rock-hewn tombs are found by the thousand in the limestone cliffs of south-eastern Sicily.
But the form of the tombs always remains the same, a small low chamber hewn in the rock, with a rectangular opening about 2 by 22 ft., out of which open other chambers, each with its separate doorway; and inhumation is adopted without exception, whereas in a Greek necropolis a low percentage of cases of 1 Leontini, Megara, Naxos, Syracuse, Zancle are all recorded as sites where the Sicel gave way to the Greek (in regard to Syracuse [q.v.] this has recently been proved to be true), while many other towns remained Sicel longer, among them Abacaenum, Agyrium, Assorus, Centuripae, Cephaloedium, Engyum, Hadranum, Halaesa, Henna, Herbessus, Herbita, Hybla Galeatis, Inessa, Kale Akte, Menaenum, Morgantina.
Many Christian catacombs and Byzantine rock-cut villages, churches and tombs have been explored of recent years.
The principal bazaar, the Khan-el-Khalil, marks the site of the tombs of the Fatimite caliphs.
Beyond the eastern wall of the city are the splendid mausolea erroneously known to Europeans as the tombs of the caliphs; they really are tombs of the Circassian or Burji Mamelukes, a race extinguished by Mehemet Ali.
South of the citadel is another group of tombmosques known as the tombs of the Mamelukes.
Southwest of the Mameluke tombs is the much-venerated tomb-mosque of the Imam esh-Shafih or Shari, founder of one of the four orthodox sects of Islam.
Tombs of Mahommedan saints are also numerous, and are often placed on the summit of the cliffs overlooking the Nile.
The tomb is a vault, surmounted by an oblong stone monument, with a stele at the head and feet; and a cupola, supported by four walls, covers the whole in the case of sheikhs tombs and those of the wealthy.
Tombs of saints abound, one or more being found in every town and village; and no traveller up the Nile can fail to remark how every prominent hill has the sepulchre of its patron saint.
border of the desert are the tombs of Deshgsha, Meir and Assiflt, and on the east bank those of Beni Hasan, the rockcut temple of Speos Artemidos, the tombs of El Bersha and Sheikh Said, the tonibs and stelae of El Amarna with the alabaster quarries of, Hanub in the desert behind them, and the tombs of Deir el Gebrgwi.
Beyond Assit are the tombs of Dronka and Rifa, the temples of Abydos and Dendera, and the tombs, &c., at AkhmIm and Kasr es Saiyad.
Farther south are the stupendous ruins of Thebes on both sides of the river, the temple of Esna, the ruins and tombs of El Kab, the temple of Edfu, the quarries of Silsila and the temple of Ombos, followed by the inscribed rocks of the First Cataract, the tombs and quarries of Assuan and the temples of Philae.
Here are the temples of Debfld, the temple and quarries of Kertassi, the temples of Kalabsha, Bet el Wali, Dendr, Gerf Husn, Dakka, Maharaka, Es-Seba, Amgda and Derr, the grottos of Elles ya, the tombs of Aniba, the temple of Ibrim, the great rock-temples of Abu-Simbel, the temples at Jebel Adda and Wadi Halfa, the forts and temples of Semna, the temples of Amgra (Meroitic) and Soleb.
As to manners and customs, although we possess no systematic descriptions of them from a native source-, the native artists and scribes have presented us with exceptionally rich materials in the painted and sculptured scenes of the tombs from the Old and Middle Kingdoms and the New Empire.
For more lasting and ambitious work in temples and tombs the materials could be obtained from the rocks and deserts of the Nile valley.
Under the Empire Egypt was administered by a vast bureaucracy, at the head of which, responsible to the king, was the vizier, or sometimes two viziers, one for Upper Egypt, the other for Lower Egypt (in which case the former, stationed at Thebes, had the precedence)., The duties of the viIier and the procedure in his court are detailed in a long inscription which is repeated in three tombs of the XVIIIth Dynasty at Thebes (Breasted, Records, ii.
Slings are first heard of in Egyptian warfare in the 8th century B.C. The chariot was dOubtless introduced with the horse in the Hyksos period; several examples have been discovered in the tombs of the New Kingdom.
According to the paintings of the Middle Kingdom in the tombs of Beni Hasan, the battlements of brick fortresses were attacked and wrenched away with long and massive spears.
Davis excavations (Tombs of the Kings).
From the above-mentioned tables of culmination in the tombs of Rameses VI.
Main Sources.(a) The Pyramid texts, a vast collection of incantations inscribed on the inner walls of five royal tombs of the Vth and VIth Dynasties at Sakkgra, discovered and first published by Maspero.
It is possible that these incantations were recited as part of the funerary ritual, but there is no doubt that their mere presence in the tombs was supposed to be magically effective for the welfare of the dead.
(c) The texts of the Tombs of the Kings at Thebes (XVIIIth XXth Dyn.) consist of a series of theological books compiled at an uncertain date; they have been edited by Naville and Lefbure.
Several of these books were used in the ritual of feast days, but all have received a secondary funerary employment, and are therefore found buried with the dead in their tombs.
The funerary ritual is known from texts in the Theban tombs (XVIIIthXXth Dyn.) and papyri and sarcophagi of later date; older versions are contained in the Pyramid texts and The Book of the Dead.
Tombs of brick with a single chamber were succeeded by tombs of stone with several chambers, until they really merited the name of houses of eternity that the Egyptians gave to them.
The general scheme of Egyptian tombs remained the same throughout the whole of the dynastic period, thoughthere were Tombs, many variations of detail.
This aim is particularly conspicuous in the pyramids, the gigantic tombs which the Pharaohs of the Old Kingdom constructed for themselves: the passages that lead to the burial chamber were barred at intervals by vast granite blocks, and the narrow opening that gave access to them was hidden from view beneath the stone casing of the pyramid sides.
It was of course only the few who could afford elaborate tombs of the kind: the poor had to make shift with an unpretentious grave, in which the corpse was placed enveloped only by a few rags or enclosed in a rough wooden coffin.
In spite of all the precautions they took and the contracts they made, the Egyptians could never quite rid themselves of the dread that their tombs might decay and their cult be neglected; and they sought therefore to obtain by prayers and threats what they feared they might lose altogether.
the part of the Egyptians that they should desire to place their tombs near the traditional burying-place of Osiris.
When a pretence was made of opening, with an iron instrument, the mouth of the divine statue, to the accompaniment of recited formulae, this can hardly be termed anything but magic. Similarly, the potency attributed to ushebli-figures and the copies of the Book of the Dead deposited in the tombs is magical in quality.
Short;portive inscriptions are found in tombs of the XIIth Dynasty; iome groups are so written cursively in early medical papyri, I nd certain religious inscriptions in the royal tombs of the~ ~(IXth and XXth Dynasties are in secret writing.
(C) In some tombs painting only was used, and it followed the general character of the relief treatment, being more rigid, detailed, and scholastic than the older style.
(B) The reliefs of the early XVIIIth Dynasty are closely like the scenes of the tombs in the pyramid age, but soon carving was superseded by the cheaper painting, and but few tombs in relief are known.
Broadly speaking, the Lower Egyptian was much better than the Upper Egyptian; a conclusion also evident in the art of the tombs done on the spot.
110,111) fixed in the end of a stick and revolved with a weight on the top, as shown in scenes on the tombs of the Vth Dynasty.
The royal tombs have preserved mn enormous quantity of fragments, from which five hundred varied forms have been drawn (P.R.T.
The tombs of Mdflm under Snefru are built with immense blocks of limestone of 20 arid 33 tons weight.
,, Royal Tombs; P.S.
Elsewhere are but few other monuments; at Wadi Maghara in Sinai is a rock sculpture of Semcrkhet of the 1st Dynasty in perfect state, at Giza is a group of tombs of a prince and retinue of the 1st Dynasty, and at GIza and Bet Khallaf are two large brick mastabas with extensive passages closed by trap-doors, of kings of the IIIrd Dynasty.
Beyond these tombs, and the temples attached to them, there are very few fixed monuments; of Cheops and Pepi I.
The most importai* pictorial tombs of Beni Hasan belong to this age; the great princes appear to have largely quarried stone for their palaces, and to have cut the quarry in the form of a regular chamber, which served for the tomb chapel.
These are: (I) The royal tombs, which in the Vth, VIth, XVIIIth, XIXth and XXth Dynasties are fully inscribed; but as the texts are always religious and not historical, they are less important than many other remains.
(2) The royal coffins and wrappings, which give information by the added graffiti recording their removals; (3) Royal tablets, which are of the highest value for history, as they often describe or imply historical events; (~.) Private tombs and tablets, which are in many cases biographical.
The nomarchs and the other feudal chiefs were inclined to strengthen themselves at the expense of their neighbors; a firm hand wa~ required to hold them in check and distribute the honors as they were earned by faithful service., The tombs of the most favored and wealthy princes are magnificent, particularly those of certain families in Middle Egypt at Beni Hasari, El Bersha, AssiUt and Deir RIfa, and it is probable that each had a court and organization within.
The fine tombs of Ameni at Beni Hasan and of Hepzefa at Assit belong to his reign.
Her cartouches began to be defaced or her monuments hidden up by other buildings, and the same rage pursued some of her most faithful servants in their tombs.
This with a large area around he dedicated to Aton in the sixth year, while splendid temples, palaces, houses and tombs for his god, for himself and for his courtiers were rising around him; apparently also this son of Aton swore an oath never to pass beyond the boundaries of Atons special domain.
Setis temple at Abydos and his galleried tomb in the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings stand out as the most splendid examples of their kind in design and in decoration.
an investigation took place which showed that one of the royal tombs before the western cliffs had been completely ransacked and the mummies burnt.
Three years later the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings was attacked and the sepulchres of Seti I.
The mummies from the despoiled tombs of the kings were the object of much anxious care to the kings of this dynasty; after being removed from one tomb to another, they were finally deposited in a shaft near the temple of Deir el Bahri, where they remained for nearly three thousand years, until the demand for antiquities at last brought the plunderer once more to their hiding-place; eventually they were all secured for the Cairo museum, where they may now be seen.
Possibly the word originally meant "beds of the dead," or tombs.
The pyramids of Egypt, the mausolea of the Lydian kings, the circular, chambered sepulchres of Mycenae, and the Etruscan tombs at Caere and Vold, are lineally descended from the chambered barrows of prehistoric times, modified in construction according to the advancement of architectural art at the period of their erection.
It occupies a very prominent place in the history of the British conquest of India, but it has now lost its manufactures and trade and preserves only a few mosques and tombs as traces of its former grandeur.
His visits to the country in 1838 and 1840 were followed by an expedition sent by the British government in 1842 to transport to England the valuable monuments now in the British Museum, while Admiral Spratt and Edward Forbes explored the interior, and laid down its physical features on an excellent map. The monuments thus brought to light are among the most interesting of those discovered in Asia Minor, and prove the existence of a distinct native architecture, especially in the rock-cut tombs.
Lycian sculpture followed closely the development of Greek sculpture, and many of the sculptures with which the tombs are adorned are of a high order of merit.
The spoils of its tombs excavated in 1896 are in the British Museum.
(site and monuments); British Museum, Excavations in Cyprus (London, 190o; Mycenaean tombs); G.
Among these are a Roman slab, carved with figures of a horseman trampling upon an enemy, several fine tombs and stones of the 13th and 14th centuries, the frith or fridstool of stone, believed to be the original bishop's throne, and the fine Perpendicular roodscreen of oak, retaining its loft.
Several Roman tombs were discovered in 1829 and 1857 at the base of Monte Mauror.
64), whose town, temple and tombs have been found there.
The Royal Tombs of the earliest dynasties were placed about a mile back on the great desert plain.
After this the tombs increase in size and complexity.
The greatest of these tombs with its dependencies covered a space of over 3000 square yards.
The contents of the tombs have been nearly destroyed by successive plunderers; enough remained to show that rich jewellery was placed on the mummies, a profusion of vases of hard and valuable stones from the royal table service stood about the body, the store-rooms were filled with great jars of wine, perfumed ointment and other supplies, and tablets of ivory and of ebony were engraved with a record of the yearly annals of the reigns.
The sealings of the various officials, of which over 200 varieties have been found, give an insight into the public arrangements (Petrie, Royal Tombs, i.
The cemetery of private persons begins in the Ist dynasty with some pit tombs in the town.
It was extensive in the XIIth and XIIIth dynasties and contained many rich tombs.
In the XVIIIth-XXth dynasties a large number of fine tombs were made, and later ages continued to bury here till Roman times.
The interior contains the tombs of the emperor Otto the Great and his wife Edith, an English princess, and the fine monument of Archbishop Ernest (d.
Two beehive tombs, said to be Early Minoan, were found near Phaistos.
A temple built of sun-dried brick and timber has been found at Thebes underlying an archaic temple of Ismenian Apollo and standing on Mycenaean tombs (Keramopoullos, 1916), and a more extensive settlement was found at Thermon in Aetolia (Romaios, 1911-3).
The tombs, which are chambers cut in tiers in the hard clay of the hillside, were used with few exceptions for repeated burials, and the ejected offerings had been scattered down the slope.
Great quantities of jewellery were found in the tombs, the gold work said to resemble the Etruscan.
It contains several interesting ancient tombs, and at Nawab Hat, some 2 m.
The explanation of this would seem to lie in the fact that the relics are in most cases the paraphernalia of tombs, the funereal vessels and vases, and iron being considered an impure metal by the ancient Egyptians it was never used in their manufacture of these or for any religious purposes.
Care for the tombs of martyrs was sanctioned by immemorial custom of the Church; but, in this case also, a later age failed to preserve the primitive conception in its purity; and Augustine himself was obliged to defend the usage of the Church from the imputation that it implied a transference of heathen ceremonial to the sphere of Christianity (Contr.
True, the presbyter Caius (c. 200) who first mentions the situation of the apostolic tombs on the Vatican and the road to Ostia, and refers to the memorials there erected, has nothing to say of foreign Christians journeying to Rome in order to visit them.
And if the tombs of the popes were thus visited, so much more must this hold of the tombs of the apostles.
St Augustine observes that, though Africa was full of martyrs' tombs, no miracle had been wrought at them so far as his knowledge extended.
The place to be visited was not specified; but the pilgrim, who was bound by an open letter of his bishop to disclose himself as a pentitent, lay under the obligation, wherever he went, to repair to the churches and - more especially - the tombs of the saints, and there offer his prayers.
Outside the town are two tombs in the form of towers and the tomb of Cyrus himself, a stone house on a high substruction which rises in seven great steps, surrounded by a court with columns; at its side the remains of a guardhouse, in which the officiating Magians lived, are discernible.
" On the opposite hills a solitary spectator had watched the rise and the lull of the tempest, a fierce demoniac who dwelt among the tombs on the mountain-side.
Its church, of the 12th century, contains the tombs of the poet Holberg (d.
There are conflicting ideas of death and the dead, and among them the belief in the very human feelings and needs of the dead and in their influence for good or ev11.2 Moreover, the proximity of burial-place and sanctuary and the belief in the kindly care of the famous dead for their descendants reflect " primitive " and persisting ideas which find their Holy parallel in the holy tombs of religious or seckular p y g?
Thiersch, Painted Tombs in the Necropolis of Marissa (1905); G.
At this period wrought iron came into general use in the form of screens for chapels and tombs, and grills for windows.
Among the finest examples of this sort of work are the screens round the tombs of the Scala family at Verona, 1 35 0 - 1 375, - a sort of network of light cusped quatrefoils, each filled up with a small ladder (scala) in allusion to the name of the family.
From an early period bronze and latten (a variety of brass) were much used in England for the smaller objects both of ecclesiastical and domestic use, but except for tombs and lecterns were but little used on a large scale till the r6th century.
In most of the tombs is a chamber in which the mummy was placed, the Egyptian Christians at first continuing this method of preserving the bodies of their dead.
In several of the tombs and in the chapel of the cemetery is painted the Egyptian sign of life, which was confounded with the Christian cross.
Small grains of an unknown variety have been found in the ancient tombs of Peru, and Darwin found heads of maize embedded on the shore in Peru at 85 ft.
Around their tombs their descendants settle, and thus sacred villages, often of considerable size, spring up. Almost every village, too, has its saint or prophet, and disputes as to their relative sanctity and powers cause fierce feuds.
Foremost among its buildings must be mentioned its five chief churches, stately Gothic edifices in glazed brick, with lofty spires and replete with medieval works of art - pictures, stained glass and tombs.
The tiles, which are evidently of the same origin as those of Persia and Turkey, are chiefly to be found in the ruined mosques and tombs of the old Mussulman dynasties; but the industry still survives at the little towns of Saidpur and Bubri.
Near the end of the defile stands the most elaborate of the ruins, el-Hazne or " the Treasury of Pharaoh," not built but hewn out of the cliff; a little farther on, at the foot of the mountain called en-Nejr, comes the theatre, so placed as to bring the greatest number of tombs within view; and at the point where the valley opens out into the plain the site of the city is revealed with striking effect.
Almost enclosing it on three sides are rose-coloured mountain walls, divided into groups by deep fissures, and lined with rockcut tombs in the form of towers.
north of Petra, Shobak, the Mont-royal of the Crusaders.2 More satisfactory evidence of the date at which the earliest Nabataean settlement began is to be obtained from an examination of the tombs.
40, the fine tombs of the el-IHejr type may be dated, perhaps also the great High-place.
222-235), when the city was at the height of its splendour, the issue of coinage comes to an end, and there is no more building of sumptuous tombs, owing apparently to some sudden catastrophe, such as an invasion by the neo-Persian power under the Sassanid dynasty.
Sanctuary chambers may be seen at various points in the site of Petra, and many places of sacrifice open to the sky are met with among the tombs, marked by remains of altars.
All former descriptions are now superseded by the magnificent work of Brunnow and Domaszewski, Die Provincia Arabia (1904), who have minutely surveyed the whole site, classified the tombs, and compiled the accounts of earlier investigations; and by the independent researches of Dalman, Petra and seine Felsheiligtiimer (1908), and of Musil, Arabia Petraea (1907-1908).
in height; of St Michael, containing the tombs of the former princes of Luneburg, and of St Nicolas, with a huge nave and a lofty spire, are fine Gothic edifices of the 14th and 15th centuries.
The only building of much antiquarian interest, with the exception of the castles, is the parish church, which dates from the 15th century, and contains the tombs of several of the margraves.
from its mouth, Sicel tombs and Christian catacombs, and farther up the river a cave village of the early middle ages, have been explored (Notizie degli Scavi, 1902, 411, 631; Romische Quarlalschrift, 1902, 205).
It is only a short time since the local gaol in the city of New York, "the Tombs," a house of detention for prisoners awaiting trial, was described in an official report to the state legislature as "a disgraces.
In 1900 a group of tombs cut in the rock was examined; they are outside the farther mound and ditch, and belong, therefore, to the period after the second extension of the city.
Among the Nayars of Malabar, the family-serpent is capable of almost unlimited powers for good or evil; it is part of the household property, but does not seem to be connected with ancestral cults.'4 In Greece, however, " the dead man became a chthonic daemon, potent for good or evil; his natural symbol as such, often figured on tombs, was the snake."
s These heroes might become objects of cult and local divinities of healing; people would pass their tombs in awe, or resort thither for divination or for taking oaths."
The splendid tombs of the Frisian stadtholders buried here (Louis of Nassau, Anne of Orange, and others) were destroyed in the revolution 1795.
When the great Aryan immigration from Europe commenced is unknown, but it was dying out in the 11th and 10th centuries B.C. In Phrygia the Aryans founded a kingdom, of which traces remain in various rock tombs, forts and towns, and in legends preserved by the Greeks.
The Seljuk sultans were liberal patrons of art, literature and science, and the remains of their public buildings and tombs are amongst the most beautiful and most interesting in the country.
Another conception of them is that of singers of the lament for the dead, for which reason they are often used in the adornment of tombs, and represented beating their breasts and tearing their hair or playing the flute or lyre.
Here, too, remains of two bridges may be seen, and several rich tombs have been excavated.
in 1838, when the Roman tombs were examined.
In 1850 Spano excavated many Phoenician tombs; they are rectangular or square chambers cut in the rock, measuring from 6 to 9 ft.
In 1851 Lord Vernon opened fourteen tombs, and after that the whole countryside ransacked the necropolis, without any proper records or notes being taken, and with great damage to the objects found.
The latter occupies a prominence on the south side of the bay, is surrounded by massive fortifications, and retains in its ruins and numerous tombs many traces of its former greatness as a commercial port.
Not very much is as yet known of the city itself (though one public building of the 5th century B.C. was excavated in 1901, and a small sanctuary in 1902), attention having been chiefly devoted to the necropolis which lay below it; 1400 tombs had already been examined in 1908, though this number is conjectured to be only a sixteenth of the whole.
There are some tombs outside the town, some of which, ranging from the Villanova period (9th century B.C.) to the middle of the 3rd century B.C., were explored in 1908.
There are remains of houses, tombs, &c., of the Roman period, and fine specimens of Romanesque and Gothic architecture in the modern town.
Further, numerous pictorial representations of flax culture and preparation exist to the present day on the walls of tombs and in Egypt.
settlement sites at Leondkri Vouno and Kalopsida, and in tombs in more than thirty places, notably at Agia Paraskevi, Psemmatismeno, Alambra, Episkopi and Enkomi.
The magnificent tombs from Enkomi and Episkopi illustrate the wealth and advancement of Cyprus at this time.'
Iron, which occurs rarely, and almost exclusively for ornaments, in a few tombs at Enkomi, suddenly superseded bronze for tools and weapons, and its introduction was accompanied, as in the Aegean, by economic, and probably by political changes, which broke up the high civilization of the Mycenaean colonies, and reduced them to poverty, 1 Myres, Journ.
The official publication stands alone in referring these tombs to the Hellenic period (800-600 B.C.).
For the culture of the Roman period there is abundant evidence from Salamis and Paphos, and from tombs everywhere, for the glass vessels which almost wholly supersede pottery are much sought for their (quite accidental) iridescence; not much else is found that is either characteristic or noteworthy; and little attention has been paid to the sequence of style.
Christian tombs usually contain nothing of value.
Brit., 11 General Louis P. di Cesnola (q.v.), American consul, was already exploring ancient sites, and opening tombs, in all parts of the island, though his results were not published till 1877.12 But though his vast collection, now 1 Dio Cass.
In 1882 tombs were opened by G.
In 1883 the Cyprus Museum was founded by private enterprise, and on its behalf Max Ohnefalsch-Richter, who had already made trial diggings for Sir Charles Newton and the British Museum, excavated sanctuaries at Voni and Kythrea (Chytri), and opened tombs on some other sites.
Diimmler opened tombs at Dali, Alambra and elsewhere, and laid the foundations of knowledge of the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age; 17 and Richter, on behalf of officials and private individuals, excavated parts of Frangissa (Tamassus), Episkopi and Dali.18 In the same year, 1885, and in 1886, a syndicate opened many tombs at Poli-tis-Khrysochou (Marium, Arsinoe), and sold the contents by auction in Paris.
de Castillon de St Victor opened rich GraecoPhoenician tombs at Episkopi, the contents of which are in the Louvre.
Elsey Smith; 21 (2) in 1889-1890 more tombs were opened at Poli by Messrs J.
Cyprus: its Cities, Tombs and Temples (London, 1877).
Turner enabled the British Museum to open numerous tombs, by contract, of the Graeco-Phoenician age, in 1894, at PalaeoLemesso (Amathus); and of the Mycenaean age, in 1894-1895 at Episkopi, in 1895-1896 at Enkomi (near Salamis), and in 1897-1899 on small sites between Larnaca and Limasol.3 For ancient Oriental references to Cyprus see E.
Medieval tombs and their inscriptions are recorded and illustrated in T.
In the 4th century, however, Philippus of Theangela in south Caria describes Leleges still surviving as serfs of the true Carians, and Strabo, in the 1st century B.C., attributes to the Leleges a well-marked group of deserted forts, tombs and dwellings which ranged (and can still be traced) from the neighbourhood of Theangela and Halicarnassus as far north as Miletus, the southern limit of the "true Carians" of Pherecydes.
high, and a remarkable series of monumental tombs of the Lumley family, collected here from Durham cathedral and various ruined monasteries, and in some cases remade.
Just as the emperor is kami, and provincial officers of rank, so also mountains, rivers, the sea, thunder, winds, and even animals like the tiger, wolf or fox, are all kami.7 The spirits of the dead also become kami, of varying character and position; some reside in the temples built in their honour; some hover near their tombs; but they are constantly active, mingling in the vast multitude of agencies which makes every event in the universe, in the language of Motowori (1730-1801), the act of the Kami.
The elevations and platforms of the mountain are covered with elaborately sculptured shrines, temples and tombs.
P. Peters and Thiersch, Painted Tombs in the Necropolis of Marissa (1905), ch.
It has a cathedral of the same century, a triple Gothic edifice, restored in 1874 and containing the tombs of several grand masters of the Teutonic order; a (Gothic) town-hall (1880); a Roman Catholic basilica (1858); a non-commissioned officers' school; a monument of the war of 1870-71 (1897); an archaeological collection; and a seminary for female teachers.
- His chief general works on Egyptian subjects are, Ten Years' Diggings in Egypt (1893); History of Egypt (1894-1905); Egyptian Tales (1895); Religion and Conscience in Ancient Egypt (1898); Syria and Egypt (1898); Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty (1900); Royal Tombs of the Earliest Dynasties (1901); Hyksos and Israelite Cities (1906); Religion of Ancient Egypt (1906); Personal Religion in Egypt (1908).
Outside the city tombs have been discovered at various times.
A new church is anointed at its four corners, and also the altar round which it is built; similarly tombs, church gongs, and all other instruments and utensils dedicated to cultual uses.
Many priests are appointed guardians of shrines and tombs of members of the Prophets family (imains and imamzadeiis) and are responsible for the proper administration of the property and funds with which the establishments are endowed.
Before evacuating it, the Turks plundered the tombs of the kings, destroyed the old church and several other buildings, and burnt the archives.
Ancient tombs are found, which in 1882 yielded fine Greek vases to G.
From this date to the Reformation the monastery, one of the chief Benedictine abbeys in England, continued to flourish, the chief events in its history being connected with the maintenance of its claims to the possession of the bodies or tombs of King Arthur and St Dunstan.
It is surrounded by a rampart and moat, with five gates, and contains fine palaces, temples and tombs.
It has four churches, two Evangelical and two Roman Catholic. The Protestant abbey church, a fine Gothic edifice dating from the 14th century, contains the tombs of several of the counts palatine of the Rhine.
The pagan custom of burying lamps with the dead conveyed no such symbolical meaning as was implied in the late Christian custom of placing lights on and about the tombs of martyrs and saints.
If candles are lit before their tombs, are these the ensigns of idolatry ?
The burning of lights before the tombs P g g of martyrs led naturally to their being burned also before relics and lastly before images and pictures.