How to use Toluene in a sentence
Paraffins are found in all crude oils, and olefines in varying proportions in the majority, while acetylene has been found in Baku oil; members of the benzene group and its derivatives, notably benzene and toluene, occur in all petroleums. Naphthenes are the chief components of some oils, as already indicated, and occur in varying quantities in many others.
This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.
A similar contradiction apparently exists with regard to the specific volume, for while benzene has a specific volume correspinding to Claus' formula, toluene, or methylbenzene, rather points to Kekule's.
He began his experimental work in 1841 with investigations of oil of turpentine and tolu balsam, in the course of which he discovered toluene.
Three isomers exist, the orthoand para-compounds being the chief products of the direct nitration of toluene.Advertisement
It is excreted when many aromatic compounds, such as benzoic acid and toluene, are taken internally.
The toluene fraction requires a more thorough washing with sulphuric acid in order to eliminate the thiotolene, which is sulphonated much less readily than thiophene.
On passing the vapour through red-hot tubes it yields anthracene and toluene.
The pure substances are best obtained by fusion of the corresponding toluene sulphonic acids with potash.
An important oxidation synthesis of aromatic acids is from hydrocarbons with aliphatic side chains; thus toluene, or methylbenzene, yields benzoic acid, the xylenes, or dimethyl-benzene, yield methyl-benzoic acids and phthalic acids.Advertisement
It may be diluted with benzene or toluene.
It is made commercially by boiling benzotrichloride (obtained from toluene) with milk of lime, the calcium benzoate so obtained being then decomposed by hydrochloric acid 2C 6 H 5 CC1 3 +4Ca(OH) 2 = (C6H6000)2Ca-1-3CaC12+4H20.
On oxidation it gives triphenylcarbinol, (C 6 H 5) 3 C OH, and reduction with hydriodic acid and red phosphorus gives benzene and toluene.
Hofmann and Muspratt, and they adopted the name toluol (anglicized to toluene), which was proposed by Berzelius.
It may be obtained synthetically by Fittig and Tollens's method (above); by Friedel and Craft's process, devised in 1877, of acting with aluminium chloride on a mixture of benzene and methyl chloride; this reaction leads to the production of higher homologues which may, however, break down under the continued action of the aluminium chloride; or by heating the toluene carboxylic acids obtained by oxidizing the higher homologues of benzene.Advertisement
It may be synthesized from toluene; more interesting is its production when acetone dicarboxylic ester is condensed with the aid of sodium.
In general a qualitatively similar effect is expected for toluene, and other methyl substituted aromatics.
The Environment Agency issued two new reports covering volatile organic compounds and new Soil Guidance Values covering contamination from toluene and ethyl benzene.
A ring of chemotactic bacteria moves away from a central disk of agarose containing toluene.
The base contains butylated hydroxy toluene, (E321) an anti-oxidant.Advertisement
The cross sections for gamma-ray interaction correspond to a toluene based scintillator.
This will supply BASF 's 160,000 tons toluene diisocyanate plant at Geismar.
It's also one of three ingredients - the others are toluene and phthalates - that are recognized by California's Proposition 65 as "known to cause cancer or developmental toxicity."
Toluene also inhibits oxidation, which means that nail polish won't stick to the nails.
A couple of these ingredients, such as formaldehyde and toluene, are a cause of concern.Advertisement
For a nail polish to be considered natural, it should be free of formaldehyde, toluene, xylene and artificial colors.