He was on the side of toleration and protected the reformers.
Religious toleration was granted, but with the important exception that some harsh measures were enacted against Anglicans and Roman Catholics, to neither of whom was liberty of worship accorded.
Complete toleration in fact was only extended to Protestant nonconformists, who composed the Cromwellian established church, and who now meted out to their antagonists the same treatment which they themselves were later to receive under the Clarendon Code of Charles II.
In France, indeed, the Catholic pulpit now came to its perfection, stimulated, no doubt, by the toleration accorded to the Huguenots up to 1685 and by the patronage of Louis XIV.
The manner in which those who separated themselves from the church were to be dealt with, and the amount of toleration which should be accorded to meetings held in private houses for the purpose of religious edification.
The edict of Nantes recapitulated and codified the provisions of a series of earlier edicts of toleration, which had come with each truce during the previous generation.
The old religious exclusiveness had already been greatly lessened: the clergy were less powerful, heresy had thrived under repression, Anglican churchmen had come to the colony and were borne with perforce, devotion to trade and commerce had weakened theological tests in favour of ideals of mere good order and prosperity, and a spirit of toleration had grown.
In accordance with his former action on all questions of religious toleration he opposed the shameful Five Mile Act of 1665.
He had already begun his work of toleration, for he had recently produced a drama (Die Juden, 1749), the motive of which was to prove that a Jew can be possessed of nobility of character.
The Protector and the council together were given a life tenure of office, with a large army and a settled revenue sufficient for public needs in time of peace; while the clauses relating to religion "are remarkable as laying down for the first time with authority a principle of toleration," 2 though this toleration did not apply to Roman Catholics and Anglicans.
Cromwell's strong personal inclination towards toleration is clearly seen in his treatment of the Jews and Quakers.
Doctrines directly attacking Christianity Cromwell regarded, indeed, as outside toleration and to be punished by the civil power, but at the same time he mitigated the severity of the penalty ordained by the law.
In general the toleration enjoyed under Cromwell was probably far larger than at any period since religion became the contending ground of political parties, and certainly greater than under his immediate successors.
The last elector and archbishop, Clement Wenceslaus (1768-1802), granted toleration to the Protestants in 1782, established his residence at Coblenz in 1786, and fled from the French in 1794.
He saw Jews, Saracens, heretics and apostates roaming through Spain unmolested; and in this lax toleration of religious differences he thought he saw the main obstacle to the political union of the Spains, which was the necessity of the hour.
Carlisle, 1819, where Mr Justice Best remarks, "In the age of toleration, when that statute passed, neither churchmen nor sectarians wished to protect in their infidelity those who disbelieved the Holy Scriptures").
The reformation as such had no favourable influence on Jewish fortunes in Christian Europe, though the championship of the cause of toleration by Reuchlin had considerable value.
The " toleration-tax " was abolished in 1846.
In 1646 appeared his famous plea for toleration, eeoXoyia 'EKXEKTLKii, A Discourse of the Liberty of Prophesying.
He would submit all minor questions to the reason of the individual member, but he set certain limits to toleration, excluding "whatsoever is against the foundation of faith, or contrary to good life and the laws of obedience, or destructive to human society, and the public and just interests of bodies politic."
The toleration edicts of Galerius and of Constantine and Licinius were published during his pontificate, which was also marked by the holding of the Lateran synod in Rome (313) at which Caecilianus, bishop of Carthage, was acquitted of the charges brought against him and Donatus condemned.
The spirit of Nathan der Weise may not have been exactly the spirit engendered by the Crusades; and yet it is not without reason that Lessing stages the fable which teaches toleration in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem.
Education, trade, religious toleration, the emancipation of the agricultural population from feudal burdens - all had her approval up to a certain point.
The history of Quakerism in England may be divided into three periods: - (1) from the first preaching of George Fox in 1647 to the Toleration Act 1689; (2) from 1689 to the evangelical movement in 18 35; (3) from 1835 to the present time.
During the whole time between their rise and the passing of the Toleration Act 1689, the Quakers were the object of almost continuous persecution which they endured with extraordinary constancy and patience; they insisted on the duty of meeting openly in time of persecution, declining to hold secret assemblies for worship as other Nonconformists were doing.
It is coming to be recognized that the growth of religious toleration owed much to the early Quakers who, with the exception of a few Baptists at the first, stood almost alone among Dissenters in holding their public meetings openly and regularly.
The Toleration Act was not the only law of William and Mary which benefited Quakers.
Voltaire (Dictionnaire Philosoplzique, " Quaker," " Toleration ") described the body, which attracted his curiosity, his sympathy and his sneers, with all his brilliance.
But he had little success, and soon concluded a treaty by which both empires promised toleration to the worshippers of the two rival religions, Christianity and Zoroastrianism.
Church and state are completely separated, toleration being guaranteed for the profession and practice of all religious beliefs, and the government may not subsidize any religion.
(399-420); that along with Isaac, patriarch of Seleucia (390-410), he obtained from the Persian monarch a concordat which secured a period of religious toleration; and that he arranged for and presided at the Council of Seleucia in 410, which adopted the full Nicene creed and organized the hierarchy of the Persian Church.
But in general political morality he was not below his age, and in his advocacy of toleration decidedly above it.
Coornhert could not plead for the toleration of heretics without assailing the dominant Calvinism, and so he opposed a conditional to its unconditional predestination.
Drawn between various influences, that of Marguerite d'Angouleme, the du Bellays, and the duchesse d'Etampes, who was in favour of the Reformation or at least of toleration, and the contrary influence of the uncompromising Catholics, Duprat, and then Montmorency and de Tournon, he gave pledges successively to both parties.
He was a zealous advocate of the doctrine of passive obedience, and strongly opposed the Toleration Act, declaiming in unmeasured terms against the various Nonconformist sects.
Michel de l'HOpital, the chancellor, who opened the assembly, was an advocate of toleration; he deprecated the abusive use of the terms " Lutherans," " Papists " and " Huguenots," and advocated deferring all action until a council should have been called.
The noblesse were divided on the matter of toleration, but the cahiers (lists of grievances and suggestions for reform) submitted by the Third Estate demanded, besides regular meetings of the estates every five years, complete toleration and a reform of the Church.
Real toleration in public opinion grew slowly through the 18th century, removing the religious tests of voters; and a constitutional amendment in 1821 explicitly forbade such tests in the case of office-holders.
Also it is to be said that with the single exception of religious toleration the record of the state in devotion to human rights has been from the first a splendid one, whether in human principles of criminal law, or in the defence of the civil rights commonly declared in American constitutions.
The peace of Utrecht saw the greater part of the French territory occupied by the Vaudois annexed to Savoy, and., though there were frequent threatenings of persecution, the idea of toleration slowly prevailed in the policy of the house of Savoy.
It was founded under the tolerant Archbishop George Abbot (1562-1633), and would have been content with toleration such as the French and Dutch churches in England enjoyed.
The new administration was headed by Buckingham, in whose toleration and comprehension principles Ashley shared to the full.
It was stipulated that there was to be toleration for both Catholics and Protestants; that the Spanish king should be recognized as de jure sovereign, and the prince of Orange as governor with full powers in Holland and Zeeland.
At the decisive battle of Naseby (the 14th of June 1645) he commanded the parliamentary right wing and routed the cavalry of Sir Marmaduke Lang exclusion from pardon of all the king's leading adherents, besides the indefinite establishment of Presbyterianism and the refusal of toleration to the Roman Catholics and members of the Church of England.
In accordance with the consistent policy of inclusion and toleration by which the whole of his official life was characterized, he induced the council to call the assembly of notables, which met at Fontainebleau in August 1560 and agreed that the States General should be summoned, all proceedings against heretics being meanwhile suppressed, pending the reformation of the church by a general or national council.
Persons denying the Trinity were deprived of the benefit of the Act of Toleration by an act of 1688.
This toleration of religious orders, though it did not prevent occasional outrages, remained to the last characteristic of Turkish policy in Bosnia; and even in 1868 a colony of Trappist monks was permitted to settle in Banjaluka.
In the years succeeding the Toleration Act at least twelve of their number were prosecuted (often more than once in the spiritual and other courts) for keeping school without a bishop's licence.
"Toleration," she said once, when she was visiting her friend Mrs. Laurence Hutton, "is the greatest gift of the mind; it requires the same effort of the brain that it takes to balance oneself on a bicycle."
But the religious toleration of the edict of Nantes was reaffirmed while its political privilegeswere destroyed, and Huguenot officers fought loyally in the foreign enterprises of the cardinal.
The conclusion to which they are represented as coming is that they will live together in charity and toleration, and cease from further disputation as to religion.
In 1687 James made a bid for the support of the Dissenters by advocating a system of joint toleration for Catholics and Dissenters.
Only the persecuted themselves insisted on toleration as a Christian duty.
His own initiative is more clearly traceable in the Toleration Act, extending liberty of private worship to Dissenters.
His great plea for toleration is based on the impossibility of erecting theology into a demonstrable science.