He was on the side of toleration and protected the reformers.
Religious toleration was granted, but with the important exception that some harsh measures were enacted against Anglicans and Roman Catholics, to neither of whom was liberty of worship accorded.
Complete toleration in fact was only extended to Protestant nonconformists, who composed the Cromwellian established church, and who now meted out to their antagonists the same treatment which they themselves were later to receive under the Clarendon Code of Charles II.
The reformation as such had no favourable influence on Jewish fortunes in Christian Europe, though the championship of the cause of toleration by Reuchlin had considerable value.
Only the persecuted themselves insisted on toleration as a Christian duty.
The Protector and the council together were given a life tenure of office, with a large army and a settled revenue sufficient for public needs in time of peace; while the clauses relating to religion "are remarkable as laying down for the first time with authority a principle of toleration," 2 though this toleration did not apply to Roman Catholics and Anglicans.
In 1646 appeared his famous plea for toleration, eeoXoyia 'EKXEKTLKii, A Discourse of the Liberty of Prophesying.
In accordance with his former action on all questions of religious toleration he opposed the shameful Five Mile Act of 1665.
In general the toleration enjoyed under Cromwell was probably far larger than at any period since religion became the contending ground of political parties, and certainly greater than under his immediate successors.
In the years succeeding the Toleration Act at least twelve of their number were prosecuted (often more than once in the spiritual and other courts) for keeping school without a bishop's licence.
He would submit all minor questions to the reason of the individual member, but he set certain limits to toleration, excluding "whatsoever is against the foundation of faith, or contrary to good life and the laws of obedience, or destructive to human society, and the public and just interests of bodies politic."
the manner in which those who separated themselves from the church were to be dealt with, and the amount of toleration which should be accorded to meetings held in private houses for the purpose of religious edification.
In France, indeed, the Catholic pulpit now came to its perfection, stimulated, no doubt, by the toleration accorded to the Huguenots up to 1685 and by the patronage of Louis XIV.
"Toleration," she said once, when she was visiting her friend Mrs. Laurence Hutton, "is the greatest gift of the mind; it requires the same effort of the brain that it takes to balance oneself on a bicycle."
The edict of Nantes recapitulated and codified the provisions of a series of earlier edicts of toleration, which had come with each truce during the previous generation.
The toleration edicts of Galerius and of Constantine and Licinius were published during his pontificate, which was also marked by the holding of the Lateran synod in Rome (313) at which Caecilianus, bishop of Carthage, was acquitted of the charges brought against him and Donatus condemned.
During the whole time between their rise and the passing of the Toleration Act 1689, the Quakers were the object of almost continuous persecution which they endured with extraordinary constancy and patience; they insisted on the duty of meeting openly in time of persecution, declining to hold secret assemblies for worship as other Nonconformists were doing.
His own initiative is more clearly traceable in the Toleration Act, extending liberty of private worship to Dissenters.
He was a zealous advocate of the doctrine of passive obedience, and strongly opposed the Toleration Act, declaiming in unmeasured terms against the various Nonconformist sects.
The peace of Utrecht saw the greater part of the French territory occupied by the Vaudois annexed to Savoy, and., though there were frequent threatenings of persecution, the idea of toleration slowly prevailed in the policy of the house of Savoy.
This toleration of religious orders, though it did not prevent occasional outrages, remained to the last characteristic of Turkish policy in Bosnia; and even in 1868 a colony of Trappist monks was permitted to settle in Banjaluka.
The Toleration Act was not the only law of William and Mary which benefited Quakers.
The old religious exclusiveness had already been greatly lessened: the clergy were less powerful, heresy had thrived under repression, Anglican churchmen had come to the colony and were borne with perforce, devotion to trade and commerce had weakened theological tests in favour of ideals of mere good order and prosperity, and a spirit of toleration had grown.
Education, trade, religious toleration, the emancipation of the agricultural population from feudal burdens - all had her approval up to a certain point.
Real toleration in public opinion grew slowly through the 18th century, removing the religious tests of voters; and a constitutional amendment in 1821 explicitly forbade such tests in the case of office-holders.
But the religious toleration of the edict of Nantes was reaffirmed while its political privilegeswere destroyed, and Huguenot officers fought loyally in the foreign enterprises of the cardinal.
Carlisle, 1819, where Mr Justice Best remarks, "In the age of toleration, when that statute passed, neither churchmen nor sectarians wished to protect in their infidelity those who disbelieved the Holy Scriptures").
The spirit of Nathan der Weise may not have been exactly the spirit engendered by the Crusades; and yet it is not without reason that Lessing stages the fable which teaches toleration in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem.
Michel de l'HOpital, the chancellor, who opened the assembly, was an advocate of toleration; he deprecated the abusive use of the terms " Lutherans," " Papists " and " Huguenots," and advocated deferring all action until a council should have been called.
He saw Jews, Saracens, heretics and apostates roaming through Spain unmolested; and in this lax toleration of religious differences he thought he saw the main obstacle to the political union of the Spains, which was the necessity of the hour.
In accordance with the consistent policy of inclusion and toleration by which the whole of his official life was characterized, he induced the council to call the assembly of notables, which met at Fontainebleau in August 1560 and agreed that the States General should be summoned, all proceedings against heretics being meanwhile suppressed, pending the reformation of the church by a general or national council.
Persons denying the Trinity were deprived of the benefit of the Act of Toleration by an act of 1688.
Doctrines directly attacking Christianity Cromwell regarded, indeed, as outside toleration and to be punished by the civil power, but at the same time he mitigated the severity of the penalty ordained by the law.
The history of Quakerism in England may be divided into three periods: - (1) from the first preaching of George Fox in 1647 to the Toleration Act 1689; (2) from 1689 to the evangelical movement in 18 35; (3) from 1835 to the present time.
Coornhert could not plead for the toleration of heretics without assailing the dominant Calvinism, and so he opposed a conditional to its unconditional predestination.
At the decisive battle of Naseby (the 14th of June 1645) he commanded the parliamentary right wing and routed the cavalry of Sir Marmaduke Lang exclusion from pardon of all the king's leading adherents, besides the indefinite establishment of Presbyterianism and the refusal of toleration to the Roman Catholics and members of the Church of England.
The new administration was headed by Buckingham, in whose toleration and comprehension principles Ashley shared to the full.
It was stipulated that there was to be toleration for both Catholics and Protestants; that the Spanish king should be recognized as de jure sovereign, and the prince of Orange as governor with full powers in Holland and Zeeland.
The conclusion to which they are represented as coming is that they will live together in charity and toleration, and cease from further disputation as to religion.
Cromwell's strong personal inclination towards toleration is clearly seen in his treatment of the Jews and Quakers.
He had already begun his work of toleration, for he had recently produced a drama (Die Juden, 1749), the motive of which was to prove that a Jew can be possessed of nobility of character.
The last elector and archbishop, Clement Wenceslaus (1768-1802), granted toleration to the Protestants in 1782, established his residence at Coblenz in 1786, and fled from the French in 1794.
It is coming to be recognized that the growth of religious toleration owed much to the early Quakers who, with the exception of a few Baptists at the first, stood almost alone among Dissenters in holding their public meetings openly and regularly.
But in general political morality he was not below his age, and in his advocacy of toleration decidedly above it.
The noblesse were divided on the matter of toleration, but the cahiers (lists of grievances and suggestions for reform) submitted by the Third Estate demanded, besides regular meetings of the estates every five years, complete toleration and a reform of the Church.
Also it is to be said that with the single exception of religious toleration the record of the state in devotion to human rights has been from the first a splendid one, whether in human principles of criminal law, or in the defence of the civil rights commonly declared in American constitutions.
It was founded under the tolerant Archbishop George Abbot (1562-1633), and would have been content with toleration such as the French and Dutch churches in England enjoyed.
In 1687 James made a bid for the support of the Dissenters by advocating a system of joint toleration for Catholics and Dissenters.
Voltaire (Dictionnaire Philosoplzique, " Quaker," " Toleration ") described the body, which attracted his curiosity, his sympathy and his sneers, with all his brilliance.
But he had little success, and soon concluded a treaty by which both empires promised toleration to the worshippers of the two rival religions, Christianity and Zoroastrianism.
Church and state are completely separated, toleration being guaranteed for the profession and practice of all religious beliefs, and the government may not subsidize any religion.
(399-420); that along with Isaac, patriarch of Seleucia (390-410), he obtained from the Persian monarch a concordat which secured a period of religious toleration; and that he arranged for and presided at the Council of Seleucia in 410, which adopted the full Nicene creed and organized the hierarchy of the Persian Church.
Drawn between various influences, that of Marguerite d'Angouleme, the du Bellays, and the duchesse d'Etampes, who was in favour of the Reformation or at least of toleration, and the contrary influence of the uncompromising Catholics, Duprat, and then Montmorency and de Tournon, he gave pledges successively to both parties.
His great plea for toleration is based on the impossibility of erecting theology into a demonstrable science.
In a letter to the city, possibly written by Cromwell himself, the officers repudiated any wish to alter the civil government or upset the establishment of Presbyterianism, but demanded religious toleration.
Cromwell himself, however, remained throughout a staunch and constant upholder of religious toleration.
In the bitter religious controversies of the time Anglesey showed great moderation and toleration.
William of Orange, who had passed through several phases of religious conviction, stood first and foremost for toleration.
On the restoration of the house of Savoy in 1816 English influence was used on behalf of the Vaudois, who received a limited toleration.
In virtue of this distinction which implied that the nation was not actually in covenant with God, he taught a relative toleration.
Hence their doctrine was not really one of freedom of conscience or toleration.
Nicolls resigned the governorship in 1668, but his successor, Francis Lovelace, continued his policy - autocratic government, arbitrary in form but mild in practice, and progressive in the matter of religious toleration.
The toleration the followers of Macedonius had long enjoyed was also rudely broken, the recently settled Pelagians alone finding any respite.
While he gave full toleration to the Greek Churches, he created new Latin bishoprics at Syracuse and Girgenti and elsewhere, nominating the bishops personally, while he turned the archbishopric of Palermo into a Catholic see.
Roger practised general toleration to Arabs and Greeks, allowing to each race the expansion of its own civilization.
p. 136, 15) points out with great truth how, from this point of view, the name "Protestantism" has survived as embodying for many the conception of liberty, of the right of private judgment, of toleration for every progressive idea in religion, as opposed to the Roman Catholic principles of authority and tradition; so that many even of those who do not "profess and call themselves Christians" yet glory in the name of "Protestant."
In spite of all opposition the Church steadily grew, until in 3" the emperor Galerius upon his death-bed granted toleration (see Eusebius, H.E.
These seceders were at first treated with great harshness, but have won their way to toleration, and form the Lutheran Free churches of Germany.
At the diet of 1555 they boldly demanded a national synod, absolute toleration, and the equalization of all the sects except the Antitrinitarians.
Serfdom was mitigated, preparatorily to its entire abolition; absolute religious toleration was established, and every citizen declared equal before the law.
Equality before the law, absolute religious toleration and local autonomy, were its salient features.
Poland was the great land of eastern Europe, and owing to the universal toleration encouraged by the government, Protestantism was widely spread.
The mild rule of Ferdinand, his solicitude for the welfare of his subjects, his enlightened patronage of art and science, his encouragement of commerce, and his toleration render him an honourable exception to the generality of Italian princes.
They did not accept the discipline of the Church of England, so the plea of conformity was a feeble defence; nor had they taken out licenses, so as to claim the protection of the Toleration Act.
Heavy fines made it impossible for preachers in poor circumstances to continue without claiming the protection of the Toleration Act, and the meeting-houses had to be registered as dissenting chapels.
To this end he promised religious toleration from the beginning and directed his officers accordingly; this led to the famous toleration act passed by the assembly in 1649, which, however, extended its protection only to sects of Trinitarian Christianity.
He frankly disbelieved in toleration; "that state," he said, "could never be in safety where there was a toleration of two religions.
In this he not only endeavoured to obviate some objections which were taken to the former part, but continued his inquiries into the doctrines of the Christian religion, religious toleration and the proper rules for interpreting the Scriptures.
So we may say that an average variation of 1/400 by toleration, extending to double that by change of place and time, is usual in ancient measures.
The constitution of 1857 grants toleration to all religions, and since 1868 several Protestant denominations have established missions in the towns, but their numbers are still comparatively small.
It was promulgated in Mexico, and the ecclesiastics and Spaniards, fearing that a Liberal Spanish government would force on them disendowment, toleration and other changes, induced Augustin de Iturbide, who had already been conspicuous in suppressing the risings, to take the field in order to effect what may be called a reactionary revolution.
Maximilian carried the elaborate etiquette of the court of Vienna to Mexico, but favouring toleration of Protestantism, and the supremacy of the Crown over the Church, he was too liberal for the clericals who had set him up. As a foreigner he was unpopular, and the regiments of Austrians and Belgians which were to serve as the nucleus of his own army were more so.
Heretofore the Federalist regime had taxed the people to support the Congregational Church, but now the Baptists, Methodists and Universalists joined the Democrats, and in 1819 this state support was abolished by the " Toleration Act."
Barstow, The History of New Hampshire from its discovery, in 1614, to the passage of the toleration act, in 1819 (New York, 1853); E.
By the Toleration Act, I Will.
His great literary power, his reputation for benevolence, and his known toleration and dislike of doctrinal disputes caused him to be much more favourably regarded than most churchmen by the philosophes of the 18th century.
It was, however, only with reluctance that Maria Theresa agreed to carry out the papal bull suppressing the Society of Jesus; and, while declaring herself against persecution, she could never be persuaded to accept the views of Kaunitz and Joseph in favour of toleration.
It would appear, however, that a large amount of toleration was conceded by the first two Egyptian.
There is complete religious toleration, but though most of the important Christian communities are represented their numbers are very small.
The excellent toleration of atropine displayed by children must be remembered, and if its use is "pushed" a cure may almost always be expected.
Neuwied was founded by Count Frederick of Wied in 1662, on the site of the village of Langendorf, which was destroyed during the Thirty Years' War, and it rapidly increased owing to the toleration accorded to all religious sects.
This state of affairs appears to have continued until the accession of James I., and in 1595 the bailiff and constables of Hexham were removed as being "infected with combination and toleration of thieves."
The king's active and curious mind welcomed the learned; he maintained a complete toleration for the several creeds, races and languages of his realm; he was served by men of nationality so dissimilar as the Englishman Thomas Brun, a kaid of the Curia, and, in the fleet, by the renegade Moslem Christodoulos, and the Antiochene George, whom he made in 1132 "amiratus amiratorum," in effect prime vizier.
The Remonstrants, that is, the clerical fanatics to whom toleration was more especially abominable, are reckoned (Hume Brown) as the majority of the preachers, but exact statistics cannot be obtained.
To quote Dr Hume Brown again, " When the absolutism of the Stuarts was succeeded by a more rational government (1689), the example of the Indulged ministers, who composed the great mass of the Presbyterian clergy, was of the most potent effect in substituting the idea of toleration for that of the religious absolutism of Knox and Melville."
In the English parliament the Jacobites managed to secure a measure of toleration for the Episcopal clergy, after one of them, Mr Greenshields, had long lain in prison for his use of the liturgy (1711).
In university politics, which at that time wore mainly the form of theological controversy, he was a strong advocate of comprehension and toleration.
With such views it was not to be wondered at that, from first to last, as has already been indicated, he never lost an opportunity of supporting a policy of width, toleration and comprehension in the Church of England.
In 1723 he was presented to the rectory of Chelmondiston in Suffolk; but residence being insisted on, he resigned both his appointments, and on the 3rd of July 1726 opened what he called an "oratory" in Newport Market, which he licensed under the Toleration Act.
He spoke his views frankly, but he disliked polemic; he found also more toleration than might have been expected, even after he became active in circulating Luther's books.
Wiseman displayed calmness and courage, and immediately penned an admirable Appeal to the English People (a pamphlet of over 30 pages), in which he explained the nature of the pope's action, and argued that the admitted principle of toleration included leave to establish a diocesan hierarchy; and in his concluding paragraphs he effectively contrasted that dominion over Westminster, which he was taunted with claiming, with his duties towards the poor Catholics resident there, with which alone he was really concerned.
"In 165 B.C. they attained their end, the regent of Syria conceded the measure of toleration they required with the approval of Rome; and in 164 B.C. the temple was purged of its desecration.
He was a vigorous Protestant, though willing to grant Roman Catholics "every degree of toleration short of political power and establishment."
Maximinus has a bad name in Christian annals, as having renewed persecution after the publication of the toleration edict of Galerius, but it is probable that he has been judged too harshly.
It was in these circumstances that he returned to Rome; but most of the clergy, suspecting his orthodoxy, and believing him to have had some share in the removal of his predecessor, shunned his fellowship. He enjoyed, however, the support of Narses, and, after he had publicly purged himself of complicity in Vigilius's death in the church of St Peter, he met with toleration in his own immediate diocese.
The necessity of conciliating the proud warriors of Rajputana had taught him toleration from his earliest days.
Starting from the broad ground of general toleration, Akbar was gradually led on by the stimulus of cosmopolitan discussion to question the truth of his inherited faith.
This document, which has been called the Magna Charta of the Indian people, went on to explain the policy of political justice and religious toleration which it was her royal pleasure to pursue, and granted an amnesty to all except those who had directly taken part in the murder of British subjects.
Their religious sympathy with the West was seriously impaired by dogmatic controversies; from Islam they might at any rate hope for toleration, even though their views were not in accordance with the theology of the emperor of the day.
In 1884 and 1885, toleration being established, Protestant missionaries of the American Presbyterian and Methodist Episcopal Churches entered Korea, and were followed by a large number of agents of other denominations.
The first few days of his reign - when he paid his uncle's debts, administered justice in person, and proclaimed universal religious toleration - gave bright promise, but in the face of the lawless aristocracy and defiant governors of provinces he effected few subsequent reforms. The most important event of his reign was the invasion of Italy by the Lombards, who, entering in 568, under Alboin, in a few years made themselves masters of nearly the entire country.
But, though in 1680 he published his Unreasonableness of Separation, his willingness to serve on the ecclesiastical commission of 1689, and the interpretation he then proposed of the damnatory clauses of the Athanasian creed, are proof that to the end he leaned towards toleration.
In the meantime the Presbyterians, who had been officially recognized in Virginia under the Toleration Act in 1699, and had been guaranteed religious autonomy in the Valley by Governor Gooch in 1738, had sent missionaries into the border counties of eastern Virginia.
But despite the artificial character of the Trimurti, it has retained to this day at least its theoretical validity in orthodox Hinduism, whilst it has also undoubtedly exercised considerable influence in shaping sectarian belief, in promoting feelings of toleration towards the claims of rival deities; and in a tendency towards identifying divine figures newly sprung into popular favour with one or other of the principal deities, and thus helping to bring into vogue that notion of avatars, or periodical descents or incarnations of the deity, which has become so prominent a feature of the later sectarian belief.
The same spirit of toleration shows itself in the celebration of the numerous religious festivals.
Measures like these gained for him during his lifetime the title of "Guardian of Mankind," and caused him to be held up as a model to Indian princes of later times, who in the matter of religious toleration have only too seldom followed his example.
In other words, Pius utterly rejected the whole principle of toleration, and declared that the Church would still impose itself by force, whenever it got the chance to do so.
The Toleration Act act of parliament bearing the same titles, so that there are now often two bishops bearing the same style.
Declining to be classed either as Christians or Jews, they were excluded from the edict of toleration promulgated by the emperor Joseph II.
The older Mahommedan theologians were agreed that they possessed a written revelation and were entitled accordingly to enjoy a toleration not granted to mere heathen.
They produced a brilliant succession of eminent scholars and scientists who transmitted to the Moslems the results of Babylonian civilization and Greek learning, and their influence at the court of Baghdad secured more or less toleration for Sabianism, although in the reign of Harlan al-Rashid the Harranians had already found it necessary to establish a fund by means of which the conscientious scruples of Moslem officials might be overcome.
of the Toleration Act of 1688.
The proclamation of toleration in 1685 was intended mainly for Roman Catholics and excluded field preachers.
The Act of Toleration of 1712 allowed Episcopalian dissenters to use the English liturgy.
His sermons, such as that preached before the House of Commons, on the 31st of March 1647, advocate principles of religious toleration and charity.
With the Revolution of 1688, and the passing of the Act of Toleration in 1689, the history of the persecution of Baptists, as well as of other Protestant dissenters, ends.
In many cases a division of sentiment came to prevail on the matter of infant-baptism, and for a while mutual toleration prevailed; but mixed churches had their manifest disadvantages and separation ultimately ensued.
The Virginia colonial government, in earlier days cruelly intolerant, gave a limited toleration to Baptists of this type; but the "Separate" Baptists were too enthusiastic and too much alive to the evils of state control in religious matters to be willing to take out licences for their meetings, and soon came into sharp conflict with the authorities.
About this time, indeed, there was in Scotland a remarkable approximation to that solution of the toleration difficulty which later ages have approved; for the regent was understood to favour the demand of the "congregation" that at least the penal statutes against heretics "be suspended and abrogated," and "that it be lawful to us to use ourselves in matters of religion and conscience as we must answer to God."
Charles was in favour of religious toleration, and a declaration issued by him in October 1660 aroused great hopes; but he made little effort to conciliate the Presbyterians or to effect a settlement through the Savoy conference, and his real object was to gain power over all the factions and to free his co-religionists, the Roman Catholics, in favour of whom he issued his first declaration of indulgence (26th of December 1662), the bill to give effect to it being opposed by Clarendon and defeated in the Lords, and being replied to by the passing of further acts against religious liberty.
Himself the soul of honour and truthfulness, he had no toleration for the disingenuous arguments and the mis-statements of facts of those who wrote to support a theory or to defend an unsound cause.
Tender-hearted he might be in practice; but toleration he declares synonymous with "cowardly indulgence and false compasssion."
Between these two sections the broad old Roman toleration reigns.
The toleration and the free press of England gave it scope.
He had argued that all those who professed doctrines differing from the Church of Rome more widely than did the retrograde Utraquists, were outside the pale of religious toleration.
The attempts of the Swedish envoys to obtain a certain amount of toleration for the Bohemian Protestants proved fruitless, as the imperial representatives were inflexible on this point.
The time, therefore, as far as the Roman Catholics themselves were concerned, was not a propitious one for introducing the moderate concessions which alone James had promised: James, too, on his side, found that religious toleration, though clearly sound in principle, was difficult in practice.
Religious toleration was assured.
supplicatio (1557), a plea for toleration addressed to the English nobility.
It should, however, be remembered in his honour that his advocacy of religious toleration was far in advance of his day.
Throughout his work he gives a prominent place to everything which illustrates human progress in moral and religious, as well as political conceptions, and specially to the rise and development of the idea of religious toleration, finding his authorities not only in the words and actions of men of mark, but in the writings of more or less obscure pamphleteers, whose essays indicate currents in the tide of public opinion.
The Americans were hospitably received; the immigrants, even Protestant clergymen, enjoyed by official goodwill complete religious toleration; and after about 1796 lavish land grants to Americans were made by the authorities, who wished to strengthen the colony against anticipated attacks by the British, from Canada.
Even this was not wholly satisfactory to Sarpi, who longed for the toleration of Protestant worship in Venice, and had hoped for a separation from Rome and the establishment of a Venetian free church by which the decrees of the council of Trent would have been rejected, and in which the Bible would have been an open book.
Under them the Konkan and the coast farther south were governed by chiefs of the Silahara family, whose rule is mainly notable for the revival of trade with the Persian Gulf and, doubtless as a result of this, the arrival in 775 on the west coast of a number of Parsee refugees, who found, in a country where three religions were already equally honoured, the toleration denied to them in Mussulman Persia.
It was eminently a doctrine of comprehension and of toleration.
Charles had promised that, if he married a Roman Catholic, he would grant no toleration to the English Catholics in consideration of the marriage.
Both these movements conduced to the ultimate establishment of toleration, but for the present the Independents were to have their way.
He tried in vain to establish constitutional government and religious toleration (see CROMWELL, OLIVER).
Religious hatred had less part in the action of the ruling party, and even from its worst actions a wise man might have predicted that the day of toleration was not so fr~r off as it seemed.
Hence the Toleration Act, which guaranteed the right of separate ~~i7
However wide the limits of toleration be drawn, there will always be those who will be left outside.
From the moment of the passing of the Toleration Act, no Protestant in England performed any act of worship except by his own free and deliberate choice.
His Letters concerning Toleration laid down the principle which had been maintained by Cromwell, with a wider application than was possible in days when the state was in the hands of a mere minority only able to maintain itself in power by constant and suspicious vigilance.
What was of greater consequence was, t~hat it was known that they were the friends of the dissenters, and that their leaders, if they could have had their way, would not only have maintained the Toleration Act, but weuld also have repealed the Test Act.
In 1709 a sermon preached by Dr Sacheverell (q.v.) denounced toleration and the right of resistance in tones worthy of the first days of the Restoration.
Otherwise no rank, no toleration even, for me."
The theory was of importance because, by distinguishing church from state while preserving the essential supremacy of the latter, it prepared the way for the principle of toleration.
Along with the fundamental doctrine, certain characteristics have always marked its professors; namely, a large degree of toleration, a minimizing of essentials, a repugnance to formulated creed, an historical study of Scripture.
On the other hand, in 1621 a new sect arose, the Sabbatarii, with strong Judaic tendencies; though excluded from toleration they maintained an existence till 5848.
This was contrary to the Toleration Act of 1689, which excluded all who should preach or write against the Trinity.
The Toleration Act was amended (1779) by substituting belief in Scripture for belief in the Anglican (doctrinal) articles; in 1813 the penal acts against deniers of the Trinity were repealed.
Toleration of dissent, withheld in Ireland till 1719, was then granted without the requirement of any doctrinal subscription.
Women again acquired greater independence, and the religious toleration then established permitted Christianity and Buddhism to spread freely.
For some years after he entered, Oxford was ruled by the Independents, who, largely through Owen, unlike the Presbyterians, were among the first in England to advocate genuine religious toleration.
The letters allude to toleration in the state and comprehension in the church, while they show an indifference to theological dogma hardly consistent with an exclusive connexion with any sect.
The Letter on Toleration involved him in controversy.
A rejoinder in 1691 was followed by Locke's elaborate Third Letter on Toleration in the summer of the following year.
Locke in consequence began a Fourth Letter on Toleration.
Locke is apt to be forgotten now, because in his own generation he so well discharged the intellectual mission of initiating criticism of human knowledge, and of diffusing the spirit of free inquiry and universal toleration which has since profoundly affected the civilized world.
(3) A Second Letter concerning Toleration (1690).
(5) A Third Letter for Toleration (1692).
(8) A Fourth Letter for Toleration (1706, posthumous).
(2) The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina (prepared in 1673 when Locke was Lord Shaftesbury's secretary at Exeter House, remarkable for recognition of the principle of toleration, published in 1706, in the posthumous collection).
This appears in his works on social polity, written at a time when the principles of democracy and toleration were struggling with divine right of kings, and when " the popular assertors of public liberty were the greatest engrossers of it too."
Locke's philosophical defence of religious liberty in the four Letters of Toleration is the most far-reaching of his contributions to social polity.
The toleration which he spent his life in arguing for involved a change from the authoritative and absolute to the relative point of view, as regards man's means of knowledge and belief.
Once a paradox it is now commonplace, and the superabundant argument in the Letters on Toleration fatigues the modern reader.
Chillingworth, Jeremy Taylor, Glanvill and other philosophical thinkers in the Church of England urged toleration in the state, in conjunction with wide comprehension in the church, on the ground of our necessary intellectual limitation and inability to reach demonstration in theological debates.
The recall of the national religion to the simplicity of the gospels would, he hoped, make toleration of nonconformists unnecessary, as few would then remain.
To the atheist alone Locke refuses full toleration, on the ground that social obligation can have no hold over him, for " the taking away of God dissolves all."
He argued, too, against full toleration of the Church of Rome in England, on the ground of its unnational allegiance to a foreign sovereign.
Thus Locke's pleas for religious toleration resolve at last into his philosophical view of the foundation and limits of human knowledge.
The Letters on Toleration, Thoughts on Education and The Reasonableness of Christianity have also gone through many editions, and been translated into different languages.
Toleration was proclaimed for all priests who would declare their obedience to the laws of the state.
The constitutional party in the legislature desired a toleration of the nonjuring clergy, the repeal of the laws against the relatives of the émigrés, and some merciful discrimination toward the émigrés themselves.
He proclaimed himself, before everything else, a physiologist, and looked to physiology to provide the ultimate standard for everything that has value; and though his own ethical code necessarily involves the disappearance of sympathy, love, toleration and all existing altruistic emotions, he yet in a sense finds room for them in such altruistic self-sacrifice as prepares the way for the higher man of the future.
toleration and mutual respect amongst the various confessions; the rousing and nurture of the Christian life and of all Christian works necessary for the moral strength and prosperity of the nation.
At Cambridge he was strongly influenced by the philosophical views of Ralph Cudworth and Henry More, who proposed an unusual degree of toleration within the boundaries of the church and the limitations imposed by its liturgy and episcopal government; and his intercourse in Holland with foreign divines of different Protestant sects further encouraged his tendency to latitudinarianism.
In all their negotiations with Ormonde and Glamorgan, Henrietta Maria and the earl of Bristol, the pope and Rinuccini stood out for an arrangement which would have destroyed the royal supremacy and established Romanism in Ireland, leaving to the Anglicans bare toleration, and to the Presbyterians not even that.
A bare toleration had been granted in 1720.
From this single instance we see not only how far mankind has travelled along the path of religious toleration since Deuteronomy was written, but also how very far the criticism implied in Christ's method of dealing with what "was said to them of old time" may be legitimately carried.
But the pressure of events and of parties was too strong; the policy of toleration which had miscarried at the council of Trent had no chance of success in France.
soon saw that the times were not ripe for a third party, and that to enforce real toleration would require an absolute power which they did not possess.
Thus the blood-stained 16th century closed with a promise of religious toleration and a dream of international arbitration.
In 321 Constantine, seeing probably that he had been wrong in abandoning his usual policy of toleration, sought to retrace his steps by granting the Donatists liberty to act according to their consciences, and declaring that the points in dispute between them and the orthodox should be left to the judgment of God.
Under the stimulus of Berber fanaticism the toleration first shown to the Christians was turned to persecution.
The surrender of Granada on the 2nd of January 1492 was partly secured by promises of toleration, which were soon violated.
With his absolutist tendencies he was bound to wish to govern them as he did Castile, and the principle of religious toleration, which was not understood by any prince in Europe with the exception of the prince of Orange, \Villiam the Silent (q.v.), was peculiarly impossible for him.
For instance, liberty of conscience, established for the first time in 1869, was reduced to a minimum of toleration for Protestant worship, schools and cemeteries, but with a strict prohibition of propaganda and outward signs of faith.
an upholder of the principle of toleration in religious opinions.
He tried in vain to get the whole world to be won over to liberal toleration within one or two generations.
In France, Louis was proving his own despotic ways by revoking the edict of Nantes which had allowed the Huguenots some toleration.
edict of toleration to discourage the tendency of new theories to proscribe their predecessors.
They commonly treat the historical method with a sort of patronizing toleration as affording useful exemplifications or illustrations of their theorems.
Traditional approaches to early nonconformity have divided its history at the Toleration Act of 1689.
The indictment charged Northumberland with endeavoring to head the English papists and procure them toleration.
toleration of difference within a community was a main aim of the talk.
toleration of people 's differences, the accommodation of diversity.
toleration of religious worship to Catholics.
toleration of theological diversity within the church.
toleration of Catholicism were soon disappointed.
He was Pope of Rome from 311 to 314, when the Emperor Constantine granted toleration to the Church.
concerning toleration in socialism, attention is commonly paid to freedom of speech.
The question then arises as to whether wolves living where livestock are plentiful all year round also show livestock toleration.
We can have no toleration for the veiled skepticism which is passing for Christianity to-day.
This respect includes toleration of his personal viewpoint, his religious beliefs and his political opinions.
William III, the Protestant hero of Orange mythology, we are reminded tried to extend legal toleration of religious worship to Catholics.
The history of religious toleration in Turkey is a long, long trail of broken promises.
So there has to be a level of mutual toleration over minor issues.
The State religion is Roman Catholic, but there is complete toleration.
Which is probably a hidden plea for greater toleration of each other's oddities.
Almost alone in his age, Vane believed in universal toleration.
Yet the act was very limited, it applied only to Trinitarian Protestant Dissenters and even that limited toleration was contested.
The 1689 toleration act was indeed an important landmark in the struggle to achieve religious toleration act was indeed an important landmark in the struggle to achieve religious toleration.
He excepts, however, from toleration Roman Catholics and Fifth Monarchy men.
But while the sectarians were in a vast majority in the army, the parliament was equally strong in Presbyterianism and opposed to toleration.
He was not insensible to Charles's good qualities, was touched by the paternal affection he showed for his children, and is said to have declared that Charles" was the uprightest and most conscientious man of his three kingdoms."The Heads of the Proposals, which, on Charles raising objections, had been modified by the influence of Cromwell and Ireton, demanded the control of the militia and the choice of ministers by parliament for ten years, a religious toleration, and a council of state to which much of the royal control over the army and foreign policy would be delegated.
At the same time he was a keen partisan of the established church, an enemy of both Roman Catholics and dissenters, and an opponent of all toleration.
Here, then, was Taylor's opportunity for exemplifying the wise toleration he had in other days inculcated, but the newt bishop had nothing to offer the Presbyterian clergy but the bare alternative - submission to episcopal ordination and jurisdiction or deprivation.
The inappropriate designation of St John's Christians arises from the early and imperfect acquaintance of Christian missionaries, who had regard merely to the reverence in which the name of the Baptist is held among them, and their frequent baptisms. In their dealings with members of other communions the designation they take is Sabians, in Arabic Sabi'una, from qs= y 25, to baptize, thus claiming the toleration extended by the Koran (Sur.
the Quakers addressed him (see above) with some hope on account of his known friendship for William Penn, and the king not long afterwards directed a stay of proceedings in all matters pending in the exchequer against Quakers on the ground of nonattendance at the national worship. In 1687 came his declaration for liberty of conscience, and, after the Revolution of 1688, the Toleration Act 1689 put an end to the persecution of Quakers (along with other Dissenters) for non-attendance at church.
(See NEW Jersey.) But beyond question the most interesting event in connexion with Quakerism in America is the foundation by William Penn (q.v.) of the colony of Pennsylvania, where he hoped to carry into effect the principles of his sect - to found and govern a colony without armies or military power, to reduce the Indians by justice and kindness to civilization and Christianity, to administer justice without oaths, and to extend an equal toleration to all persons who professed a belief in God.
Even in normal circumstances their play and counterplay, attractive and repellent, must be manifold almost beyond conception; for the body may be regarded as a collective organization consisting of a huge colony of micro-organisms become capable of a common life by common and mutual arrangement and differentiation of function, and by toleration and utilization of each other's peculiar products; some organs, such as the liver, for example, being credited with a special power of neutralizing poisons, whether generated under normal conditions or under abnormal, .which gain entrance from the intestinal tract.
He was much struck by English manners, was deeply penetrated by English toleration for personal freethought and eccentricity, and gained some thousands of pounds from an authorized English edition of the Henriade, dedicated to the queen.
TOLERATION (from Lat.
During the - latter part of the century its monarchs were en- of gaged in a bloody struggle with a powerful religious political party, the Huguenots, who finally won a toleration which they continued to enjoy until the revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685.
Yet the " Five Dissenting Brethren " would have failed to secure toleration even for themselves as Congregationalists - such was the dread felt by the assembly for Anabaptists, Antinomians, and other " sectaries " - had it not been for the vaguer, but widespread Independency existing in parliament and in the army.
Hence when, after the Toleration Act of 1689, a serious attempt was made to draw the two types together on the basis of Heads of Agreement assented to by the United Ministers in and about London, formerly called Presbyterian and Congregational, the basis partook of both (much after the fashion of the New England Way), though on the whole it favoured Congregationalism (see Dale, pp. 474 ff.).
However much they might personally disapprove, ' zealous priests could not forbid their parishioners to dance on Sunday, if the practice had won widespread toleration; on the other hand, they could not relax the usual discipline of the church on the strength of a few unguarded opinions of too indulgent casuists.
In the Utopia, published in Latin in 1516 (1st English translation, 1551), he not only denounced the ordinary vices of power, but evinced an enlightenment of sentiment which went far beyond the most statesmanlike ideas to be found among his contemporaries, pronouncing not merely for toleration, but rising even to the philosophical conception of the indifference of religious creed.
In an age when Voltaire preached toleration and the great penologist Beccaria attacked the death-penalty and torture, in the States of the Church heretics were still liable to torture, the relapsed to capital punishment; and in a backward country like Spain the single reign of Philip V.
With wise toleration he was willing to recognize local deviations from Roman usage (e.g.
In them the medieval lay point of view became articulate, finding perhaps its most remarkable expression in the ideas of religious toleration proclaimed by Waltber von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.
But though his eclectic system failed, the spirit of toleration which originated it produced in other ways many important results, and, indeed, may be said to have done more to establish Akbar's power on a secure basis than all his economic and social reforms. He conciliated the Hindus by giving them freedom of worship; while at the same time he strictly prohibited certain barbarous Brahmanical practices, such as trial by ordeal and the burning of widows against their will.
Frederick dreamed of remodelling society upon a mundane type, which anticipated the large toleration and cosmopolitan enlightenment of the actual Renaissance.
Whatever opinion may be held as to the orthodoxy of the seven articles of the Anabaptists, the vehemence with which they were opposed, and the epithets of abuse which were heaped upon the unfortunate sect that maintained them, cannot fail to astonish those used to toleration.
The complement of the Toleration Act was the abolition of the censorship of the press (1695).
The contitutional party in the legislature desired a toleration of the nonjuring clergy, the repeal of the laws against the relatives of the Ã©migrÃ©s, and some merciful discrimination toward the emigres themselves.
John Rawls 's own analysis, finally, employs a notion of international toleration we have reason to regard with suspicion.
Toleration of difference within a community was a main aim of the talk.
Free development of the human spirit requires recognition and toleration of people 's differences, the accommodation of diversity.
This shift at the end of the eighteenth century also opened the way to a wider toleration of theological diversity within the church.
But whatever James 's personal inclinations, hopes for toleration of Catholicism were soon disappointed.
Concerning toleration in socialism, attention is commonly paid to freedom of speech.
Which is probably a hidden plea for greater toleration of each other 's oddities.
She rejected out of hand the government 's proposals around prostitution, and called for outright legalization and for toleration zones.
The 1689 toleration act was indeed an important landmark in the struggle to achieve religious toleration.
Mill 's arguments of toleration can be described as utilitarian in character.
It is vain to expect the whole world to be won over to liberal toleration within one or two generations.
The toleration regime, the Alliance, will do anything to keep the secret and have hired a private assassin to shut her mouth permanently.
They broke the chain of authority, without, however, recognizing the propriety of toleration.
He was also a strenuous advocate of religious toleration in Poland.
In 1614, at the instance of the Arminian party, an edict was passed by the states-general, in which toleration of the opinions of both parties was declared and further controversy forbidden; but this act only served, by rousing the jealousy of the Calvinists, to fan the controversial flame into greater fury.
There is religious toleration in Brazil, but down to the organization of the republic no non-Catholic church or chapel was permitted to have a spire or other outward symbol of a place of worship.
in 1660 brought with it toleration at once, and soon afterwards complete restoration of the Prayer Book, but not exactly in the same form which it had before.
An edict of toleration in 1839 shortly preceded the visit of the " Artemise."
The sullen toleration of the non-juring priests changed into sanguinary persecution.
The spread of toleration, which always savours minorities, broke down between 1845 and 1873 the Lutheran exclusiveness of Norway, Denmark and Sweden; but as yet the Catholics form a disappearing fraction of the population.
After more than a century of repression in 1905 the Edict of Toleration brought some relief.
into Protestant lands, legally possible because of toleration, was in some cases made practicable because of immigration.
Summing up the history of the papacy from the Congress of Vienna to the fall of the temporal power, one finds statistical gains in Protestant countries offset perhaps by relative losses in Catholic lands, both largely due to the closely related forces of toleration and immigration.
Making yearly visits to the country, and further keeping himself in touch with it by means of a special "minister of Silesia," he was enabled to effect numerous political reforms, chief of which were the strict enforcement of religious toleration and the restriction of oppressive seignorial rights.
Owing to its central position, its liberal government, and its policy of religious toleration, Pennsylvania had become during the 18th century a refuge for European immigrants, especially persecuted sectaries.
Her renowned toleration stopped short of allowing the dissenters to build chapels, and her passion for legislative reform grew cold when she found that she must begin by the emancipation of the serfs.
A form of edict drawn by Grotius was published by the states, recommending mutual toleration, and forbidding ministers in the pulpit from handling the disputed dogmas.
To the orthodox Calvinists the word toleration was insupportable.
During Peter Stuyvesant's governorship there was little toleration of other denominations, but the West India Company reversed his intolerant proclamations against Lutherans and Quakers.
After the war of 1856 a measure of official toleration was obtained, and the task of evangelizing the country was fairly begun.
No lapse of reconciling time, no extent of comparative indulgence, could break her in to resignation, submission, or toleration of even partial restraint.
The statement that he issued an edict of toleration, to the effect that, while the exercise of magical rites would be severely punished, his subjects should enjoy full liberty of conscience, rests on insufficient evidence.
and complied with the Toleration Act under William and Mary.
It was at the instance of Galerius that the first of the celebrated edicts of persecution against the Christians was published, on the 24th of February 303, and this policy of repression was maintained by him until the appearance of the general edict of toleration (31 I), issued in his own name and in those of Licinius and Constantine.
The decree of the diet, formulated in April, forbade the reformers to make further religious changes, while the toleration which was conceded to Romanists in Lutheran states was withheld from Lutherans in Romanist states.
Under these circumstances the emperor took the matter into his own hands, and his negotiations with the Protestants resulted in July 1532 in the religious peace of Nurernberg, a measure which granted temporary toleration to the Lutherans and which was repeatedly confirmed in the following years.
Romanists and Lutherans were placed upon an equal footing, but the toleration which was granted to them was not extended to the Calvinists.
Individual toleration was not allowed, or only allowed in.
viction, that toleration in the lar.gest sense, so far as law was concerned, was virtually conceded.
Long after the Act of Toleration (1689) was in full forcein England, the Boston Baptists pleaded in vain for the privileges to which they were thereby entitled, and it required the most earnest efforts of English Baptists and other dissenters to gain for them a recognition of the right to exist.
Yet its approval became the basis for three acts passed a week later; the first of which, abolishing the pope's authority and jurisdiction in Scotland, may perhaps have been consistent with toleration, as the second,.
This toleration is tacitly extended to resident foreigners belonging to other religious sects.
Cecil, though like his master naturally in favour of toleration, with his experience gained in the reign of Elizabeth, was alarmed at the policy pursued and its results, and great anxiety was aroused in the government and nation, which was in the end shared by the king.
The laws against them were immediately increased in severity, and the gradual advance towards religious toleration was put back for centuries.
The dwelling was built in the 17th century by his ancestor, the sturdy immigrant, Thomas Whittier, notable through his efforts to secure toleration for the disciples of George Fox in New England.
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