Sanballat of Horon, Tobiah the Ammonite, and Gashmu the Arabian (?
Tobiah and his son Johanan were related by marriage to Judaean secular and priestly families, and active intrigues resulted, in which nobles and prophets took their part.
But Tobiah and Johanan themselves were worshippers of Yahweh (as their names also show), and consequently, with prophets taking different sides and with the Samaritan claims summarily repudiated (Neh.
Even members of the priestly families had intermarried with Tobiah and Sanballat; the former had his own chamber in the precincts of the Temple, the daughter of the latter was the wife of a son of Joiada the son of the high priest Eliashib.
Tobiah was cast out, the offending priest expelled, and a general purging followed, in which all the foreign element was removed.
Laws were 1 It is at least a coincidence that the prophet who took the part of Tobiah and Sanballat against Nehemiah (vi.
For Joseph, the son of Tobiah and nephew of Onias, went to court and secured the taxes of Palestine, when they were put up to auction.
Of Jerusalem), Tobiah the Ammonite, Geshem (or Gashmu) the Arabian, and the Ashdodites, whose virulence increased as the rebuilding of the walls continued.
On this occasion he vindicated the sanctity of the temple by expelling Tobiah, reorganized the supplies for the Levites, took measures to uphold the observance of the Sabbath, and protested energetically against the foreign marriages.
17-19 with the notice of the conspiracy of Tobiah and the nobles of Judah.
1-3 to Ammon and Moab is possibly intended as an introduction to the references to Tobiah and Sanballat respectively (vv.
Zutarta or Legah Tob of Tobiah b.
If Sanballat the Horonite was really a native of the Moabite Horonaim, he finds an appropriate place by the side of Tobiah the Ammonite and Gashmu the Arabian among the strenuous opponents of Nehemiah.
4), in which the career ofJoseph,the son of Tobiah, is glorified as of Tobiah.