How to use Tobacco in a sentence
Soap, candles and tobacco are also manufactured, and the town is a centre for local agricultural trade.
The annual expenditure on tobacco was 5s.
He scattered the burning tobacco, smashed the pipe, and threw it away.
There are also large potteries, silk-mills, a brewery and a tobacco factory.
Most of the tobacco is grown in the counties on or near the S.W.Advertisement
It had six rooms, each about 100 X45 ft., was used as a tobacco warehouse and a ship-chandlery until 1861, and then until the capture of Richmond was used as a prison, chiefly for Federal officers.
In 1900 this was the most valuable industry in the state; in 1905 it was second to the manufacture of tobacco.
Tobacco culture, which declined after 1860 on account of the competition of Cuba and Sumatra, has revived since 1885 through the introduction of Cuban and Sumatran seed; the product of 1907 (6,937,500 lb) was more than six times that of 1899, the product in 1899 (1,125,600 lb) being more than twice that of 1889 (470,443 lb), which in turn was more than twenty times that for 1880 (21,182 lb)-the smallest production recorded for many decades.
In 1907 the average farm prices of tobacco was 45 cents per lb higher than that of any other state.
In 1900 Florida ranked fourth in the manufacture of tobacco among the states of the Union, being surpassed by New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio; in 1905 it ranked third (after New York and Pennsylvania).Advertisement
Most of the tobacco used is imported from Cuba, though, as has been indicated, the production of the state has greatly increased since 1880.
The industries include the manufacture of soap, tobacco, machinery, paper, bricks and tiles, beer and other goods.
Tobacco of a superior quality is grown extensively on the lower northern slopes and much tobacco is now grown under cloth.
The total acreage of tobacco increased from 12,871 acres in 1906 to 27,596 acres in 1909; the total value of the exported tobacco products increased from $681,642 in 1901 to $5,634,130 in 1909.
The only manufacturing industries of much importance are the preparation of sugar, coffee and tobacco for market, and the manufacture of cigars, cigarettes, straw hats, soap, matches, vermicelli, sash, doors, ice, distilled liquors and some machinery.Advertisement
It has cotton factories, smelting works, potteries, tanneries, distilleries, and wagon and tobacco factories.
It is an important horse and mule market, and handles much tobacco.
There are large slaughtering establishments, and factories for the refining of sugar and for the manufacture of tobacco goods, soap and perfumery, lead pencils, iron and steel, railway cars, chemicals, rubber goods, silk goods, dressed lumber, and malt liquors.
Industries include slate quarrying, shipbuilding, iron and brass foundries, alum, vitriol, manure, guano and tobacco works.
The chief imports are cotton piece goods, cotton twist, salt, sugar, provisions, railway materials, raw cotton, metals, coal, tobacco, spices and kerosene oil.Advertisement
The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in tobacco manufacturing, sugar-refining and boat-building, and in the timber trade.
Among the products are coco-nuts, sago, fish, trepang, timber, copra, maize, yams and tobacco.
Its industrial establishments comprise tobacco, yarn, thread, linen and woollen cloth manufactories, bleaching and dyeing works, breweries and oil and flour mills.
The soil is fertile and produces rubber, cotton, sugar, coffee, cocoa, tobacco and nutmegs, all of which are exported; pimento (allspice) grows wild in the greatest profusion.
The exports are chiefly coffee, hides, ivory (all from Abyssinia), gum, mother-of-pearl and a little gold; the imports cotton and other European stuffs, cereals, beverages, tobacco and arms and ammunition for the Abyssinians.Advertisement
It has a considerable shipping trade, and manufactories of tobacco and cigars, chocolate, margarine, oil, chemicals, brushes, vinegar, soap, guano and perfumery.
It is connected with Ponce by railway (1910), and with the port of Arroyo by an excellent road, part of the military road extending to Cayey, and it exports sugar, rum, tobacco, coffee, cattle, fruit and other products of the department, which is very fertile.
It is the centre of the tobacco industry of the Vuelta Abajo region.
Other articles of export are wine, brandy, hides and tobacco.
The principal crops are rye, oats, barley, buckwheat, potatoes, though wheat, beetroot, flax, hemp and tobacco are also grown.Advertisement
Tobacco and vegetables are also produced in some quantity, and maize is grown largely for the sake of the husk, which is used for native cheroot-wrappers, under the name of yawpet.
Reclaimed marsh-land and fresh alluvium (the so-called " front-lands " on rivers and bayous) are choice soil for Indian corn, sugar-cane, perique tobacco, semi-tropical fruits and cotton.
On the hills yellow-leaf tobacco can be grown.
Tobacco might be grown profitably over a large part of the state, but in reality very little is grown.
Bright or yellow plug and smoking leaf are grown on the pine uplands and pine " flats," and a small amount of cigar tobacco on the flats, prairies and " bluffs."Advertisement
The total value of the tobacco crop of 35,000 ib in 1907 was only $to,000, an amount exceeded by each of the other 24 tobacco-growing states, and the crop was about one-twentieth of% of the product of the whole United States.
The portion of the southern plain between the bays of Cortes and Majana is the most famous portion of the Vuelta Abajo tobacco region.
Near the coast runs a continuous belt of plantations, while grazing, tobacco and general farm lands cover the lower slopes of the hills, and virgin forests much of the uplands and mountains.
Tobacco is most generally cultivated on loose red soils, which are rich in clays and silicates; and sugar-cane preferably on the black and mulatto soils; but in general, contrary to prevalent suppositions, colour is no test of quality and not a very valuable guide in the setting of crops.
As regards crops, 47% of the cultivated area was given over to sugar, 11% to sweet potatoes, 9% to tobacco and almost 9% to bananas.Advertisement
Before the Civil War of 1895-1898 the capital invested in sugar estates was greater by half than that reprerented by tobacco and coffee plantations, live-stock ranches and other farms. Since that time fruit and live-stock interests have increased.
If sugar is the island's greatest crop, tobacco is her most renowned in the markets of the world.
This district, including the finest land, is on the southern slope of the Organ Mountains between the Honda river and Mantua; bananas are cultivated with the tobacco.
The tobacco industry has been uniformly prosperous, except when crippled by the destruction of war in 1868-1878 and 1895-1898.
Even in the time of slavery tobacco was generally a white-man's crop; for it requires intelligent labour and intensive care.Advertisement
In these respects the finest Cuban tobacco crops, produced in the sun, hardly rival the finest Sumatra product; but produced under cheese-cloth they do.
Ordinary commercial Cuban seed of to-day is largely, and often altogether, Mexican tobacco."
In the markets of the world Cuban tobacco has always suffered less competition than Cuban sugar, and still less has been done than in the case of sugar cane in the study of methods of cultivation, which in several respects are far behind those of other tobacco-growing countries.
Save on the coffee, tobacco and sugar plantations, where competition in large markets has compelled the adoption of adequate modern methods, agriculture in Cuba is still very primitive.
A central agricultural experiment station (founded 1904) is maintained by the government at Santiago de las Vegas; but there is no agricultural college, nor any special school for the scientific teaching and improvement of sugar and tobacco farming or manufacture.Advertisement
Such manufactures as are of any consequence are mostly connected with the sugar and tobacco industries.
Forest resources have been but slightly touched (more so since the end of Spanish rule) except mahogany, which goes to the United States, and cedar, which is used to box the tobacco products of the island, much going also to the United States.
The tobacco industries are very largely concentrated in Havana, and there are factories in Santiago de las Vegas and Bejucal.
The leading articles of export are sugar, tobacco and fruit products; of import, textiles, foodstuffs, lumber and wood products, and machinery.
Sugar and tobacco products together represent seven-eighths (in 1904-1907 respectively 60.3 and 27.3%) of the normal annual exports.
The state tobacco monopoly was abolished in 1817.
Tobacco and cascarilla bark also flourish; and cotton is indigenous and was woven into cloth by the aborigines.
Apart from the arid wastes of the Karst, the soil is well adapted for the growing of cereals, especially Indian corn; olives, vines, mulberries, figs, pomegranates, melons, oranges, lemons, rice and tobacco flourish in Herzegovina and the more sheltered portions of Bosnia.
Besides the sugar-refinery already mentioned, there were in Ig00 four tobacco factories, a national printing-press, an annular furnace for brick-burning, an iron-foundry and several blast-furnaces, under the management of the state.
Other articles of export are chemicals, dyeing and tanning stuffs, tobacco, sugar-beet and kitchen-salt.
Tobacco is grown all over the empire, the most important market for it being Smyrna.
In the second were comprised tithes, mine-royalties, forests and domains, customs, sheep-tax, tobacco, salt, spirits, stamps and " various.
The only exception made to this rule was in the case of revenues showing a yearly increase, such as Post Office revenue, tobacco, salt, for which were taken the figures of 1323 (1907) increased by a certain average."
The estimated receipts from the " Tithes " (including tobacco and silk, both hypothecated to the Public Debt Administration) are £T6, 73 1,107.
The total " direct taxes " (inclusive of tobacco and silk tithes) are thus estimated to amount to £T13,725,892.
Licenses for sale of Tumbeki, a variety of Persian tobacco used for the narghile, T2046.
These " six indirect contributions " were the revenues from tobacco, salt, wines and spirits, stamps (commercial), certain specified fisheries, and the silk tithe in specified provinces.
It is bound to purchase all tobacco not exported at prices to be agreed between itself and the cultivators; if no agreement can be arrived at, the price is fixed by experts.
The cultivators, on the other hand, may not plant tobacco without permits from the regie, although the power of refusing a permit, except to known smugglers or persons of notoriously bad conduct, seems to be doubtful; nor may they sell to any purchaser, unless for export, except to the regie, while they are bound to deposit the whole of the tobacco crops which they raise in any one year in the entrepots of the regie before the month of August of the year following, [[Table A]].-Showing Revenues ceded to Ottoman Public Debt Administration at Various Periods to 1907-1908.
At the same time it was granted an extension of penal powers, and the losses on reftieh (duty on tobacco exported to Egypt) were to be partially borne by the public debt administration.
Tobacco, soap, soda, beer and furniture are manufactured, and there is a considerable trade in timber and grain.
Its railway car repair and construction shops, belonging to the Norfolk & Western railway, employed in that year 66.9% of the total number of factory wage-earners; pig-iron, structural iron, canned goods, bottles, tobacco, planing-mill products and cotton are among the manufactures.
The Cambodians show skill in working gold and silver; earthenware, bricks, mats, fans and silk and cotton fabrics, are also produced to some small extent, but fishing and the cultivation of rice and in a minor degree of tobacco, coffee, cotton, pepper, indigo, maize, tea and sugar are the only industries worthy of the name.
Its principal imports are coffee (of which it is the greatest continental market), tea, sugar, spices, rice, wine (especially from Bordeaux), lard (from Chicago), cereals, sago, dried fruits, herrings, wax (from Morocco and Mozambique), tobacco, hemp, cotton (which of late years shows a large increase), wool, skins, leather, oils, dyewoods, indigo, nitrates, phosphates and coal.
Among other important articles of domestic industry are tobacco and cigars (manufactured mainly in bond, within the free harbour precincts), hydraulic machinery, electro-technical machinery, chemical products (including artificial manures), oils, soaps, india-rubber, ivory and celluloid articles and the manufacture of leather.
Sugar, cereals, tobacco, cotton and coffee are produced, and probably fruit may be raised successfully.
The manufactures include tobacco, and iron and steel goods.
In many plantations besides catch crops (cassava, sesame, ground-nuts, &c.) other crops, such as tea, coffee, cocoa and tobacco, are grown with rubber.
There are manufactures of cloth, paper, machinery, straw hats, leather and tobacco.
The surrounding country, which is traversed by gravel roads leading to the principal towns of the province, is fertile and well cultivated, producing sugar, tobacco and rice in abundance.
Part of this commerce (textiles, sugar, tobacco, steel goods) is conveyed by sea to the Pacific ports.
The industries of Dessau include the production of sugar, which is the chief manufacture, woollen, linen and cotton goods, carpets, hats, leather, tobacco and musical instruments.
The import trade consists of timber, maize, paper, crockery, sugar, tobacco, kerosene oil, &c. Gold has been found in the territory, and silver, tin, lead and iron are said to exist.
The principal industries are, the metallurgic and textile industries in all their branches, milling, brewing and chemicals; paper, leather and silk; cloth, objets de luxe and millinery; physical and musical instruments; sugar, tobacco factories and foodstuffs.
Like Tilburg and Helmond it has developed in modern times into a flourishing industrial centre, having linen,, woollen, cotton, tobacco and cigar, matches, &c., factories and several breweries.
Industry consists chiefly in fishing (sardines, &c., and coral), the manufacture of tobacco, oil-distilling, tanning, and the preparation of preserved citron§ and of macaroni and similar provisions.
The industries embrace granite quarries, wood-pulp factories, and factories for sugar, tobacco, curtains, travelling-bags, boots, &c. There are railway communications with Gothenburg and all parts of Sweden and regular coastal and steamer services.
The products are chiefly cereals, fruits, opium, cotton, tobacco, wool, ordinary goat-hair and mohair, in which there is a large trade.
No other country has been able to equal Brazil in the production of coffee, and under better labour conditions the country might compete with the foremost in the production of cane sugar, cotton and tobacco.
Tobacco is also widely cultivated, and the product of some states, such as Bahia, Minas Geraes and Goyaz, has a high local reputation for its excellence.
There are several large tobacco factories, flour mills, boot factories, sugar refineries, tanneries, tallow works, meat-preserving, glue and kerosene-oil factories and soap works.
Besides maize the crops cultivated by the natives are Kaffir corn or amabele (Sorghum caffrorum)- used in the manufacture of utyuala, native beer - imfi (Sorghum saccharatum), tobacco, pumpkins and sweet potatoes.
Besides fruits of nearly all kinds there are cultivated in the low moist regions the sugar-cane, the tea, coffee and tobacco plants, arrowroot, cayenne pepper, cotton, &c. The area under sugar in 1905 was 45,840 acres and the produce 532,067 cwt.
Textiles, largely cotton goods, hardware, mining and agricultural machinery, tobacco and foodstuffs form the bulk of the imports.
A great quantity of tobacco is also grown; it is wholly monopolized by the crown.
Coffee, tobacco, rice and various fruits of superior quality are produced with ease, but agriculture is neglected and production is limited to domestic needs.
The surrounding country is very fertile and produces large quantities of rice, as well as Indian corn, tobacco, sugar, coffee and a great variety of fruits.
It is situated near the Guanajibo river, in a fertile agricultural region which produces sugar, coffee, fruit, cacao and tobacco.
Tobacco is grown in every district, but chiefly in Rustenburg.
Of the 3,032,000 lb of tobacco grown in 1904, Rustenburg produced 884,000 lb.
Next in value came wool (£226,000), horses and mules (£110,000), skins, hides and horns (£106,000), tobacco (£89,000), tin, coal, copper and lead.
Men, women and children all smoke tobacco.
The country on the east side and on the slopes of the Hardt yield a number of the most varied products, such as wine, fruit, corn, vegetables, flax and tobacco.
The industries are very active, especially in iron, machinery, paper, chemicals, shoes, woollen goods, beer, leather and tobacco.
It also manufactures agricultural implements, furniture, paper, tobacco, &c.
Besides rice, the products of the countryinclude tea, tobacco, cotton, cinnamon, precious woods and rubber; coffee, pepper, sugar-canes and jute are cultivated to a minor extent.
The city's chief interest is in the tobacco industry; it has also considerable trade in other agricultural products and in coal; and its manufactures include carriages and wagons, bricks, lime, flour and dressed lumber.
In the next zone are grown many of the cereals (including rice), beans, tobacco, sugar-cane, peaches, apricots, quinces and strawberries.
The principal economic plants of the country are cacau, coffee, cassava (manioc) called " mandioca " in Brazil, Indian corn, beans, sweet potatoes, taro, sugar-cane, cotton and tobacco.
Other industries of the colonial period were the cultivation of indigo and tobacco.
Wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize, flax, hemp and tobacco are grown in large quantities, and the products of the vineyards are of a good quality.
Clay-pipes may also give rise to cancer of lips in males in England, while cancer of the mouth of both sexes is common in India where chewing a mixture of betel leaves, areca-nut, tobacco and slaked lime is the usual practice.
Sugarcane, tobacco, maguey, cotton, in small quantities, and fruits are also produced.
Its industrial establishments include factories for tobacco, cloth, matches, leather, artificial manure, besides breweries and distilleries.
Their main wealth consists in their herds of cattle and flocks of sheep. They raise, however, crops of maize, millet, sweet potatoes and tobacco.
Other crops which are grown in the province, especially in Upper Burma, comprise maize, tilseed, sugar-cane, cotton, tobacco, wheat, millet, other food grains including pulse, condiments and spices, tea, barley, sago, linseed and other oil-seeds, various fibres, indigo and other dye crops, besides orchards and garden produce.
By far the largest of the imports are cotton, silk and woollen piece-goods, while subordinate imports include hardware, gunny bags, sugar, tobacco and liquors.
The industries of St Johann-Saarbrucken include wool-spinning, brewing, and the manufacture of leather, tobacco, chemicals and iron wares.
The manufactures are considerable, the chief articles made being cloth, wool, leather, tobacco, pianos and machinery.
So also the Sikh's physical strength was increased by the use of meat and avoidance of tobacco.
Situated at the intersection of two roads - from Kulja to Tashkent, and from Semipalatinsk to Kashgar - Vyernyi carries on an active trade in wheat, rice, corn, tea, oil and tobacco.
The principal industries are the manufacture of paper, leather, chemicals and tobacco, sugar refining, shipbuilding and salmon fishing.
Linen, paper (to varieties of which Herrnhut gives its name), tobacco and various minor articles are manufactured.
The cocoa nut, maize, sugar-cane, coffee, cotton, rice and tobacco (which last does not suffer like other crops from the locusts) do well.
The chief industrial establishments are smelting furnaces for cobalt, meat-preserving works at Ouaco, sugar-works and distilleries at Noumea and La Foa, tobacco, oil and soap factories at Noumea.
Under one or other of these forms the use of tobacco is more widely spread than is that of any other narcotic or stimulant.
Although the fact has been controverted, there cannot be a doubt that the knowledge of tobacco and its uses came to the rest of the world from America.
As the continent of America was opened up and explored, it became evident that the consumption of tobacco, especially by smoking, was a universal and immemorial usage, in many cases bound up with the most significant and solemn tribal ceremonies.
The term tobacco appears not to have been a commonly used original name for the plant, and it has come to us from a peculiar instrument used for inhaling its smoke by the inhabitants of Hispaniola (San Domingo).
The instrument, described by Oviedo (Historia de las Indias Occidentales, Salamanca, 1535), consisted of a small hollow wooden tube, shaped like a Y, the two points of which being inserted in the nose of the smoker, the other end was held into the smoke of burning tobacco, and thus the fumes were inhaled.
The tobacco plant itself was first brought to Europe in 1558 by Francisco Fernandes, a physician who had been sent by Philip II of Spain to investigate the products of Mexico.
At first the plant was supposed to possess almost miraculous healing powers, and was designated " herba panacea," " herba santa," " sana sancta Indorum "; " divine tobacco " it is called by Spenser, and " our holy herb nicotian " by William Lilly.
Ralph Lane, the first governor of Virginia, and Sir Francis Drake brought with them in 1586, from that first American possession of the English crown, the implements and materials of tobacco smoking, which they handed over to Sir Walter Raleigh.
Lane is credited with having been the first English smoker, and through the influence and example of the illustrious Raleigh, who " tooke a pipe of tobacco a little before he went to the scaffolde," the habit became rooted among Elizabethan courtiers.
The great bulk of the tobacco supply is derived from FIG.
Tobacco is cultivated in localities scattered over almost the whole world, ranging as far north as Quebec, Stockholm and the southern shores of Lake Baikal in one hemisphere, and as far south as Chile, the Cape of Good Hope and Victoria in the other.
Very slight differences in climate appear to cause very great differences in the quality of the tobacco, and ordinary meteorological records are of little use in determining the suitability or not of a region for a particular kind of leaf; this essential point must be determined by experiment.
Given suitable climatic conditions, the type of tobacco produced is determined mainly by the soil, and particularly by its mechanical or physical condition.
Where the clay is exposed on the surface the heavy type of tobacco is produced, and bright tobacco where the clay is covered by from 12 to 20 in.
Tobacco soils should be well drained and contain a Iarge percentage of humus.
Tobacco being cultivated over such a large area of the world, under very varying climatic conditions, and by many different races of mankind, the methods employed in its production naturally differ very considerably.
As the United States of America produce more tobacco than any other country it will be best to deal generally with conditions there and to refer to marked differences in dealing with production in other countries.
Tobacco seeds are very small, and it is estimated that about 300,000 to 400,000 seeds go to the ounce.
An acre of tobacco planted 3 ft.
In the U.S.A., in the cigar tobacco district, fifteen to twenty leaves are often left on each plant, and of manufacturing tobaccos only ten to twelve leaves.
Sumatra produced the best cigar wrappers of the world, and efforts to cultivate Sumatra tobacco in Florida under apparently suitable conditions of climate and soil were not successful.
It was noticed, however, that if the tobacco was grown under the shade of trees the character of the leaf was improved.
The U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, in co-operation with local growers, devoted a great deal of attention and money to the problem, and Sumatra tobacco of very high quality is now produced in Florida and Connecticut.
So successful have the results been that American-grown tobacco of the Sumatra type is now exported even to Cuba.
Important changes take place in the tobacco leaf from the time it is cut until the finished product is ready for consumption.
The wilted tobacco is suspended on racks in the sun.
This method is employed in a portion of Virginia and results in a very sweet chewing tobacco.
The tobacco is hung in a barn in which there is a free circulation of air during dry weather.
A considerable portion of the tobacco exported to England and Africa is fire-cured.
In flue curing, also known as the Virginian cure, fires are set outside the barn; and the heat led in iron pipes or flues, into the building are under the suspended tobacco, which is placed there quite fresh from the field.
The process, which requires great judgment and care, results in the bright yellow leaf so largely used for pipe tobacco, cigarettes and chewing tobacco.
Each bundle is tied round with a separate leaf, and in this condition the tobacco is ready for bulking for fermentation.
The tobacco, whether in bundles, hands or separate leaves, is piled up or bulked on the floor in a barn into a solid stack to the height of 5 or 6 ft.
Great care is now taken to prevent overheating and to secure the uniform fermentation of all the tobacco.
The pile is from time to time taken down and rebuilt, the tobacco from the top going to the bottom and that exposed at the edges being turned in to the centre.
When fermentation is completed the tobacco is graded, an operation carried out very carefully in the case of the better cigar tobaccos, and packed for export, cigar tobaccos in bales, and other kinds in hogsheads.
It is then kept at a moderate and fairly uniform temperature in a warehouse, when, although there is no marked outward change, the tobacco becomes more mellow.
Tobacco, like other cultivated plants, is subject to attack by various pests and diseases, but fortunately these are less destructive than with many crops.
On the other hand, comparatively trivial incidents do more harm to a relatively delicate plant like the tobacco than to more robust plants.
The " tobacco flea-beetle " (Epitrix parvula, Fabr.) is a small active beetle, the larvae of which attack the roots, while the adult beetles eat holes in the leaves.
Seedling plants of tobacco, like many other crops, are liable to attack by " cut worms," the caterpillars of species of Peridromia and Agrotis.
Recently, shade-grown tobacco in some localities has suffered considerably from the attacks of small sucking insects known as thrips, which produce " white veins " in the leaf.
Stored tobacco is liable to be attacked and ruined by the " cigarette beetle," a cosmopolitan insect of very varied tastes, feeding not only on dried tobacco of all kinds, including snuff, but also on rhubarb, cayenne pepper, tumeric, ginger, figs and herbarium specimens.
Other beetles, such as the rice weevil (Calandra oryza), also attack dried tobacco.
The fungoid diseases of tobacco are comparatively unimportant; there are, however, some diseases of obscure origin which at times cause considerable damage.
No crop, it is pointed out, responds so readily to breeding as tobacco, or deteriorates more rapidly, as regards both yield and quality, if neglected.
The tobacco flower is fortunately perfectly self-fertile, and by enclosing the flowers of selected plants in paper bags, so as to exclude all possibility of hybridization, progeny true to the type of the mother plant can be obtained.
No attempt should ever be made to raise large crops of tobacco from imported seed, but only a small crop, and the seed of the selected plants should be used for future propagation.
In selection work the grower must keep definitely in view the special market requirements for the kinds of tobacco he is producing.
Another favourable feature is the fact that a single capsule contains from 4000 to 8000 seeds, and one tobacco plant may easily produce from 500,000 to 1,000,000 seeds.
In 1906 the total area under tobacco in twenty-five states was 796,099 acres, and the production 682,428,530 Ib, valued at about £13,500,000.
Perique tobacco is worthy of special notice.
This famous tobacco is produced only at Grand Points in Louisiana.
To the chemical changes, mainly oxidation, which go on in this juice while it is exposed to the air, the characteristic aroma and flavour of Perique tobacco are mainly due.
Tobacco is the second industry of the country, the value of the crop being surpassed only by that of sugar.
Cuban tobacco is grown as a " winter " crop, the summer months being those of high rainfall.
Mexican tobacco approximates more or less closely to that of Cuba, and is cultivated and prepared in very similar ways.
Tobacco cultivation is an important industry, and the home production is carried out under government supervision.
Hungary produces tobacco of a rich, dark brown colour, useful for cigars, and also a small, bright yellow leaf, of value as a cigarette and pipe tobacco.
In southern and Asiatic Russia good tobacco of the Turkish type is produced.
Italy produces two principal types, a dark, heavy Virginian tobacco on the heavy soils of northern Italy, and a Turkish type tobacco on the sandy soils of the southern part of the country.
The distinctive Latakia tobacco is produced in the province of Saida in northern Syria.
The process of fumigation lasts from seven to nine months, and during it the tobacco acquires its black colour and peculiar flavour.
Grecian tobacco is grown from Turkish seed and closely resembles Turkish tobacco in character and uses.
Egyptian cigarettes are to a great extent made from Grecian tobacco.
Tobacco is an important crop in Turkey, where its cultivation and manufacture are monopolies.
The ordinary tobacco and cigarette trade is controlled by the Regie Compagnie interessee des tabacs de l'empire Ottoman, and Narquileh tobacco (called " tumbeki " and used in " hubble-bubbles ") is in the hands of a similar organization.
To guard against this competition, the export of tobacco seed from Turkey was prohibited in 1907.
Tobacco cultivation is a government monopoly, and in 1905 the crop amounted to about 106,572,000 ib, yielding a profit to the government of some £3,500,000.
The estates are usually very large, and are divided up into fields which are cultivated in rotation, each field being given several years' rest after producing one crop. The tobacco is air-cured, fires being only employed during continuous wet weather, and the process of curing occupies four or five weeks.
The high quality of Sumatra tobacco is due in part to the local conditions of soil and climate, and perhaps to an even greater degree to the care taken at every stage in its cultivation and preparation.
Java and Borneo tobacco is very similar to that of Sumatra.
Tobacco is extensively cultivated in the plains and on the rich alluvial deposits along the sides of rivers.
The exports of manufactured tobacco, such as Manila cheroots, find their principal market in China, British India, Australasia and the United Kingdom, whilst of the leaf tobacco fully three-quarters goes to Spain.
In Ceylon tobacco is grown in the northern portion of the island; the produce is but little suited to the European market and is mainly exported to southern India and Cochin China.
The annual value of tobacco exported is over £300,000.
In Australia tobacco is produced on a small scale in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.
New Zealand has attempted to produce tobacco as a commercial crop, but the effort was abandoned several years ago.
In the West Indies tobacco is grown on a small scale in many of the British colonies, but only in Jamaica is there a definite industry.
Chambers, recently reported on Jamaica tobacco as of good quality and flavour but often of a heavy nature.
The shade-grown tobacco was, however, hardly likely for making wrappers to be excelled by any tobacco in the world.
In the British African possessions the outlook for tobacco cultivation is in several instances favourable.
Rhodesian-grown Turkish tobacco is already on the English market, as also various brands of tobacco from the Transvaal.
Tobacco cultivation has made considerable progress in Nyasaland (British Central Africa).
Flue-cured bright tobacco is principally produced, but sun-cured is also exported; and in1906-1907experiments with Turkish tobacco gave encouraging results.
Canada produces in Ontario and Quebec coarse Virginian type tobacco.
In the manufacture of tobacco for smoking, we have to do with the numerous forms of tobacco used for smoking in pipes, embracing cut smoking mixtures, cake or plug, and roll or spun tobacco.
The storing of such tobacco for a lengthened period matures and deprives it of harshness, and the same result may be artificially hastened by macerating the leaves in water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, and washing them out with pure water.
The most efficient means, however, of improving strong, ill-tasting tobacco is by renewed fermentation artificially induced by moisture and heat.
The prepared tobacco, while still moist and pliant, is pressed between cylinders into a light cake, and cut into fine uniform shreds by a machine analogous to the chaff-cutter.
The cut tobacco is now roasted, partly with the view of driving off mositure and bringing the material into a condition for keeping, but also partly to improve its smoking quality.
The roasting is most simply effected by spreading it on heated slabs, on which it is constantly turned, or a roasting machine is used, consisting of a revolving drum in which the tobacco is rotated, gradually passing from one end to the other, and all the time under the influence of a current of heated air.
For roll, twist of pigtail tobacco the raw material is damped or sauced as in the case of cut tobacco.
The interior of the roll consists of small and broken leaf of various kinds, called Roll " fillers "; and this is enclosed within an external Tobacco.
From the drum of the twisting machine the spun tobacco is rolled into cylinders of various sizes.
Cake or plug tobacco is made by enveloping the desired amount of fillers within covering leaves of a fine bright colour.
Both cake and roll tobacco are equally used for smoking and chewing; for the latter purpose the cake is frequently sweetened with liquorice, and sold as honey-dew or sweet cavendish.
For cigar-making the finest and most delicately flavoured qualities of tobacco are generally selected.
The fillers or inner contents of the cigar must be of uniform quality, and so packed and distributed in a longitudinal direction that the tobacco may burn uniformly and the smoke can be freely drawn from end to end.
The cigar is then rolled in the hand to consolidate the tobacco and bring it into proper shape, after which it is wrapped in the outer cover, a shaped piece made to enclose the whole in a spiral manner, beginning at the thick end of the cigar and working down to the pointed end, where it is dexterously finished by twisting to a fine point between the fingers.
Genuine (" legitimas ") Havana cigars are such only as are made in the island; and the cigars made in Europe and elsewhere from genuine Cuban tobacco are classed as " Havanas."
Other brands of home manufacture contain some proportion of Cuban tobacco; and very good cigars may be made in which the name only of that highly-prized leaf is employed.
Next come the " regalias," similarly made of the best Vuelta Abajo tobacco; and it is only the lower qualities, " ordinary regalias," which are commonly found in commerce, the finer, and the " vegueras," being exceedingly high-priced.
Cigarettes consist of small rolls of fine cut tobacco wrapped in a covering of thin tough paper specially made for such use.
In other machines a roll of narrow paper, in width equal to the circumference of the cigarette, is converted into a long tube, filled with tobacco, and automatically cut off into proper lengths.
The best cigarettes, however, are made by hand; the tobacco leaves are selected and hand-cut, and the paper tubes are filled by hand.
The manufacture of snuff is the most complex, tedious and difficult undertaking of the tobacco manufacture, but it is now of but little ff importance.
The tobacco best suited for snuff-making Snuff.
In nearly all civilized countries the cultivation of tobacco and its manufacture are conducted under state supervision and form an important source of public revenue.
In 1886 experiments were conducted, under certain restrictions, and the plant was grown in Norfolk, Kent and other counties with sufficient success to prove the entire practicability of raising tobacco as a commercial crop in England.
In more recent years tobacco has been grown in Ireland, but up to 1910 it had been found impracticable to obtain from the government sufficient relaxation from fiscal restrictions to encourage the home cultivation, though in 1907 the prospect of licences being issued was held out.
The following table, taken from the Year Book of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, ig06, indicates the crops of tobacco in 1905 in the regions mentioned, so far as figures are available.
The literature of tobacco is very extensive.
From such a mass of authorities it would be vain here to make selections, but mention may be made of Fairholt's capital gossiping work, Tobacco, its History and Associations (2nd ed., 1876).
The few other industries include rum distilleries and factories for chemicals, ice and tobacco.
Stendal is the seat of a large railway workshop, and carries on various branches of textile industry, besides the manufacture of tobacco, machinery, stoves, gold-leaf, &c. The earliest printing-press in the.
Manufactures include cotton and woollen fabrics, tobacco, spirits, soap and tiles.
The industries include brewing, weaving and the manufacture of cloth, carpets, tobacco, sugar, leather-grease, toys and roofingfelt.
The chief industries are the manufacture of tobacco, beer, leather, porcelain, machinery and paper.
Cabinet woods, fruit, tobacco, sugar, wax, honey and cattle products are the leading exports.
The principal sources of revenue are direct taxation, stamp and death duties, customs, port and lighthouse dues, octroi and tithes, tobacco, salt and gunpowder monopolies, postal and telegraph receipts, and revenue from the state domains (lands, fisheries, forests, mines).
Tobacco is grown in the department of Piura, and in the montana departments of Loreto, Amazonas and Cajamarca.
The manufacturing industries of Peru are confined chiefly to the treatment of agricultural and mineral products - the manufacture of sugar and rum from sugar cane, textiles from cotton and wool, wine and spirits from grapes, cigars and cigarettes from tobacco, chocolate from cacao, kerosene and benzine from crude petroleum, cocaine from coca, and refined metals from their ores.
The public revenues are derived from customs, taxes, various inland and consumption taxes, state monopolies, the government wharves, posts and telegraphs, &c. The customs taxes include import and export duties, surcharges, harbour dues, warehouse charges, &c.; the inland taxes comprise consumption taxes on alcohol, tobacco, sugar and matches, stamps and stamped paper, capital and mining properties, licences, transfers of property, &c.; and the state monopolies cover opium and salt.
Cacao, tobacco, cotton, rice and indigo are grown in the neighbouring country, and the town has a considerable trade in these and other commodities; it also manufactures sugar, fans and woven fabrics.
The principal articles imported are cotton and cotton goods, coffee, coal, cereals, hides, fruit and tobacco; the principal articles exported are wool and woollen goods,.
The principal crops are millet, rice, other food grains, pulse, oilseeds, cotton and tobacco, with a little coffee.
Among the other manufactures are food preparations, wooden ware, wagons and carriages, stoves and furnaces, boots and shoes, tobacco and cigars, flour, candy, gloves, bricks, tile and pottery, furniture, paper boxes and firearms. Utica is a shipping point for the products of a fertile agricultural region, from which are exported dairy products (especially cheese), nursery products, flowers (especially roses), small fruits and vegetables, honey and hops.
Its principal imports are cotton and woollen goods, yarn, metals, sugar, coffee, tea, spices, cashmere shawls, &c., and its principal exports opium, wool, carpets, horses, grain, dyes and gums, tobacco, rosewater, &c. The importance of Bushire has much increased since about 1862.
A great shock of rough, dusky, dark hair; bright, laughing, hazel eyes; massive aquiline face, most massive yet most delicate; of sallow brown complexion, almost Indian-looking, clothes cynically loose, free-and-easy, smokes infinite tobacco.
The principal industries are flax, sugar, tobacco and machinery, and there is a trade in cattle and horses.
The use of tobacco, which became prevalent in the 17th century, necessitated the pouch.
In the valleys the soil is particularly fertile, yielding luxuriant crops of wheat, maize, barley, spelt, beans, potatoes, flax, hemp, hops, beetroot and tobacco; and even in the more mountainous parts rye, wheat and oats are extensively cultivated.
The chief articles of manufacture are machinery, woollen and cotton goods, silk ribbons, paper, tobacco, leather, china, glass, clocks, jewellery and chemicals.
In the time of the counts the wealth of Gouda was mainly derived from brewing and cloth-weaving; but at a later date the making of clay tobacco pipes became the staple trade, and, although this industry has somewhat declined, the churchwarden pipes of Gouda are still well known and largely manufactured.
In addition to cash registers, the city's manufactured products include agricultural implements, clay-working machinery, cotton-seed and linseed oil machinery, filters, turbines, railway cars (the large Barney-Smith car works employed 1800 men in 1905), carriages and wagons, sewingmachines (the Davis Sewing Machine Co.), automobiles, clothing, flour, malt liquors, paper, furniture, tobacco and soap. The total value of the manufactured product, under the "factory system," was $31,015,293 in 1900 and $39,596,773 in 1905.
Rice, wheat, barley, oats, Indian corn, various kinds of millet, pulses, oil-seeds, tobacco, cotton, indigo, opium, flax and hemp and sugar-cane, are the principal agricultural products of Bhagalpur district.
The state has a large tobacco manufactory in the town.
Among its exports are sugar, coffee, cacao, tobacco and fruit.
It is near the great mineral deposits of Virginia, Tennessee, West Virginia, Kentucky and North Carolina; an important distributing point for iron, coal and coke; and has tanneries and lumber mills, iron furnaces, tobacco factories, furniture factories and packing houses.
Machinery, cement, cordage, wire ropes, tobacco, leather, &c. are manufactured.
The other industries of Johannesburg include brewing, printing and bookbinding, timber sawing, flour milling, iron and brass founding, brick making and the manufacture of tobacco.
Pulses of different sorts, oilseeds, fibres, sugar-cane, tobacco, spices and vegetables also form crops of the district.
The river valleys in the vicinity produce cotton, pepper, tobacco, rice, Indian corn and fruit.
There is also a trade in tobacco.
Belfast also has some of the largest tobacco works and rope works in the world.
Its district is one of the principal sources of Turkish tobacco, a whole variety of which is known as "Samsun."
There are also some factories of preserved fruits and tobacco.
Sugar, wheat, alfalfa, Indian corn, tobacco and hides are the principal products, and cotton, which was grown here under the Incas, is still produced.
Holguin has trade in cabinet woods, tobacco, Indian corn and cattle products, which it exports through its port Gibara, about 25 m.
The leaders, one of whom was Captain David P. de Vries, wished " to plant a colony for the cultivation of grain and tobacco as well as to carry on the whale fishery in that region."
The educational establishments include two gymnasia, an episcopal clerical seminary, a seminary for boys and a school of church music. Among the chief manufactures are iron and steel wares, pottery, parquet flooring, tobacco, and lead pencils.
The staple imports are piece goods, tobacco, cotton, earthenware, tea and sugar.
The industries of Arnstadt include iron and other metal founding, the manufacture of leather, cloth, tobacco, weighing-machines, paper, playing-cards, chairs, gloves, shoes, iron safes, and beer, and market-gardening and trade in grain and wood are carried on.
The cultivated products include coffee, the Coco-nut palm, tobacco, sugar-cane, cotton, vanilla, sorghum, earthnuts, sesame, maize, rice, beans, peas, bananas (in large quantities), yams, manioc and hemp. Animal products are ivory, hides, tortoiseshell and pearls.
Almost all industries are represented; chief among them are machine-building, the manufacture of india-rubber, linen, cloth, hardware, chemicals, tobacco, pianos, furniture and groceries.
Tobacco has been found growing in the interior, and may be indigenous, as is in some districts the Kava pepper (Piper methysticum).
Now on the mainland and in the islands plantations have been established and tobacco and cotton have been successfully grown.
Vines are cultivated on a large scale, and tobacco is grown in the south.
The principal branches of manufacturing industry are flour-milling, potteries, ironworks and tobacco factories.
The manufacture of machinery, amber articles, tobacco and cigars, and bricks, with some iron-founding, linen-weaving, and salmon-fishing in the Stolpe, are the chief industrial occupations of the inhabitants, who also carry on trade in grain, cattle, spirits, timber, fish and geese.
A considerable native export trade in wood, charcoal, bamboo, medicines, paper umbrellas, oranges, otter skins and tobacco leaf is carried on.
It produces rice, tobacco, coffee, cotton and sugar-cane, none of them important as exports.
The value of farms on which dairying was the chief source of income in 1900 was 46% of the total farm value of the state; the corresponding percentages for livestock, vegetables, hay and grain, flowers and plants, fruit and tobacco, being respectively 14.6, 10 2, 8 o, 4.2, 3.2, and 1 8%.
Tobacco, which has been cultivated since colonial times, especially since the Civil War, is grown exclusively in the Connecticut Valley or on its borders.
The industries of Konigsberg have made great advances within recent years, notable among them are printing-works and manufactures of machinery, locomotives, carriages, chemicals, toys, sugar, cellulose, beer, tobacco and cigars, pianos and amber wares.
The chief products are coffee, sesame, the sugar-cane, cocoa, vanilla and tobacco.
In 1607 the first lasting settlement was made in Virginia, and after a period of struggle began to flourish by the cultivation of tobacco.
Poppies and tobacco are largely grown, the tobacco being deemed the best in Central Asia.
Medicinal plants, as the castor-oil plant and aloe, come to perfection without culture; and coffee, indigo, cotton and tobacco are also of spontaneous growth.
The first source of colonial wealth was the growing of tobacco, but the curing industry ceased early in the 18th century.
Except a few acres of tobacco, all the cultivation is rice.
Coloured and white paper, ready-made clothing, cellulose, tobacco, lime and liqueurs are the chief manufactures, while a considerable export trade is done down the Main in wood, cattle and wine.
The district produces wheat, maize, barley and tobacco; sericulture and viticulture are both practised on a limited scale.
Its chief productions are sugar, tobacco and cigars, 'stoves, machines, vehicles, agricultural implements and bricks.
Woollen, cloth, cotton and flax mills, steam flour and saw mills, distilleries and breweries, machinery works, paper mills, furniture, tobacco, soap, candle and hardware works are among the chief industrial establishments.
Tobacco culture was introduced in 1845, and in 1860 the crop was 5,764,582 lb.
Those producing most tobacco are in a district extending from the S.E.
Tobacco is also grown, and over 32,000 acres are under vineyards, while gardens extend to some 15,500 acres in Crimea.
Tobacco is produced in the vicinity and sent to other parts of the Montana region.
The valley and delta of the Vistula are very fertile, and produce good crops of wheat and pasturage for horses, cattle and sheep. Besides cereals, the chief crops are potatoes, hay, tobacco, garden produce, fruit and sugar-beet.
Coal, iron, silver and other minerals are found in the adjoining hills; and the city possesses a government tobacco factory, a brewery, cloth-mills, gunpowder-mills, a model farm and many corn-mills, worked by the two rapid rivers.
The surrounding country is wooded and very fertile, being especially noted for its coffee and tobacco.
Its industries include wool-weaving and spinning, dyeing, iron-founding, the manufacture of cotton and silk goods, machinery, sewing machines and machine oil, leather and tobacco, and printing (books and maps) and flower gardening.
The Rhine valley is in great part fertile, yielding good crops of potatoes, cereals (including maize), sugar beet, hops, tobacco, flax, hemp and products of oleaginous plants.
The tobacco plant also grows wild.
Besides grains the chief crops are those of pumpkins, potatoes and other table vegetables, and tobacco.
The cultivation of potatoes and tobacco largely increased between the census years 1890 and 1904.
The industries embrace engine-building, the manufacture of railway carriages a11d plant, scientific instruments, porcelain, tobacco and cigars, lithography, jute-spinning, iron-founding, brewing and gardening.
The price of tobacco and the tariff of the State railways were considerably increased, special war increases were introduced in the direct taxes, and in April 1916 an entirely new tax was imposed - the " war profits tax," the name of which was subsequently altered to " war tax."
During the four years for which he held that office, although he allowed the finances of the colony to get into confusion, he endeavoured to improve its condition by introducing the vine, sugar-cane and tobacco plant, and by encouraging the breeding of horses and the reclamation of land.
They live by agriculture (cotton, tobacco, nutmegs, &c.) and fishing.
Tobacco, pepper, coco-nuts and maize are other agricultural products.
Tobacco of good quality supplies local requirements but is not exported; pepper, grown chiefly in Chantabun and southern Siam, annually yields about 900 tons for export.
Engineering, oil-cake, tobacco, sail and rope works are the principal industries in the town.
There are tallow-melting houses, steam flourmills, candle and soap works, distilleries and tobacco factories.
The trade is very active and increasing, Kishinev being a centre for the Bessarabian trade in grain, wine, tobacco, tallow, wool and skins, exported to Austria and to Odessa.
The site of Hoboken (originally "Hobocanhackingh," the place of the tobacco pipe) was occupied about 1640 as a Dutch farm, but in 1643 the stock and all the buildings except a brew-house were destroyed by the Indians.
The principal articles of export are sugar, tobacco, copra, forest products (various gums, &c.), coffee, petroleum, tea, cinchona, tin, rice, pepper, spices and gambier.
The average annual production of tobacco is about fifty million pounds from each of the islands of Java and Sumatra.
It has the principal tobacco and cigar factory of the state monopoly, which employs about 2500 hands, and has besides a large and important textile and glass industry, corn and saw-mills, pottery and brewing.
The exports from Batavia to the other islands of the archipelago, and to the ports in the Malay Peninsula, are rice, sago, coffee, sugar, salt, oil, tobacco, teak timber and planks, Java cloths, brass wares, &c., and European, Indian and Chinese goods.
Espirito Santo is almost exclusively agricultural, sugar-cane, coffee, rice, cotton, tobacco, mandioca and tropical fruits being the principal products.
At first a trade was carried on in wine, colonial wares, alcoholic liquors and salt; there are now manufactures of earthenware, glass and crystal, arms, paper, woollens, tools, lead, copper and zinc work, as well as breweries, and tobacco and cigar factories, and a trade in corn and butter.
There are manufactures of tobacco, sugar and boots; other industries are flour-milling, tanning and brewing.
A very few articles (spirits, beer, wine, tobacco, tea, coffee, cocoa) yield practically all of the customs revenue, and, so far as these articles are produced within the country, they are subject to an excise duty, an internal tax precisely equal to the import duty.
Next the internal taxes were gradually done away with, until nothing was left except the excise on beer, spirits and tobacco.
In the manufacture of vehicles, harness, leather, hardwood lumber, wood-working machinery, machine tools, printing ink, soap, pig-iron, malt liquors, whisky, shoes, clothing, cigars and tobacco, furniture, cooperage goods, iron and steel safes and vaults, and pianos, also in the packing of meat, especially pork,' it ranks very high among the cities of the Union.
There are manufactures of cloth, machinery and tobacco, and an active trade in grain and horses.
The trade is chiefly in timber, grain, wine, tobacco, fruit and other products of the neighbourhood.
The principal manufactories are of tobacco, boatbuilding, agricultural implements, foundries and cloth factories.
It has important fisheries and manufactures of spirits, beer and tobacco.