She wanted him, the man behind the titles and the power.
The peer's children, in some cases his grandchildren, have titles and precedence, but they have no substantial privileges.
wise was the second, with the respective titles of De constantia philologiae and De constantia jurisprudentis.
the family took the higher titles of dukes of Lower Lorraine and Bouillon.
Patterson was withdrawn, the disputed territory was erected into the new county of Luzerne (1786), the land titles were confirmed (1787), and Colonel Timothy Pickering was commissioned to organize the new county and to effect a reconciliation.
The trouble was again revived by the repeal in 1790 of the confirming act 2 Several Scotch-Irish families from Lancaster (disambiguation)|Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, accepted Connecticut titles and settled at Hanover under Captain Lazarus Stewart.
The peace did not satisfy her, although La Rochefoucauld won the titles he desired.
But he showed the magnanimity of his nature by at once admitting Verus as his partner, giving him the tribunician and proconsular powers, and the titles Caesar and Augustus.
The titles of these juvenile performances, which were played by amateurs, were Salga por donde saliere, Me voy a Sevilla and La Corona y el Punal.
James Hepburn succeeded in 1556 to his father's titles, lands and hereditary offices, including that of lord high admiral of Scotland.
Again imprisoned, this time on a charge of witchcraft, he escaped from captivity in 1 59 1, and was deprived by parliament of his lands and titles; as an outlaw his career was one of extraordinary lawlessness.
This earl had three sons, but his titles were never restored.
By his attainder the Norfolk titles were once more forfeited.
In the first year of James I., Thomas, the young son of Earl Philip, was restored in blood and given the titles of Arundel and Surrey.
But the lands belonging to these titles remained with the Crown and he had to repair his fortunes by one of those marriages which never failed his house, his wife being Alathea Talbot, who was at last the heir of Gilbert, earl of Shrewsbury.
The Protector summoned him in 1657 to his House of Lords, but he was imprisoned in 1659 on suspicion of a share in Booth's insurrection and, after the Restoration, was created, in 1661, earl of Carlisle, Viscount Morpeth and Lord Dacre of Gilsland, titles which are still held by his descendants.
It is noticeable that even the more highly developed forms of liturgical prayer tend, in the recitation of divine titles, attributes and the like, to present a survival of this magical use of potent names.
It is familiar in the titles, showing the colour of their wands of office, of the gentlemen ushers of the three principal British orders of knighthood, the ushers of the Garter and St Patrick being "Ushers of the Black Rod," and of the Thistle "Green Rod."
The renewal of the religious war in September 1567, however, was at once a symptom and a cause of diminished influence to L'Hopital, and in February 1568 he obtained his letters of discharge, which were registered by the parlement on the IIth of May, his titles, honours and emoluments being reserved to him during the remainder of his life.
It may be marked by titles or it may not.
F.)/n==Authorities== - Selden's Titles of Honor (London, 1672) remains the best comparative account in the English language of the nobility of various countries up to his date.
See also the articles Titles Of Honour, Peerage, Feudalism, Gentleman, Duke, Count, &C.
Stephen was defeated and captured at Lincoln (1141); the empress was acclaimed lady or queen of England (she used both titles indifferently) and crowned at London.
These titles were preserved in the sacred writing down to the latest age.
Some of his political speeches have been published under the titles Present Day Problems (1908), and Polticial Issues and Outlooks (1909).
All the male descendants of the 1st earl of Anglesey became extinct in the person of George, 2nd earl of Mountnorris, in 1844, when the titles of Viscount Valentia and Baron Mountnorris passed to his cousin Arthur Annesley (1785-1863), who thus became 10th Viscount Valentia, being descended from the 1st Viscount Valentia, the father of the 1st earl of Anglesey in the Annesley family.
titles of psalms, dates and headings of prophecies) involves a criticism of the historical traditions themselves, and thus the two major classes of material must be constantly examined both separately and in their bearing on one another.
The origin is to be found in the initial letters of the names and titles of Jesus in Greek, viz.
The Hebrew titles ascribe to him seventy-three psalms; the Septuagint adds some fifteen more; and later opinion, both Jewish p and Christian, claimed for him the authorship of the whole Psalter (so the Talmud, Augustine and others).
His dislike of the Ecclesiastical Titles Assumption Bill, the rejection of which he failed to secure in 1851, prevented him from joining the government of Lord John Russell, or from forming an administration himself in this year.
For full titles see COUNCIL.
In one respect the new institution marked an enormous advance on titles of nobility, which had been granted nearly always for warlike exploits, or merely as a mark of the favour of the sovereign.
This was so: abolished in 1790 by the constituent assembly, titles of nobility were virtually restored by Napoleon in 1806 and legally in 1808.
Four generals - Kellermann, .Lefebvre, Perignon, Serrurier - received the titles of honorary marshals.
In 1845 Reichenbach commenced with his Praktische Naturgeschichte der Vogel the extraordinary series of illustrated publications which, under titles far too numerous here to repeat, ended in or about 1855, and are commonly known collectively as his Vollsteindigste Naturgeschichte der Vogel.
This district, known as the Western Reserve, was ceded in 1800 on condition that Congress would guarantee the titles to land already granted by the state.
Leland said that it is easier to collect the leaves of the Sibyl than the titles of the works written by Roger Bacon; and though the labour has been somewhat lightened by the publications of Brewer and Charles, referred to below, it is no easy matter even now to form an accurate idea of his actual productions.
But the appeal to the verbally inspired Bible was stronger than that to a church hopelessly divided; the Bible, and not the consent of the universal church, became the touchstone of the reformed orthodoxy; in the nomenclature of the time, " evangelical " arose in contradistinction to " Catholic," while, in popular parlance, the " protest " of the Reformers against the " corruptions of Rome " led to the invention of the term " Protestant," which, though nowhere assumed in the official titles of the older reformed churches, was early used as a generic term to include them all.
The dissident " Catholic " churches are forced to qualify their titles: they are " Old Catholics " (Alt-Katholiken) or " German Catholics " (Deutsch-Katholiken).
The government was vested in the council (1 30uXii) and people (8rl/20s), and administered by civil officers with Greek titles, the proedros (president), the grammateus (secretary), the archons, syndics and dekaprotoi (a fiscal council of ten), following the model of a Greek municipality under the Roman Empire.
Titles of honour, offices of trust or relating to the administration of justice, and pensions granted by the crown for military services are also inalienable.
Full titles under COUNCILS.
They present somewhat similar features with the Salic law, but often differ from it in the date of compilation, the amount of fines, the number and nature of the crimes, the number, rank, duties and titles of the officers, &c. For the Salic law and other Frankish laws, see Salic Law, and for the edict of Theodoric I., which was applicable to the Ostrogoths and Romans, see Roman Law.
His joy was complete when on the 10th of March 1811 she bore him a son who was destined to bear the empty titles of "king of Rome" and "Napoleon II."
The staff officers bore similar titles, relics of the time when the order existed only for amusement: Genii, Hydras, Furies, Goblins, Night Hawks, Magi, Monks and Turks.
The former existence of so many separate sovereignties and fountains of honor gave nse to a great many hereditary titles of nobility.
Though these institutions borrowed high-sounding titles from antiquity, they wen in reality imitations of the Lombard civic system.
Henry established imperial vicars in the Lombard towns, confirming the tyrants, but gaining nothing for the empire in exchange for the titles he conferred.
Equally contemptible in its political results and void of historical interest was the brief visit of John of Bohemia, son of Henry VII., whom the Ghibellines next invited to assume their leadership. He sold a few privileges, conferred a few titles, and recrossed the Alps in 1333.
As their tenure of power grew firmer, they advanced dynastic claims, assumed titles, and took the style of petty sovereigns.
These titles were, however, separated when his son, Francis Godolphin Darcy, the 7th Duke (1798-1859), died without sons in May 1859.
We meet with this in the titles of two Latin works' by German authors in reply to Lord Herbert of Cherbury.
The elder was not an officer inferior and subordinate to the bishop. The elder was a bishop. The two titles are applied to the same persons.
Dusty's a stickler for titles.
The great Conde was given, for a victory gained near this place, the right to use the style of Enghien among his subsidiary titles.
He also largely employed Jews and Ishmaelites,' the financial specialists of the day, whom he rewarded with lands and titles.
Of both: Benjacob, Ozar ha-sepharim (Wilna, 1880) (in Hebrew; arranged by titles).
Their religion was pagan, being quite distinct from Buddhism; but in Assam they gradually became Hinduized, and their kings finally adopted Hindu names and titles.
In hieroglyphic a king bears several names preceded by distinctive titles.
They even speak of the tiger with honorific titles.
His titles spread over several lines of print, and he drew the combined pay of the places besides securing huge grants of land.
As the consort of En -lil, the goddess Nin-lil or Belit belongs to Nippur and her titles as "ruler of heaven and earth," and "mother of the gods" are all due to her position as the wife of Bel.
He was at first pantler, then carver, titles which are misleading as to the nature of his services, which were those of a diplomatist; and in 1457 he became a member of the ducal council.
The titles of these atlases survive, though the authors of the original editions are long dead, and the maps have been repeatedly superseded by others bringing the information up to the date of publication.
of the Report for1895-1896of the United States commissioner of education there is a detailed "Bibliography of Horace Mann," containing more than 700 titles.
The Christian aristocracy lost its privileges, but its ancient titles of duke (vojvod) and count (knez) did not disappear.
Below him ranked the newly converted Moslem aristocracy, who adopted the dress, titles and etiquette of the Turkish court, without relinquishing their language or many of their old customs. They dwelt in fortified towns or castles, where the vali was only admitted on sufferance for a few days; and, at the outset, they formed a separate military caste, headed by 48 kapetans - landholders exercising unfettered authority over their retainers and Christian serfs, but bound, in return, to provide a company of mounted troops for the service of their sovereign.
Officials, he says, with grand titles and no responsible duties have been abolished, and departments with responsible chiefs created.
Among the titles of his tragedies are Aegisthus, Lycurgus, Andromache or Hector Proficiscens, Equus Trojanus, the last named being performed at the opening of Pompey's theatre (55).
The titles of most of them, like those of Plautus, and unlike those of Caecilius and Terence, are Latin, not Greek.
The pastoral staff is the ensign proper of cardinals (except cardinal-deacons) and bishops; but the former are entitled to use it only in the churches from which they derive their titles,.
Poinsett at Washington, the Indian titles to all lands east of the Mississippi were practically extinguished.
The fuller titles of the ark originate in the belief that it contained the "covenant" (berith) or "testimony" (`eduth), the technical terms for the Decalogue; primarily, however, it would seem to have been called "the ark of Yahweh" (or "Elohim"), or simply "the ark."
Cagnat at Susa in 1883 gives these titles to the town, and at the same time identifies it with Susa.
As patroness of the arts, she is associated with Hephaestus (one of her titles is `H4at6Tia) and Prometheus, and in Boeotia she was regarded as the inventress of the flute.
1) in titles, but nowhere else in the Old Testament.
which carries no more intrinsic weight than the Davidic titles of the Psalms. The poem begins with a prayer that God will renew the historic manifestation of the exodus, which inaugurated the national history and faith; a thunderstorm moving up from the south is then described, in which God is revealed (3-7); it is asked whether this manifestation, whose course is further described, is against nature only (8-ii); the answer is given that it is for the salvation of Israel against its wicked foes (12-15); the poet describes the effect in terror upon himself (16) and declares his confidence in God, even in utter agricultural adversity (17-19).
In the bibliography at the close of this article (referred to by leaded arabic numerals in brackets throughout these pages), the titles of works are given which contain detailed information as to the genera and species of each order or sub-order, their geographical distribution and their habits and economy so far as they have been ascertained.
Some prominent examples (dealt with elsewhere under their appropriate titles) are the dispute between the United States and Great Britain respecting the " Alabama " and other vessels employed by the Confederate government during the American Civil War (award in 1872); that between the same powers respecting the fur-seal fishery in Bering Sea (award in 1893); that between Great Britain and Venezuela respecting the boundary of British Guiana (award in 1899); that between Great Britain, the United States and Portugal respecting the Delagoa railway (award in 1900); that between Great Britain and the United States respecting the boundary of Alaska (award in 1903).
conde), the English translation of foreign titles equivalent generally to the English "earl."
Conversely old English writers had no hesitation in translating as "earl" foreign titles which we now render "count."
In France, by the 10th century, the process of decomposition of the old organization had gone far, and in the 11th century titles of nobility were still very loosely applied.
These Napoleonic countships, increased under subsequent reigns, have produced a plentiful crop of titles of little social significance, and have tended to lower the status of the counts deriving from the ancien regime.
As in France, however, there are some Italian conti whose titles are respectable, and even illustrious, from their historic associations.
As for the papal countships, which are still freely bestowed on those of all nations whom the Holy See wishes to reward, their prestige naturally varies with the religious complexion of the country in which the titles are borne.
See Selden, Titles of Honor (London, 1672); Du Cange, Glossarium Med.
Outside the two great river systems of the Amazon and river Plate (Rio de la Plata), which are treated under their respective titles, the rivers of Brazil are limited to the numerous small streams and three or four large rivers which flow eastward from the plateau regions directly into the Atlantic. The Amazon system covers the entire north-western part of the republic, the state of Amazonas, nearly the whole of Para and the greater part of Matto Grosso being drained by this great river and its tributaries.
The more important rivers of the first division, which are described in more detail under the titles of the Brazilian states through which they flow, are the following: the Gurupy, Tury-assu, Mearim, Itapicuru and Balsas, in the state of Maranhao; the Parnahyba and its tributaries in Piauhy; Jaguaribe in Ceara; and the Apody and Piranhas in Rio Grande do Norte.
4 The Brazilian official titles are given for the state capitals: Belem for Para; Sao Luiz for Maranhao; Sao Salvador for Bahia; and Recife for Pernambuco.
The chief titles are poverty, i.e.
So great, however, did his achievement seem that he was honoured with the titles of Doctor irrefragabilis and Theologorum monarcha.
Thus the Magyars were saddled with two rival kings with equally valid titles, which proved an even worse disaster than the Mohacs catastrophe; for in most of the counties of the unhappy kingdom desperadoes of every description plundered the estates of the gentry, and oppressed the common people, under the pretext that they were fighting the battles of the contending monarchs.
Earlier titles are Concerning the Antiquity of the Jews or Against the Greeks.
(in the Bible only in titles of psalms), which is applicable to any piece designed to be sung to a musical accompaniment.
With this it agrees that the titles of the psalms name no one later than Solomon, and even he is not recognized as a psalmodist by the most ancient tradition, that of the LXX., which omits him from the title of Ps.
Whatever may be the value of the titles to individual psalms, there can be no question that the tradition that the Psalter was collected by David is not historical; 1 Hippol., ed.
We see, too, that it is only in the latest collection (books IV., V.) that anonymity is the rule, and titles, especially titles with names, occur only sporadically.
Elsewhere the titles run in series and correspond to the limits of older collections.
The interpretation of the titles here suggested removes an objection brought against the assumption of a Maccabaean date for certain psalms, which lays stress on the fact that some of them, e.g.
For if the titles nrp 'i?
Ochus (middle of 4th Some confirmation of this explanation of the titles may be found in the fact that in place of lam'?
the musical titles have entirely disappeared.
The titles which ascribe four of the pilgrimage songs to David and one to Solomon are lacking in the true LXX., and inconsistent with the contents of the psalms. Better attested, because found in the LXX.
The only possible question for the critic is whether the ascription of these psalms to David was due to the idea that he was the psalmist par excellence, to whom any poem of unknown origin was naturally ascribed, or whether we have in some at least of these titles an example of the habit so common in later Jewish literature of writing in the name of ancient worthies.
is clear from such titles as that of Ps.
In any case the titles are manifestly the product of the same uncritical spirit as we have just been speaking of, for not only are many of the titles certainly wrong, but they are wrong in such a way as to prove that they date from an age to which David was merely the abstract psalmist and which had no idea whatever of the historical conditions of his age.
Nothing can be further removed than this from any possible situation in the life of the David of the books of Samuel, and the case is still worse in the second Davidic collection, especially where we have in the titles definite notes as to the historical occasion on which the poems are supposed to have been written.
The musical notes found in the titles of the psalms and occasionally also in the text (Selah, 1 Higgaion) are so obscure that it seems unnecessary to enter here upon the various conjectures that have been made about them.
- (A) The oldest version, the LXX., follows a text generally closely corresponding to the Massoretic Hebrew, the main variations being in the titles and in the addition (lacking in some MSS.) of an apocryphal psalm ascribed to David when he fought with Goliath.
They called their four original founders apostles and prophets - titles given also in the Key of Truth to the elect one.
That the Pharaoh's skirt, sometimes decorated with a pleated golden material, should become an honorific garment, the right of wearing which was proudly recorded among the bearer's titles, is quite intelligible, but many difficulties arise when one attempts to identify the individuals represented, or to trace the evolution of ideas.2 The well-known conservatism of religious practice manifests itself in ceremonial festivals (where there is a tendency for the original religious meaning to be obscured) and among cere= the priests, and it is interesting to observe that despite the great changes in Egyptian costume in the New Kingdom the priests still kept to the simple linen skirt of earlier days (Erman, 206).
Lucian's De Dea Syria, § 48; for " bees," &c., as titles of sacred attendants, see J.
The titles descended to his son, Henry (1753-1836), the ancestor of the present Viscount Hood.
The titles and considerable fragments (about 700 lines) of some fifty plays have been preserved.
Among the titles accorded to him are "king of lands," "king of heaven and earth" and "father of the gods."
When, with the political rise of Babylon as the centre of a great empire, Nippur yielded its prerogatives to the city over which Marduk presided, the attributes and the titles of En-lil were transferred to Marduk, who becomes the "lord" or Bel of later days.
At a convivial gathering on the, 8th of November he supported a toast to "the speedy abolition of all hereditary titles and feudal distinctions," and gave proof of his zeal by expressly repudiating his own title - a performance for which he was dismissed from the army.
The marquis de Ruvigny has compiled The Jacobite Peerage (Edinburgh, 1904), a work which purports to give a list of all the titles and honours conferred by the kings of the exiled House of Stuart.
The three books on Mechanics survive in an Arabic translation which, however, bears a title" On the lifting of heavy objects."This corresponds exactly to Barulcus, and it is probable that Barulcus and Mechanics were only alternative titles for one and the same work.
In 1644, with the transfer of New Netherlands to English control, the name "Beverwyck" was changed to "Albany" - one of the titles of the duke of York (afterward James II.).
After his death, his son Philip having predeceased him (1298), Artois was adjudged to his daughter Mahaut, or Matilda, as against her nephew Robert, son of Philip, who attempted to support his claim to the countship by forged titles.
(or napoh) are the Malay names of the species with those specific titles.
There were many literary works the titles of which have come down to us.
The superscription shows points of connexion with the Rest of the Words of Baruch, but little weight can be attached to the fact, since titles and superscriptions were so frequently transformed and expanded in ancient times.
The titles and subjects of more than twenty of them are known.
Many high officials of the British government have the word "lord" prefixed to their titles; some of them are treated in separate articles; for lord privy seal see Privy Seal.
In time the private lord, who had never been an officer of the state, assumed the old administrative titles and called himself count or viscount, and perhaps with some sort of right, for his position in his territories, through the development of the immunity, did not differ from that now held by the man who had been originally a count.
Actually not even in the most regular of feudal countries, like England or Germany, was there any fixed gradation of rank, titles or size.
They drew from it their titles and ranks and many of their regulative ideas, though these were formed into more definite and regular systems than ever existed in feudalism proper.
The Sabaean rule is generally divided into periods indicated by the titles given to their rulers.
Thus government, war, friendship, morality, piety, eloquence, are some of the titles under which Ibn Qutaiba groups his stories and verses in the `Uyun ul Akhbar.
The official titles recorded by Ibn Fadlan are those in use amongst the Tatar nations of that age, whether Huns, Bulgarians, Turks or Mongols.
His original name, Mahommed, was changed by his father, with whom he was a favourite, into Aurangzeb, meaning ornament of the throne, and at a later time he assumed the additional titles of Mohi-eddin, reviver of religion, and Alam-gir, conqueror of the world.
In 1876 new mining laws were enacted which gave better titles to mining properties and better regulations for their operation, but the outbreak of the war with Chile at the end of the decade and the succeeding years of disorganization and partisan strife defeated their purpose.
The seven books of the institutions have separate titles given to them either by the author or by a later editor.
Of his writings, which comprised treatises on a great variety of subjects, only the titles and a few fragments survive.
It is more than questionable, however, whether Tacitus himself divided his work under these titles.
The hope was not fulfilled, but a certain number of philosophic disciples gathered round Comte, and eventually formed themselves, under the guidance of the new ideas of the latter half of his life, into a kind of church, for whose use was drawn up the Positivist Calendar (1849), in which the names of those who had advanced civilization replaced the titles of the saints.
loaded Batarnay with favours: he married him to a rich heiress, Georgette de Montchenu, lady of Le Bouchage; besides making him captain of Mont Saint Michel and giving him valuable estates, with, later, the titles of counsellor and chamberlain to the king.
It is generically fixed to the titles of men of rank, as Khan Sahib, Nawab Sahib, Raja Sahib, and is equivalent to master.
The prototype of the historico-literary periodical may be discovered in La Clef du cabinet des princes de l'Europe (1704-1706), familiarly known as Journal de Verdun, and carried on under various titles down to 1794.
After the death of Tenzel the Bibliothek was carried on under different titles by C. Woltereck, J.
Lilienthal, the former of whom began with Gelehrtes Preussen (1722), continued under different titles down to 1729; the latter helped with the Erldutertes Preussen (1724), and was the sole editor of the Acta borussica (1730-1732).
Dieterich, which has appeared annually since 1896, describes about 1300 periodicals (mostly scientific) by subjects and titles; from 1900 it has been supplemented by Bibliographic der deutschen Recensionen, which indexes notices and reviews in over moo serials each year, chiefly scientific and technical.
The titles of these periodicals, which number about 23,000, are arranged under the town or place of their publication.
The other provinces were governed by dukes and magistri militum, titles which were generally, but not always, borne by the same person.
who wrote similar editorial titles to the anonymous prophecies beginning Zech.
The Church of Ireland had at the time of the Act of Union four archbishops, who took their titles from Armagh, Dublin, Cashel and Tuam.
Others, like John Heydon, admitted they were not Rosicrucians, but under attractive and suggestive titles to their works sought to make Hermeticism and other curious studies more useful and popular, and succeeded, for a time at least.
At the British occupation there were about two dozen families bearing titles of nobility granted, alt.
These " privileges " were guaranteed, together with the rights and religion of the islanders, when they became British subjects, but no government has ever recognized papal titles in Malta.
This Persian title became in later times the special designation of the Kushan kings and is curiously parallel to the use of Arabic and Persian titles (padishah, sultan, &c.) by the Ottoman Turks.
After a little hesitation Trajan accepted the position, which was marked by the titles of imperator, Caesar and Germanicus, and by the tribunician authority.
To meet the expenses entailed by his liberality and extravagance, Gregory resorted to confiscation, on the pretext of defective titles or long-standing arrearages.
Franklin's work as a publisher is for the most part closely connected with his work in issuing the Gazette and Poor Richard's Almanack (a summary of the proverbs from which appeared in the number for 1758, and has often been reprinted - under such titles as Father Abraham's Speech, and The Way to Wealth).1 Of much of Franklin's work as an author something has already been said.
These ended in their accepting his terms under the famous convention of Vergara, which secured the recognition of their ranks and titles for nearly loon Carlist officers.
Selden (Titles of Honour, chap. viii.
In the early Roman republic, praetor (q.v.) meant commander of the army: in the later republic praetor and pro praetor were the usual titles for provincial governors with military powers.
John, Lord Mount Stuart (1767-1794), the son and heir of the 1st marquess, died before his father, and consequently in 1814 the Bute titles and estates came to his son John (1793-1848) as 2nd marquess.
The revocation of the charter aroused the strongest fears of the colonists Andros speedily met determined opposition by measures undertaken relative to taxation and land titles, by efforts to secure a church for Episcopal service, and an attempt to curb the town meetings.
But these titles are all of them too comprehensive.
Praetorius, in his Ludicrum chiromanticum (Jena, 1661) 3 has collected the titles of 77.
In eight years of hard work as director of a special land commission he settled the titles of land acquired by the French nation at the Revolution, and placed on an unassailable basis the rights of the proprietors who had bought this land from the government.
There are two English translations published respectively under the titles A commonwealth of good counsaile, &c. (1607), and The Accomplished Senator, done into English by Mr Oldisworth (1733).
Olympia was chosen as the temporary seat of government, and Governor Stevens at once set to work to extinguish the Indian titles to land and to survey a route for a railway, which was later to become the Northern Pacific. The Indians, alarmed by the rapid growth of the white population, attempted to destroy the scattered settlements and the wandering prospectors for gold, which had been discovered in eastern Washington in 1855.
Some inscriptions name, besides the king, an eponymus, whose office seems to have been priestly, his titles being dhu harif, eponymus and rashuw, " sacrificer."
Their titles are of the most diverse character.
"De la bataille de Dreux," &c. Occasionally the titles seem to be deliberately fantastic, as "Des puces," "De l'usage de se vestir."
The new essays, as has been remarked, differ strikingly from the older ones in respect of length; and the whimsical unexpectedness of the titles reappears in but two of them: "Des Coches" and "Des Boiteux."
The new and more honourable title of elector of Saxony now superseded his other titles, and the name Saxony gradually spread over his other possessions, which included Meissen and Thuringia as well as Saxe-Wittenberg, and thus the earlier history of the electorate and kingdom of Saxony is the early history of the mark of Meissen, the name of which now lingers only in a solitary town on the Elbe.
In May 1670 he received the titles of excellency and privy councillor; in July of the same year he was ennobled under the name of Griffenfeldt, deriving his title from the gold griffin with outspread wings which surmounted his escutcheon; in November 1673 he was created a count, a knight of the Elephant and, finally, imperial chancellor.
See, for list and full titles of the tracts, related documents, and discussion of the authorship, E.
In 1551 a marble statue of a seated man was found in the cemetery of the Via Tiburtina: on the sides of the seat were carved a paschal cycle, and on the back the titles of numerous writings.
Milwaukee was on the direct route of travel between Fort Dearborn (Chicago) and the flourishing settlement at Green Bay, and at once after the treaties between the United States and the Menominee in 1831 and 1833 for the extinguishing of the Indian titles, settlers began to come to the neighbourhood.
Justices of the peace have jurisdiction in civil cases involving no land titles and sums of money not exceeding $200.
The Aztec calendar includes nakshatra titles borrowed, not only through the medium of the Tatar zodiac, but likewise straight from the Indian scheme, apart from any known intervention.
There are no hereditary titles, those in use being conferred for life only and being attached to some particular office.
It is now known, however, that" Siam "or" Sayam "is one of the most ancient names of the country, and that at least a thousand years ago it was in common use, such titles as Swankalok-Sukhotai, Shahr-i-nao, Dwarapuri, Ayuthia, the last sometimes corrupted to" Judea,"by which the kingdom has been known at various periods of its history, being no more than the names of the different capital cities whose rulers in turn brought the land under their sway.
He left behind him a large number of treatises, and he is often quoted in the Digest, although direct extracts are not found (for titles see Teuffel-Schwabe, Hist.
Titles may be conferred only when they refer to office or occupation.
He began to write for the stage in 289 B.C., and, according to SuIdas, wrote 40 plays, of which 17 titles and some fragments have been preserved.
(Comnenus) and the hand of his daughter Anna, with the titles of Caesar (then ranking third) and Panhypersebastos (one of the new dignities introduced by Alexius).
Occasionally both titles are found in one house, the latter ranking below the former.
The titles in the order adopted, but with date of publication, are as follows: "Oratio inauguralis," on his appointment (1649) as Savilian professor (1657); "Mathesis universalis, seu opus arithmeticum philologice et mathematice traditurn, arithmeticam numerosam et speciosam aliaque continens" (1657); "Adversus Meibomium, de proportionibus dialogus" (1657); "De sectionibus conicis nova methodo expositis" (1655); "Arithmetica infinitorum, sive nova methodus inquirendi in curvilineorum quadraturam aliaque difficiliora matheseos problemata" (1655); "Eclipsis solaris observatio Oxonii habita 2° Aug.
Of other works only fragments and the titles have survived: Messeniakos, advocating the freedom of the Messenians and containing the sentiment that "all are by nature free"; a Eulogy of Death, in consideration of the wide extent of human sufferings; a Techne or instruction-book in the art of rhetoric; and a Fusikos lolos..
Brady and Norman, in their Monograph of the Ostracoda of the North Atlantic and North-Western Europe (1889), give a bibliography of 125 titles, and in the second part (1896) they give 55 more.
Miller's literature list of 125 titles in 1894.
The compilation of Proverbs is later than any of those whose proverbs are therein contained; but Ecclesiastes and Canticles are wholly Solomon's except the titles.
He concludes: " But considering the inscriptions, or titles of their books, it is manifest enough that the whole Scripture of the Old Testament was set forth in the form we have it after the return of the Jews from their captivity in Babylon and before the time of Ptolemaeus Philadelphus."
Titles and fragments of six plays are preserved, for which see T.
Rabbenu, " our Rabbi teaches us "; on the critical questions connected with the titles and the present redaction (probably 5th century), see Jew.
The several portions are named after the ordinary Jewish titles of the Old Testament books with the addition of Rabbah " great."
The various species to which the name "tree" can be given are treated under their individual titles, e.g.
Allibone records 84 titles of his books and published addresses.
That Caesar held the imperium which he enjoyed as dictator to be distinct in kind from that of the republican magistrates he indicated by placing the term imperator at the head of his titles.'
Of the two latter titles, the first is derived from the name of Venus Genetrix, the ancestress of the Julian house, the second indicates that the colonists were drawn from the plebs Urbana.
1 50), and also, probably, a special polemic against 1 See the list of their titles in A.
The state of Nuevo Leon, however, is divided into municipios only, while some other states use entirely different titles for the divisions, the larger being described as departamentos, cantons and municipios, and the smaller as partidos, directorial and vecindarios rurales.
The common soldiers were promoted for acts of daring, and the children of chiefs were regularly trained to war, and initiated by being sent into battle with veterans, with whose aid the youth took his first prisoner, but his future rise depended on how many captives he took unaided in fight with warlike enemies; by such feats he gained the dignity of wearing coloured blankets, tassels and lip-jewels, and reached such military titles as that of " guiding eagle."
From this time it is the name of the caliph that is inscribed on Mahmud's coins, together with his own new titles.
Two months later Eric was crowned at Upsala, on which occasion he first introduced the titles of baron and count into Sweden, by way of attaching to the crown the higher nobility, these new counts and barons receiving lucrative fiefs adequate to the maintenance of their new dignities.
That same year the Dorias inherited the fiefs and titles of the house of Pamphilii-Landi of Gubbio, patricians of Rome and princes of San Martino, Valmontano, Val di Toro, Bardi and Corupiano.
It is to distinguish them from the grey, or timber, wolves that coyotes have received the name of "prairie-wolves"; the two titles indicating the nature of the respective habitats of the two species.
served the state in its highest offices were preserved in the atria or halls of their descendants, inscribed, like the Chinese tablets, with titles recording their dignity and exploits.
All his numerous other treatises have perished, save one, and we have only their titles handed down, with general indications of their contents, by later writers, especially Pappus.
Further, there are frequently several titles of the same work or of different parts of it.
pp. 1-22.) But the extraordinary thing is that, without exactly agreeing among themselves, the catalogues give titles which do not agree well with the Aristotelian works as we have them.
A title in some cases suits a given work or a part of it; but in other cases there are no titles for works which exist, or titles for works which do not exist.
The probability is that the Nicomachean Ethics is a collection of separate discourses worked up into a tolerably systematic treatise; and the interesting point is that these discourses correspond to separate titles in the list of Diogenes Laertius (7rep1 KaXou, irepi Sucalcwv, irepi q5tXias, 7repi )Sovfjs, and 7repi ijlovwv).
MAXWELL, the name of a Scottish family, members of which have held the titles of earl of Morton, earl of Nithsdale, Lord Maxwell, and Lord Herries.
It has been already observed that the Seljuks considered themselves the defenders of the orthodox faith and of the Abbasid caliphate, while they on their side represented the temporal power which received its titles and sanction from the successor of the Prophet.
The court dignitaries and their titles were manifold; not less manifold were the royal prerogatives, in which the sultans followed the example set by their predecessors, the Buyids.
This decision greatly irritated the political leaders of Georgia, and the question of extinguishing the Indian titles, on which there had long been a disagreement, caused further and even more serious friction between the Federal and state authorities.
The state appealed to the National government to endeavour to secure further cessions, but none had been made when, in 1802, the United States assumed its obligation to extinguish all Indian titles within the state.
His ability earned for him the titles of Doctor Facundus and Doctor Abundans.
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, a term employed to designate the study of the structure of man as compared with that of lower animals, and sometimes the study of lower animals in contradistinction to human anatomy; the term is now falling into desuetude, and lingers practically only in the titles of books or in the designation of university chairs.
The entire set of Ruskin's publications amounts to more than fifty works having distinctive titles.
Of books which contain parts of Pappus's work, or treat incidentally of it, we may mention the following titles: (I) Pappi alexandrini collectiones mathematicae nunc primum graece edidit Herm.
But in the " Great Division " which took place in 1848 and forms the foundation of present land titles, about 984,000 acres, nearly onefourth of the inhabited area, were set apart for the crown, about r, 495, 000 acres for the government, and about 1,619,000 acres for the several chiefs; and the common people received fee-simple titles 4 for their house lots and the pieces of land which they cultivated for themselves, about 28,600 acres, almost entirely in isolated patches of irregular shape hemmed in by the holdings of the crown, the government or the great chiefs.
- Cotton goods are of an infinite variety, and the titles that experience or fancy have evoked are even more numerous than the kinds.
The original memoirs themselves on radiant heat and on magnetism were collected and issued as two large volumes under the following titles: Diamagnetism and Magne-crystallic Action (1870); Contributions to Molecular Physics in the Domain of Radiant Heat (1872).
The Penns lost their governmental rights in 1776, and three years later their territorial interests were vested in the commonwealth in return for a grant of £120,000 and the guarantee of titles to private estates held in severalty.
The ex- ternal service of the palace is performed by the Swiss Guard and the gendarmerie; the service of the ante-chamber by the lay and ecclesiastical chamberlains; this service has also given rise to certain honorary titles both for ecclesiastics, e.g.
The titles of Baroness Petersfield, countess of Fareham and duchess of Portsmouth were granted her for life on the 19th of August 1673.
And as he came out from the chapel the master cook awaited him at the door and claimed his spurs as his fee, and said, 1 Selden, Titles of Honor, 639.
See also Selden, Titles of Honor, p. 678, and the Archceological Journal, v.
Hence Du Cange divides the medieval nobility of France and Spain into three classes: first, barons or ricos hombres; secondly, chevaliers or caballeros; and thirdly, ecuyers or infanzons; and to the first, who with their several special titles constituted the greater nobility of either country, he limits the designation of banneret and the right of leading their followers to war under a banner, otherwise a " drapeau quarre " or square flag.
4 Selden, Titles of Honor, p. 678; Ashmole, Order of the Garter, p. 15; Favyn, Thedtre d'Honneur, ii.
7 Titles of Honor, pp. 356 and 608.
49 and Selden's Titles of Honor, p. 702.
9 Selden, Titles of Honor, pp. 608 and 657.
Selden, Titles of Honor, pp. 452 seq.
4 Du Cange, Dissertation, ix.; Selden, Titles of Honor, p. 452; Daniel, Milice Francoise, i.
' Selden, Titles of Honor, p. 656; Grose, Military Antiquities, ii.206.
xliii.) and Sir William Fitzherbert published anonymously a pamphlet on the subject, A Short Inquiry into the Nature of the Titles conferred at Portsmouth, &c., which is very scarce, but is to be found under the name of " Fitzherbert " in the catalogue of the British Museum Library.
18; Selden, Titles of Honor, p. 687.
2 Selden, Titles of Honor, p. 638.
Titles of Honor, p. 653.
Of modern books, besides those quoted by their full titles in the notes, the best are A.
The titles of 105 of his works are mentioned in the Fihrist, and his Book of Days is the basis of parts of the history of Ibn al-Athir and of the Book of Songs (see Abulfaraj), but nothing of his (except a song) seems to exist now in an independent form.
He is said to have written six dialogues, of which only the titles have been preserved.
Their names were Hellenized, and their official titles were Greek.
In the first the novice is received and told to meditate on the three mystic letters; in the second, after a period of forty days, he is taught the titles of the 16 suras of the Majmu`; in the third, after seven or nine months (intended to correspond with the ordinary period of gestation), he is taught Suras 5, 6 and 9, learns the meaning of the three mystic letters and goes through a further period of instruction from his initiator.
Athenagoras is also the author of a discourse on the resurrection of the body, which is not authenticated otherwise than by the titles on the various manuscripts.
under seven titles between 1907 and 1915, was an elaborate study of the Greek cults, their origins and their place in the comparative history of religion.
Maria compositus," consisting of about 160 discourses on the attributes, titles, &c., of the Virgin Mary.
In the Pauline churches the name is not found except at Ephesus and possibly in south Galatia, though there are traces of the office, at any rate in germ, under different titles in other churches.
The substantial identity of the two titles cannot be doubted in the light of such passages as Acts xx.
The title of Knight Harbinger was taken from an office no longer existing in the Royal Household, and a regular gradation was instituted for the honorific titles and decorations assigned to members.
His own compositions, however, chiefly consisted of tragedies (Suidas gives the titles of twenty, of which very few fragments have been preserved), which secured him a place in the Pleiad of Alexandrian tragedians.
The Greek Church, represented by the patriarch of Constantinople, and the Russian Church, represented by the Holy Synod, also canonize their saints after a preliminary examination of their titles to public cultus.
In addition to litigious business the courts also deal with non-litigious matters, such as the registration of titles to land, guardianship and the drawing up and custody of testamentary dispositions, all which are almost entirely within the province of the Amtsgerichie.
The titles of these new sections give a sufficient idea of their contents.
the other in others) and titles, we found without variation the same treatise, beginning, I, Clement, &c."
It has been needful to cite so much of the evidence proving that our Homilies and Recognitions are both recensions of a common basis, at first known as the Circuits of Peter and later by titles connecting it rather with Clement, its ostensible author, because it affords data also for the historical problems touching (a) the contents and origin of the primary Clementine work, and (b) the conditions under which our extant recensions of it arose.
The document is for the most part an enumeration of such apocryphal works as by their titles might be supposed to be part of Holy Scripture (the "Acts" of Philip, Thomas and Peter, and the Gospels of Thaddaeus, Matthias, Peter, James the Less and others).
Thirty-four speeches (three fragmentary) have come down under the name of Lysias; one hundred and twenty-seven more, now lost, are known from smaller fragments or from titles.
When Lord John Russell brought forward his Ecclesiastical Titles Bill, Bright opposed it as "a little, paltry, miserable measure," and foretold its failure.
"As to the governments of this world," he said, "whatever their titles or forms we shall endeavour to prove that in their essential elements, as at present administered, they are all anti-Christ; that they can never by human wisdom be brought into conformity with the will of God; that they cannot be maintained except by naval and military power to carry them into effect; that all their penal enactments, being a dead letter without any army to carry them into effect, are virtually written in human blood; and that the followers of Jesus should instinctively shun their stations of honor, power: and emolument - at the same time ` submitting to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake' and offering no physical resistance to any of their mandates, however unjust or tyrannical."
In accurate codices, indeed, all such additions, as well as the titles of the sura, &c., are written in coloured ink, while the black characters profess to represent exactly the original of Othman.
Seventeen legislative proclamations were enacted in the first year dealing with the immediate necessities of the position, and providing for the establishment of a supreme and provincial court of justice, for the legalization of native courts of justice, and dealing with questions of slavery, importation of liquor and firearms, land titles, &c. In the autumn of 1901 the emir of Yola, the extreme eastern corner of the territories bordering upon the Benue, was, in consequence of the aggressions upon a trading station established by the Niger Company, dealt with in the same manner as the emirs of Nupe and Kontagora, and a new emir was appointed under British rule.
The titles of about twenty-five of his tragedies are known to us, and a considerable number of fragments, varying in length from a few words to about fifteen lines, have been preserved.
The king (for titles see PHARAOH) was the head of the hierarchy: he was himself divine and is often styled the good god, and was the proper mediator between gods and men.
He was also the dispenser of office, confirmer of hereditary titles and estates and the fountain of justice.
The apportionment of duties amongst the swarm of officials varied from age to age, as did their titles.
The titles of several temple books are preserved recording the movements and phases of the sun, moon and stars.
As early as the Middle Kingdom, papyri are found containing classified lists of words, titles, names of cities, &c., and of nomes with their capitals, festivals, deities and sacred things, calendars, &c.
The clear, noble spacing of the surface work is well shown by a group of offerings and inscribed titles (Plate III.
A piece of a large tile, and part of a glazed vase, have the royal titles and name of Menes, originally in violet inlay in green glaze.
The Tanite line of kings generally had the overlordship of the high priests of Thebes; the descendants of Hrihor, however, sometimes by marriage with princesses of the other line, could assume cartouches and royal titles, and in some cases perhaps ruled the whole of Egypt.
In six months the greater part of the Arabian peninsula was subject to All Bey, and he appointed as sherif of Mecca a cousin of his own, who bestowed on All by an official proclamation the titles Sultan of Egypt and Khk~n of the Two Seas.
See John Selden, Titles of Honor (1672); Antonius Matthaeus, De nobilitate, de principibus, de ducibus, &c., libri quatuor (Amsterdam and Leiden, 1696, lib.
It was one of the members of the Latin League, and remained independent until conquered by Rome in 338 B.C. At first it did not enjoy the right of Roman citizenship, but acquired it later; and even in imperial times its chief magistrate and municipal council kept the titles of dictator and senatus respectively.
The instructions given to them by the emperor were as follows: - they were to procure and peruse all the writings of all the authorized jurists (those who had enjoyed the jus respondendi); were to extract from these writings whatever was of most permanent and substantial value, with power to change the expressions of the author wherever conciseness or clearness would be thereby promoted, or wherever such a change was needed in order to adapt his language to the condition of the law as it stood in Justinian's time; were to avoid repetitions and contradictions by giving only one statement of the law upon each point; were to insert nothing at variance with any provision contained in the Codex constitutionum; and were to distribute the results of their labours into fifty books, subdividing each book into titles, and following generally the order of the Perpetual Edict.2 These directions were carried out with a speed which is surprising when we remember not only that the work was interrupted by the terrible insurrection which broke out in Constantinople in January 532, and which led to the temporary retirement from office of Tribonian, but also that the mass of literature which had to be read through consisted of no less than two thousand treatises, comprising three millions of sentences.
The order of the Perpetual Edict, which appears to have been taken as a sort of model for the general scheme of books and titles, was doubtless convenient to the Roman lawyers from their familiarity with it, but was in itself rather accidental and historical than logical.
The name, which may be translated "Separatists," indicates their devotion to the ideal, enforced by Ezra and Nehemiah upon the reluctant Jews, of a nation separate from all other nations in virtue of its the old titles of the rulers of the separate king peculiar relation to Yahweh (Neh.
Thus the old episcopal titles are all derived from cities.
The beauty and the lax morals of Daphne were celebrated all over the western world; and indeed Antioch as a whole shared in both these titles to fame.
For full titles see Councils.
was honourably reinterred; the young Mortimer was taken into favour; the heirs of those who had suffered in the last reign were restored gradually to their titles and estates.
Alzog's fame rests mainly on his Handbuch der Universal-Kirchengeschichte (Mainz, 1841, often reprinted under various titles; Eng.
The names occur in the titles of certain Psalms, and the writer of the Book of Chronicles makes Asaph a seer (2 Chron.
As the ancient books are very particular on this question of titles, this is decisive.
Owing to the almost promiscuous intercourse which prevailed among a portion of the race, in some groups titles descended through the mother and not through the father.
In some cases they take hereditary titles and hold high offices.
The Polynesians are exceedingly fond of rank and of titles.
Offices and titles are seldom hereditary in our sense of the term, as descending from father to son.
With the word were associated such further titles as eminentia, magnitudo, magnificentia.
The pandects were divided into fifty books, each book containing several titles, divided into laws, and the laws into several parts or paragraphs.
Another of his titles was Gaeeochos, " the supporter of earth," the sea being supposed to support the earth and keep it firmly in its place.
He was probably contemporary with Alexander the Great; he certainly wrote before Dicaearchus, a pupil of Aristotle who died about 285 B.C. His work is lost, and we are left almost wholly in the dark as to its form and character, but the various titles under which it is quoted (e.g.
The day is also celebrated as a principal feast in the Orthodox Eastern Church, where the saint is distinguished by the titles /Icy aXopaprvp and Tp07rac040pos.
The Venetians, who exacted heavy contributions from the islands, won the adherence of the principal native families by the bestowal of titles and appointments; the Roman Catholic Church was established, and the French Italian and Greek races were largely assimilated by rule.
They emphasized His relation to humanity as a whole, in contrast to such narrower titles as " Son of Abraham " or " Son of David."
Vicars-apostolic at the present day are nearly always titular bishops taking their titles from places not acknowledging allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church.
The uses of the term being so various, its special signification in any case must be determined by the character of the passage in which it occurs; and an examination of the contents of Proverbs shows that the thought of the book differs widely from that of the literature prior to the 5th century B.C. The book appears on its face to be a compilation, various authors being mentioned in the titles: Solomon in x.
Apart from the titles (which are not authoritative) the difference of style in the various sections indicates difference of authorship. There is, indeed, a certain unity of thought in the book; throughout it inculcates cardinal social virtues, such as industry, thrift, discretion, truthfulness, honesty, chastity, and in general it assumes wisdom to be the guiding principle of life.
No help can be got from the titles.
Examination of titles in the Prophets and the Psalms (to say nothing of Ecclesiastes and Wisdom of Solomon) makes it evident that these have been added by late editors who were governed by vague traditions or fanciful associations or caprice, and there is no reason to suppose the titles in Proverbs to be .exceptions to the general rule.
But similarly definite titles are prefixed elsewhere, for example, to Ps.
It is noteworthy that though in Turkey he is distinguished only as the law-giver (kanuni), in European history he is known by such titles as the Magnificent.
Of writings on special periods and aspects of Goethe's life the more important are as follows (the titles are arranged as far as possible in the chronological sequence of the poet's life): H.
Chroniclers lavish on him the titles of "archipirata," "vir flagitiosissimus et nequissimus," and poets made him an associate of the devil.
This nobleman's eldest son Arthur(1606-1675),who distinguished himself as Colonel Chichester in the suppression of the rebellion of 1641, was created earl of Donegall in 1647, and was succeeded in his titles by his nephew, whose great-grandson, Arthur, 5th earl of Donegall, was created Baron Fisherwick in the peerage of Great Britain (the other family titles being in the peerage of Ireland) in 1790, and earl of Belfast and marquess of Donegall in the peerage of Ireland in 1791.
Even such titles as" Excellency," Honourable," Mr "were distasteful to him.
3 Among important but secondary measures of his second administration were the extinguishment of Indian titles, and promotion of Indian emigration to lands beyond the Mississippi; reorganization of the militia; fortification of the seaports; reduction of the public debt; and a simultaneous reduction of taxes.
However this may be, tribal titles, Barabara and Beraberata, appear in Egyptian inscriptions of 1700 and 1300 B.C., and the Berbers were probably intimately related with the Egyptians in very early times.
The title, which became extinct on the death of his grandson, the 3rd viscount, in 1725 (when the family estate of Monasterevan, re-named Moore Abbey, passed to his daughter's son Henry, 4th earl of Drogheda), was re-granted in 1756 to his cousin Nicholas Loftus, a lineal descendant of the archbishop. It again became extinct more than once afterwards, but was on each occasion revived in favour of a descendant through the female line; and it is now held by the marquis of Ely in conjunction with other family titles.
The old divisions of nobility, clergy and people were a maintained and their mutual rivalry encouraged; the nobles were won over by titles and by the splendour of the viceregal court, but many persons of low birth who showed talent were raised to high positions.
The judicial committee, however, rested its decision chiefly on the allegation that the acquisition of the territory was an act of state and that "no municipal court had authority to enforce such an obligation" as the duty of the new government to respect existing titles.
He is said to have written zoo comedies, the titles of fifty of which are preserved.
The pseudonym commonly read Erigena, used by himself in the titles of his versions of Dionysius the Areopagite, is Ierugena (in later MSS.
Both titles were borrowed by the Merovingian kings for the administrative machinery of the Frank empire, and under them the functions of the duke remained substantially unaltered.
In Italy, where titles of nobility give no precedence at court, that of duke (duca) has lost nearly all even of its social significance owing to lavish creations by the popes and minor sovereigns, and to the fact that the title often passes by purchase with a particular estate.
In republican France the already existing titles are officially recognized, but they are now no more than the badges of distinguished ancestry.
The other sons and daughters bear the titles "Lord" and "Lady" before their Christian names, also by courtesy.
These works are lost; but their titles, combined with expressions in the letters of Synesius, who consulted her about the construction of an astrolabe and a hydroscope, indicate that she devoted herself specially to astronomy and mathematics.
In some counties one or more principal towns formed the subject of a separate section; in some the clamores (disputed titles to land) were similarly treated apart.
Titles thus gained would never have been questioned under continued Mexican government, but Americans were unaccustomed to such riches in land and to such laxity.
This is strictly correct, but, with the exception of the first and last, these titles are seldom to be found in documents.
To meet this increase of business the tenure of office of the praetors and also of the consuls was practically prolonged from one to two years, with the distinction that in their second year of office they bore the titles of propraetor and proconsul instead of praetor and consul.
What was said above of the Christology of the Petrine speeches applies to the whole conception of Messianic salvation, the eschatology, the idea of Jesus as equipped by the Holy Spirit for His Messianic work, found in these speeches, as also to titles like " Jesus the Nazarene " and " the Righteous One " both in and beyond the Petrine speeches.
Curtis (1813-1889), known by her pen name, " Mina Myrtle," and by Harriet Farley (1817-1907), who became manager and proprietor, and published selections from the Offering under the titles Shells from the Strand of the Sea of Genius (1847) and Mind among the Spindles (1849), with an introduction by Charles Knight.
These titles are generally assigned to bishops appointed to Apostolic Delegations, Vicariates and Prefectures, or to the office of coadjutor, auxiliary or administrator of a diocese.
5 The titles of the sees could not by law be the same as those of the Established Church.
The Toleration Act act of parliament bearing the same titles, so that there are now often two bishops bearing the same style.
The Ecclesiastical Titles Act 1851 went further, and forbade the assumption by an unauthorized person of a title from any place in the United Kingdom, whether or not such place were the seat of an archbishopric, bishopric or deanery.
From the steps of the palace he proceeded to the praetorian camp to receive the salutations of the troops, and thence to the senate-house, where he was promptly invested with all the honours, titles and powers of emperor.'
The doctors of the universities were too wedded to their antiquated manuals and methods, too satisfied with dullness, too proud of titles and diplomas, too anxious to preserve ecclesiastical discipline and to repress mental activity, for a genial spirit of humanism to spread freely.
This office came into the hands of the counts of Hohenzollern at the beginning of the 13th century, and burggrave of Nuremberg is still one of the titles of their descendant, the German emperor.
Like other Florentine nobles the Corsini had at first no titles, but in more recent times they received many from foreign potentates and from the later grand dukes of Tuscany.
Arsenic formed the subject of his first recorded investigation, on which he was engaged at least as early as 1764, and in 1766 he began those communications to the Royal Society on the chemistry of gases, which are among his chief titles to fame.
The titles of lord chief justice of the common pleas and lord chief baron were abolished by the Judicature Act 1873, and all the common law divisions of the High Court united into the king's bench division, the president of which is the lord chief justice of England.
Pastor, bishop and minister are all titles of the same office, that of those who preach the word and administer the sacraments, each to a particular congregation.
Of his natural philosophy we know only the titles of his treatises On Nature and On the Nature of Man.
The commentary on the Psalms is lost, the preface and the titles of the chapters alone being extant.
It acted on the principle that the titles of all private landed estate might be called in question, inasmuch as at some time or other it must have belonged to the Crown; and the burden of proof of ownership was held not to lie with the Crown which made the claim, but with the actual owner of the property.
Among the nomads a different system of titles prevails, the chiefs who are responsible for the taxes and the orderly conduct of their tribes and clans being known as ilklzani, ilbegi (both meaning tribe-lord, but the latter being considered an inferior title to the former), khan, rais, amir, mir, shaikh, tushmal, &c.
So, in Egypt, Cambyses adopted in full the titles of the Pharaohs.
time that the three brothers took the titles Imad, Rukn (Rokn), and Moizz addaula.
Zend or Old Bactrian,Neither of these two titles is well chosen.
By the treaty of Troyes (May 21, 1415) he obtained the hand of Catherine, Charles VI.'s daughter, with the titles of regent and heir to the kingdom of France.
Of his works 35 titles and a few fragments have survived.
Royalist authors have made of Cottereau a hero and martyr, titles to which his claim is not established.
The prince always entertained the greatest regard for his tutor, and after his accession bestowed upon him the highest titles and honours,culminating in the consulship (379).
The value of his services was recognized by the titles of count of the empire and grand officer of the Legion of Honour.
The titles and social position of the Portuguese aristocracy were not affected when its political privileges were abolished.
During the next five years she lavished wealth and titles upon her lover Fernando Peres, count of Trava, thus estranging her son, the archbishop of Braga and the nobles, most of whom were foreign crusaders.
One of the first acts of the usurper, and one of the most important, was to abandon the semi-ecclesiastical titles of visitor (visitador) or defender (curador) of the realm, and to 111., 1248- proclaim himself king (rei).
Among its most important acts were the expulsion of the religious congregations which had returned after 1834, the nationalization of their property, and the abolition, by decree, of the council of state, the upper house and all hereditary titles or privileges.
Next the taint of Gongorism appeared, and the extent to which it affected the literature of Portugal may be seen in the five volumes of the Fenix renascida, where the very titles of the poems suffice to show the futilities which occupied the attention of some of the best talents.
Sibley's Biographical Sketches of Graduates of Harvard University (Cambridge, 1873), with an exhaustive list of Mather's works (about 150 titles); there is much valuable matter in Williston Walker's Ten New England Leaders (New York, 1901) and in his Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism (New York, 1893); for literary criticism of the Mathers see ch.
The name is used still more loosely in the titles of the so-called Third, Fourth and Fifth Books of Maccabees.
The titles of the Menippean Satires are very diverse.
Frequently a popular proverb or catchword in Greek or Latin supplies the designation: thus we have as titles " I've got You " ("Exc.) at); " You don't Know what Evening is to Bring " (Nescis quid vesper serus vehat); " Know Thyself " (FviaOc o-Eavrdv) .
A few fragments in this style have come down to us and a number of titles.
10 (1898); publications of the Desert Botanical Laboratory at Tucson; also titles under archaeology below, particularly Bandelier's " Final Report."
He too died without an heir in 1544 at the siege of St Dizier, having devised all his titles and possessions to his first cousin William, the eldest son of William, count of Nassau-Dillenburg, who was the younger brother of Rene's father, and had inherited the German possessions of the family.
All the titles just mentioned have been united in the line of the Earl Talbot who successfully claimed the Shrewsbury title as the 18th earl, the earldom of Shrewsbury (1442) being now the oldest existing that is not merged in a higher title.
(3) Bishops in partibus infidelium were originally those who had been expelled from their sees by the pagans, and, while retaining their titles, were appointed to assist diocesan bishops in their work.
The writer of the Kitab-al-Fihrist says he had been assured that Jaber only wrote one book and even that he never existed at all, but these statements he scouts as ridiculous, and expressing the conviction that Jaber really did exist, and that his works were numerous and important, goes on to quote the titles of some 500 treatises attributed to him.
existing in the Paris library and in the university of Leiden, and containing works attributed to Jaber, and had translations made of six treatises - two, of which he gives the titles as Livre de la royaute and Petit Livre de la misericorde,-from Paris, and four - Livre des balances, Livre de la misericorde, Livre de la concentration and Livre de la mercure orientale - from Leiden.
The latter states in the Arabic works referred to above that under that title he collected 70 of the 500 little treatises or tracts of which he was the author, and the titles of those tracts enumerated in the Kitab-al-Fihrist as forming the chapters of the Liber de Septuaginta correspond in general with those of the Latin work, which further is written in a style similar to that of the Arabic Jaber and contains the same doctrines.
They swayed backwards and forwards between the power of the people and the power of the few; but democracy and oligarchy passed sooner or later into the hands of a master who veiled his lordship under various titles, and generally at last into the hands of a family.
The most prominent of those who remained received such titles as the "Anointed Ones," the "Angel of the Last Trumpet," the "Seven Witnesses" and so forth.
The Patriarchate of Alexandria, consisting of Egypt and its dependencies, was at one time the most powerful, as it was the most centralized, of all, and the patriarch still preserves his ancient titles of " pope " and " father of fathers, pastor of pastors, archpriest of archpriests, thirteenth apostle, and oecumenical judge."
The several books were named by the Jews from their initial words, though at least Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy had also titles resembling those we use, viz. ?'Ins trim, a'-npBn won (Aµ,uEO"cpEKWbety, Origen, in Eus., E.
Besides this, 1 533 saw the publication of an almanac, the first of a long series which exists only in titles and fragments, and of the amusing Prognostication Pantagrueline (still, be it observed, Pantagrueline, not Gargantuine).
The Goths are under him an independent people under a national king; their independence is in no way interfered with if the Gothic king, in a moment of peace, accepts the office and titles of a Roman general.
In the former case he is clothed with various Roman titles and offices, as patrician and consul; but in all cases alike he remains the national East Gothic king.
He was at once national king of the Goths, and successor, though without any imperial titles, of the Roman emperors of the West.
Preuschen gives thirty-eight titles, besides orations and letters, but it is doubtful whether all of the Commentaries mentioned really existed.) Bibliography.
" Reverence Zeus, the Father-God ": " all fathers are sacred to Zeus, the Father-God, and all brothers to Zeus the God of the family ": these phrases of Aristophanes and Epictetus 13 express the ideas that engendered his titles Ilarpci.ios, FapdiXcos, TEXE70, `Opoyvcos.
24 With her he shared the chapel in the Council-Hall of Athens dedicated to them under the titles of BovXaios and BovXata, " the inspirers of counsel," by which they were worshipped in many parts of Il.
The royal seal thus developed as a seal of majesty became the type for subsequent seals of dignity of the monarchs of the middle ages and later, the inscription or legend giving the name and titles of the sovereign concerned.
Made a Roman colony after its second capture by the Romans (78 B.C.), it appears as Colonia Martia Julia and Colonia Claudia Augusta Pia Veteranorum, and bears at different periods the titles of respublica, conventus, metropolis, praefectura and praetorium.
His more important essays were republished under the titles Essays and Reviews (1857), Princeton Theological Essays, and Discussions in Church Polity (1878).
For the extinction of all Indian titles the legislature of New Jersey in 1832 appropriated $2000, and since that date almost every vestige of Indian occupation has disappeared.
In the meantime Governor Nicolls of New York, ignorant of the grant to Berkeley and Carteret, had approved certain Indian sales of land to settlers within New Jersey, and had confirmed their titles to tracts in what later became Elizabethtown, Middletown and Shrewsbury.
Contradictions are often copied down without the writer noticing them; and since the middle ages forged and falsified so many documents, - monasteries, towns and corporations gaining privileges or titles of possession by the bold use of them, - the narrative of medieval writers cannot be relied upon unless we can verify it by collateral evidence.
Bancroft, Alaska 1730-1885, pp. 59560 9; and various other bibliographies in titles mentioned below, especially in Brooke's The Geography and Geology of Alaska.
Whatever the titles of his discourses, "Literary Ethics," "Man the Reformer," "The Present Age," "The Method of Nature," "Representative Men," "The Conduct of Life," their theme was always the same, namely, "the infinitude of the private man."
(to Castor and Pollux), were written in Ionic, as is stated in titles prefixed to them, though a number of Doric forms have been inserted by the scribes.
He is the historian of the Puritan revolution, and has written its history in a series of volumes, originally published under different titles, beginning with the accession of James I.; the seventeenth (the third volume of the History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate) appeared in Igor.
The important titles for the history of the state are those given in the article Mormons, especially H.
As Rivers left no legitimate son the earldom passed on his death to his cousin, John Savage, grandson of the 2nd earl, and a priest in the Roman Catholic Church, on whose death, about 1735, all the family titles became extinct.
Two books bearing exactly these titles appeared in 1843 and 1844, and contained, as was usual with Quinet, the substance of his lectures.
Further proof may be found in many of her titles - avaSvop vat (" rising from the sea "), e157rXota (" giver of prosperous voyages "), yaXrpala (" goddess of fair weather "), Karao r K07rc'a (" she who keeps a look-out from the heights ") - in the attribute of the dolphin, and the veneration in which she was held by seafarers.
A few words must be added on the second of these titles.
9), although the author is doubtful whether there are two goddesses, or whether Urania and Pandemos are two names for the same goddess, just as Zeus, although one and the same, has many titles; but in any case, he says, the ritual of Urania is purer, more serious, than that of Pandemos.
But there is no doubt that the cult of Aphrodite was on the whole as pure as that of any other divinities, and although a distinction may have existed in later times between the goddess of legal marriage and the goddess of free love, these titles do not express the idea.
His claim was also favoured by the accumulation of hereditary titles and estates.
Kern in PaulyWissowa's Realencyclopadie (with list of cult titles); W.
2 For the titles of (ac nXEin, imperator Augustus, &c., applied in the 10th century to the Anglo-Saxon kings, see Empire (note).
Selden, Titles of Honour (1672) J.
Colebrooke, "On Imperial and Other Titles" in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1877).
Entire liberty of speech, assembly and the press is guaranteed by the constitution, by which also the titles and privileges of the boiars or nobles were abolished.
Although the characteristic titles of voivode, knez and ban (all implying military as well as civil authority) are of Slavonic origin, and perhaps derived from the practice of the later Bulgarian (or Bulgaro-Vlachian) empire, the growth of Vlach feudal institutions is attributed to German influences, which permeated through Hungarian channels into the Vlach world, and transformed the primitive tribal chiefs into a feudal aristocracy of boiars or boyards 2 (nobles).
He added to his other titles that of " count of Severin, despot of the Dobrudja, and lord of Silistria," and both Vidin and Sistora appear in his possession.
The government, civil and ecclesiastical, was practically the same as that described in the case of Walachia, the officials bearing for the most part Slavonic titles derived from the practice of the Bulgaro-Vlachian tsardom.
Their "revelations" in their papers predicted dire things for the Gentiles; they were thrifty and well-to-do, and were rapidly widening their lands: they were accused of disregard for Gentile property titles, and they obstructed the processes of Gentile law within their lands.
These two functions are indicated by the titles Iatromantis (" physician and seer") and Oulios, probably meaning "health-giving" (so Suidas) rather than "destructive."
Besides these mediatized princes, who transmit their titles and their privilege of " royal " blood to all their legitimate descendants, there are also in Austria and Germany " princes," created by the various German sovereigns, and some dating from the period of the old empire, who take a lower rank, as not being " princes of the Holy Roman Empire " nor entitled to any royal privileges.
Some of these titles have been bestowed to give a recognized rank to the morganatic wives and children of royal princes, e.g., the princes of Battenberg, or the title of " princess " of Hohenberg borne by the consort of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand d'Este; others as a reward for distinguished service, e.g.
In Great Britain " prince " and " princess " as titles are confined to members of the royal family, though non-royal dukes are so described in their formal style (see Duke).
established what appears to be a new precedent, by conferring the titles of "princess" and "highness" upon the daughters of the princess Louise, duchess of Fife, created " princess royal.
This use of the word "prince" - which has in England so lofty a connotation - to translate foreign titles of such varying importance and significance naturally leads to a good deal of confusion in the public mind.
Henschal (Niort, 1883); John Selden, Titles of Honour (London, 1672); Almanach de Gotha (1906); H.
This decision created the strongest resentment among the people of the territory, as it was in distinct 1 The act enjoined that " every male native residing in the district, exclusive of natives in possession of lands under ordinary quit-rent titles, or in freehold, who, in the judgment of the resident magistrate, is fit for and capable of labour, shall pay to the public revenue a tax of ten shillings per annum unless he can show to the satisfaction of the magistrate that he has been in service beyond the borders of the district for at least three months out of the previous twelve, when he will be exempt from the tax for that year, or unless he can show that he has been employed far a total period of three years, when he will be exempt altogether."
divided into titles (tituli) logically arranged.
Raymond adopts Bernard of Pavia's division into five books and into titles; in each title he arranges the decretals in chronological order, cutting out those which merely repeat one another and the less germane parts of those which he preserves; but these partes decisae, indicated by the words " et infra " or " et j," are none the less very useful and have been printed in recent editions.
sent to the universities a collection of 45 decretals, with the order that they should be inserted under their proper titles in the collection of Gregory IX.
councils of Lyons, and is arranged in books and titles, as above described; the last title, de regulis juris, contains no less than eighty-eight legal axioms, mostly borrowed from Roman law.
It' includes the constitutions of Clement V., and above all, the decrees of the council of Vienne of 1311, and is divided, like preceding collections, into books and titles; it is cited in the same way, with the additional indication Clem-(entina).
number 20, and are classified under fourteen titles.
(1484), and are classified in books and titles.
The collection included the decrees of the council of Trent, and a number of pontifical constitutions, arranged in the order of the titles of the decretals.
New styles were devised to express this new relation; thus the abbot of Monte Cassino was called abbas abbatum, while the chiefs of other orders had the titles abbas generalis, or magister or minister generalis.
The titles of In War Time (1863) and National Lyrics (1865) rightly designate the patriotic rather than Tyrtaean contents of these books.
In course of time a large and increasing proportion of the good land became, under the titles so far described, limited private property.
Two of his publications, with similar titles, in 1530, are noteworthy as having influenced Menno Simons and David Joris (Weissagung vsz heiliger giitlicher geschrifft, and Prophecey oder Weissagung vsz roarer heiliger gatlicher schrifft).
The Egyptian inscriptions show that Cambyses officially adopted the titles and the costume of the Pharaohs, although we may very well believe that he did not conceal his contempt for the customs and the religion of the Egyptians.
they had been first declared guilty of treason and had been deprived of the titles, lands and endowments given them by the late king.
His pride was hurt, but for two years more there was no open breach between him and his master, though their estrangement grew more and more marked when Edward continued to heap titles and estates on his wifes numerous relatives, and to conclude for them marriage alliances with all the great Yorkist families B h who were not of the Neville connection.
Another king in his place might have merited such titles, but Edward was too careless, too unsystematic, too lazy, and too fond of selfindulgence to make a real tyrant.
The later representative of the house of Lancaster was fortunate, however, in having less formidable enemies than the earlier; the power of the baronage had been shaken by the Wars of the R~ses no less than the power of the crown; so many old estates had passed rapidly from hand to hand, so many old titles were represented by upstarts destitute of local influence, that the feudal danger had become far less.
No penalties were attached to this act, but another passed in the same session made it treason to attempt to deprive the king of any of his titles, of which supreme head of the church was one, being incorporated in the royal style by letters patent of January 1535.