Tissues sentence example

tissues
  • I've figured out which tissues are the softest.
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  • Special tissues (stereom) may be developed for this purpose in the cortex, or in immediate connection.
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  • All the tissues external to the cork are cast off by the plant.
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  • It may be due to insufficient illumination (Etiolation), as seen in geraniums kept in too shaded a situation, and is then accompanied by soft tissues, elongation of internodes, leaves usually reduced in size, &c. The laying of wheat is a particular case.
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  • The simplest cell forms are found in embryonic tissues, in.
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  • Again, in certain cases the toxin has a special affinity for certain tissues.
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  • In most cases the tissues of the body become insensitive to insulin.
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  • Traci choked on a half-laugh, half-sob and accepted the packet of tissues.
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  • In these brown types with bodies of considerable thickness (Laminariaceae and Fucaceae), there is, however, a further differentiation of the internal tissues.
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  • These three concentric tissue mantles are evidently formed by the conjoined bases of the leaf traces, each of which is composed of the same three tissues.
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  • This lacunar system not only enables the cells of the cortex itself to respire, but also forms channels through whicF air can pass to the deeper lying tissues.
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  • The whole of the writings of this time are dominated by a preoccupation with the functions of the different tissues, in itself an excellent standpoint for investigation, but frequently leading in the case of these early investigators to one-sided and distorted views of the facts of structure.
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  • The Russian plant-anatomist, Russow, may be said to have founded the consideration of plant tissues from the point of view of descent (Vergleichende Untersuchungen ber die Leilbundelkryptogamen, St Petersburg, 1872; and Betrachtungen ber Leitbndel und Grundgewebe, Dorpat, 1875).
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  • It was fully recognized by its followers that the dominating influence in the structure and working of the body was the protoplasm, and the division of labor which it exhibited, with the accompanying or resulting differentiation into various tissues, was the special subject of investigation.
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  • Its nutritive pabulum is supplied to it in the shape of certain complex organic substances which have been stored in some part or other of the seed, sometimes even in its own tissues, by the parent plant from which it springs.
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  • It was formerly the custom to regard as parasites all those pants which inserted roots or root-like organs into the tissues of other plants and absorbed the contents of the latter.
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  • Fixation of Nitrogen.Another, and perhaps an even more important, instance of symbiotic association has come to the front during the same period, it is an alliance between the plants of the Natural Order Leguminosae and certain bacterium-like forms which find a home within the tissues of their roots.
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  • The sap in these active tissues is alkaline, which has been interpreted as being in accordance with not appear to be concerned with digestion so directly as the others is pectase, which forms vegetable jelly from pectic substances occurring in the cell-wall.
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  • In other words, as these growing regions consist of cells, the growth of the entire organ or plant will depend upon the behaviour of the cells or protoplasts of which the merismatic tissues are composed.
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  • They then gradually lose the power of growth, the oldest ones or those facthest from the apex parting with it first, and they pass gradually over into the condition of the permanent tissues.
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  • Various local hypertrophies, including galls, result from the increased growth of young tissues irritated by the punctures of insects, or by the presence of eggs or larvae left behind.
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  • Plants as agents of damage and disease may be divided into those larger forms which as weeds, epiphytes and so forth, do injury by dominating and shading more delicate species, or by gradually exhausting the soil, &c., and true parasites which actually live on and in the tissues of the plants.
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  • A plant may be diseased as a whole, because nearly all its tissues are in a morbid or pathological condition, owing to some Fungus pervading the wholee.g.
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  • A third phenomenon observable in stich healing tissues is the increased flow and accumulation of plastic materials at the seat of injury.
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  • If a piece of bark and cortex are torn off, the occlusion takes longer, because the tissues have to creep over the exposed area of wood; and the same is true of a transverse cut severing the branch, as may be seen in any properly pruned tree.
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  • They are due to hypertrophy of young tissues, which may undergo profound alterations subsequently, and occur on all parts of the plants.
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  • Excrescences may be divided into those occurring on herbaceous tissues, of which Galls are well-known examples, and those found on the woody stem, branches, &c., and themselves eventually woody, of which Burrs of various kinds afford common illustrations.
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  • If a clean cut remains clean, the cambium and cortical tissues soon form callus over it, and in this callusregenerative tissuenew wood, &c., soon forms, and if the wound was a small one, no trace is visible after a few years.
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  • Aphidesand may be easily penetrated by certain Fungi such as Peziza, Nectria; and when thus attacked, the repeated conflicts between the cambium and callus, on the one hand, trying to heal over the wound, and the insect or Fungus, on the other, destroying the new tissues as they are formed, results in irregular growths; the still uninjured cambium area goes on thickening the branch, the dead parts, of course, remain unthickened, and the portion in which the Fungus is at work may for the time being grow more rapidly.
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  • Some wound in the succulent tissues has become infected by the organisms referred to, and their continued action prevents healing.
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  • NecrosisA number of diseases the obvious symptoms of which are the local drying up and death of tissues, in many cases with secondary results on organs or parts of organs, may be brought together under this heading.
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  • The cortical tissues gradually shrink and dry up, turning brown and black in patches or all over, and when at length the cambium and medullary ray tissues dry up the whole twig dies off.
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  • Healing of Wounds, &c.Shattock, On the Reparatory Pro-i cesses which occur in Vegetable Tissues, Journ.
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  • It is sufficient to note here that cells were first of all discovered in various vegetable tissues by Robert Hooke in 1665 (Micrographia); Malpighi and Grew (1674-1682) gave the first clear indications of the importance of cells in the building up of plant tissues, but it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that any insight into the real nature of the cell and its functions was obtained.
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  • It is true that in the unicellular plants all the vital activities are performed by a single cell, but in the multicellular plants there is a more or less highly developed differentiation of physiological activity giving rise to different tissues or groups of cells, each with a special function.
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  • The epidermal, conducting and strengthening tissues show on the other hand considerable modifications both in form and structure.
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  • Tissues.The component parts of the tissues of which plants are composed may consist of but slightly modified cells with copious protoplasmic contents, or of cells which have been modified in various ways to perform their several functions.
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  • (For further information regarding tissues, see the section o0Anatomy above.)
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  • The treatment is therefore to administer an ounce of sodium sulphate in water by the mouth, or to inject a similar quantity of the salt in solution directly into a vein or into the subcutaneous tissues.
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  • In the flax-mills the tendency is to produce the finest tissues as well as the coarser.
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  • They are frequently provided with "pseudo-bulbs," large solid swellings of the stem, in the tissues of which water and nutritive materials are stored.
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  • They derive this moisture from the air by means of aerial roots, developed from the stem and bearing an outer spongy structure, or velamen, consisting of empty cells kept open by spiral thickenings in the wall; this sponge-like tissue absorbs dew and rain and condenses the moisture of the air and passes it on to the internal tissues.
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  • We have thus the replacement of a spermatheca, corresponding to those of the remaining families of Oligochaeta, and derived, as is believed, from the epidermis, by a structure performing the same function, but derived from the mesoblastic tissues, and with a cavity which is coelom.
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  • Mucronalia, foot reduced, but still operculate, eyes present, animal fixed by its very long proboscis which is deeply buried in the tissues of an Echinoderm, no pseudopallium.
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  • The body-cavity and the muscular, fibrous and vascular tissues are traced partly to two symmetrically disposed " mesoblasts," which bud off from the invaginated arch-enteron, partly to cells derived from the ectoderm, which at a very early stage is connected by long processes with the invaginated endoderm.
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  • The subsequent expansion of the body causes fresh air to enter the tracheal system, and if the spiracles be then closed and the body again contracted, this air is driven to the finest branches of the air-tubes, where a direct oxygenation of the tissues takes place.
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  • The process of destruction of the larval tissues was first studied in the forms where metamorphosis is greatest and most abrupt, viz.
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  • It was found that the tissues were attacked by phagocytic cells that became enlarged and carried away fragments of the tissue; the cells were subsequently identified as leucocytes or blood-cells.
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  • It has, however, since been found that in other kinds of insects the tissues degenerate and break down without the intervention of phagocytes.
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  • In the Metanemertini, where the longitudinal stems lie inside the muscular body-wall, definite and metamerically placed nerve branches spring from them and divide dichotomously in the different tissues they innervate.
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  • What we do find is a slight transverse furrow on each side of the head, close to the tip, but the most careful examination of sections made through the tissues of the head and brain shows the absence of any further apparatus comparable to that described above.
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  • The proboscis bears rings of recurved hooks arranged in horizontal rows, and it is by means of these hooks that the animal attaches itself to the tissues of its host.
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  • Such increase would give rise to excessive reaction, which, in tissues already weakened, might actually produce.
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  • Under the influence of cold, the blood-vessels contract, and less blood is conveyed to the tissues.
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  • But because the tissues are frost-bitten it does not follow that they will not recover.
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  • The great danger is that, as the blood in the vessels becomes thawed, there will be so much reactionary flow through the tissues that acute inflammation will follow.
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  • And this inflammation of the damaged tissues is very likely to cause mortification.
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  • Sodium salicylate circulates in the blood unchanged, decomposition occurring in the kidney, and probably in tissues suffering from the Diplococcus rheumaticus of Poynton and Paine.
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  • In the combined state nitrogen is fairly widely distributed, being found in nitre, Chile saltpetre, ammonium salts and in various animal and vegetable tissues and liquids.
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  • Typical animals are holozoic, that is, they obtain their food by eating the tissues of other animals and plants: they take their food substances in the organized forms of proteids, fats and carbohydrates.
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  • Therefore all life in the sea (as on land) depends on the power which the holophytic organisms possess of synthesizing mineral substances into organized tissues.
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  • The source of the carbon of organic tissues is carbonic acid; that of the nitrogen in the proteids is the nitrates, nitrites and salts of ammonia dissolved in sea-water; the material of the shells or other skeletons is the silica, phosphate and calcium of the salts of sea-water (and, in rare cases, the salts of strontium).
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  • Albuminoids is the anatomical name given to albuminous substances forming the connective tissues.
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  • In general they resemble coagulated albumin, and also the gelatin-yielding tissues, but they themselves do not yield gelatin.
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  • It appears to be synthesized in the plant tissues from carbon dioxide and water, formaldehyde being an intermediate product; or it may be a hydrolytic product of a glucoside or of a polysaccharose, such as cane sugar, starch, cellulose, &c. In the plant it is freely converted into more complex sugars, poly-saccharoses and also proteids.
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  • In the animal kingdom, also, it is very widely distributed, being sometimes a normal and sometimes a pathological constituent of the fluids and tissues; in particular, it is present in large amount in the urine of those suffering from diabetes, and may be present in nearly all the body fluids.
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  • Applied externally lead salts have practically no action upon the unbroken skin, but applied to sores, ulcers or any exposed mucous membranes they coagulate the albumen in the tissues themselves and contract the small vessels.
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  • Lead salts usually produce constipation, and lead is an active ecbolic. Lead is said to enter the blood as an albuminate in which form it is deposited in the tissues.
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  • The elongated axis which opens at the stigma in Scorpio and which can be cleared of soft, surrounding tissues and co agulated blood so as to present the appearance of a limb axis carrying the book-like leaves of the lung is not really, as it would seem to be at first sight, the limb axis.
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  • That is neces sarily a blood-holding structure and is obliterated and fused with soft tissues of the sternal region so that the lamellae cannot be detached and presented as standing out from it.
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  • By the crushing action of their pincers, and an alternate backward and forward movement, they bring the soft blood-holding tissues of the victim close to the minute pin-hole aperture which is the scorpion's mouth.
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  • It often begins in the tissues of the end of the gullet, spreading downwards to the stomach.
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  • Another characteristic of cancer is that it spreads far and wide, drawing other tissues to itself by contracting fibrous bands.
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  • No such distinction of mental activities as that involved in the division of the study of animal life into morphology and physiology has ever really existed: the investigator of animal forms has never entirely ignored the functions of the forms studied by him, and the experimental inquirer into the functions and properties of animal tissues and organs has always taken very careful account of the forms of those tissues and organs.
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  • The tracing of the exact mode of development, cell by cell, of the diblastula, the coelom, and the various tissues of examples of all classes of animals was in later years pursued with immense activity and increasing instrumental facilities.
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  • The certainty with which tissues can now be fixed in the state they were in when living, and the delicacy with which they can be stained differentially, have been the means of opening up a new world of exploration.
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  • Much light has been thrown upon the functions and diseases of the blood-forming tissues.
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  • It wastes in the disease known as " myxoedema," and the above product gathers in the tissues, in that disease, to such an extent as to give rise to what has been termed a " solid oedema."
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  • The transplantation of a piece of living pancreas into the tissues of an animal, thus rendered artificially diabetic, is said to restore it to health.
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  • In the formation of these the tissues break down, and in course of time lose their characteristic histological features.
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  • There may be haemorrhage from these vessels into the tissues.
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  • The fatty matter, however, it must be borne in mind, is the expression of dissimilation of the actual substance of the proteids of the tissues, not of the splitting up of proteids or other carbonaceous nourishment supplied to them.
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  • The bed-sores which follow paralysis of the limbs are often quoted as proof of the direct trophic action of the nerve-supply upon the tissues, yet even here the evidence is somewhat contradictory.
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  • It is much more likely, as Verworn alleges, that the nerves which influence the characteristic function of any tissue regulate thereby the metabolism of the cells in question - in other words, that every nerve serves as a trophic nerve for the tissues it supplies.
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  • This wasting may be general or local - continuously from the embryonic period there is this natural process of displacement and decay of tissues going on in the growing organism.
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  • In old age there is a natural wearing out of the elements of the various tissues.
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  • The loss of an eye will be followed by atrophy of the optic nerve; the tissues in a stump of an amputated limb show atrophic changes; a paralysed limb from long disuse shows much wasting; and one finds at great depths of the sea fishes and marine animals, which have almost completely lost the organs of sight, having been cut off for long ages from the stimuli (light) essential for these organs, and so brought into an atrophic condition from disuse.
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  • A tendency to pigmentation also develops in certain tissues of the body, such as the nerve and muscle cells.
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  • The tissues of an animal or plant are all under a certain pressure, caused, in the one case, by the expulsive action of the heart and the restraint of the skin and other elastic tissues, and, in the other case, by the force of the rising sap and the restraint of the periderm or bark.
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  • The somatic cells represent communities or republics, as it were, which we name organs and tissues, but each cell possesses a certain autonomy and independence of action, and exhibits phenomena which are indicative of vitality.
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  • It is well known that in the vegetable kingdom the protoplasm of one cell frequently overflows into that of cells adjacent - that there is, as it were, a continuous network of protoplasm (idioplasm of Nageli) prevailing throughout vegetable tissues, rather than an aggregation of isolated units.
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  • The same inter-communication prevails between adjacent cells in some animal tissues, and more particularly in those which are pathological, as in the case of the epithelial cells of cancer.
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  • Assuming, with Sedgwick and others, this amassed and bound condition of the tissues to be true, it would be necessary to reject the cell-doctrine in pathology altogether, and to regard the living basis of the organism as a continuous substance whose parts are incapable of living independently of the whole.
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  • Repair Of Injuries In the process of inflammation we have a series of reactions on the part of the tissues, and fluids of the body, to counteract the ill effects of irritation or injury, to get rid of the cause, and to repair its results.
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  • In the various reactions of the tissues against the exciting cause of the injury we see a striking example of a beautifully organized plan of attack and defence on the part of the organism.
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  • In such a conflict one can see the presence of these minute but dangerous foes in the tissues.
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  • At once they proceed to make good their hold on the position they have secured by secreting and throwing out toxins which cause more or less injury to the tissues in their immediate neighbourhood.
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  • These micro-organisms having found in the tissues everything favourable for their needs, rapidly multiply and very soon produce serious results.
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  • At this point one's attention is focused on the wonderful reactions possessed by the healthy tissues to combat these evil influences.
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  • There is thus brought into play a series of processes on the part of the tissues - the vascular inflammatory changes - which is really the first move to neutralize the malign effects.
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  • In health these cells, belonging to our first army of defenders, are found continually circulating in the blood stream in fairly large numbers; they are ever ready to rush to the point of attack, where they at once leave the blood stream by passing through the vessel walls - emigration - into the tissues of the danger zone.
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  • The tissues of the part become disorganized or destroyed, and their place is taken by the mass of warring cellular elements now recognized as pus.
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  • The tissues having now mobilized an army that completely :surrounds the fighting zone, there is a gradual and general advance made from all sides.
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  • These phagocytic cells carry out the complete removal of all the injured warring elements and the damaged tissues of the part.
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  • If the injury be a small incised wound through the skin and subcutaneous tissues without any septic contamination, there usually follows a minimum of reaction on the part of the tissues.
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  • The reactions of the tissues vary in degrees according to the nature and severity of the injury.
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  • In resenting such insults, a remarkable uniformity and regularity in the processes is brought about by the different cells and fluids of the healthy tissues of the body.
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  • If there be a loss of tissue brought about by severe in j ury to the skin and the deeper tissues, there is usually an extravasation of blood from the severed vessels.
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  • Along with the exuded serum this fills up the breach in the tissues and the whole is rapidly formed into a fibrinous mass due to the disintegration of the polymorphonuclear leucocytes setting free their ferment.
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  • The ferment thus set free brings about the coagulation of the serum, which acts as a protective and temporary scaffolding to the injured tissues.
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  • Lying between the fibrin mass and the healthy tissues is a zone of injured and degenerated tissue elements, the result of the trauma.
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  • As early as six hours after the injury the polymorpho-nuclear leucocytes are seen passing in large numbers from the dilated and congested blood vessels of the tissues at the margin of the wound into the injured zone, where they carry on an active phagocytosis.
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  • It is believed also that they secrete bactericidal substances and ferments which bring about the liquefaction of the fibrin and the damaged tissues - histolysis - and thus assist the process of absorption.
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  • This, one of the most difficult problems of pathology, is being attacked by many able workers, who are all striving from different standpoints to elucidate the nature of these new formations, which spring from the normal tissues in which they develop and which they destroy.
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  • He holds that new growths arise, both before birth or at any subsequent period of life, by the separation of cells or clumps of cells from their normal position, and that in health there is a balance between the various tissues and tissue elements regulated by what he calls the " tissue-tension " of the part, i.e.
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  • At the present time we are quite uncertain what is the ultimate cause of new growths; in all probability there may be one or more aetiological factors at play disturbing that perfect condition of equilibrium of normal tissues.
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  • - In many pathological conditions we have degenerative products of various kinds formed in the tissues.
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  • The significance of glycogen in large amounts, or of its absence from the tissues in pathological conditions, is not clearly understood.
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  • Fatty accumulations in the tissues of the body are found in health and in pathological conditions; these are usually recognized and described as fatty infiltrations and fatty degenerations, but there are intermediate conditions which make it difficult to separate sharply these processes.
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  • Over and above the bacterial intoxications we have a very extreme degree of fatty degeneration, widely distributed throughout the tissues, which is produced by certain organic and inorganic poisons; it is seen especially in phosphorus and chloroform poisoning.
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  • Fatty degeneration is common to all dead or decaying tissues in the body, and may be followed by calcification.
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  • Autolysis is a disintegration of dead tissues brought about by the action of their own ferments, while degeneration takes place in the still living cell.
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  • The old idea of the circulating blood being supersaturated with lime salts which in some way had first become liberated from atrophying bones, and then deposited, to form calcified areas in different tissues will have to be given up, as there is no evidence that this " metastatic " calcification ever takes place.
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  • In all probability no excess of soluble lime salts in the blood or lymph can ever be deposited in healthy living tissues.
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  • From whatever cause the tissues become disorganized and undergo fatty degeneration, the fatty acids may become liberated and combine with the alkalies to form potash and soda soaps.
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  • The action of the sun's rays stimulates the cells of the skin to increase the pigment as a protection to the underlying tissues, e.g.
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  • Cellular activity and oxygen appear to be essential for its development; it is found usually in the cells of certain organs, or it may be deposited in the intercellular tissues.
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  • In extraneous pigmentation we have coloured substances either in a solid or fluid state, gaining entrance into the organism and accumulating in certain tissues.
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  • Certain metallic poisons give rise to pigmentation of the tissues, e.g.
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  • Various coloured pigments may be deposited in the tissues through damaged skin surface - note, for example, the well-known practice of " tattooing."
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  • There is no evidence that this material is brought by the circulating blood and infiltrates the tissues.
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  • Amyloid develops in various organs and tissues and is commonly associated with chronic phthisis, tubercular disease of bone and joints, and syphilis (congenital and acquired).
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  • Thus Krawkow and Nowak, employing the frequent subcutaneous injection of the usual organisms of suppuration, have induced in the fowl the deposition within the tissues of a homogeneous substance giving the colour reactions of true amyloid.
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  • Response Of Tissues To Stimulation A stimulus may be defined as every change of the external agencies acting upon an organism; and if a stimulus come in contact with a body possessing the property of irritability, i.e.
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  • So long as the epidermis of animals remains sound, disease germs may come in contact with it almost with impunity, but immediately on its being fissured, or a larger wound made through it, the underlying parts, the blood and soft tissues, are attacked by them.
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  • Dropsy During conditions of health a certain quantity of lymphy liquid is constantly being effused into the tissues and serous cavities of the body, but in the case of the tissues it never accumulates to excess, and in that of the serous cavities it is never more than sufficient to keep them moist.
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  • Where the dropsical condition is more or less general the term " anasarca " is applied to it; if the tissues are infiltrated locally the term " oedema " is employed; and various names are applied, with a local significance, to dropsies of individual parts or cavities, such as " hydrothorax," " hydroperitoneum " or " ascites," " hydrocephalus," and so on.
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  • In " anasarca " the tissues which suffer most are those which are peculiarly lax, such as the lower eyelids, the scrotum, and the backs of the hands and feet.
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  • He traces various local dropsies to the starvation from which the tissues are suffering, the liquid accumulating in excess in accordance with the demand for more nourishment.
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  • Much more important is the effect of the alteration in the amount of crystalloids in the tissues and blood and therefore of the alteration in the osmotic pressure between these.
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  • Some other observers, however, have not got such good results with a chloride-free diet, and Marishler, Scheel, Limbecx, Dreser and others, dispute Widal's hypothesis of a retention of chlorides as being the cause of oedema, in the case of renal dropsy at all events; they assert that the chlorides are held back in order to keep the osmotic pressure of the fluid, which they assume to have been effused, equal to that of the blood and tissues.
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  • Bainbridge suggests that a retention of metabolic products may cause the oedema in renal disease, Bradford having previously shown that loss of a certain amount of renal tissue caused retention of metabolic products in the tissues.
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  • Thus, while increased pressure in the blood or lymph vessels may be one factor, and increased permeability of the capillary endothelium another, increased osmotic pressure in the tissues and lymph is probably the most important in the production of dropsy.
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  • By chemical warnings the defensive processes seem to be awakened, or summoned; and when we think of the infinite variety of such possible phases, and of the multitude of corresponding defensive agents, we may form some dim notion of the complexity of the animal blood and tissues, and within them of the organic molecules.
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  • By similar methods nature, unassisted, betrays herself but too often; in many instances - probably originating primarily in the nervous tissues themselves - the course of disease is observed to follow certain paths with remarkable consistency, as for instance in diseases of particular tracts of the spinal cord.
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  • In such cases the paths of degeneration are so neatly defined that, when the tissues are prepared after death by modern methods, they are plainly to be seen running along certain columns, the subdivisions of which in the normal state may hardly be distinguishable one from another: some run in strips along the periphery of the spinal cord, at its anterior, middle or posterior segments, as the case may be; in other cases such strips occur within its substance, whether along columns of cells or of white matter.
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  • The undiscriminating diseases, on the other hand, we suspect not to be primarily of nervous origin, but to depend rather on the agency of other constituent tissues of this system, as of the blood-vessels or the connective elements.
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  • Highly complex as are all animal tissues, or nearly all, yet in this category of high complexity are degrees higher and higher again of which we can form little conception, so elaborate they are, so peculiar in their respective properties, and probably so fugitive.
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  • Syphilitic lesion of the arteries, and likewise of other fibrous tissues, often involves grave consequential damage to nervous structures fed or supported by such parts.
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  • Some of the most successful of the advances of medicine as a healing art have followed the detection of syphilitic disease of the vessels, or of the supporting tissues of nervous centres and of the peripheral nerves; so that, by specific medication, the treatment of paralytic, convulsive, and other terrible manifestations of nervous disease thus secondarily induced is now undertaken in early stages with definite prospect of cure.
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  • The island imports wines, spirits, tissues, clothing and ironmongery; and exports ores, nickel, cobalt and chrome (which represent over three-quarters of the total exports in value), preserved meats and hides, coffee, copra and other colonial produce.
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  • For a time after entry they multiply, obtaining the nitrogen necessary for their nutrition and growth from the free nitrogen of the air, the carbohydrate required being supplied by the pea or clover plant in whose tissues they make a home.
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  • The carbon compounds of the latter are of no direct nutritive value to the succeeding crop, but the decaying vegetable tissues very greatly assist in retaining moisture in light sandy soils, and in clay soils also have a beneficial effect in rendering them more open and allowing of better drainage of superfluous water and good circulation of fresh air within them.
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  • All these salts are mild astringents when applied externally, as they coagulate the albumen of the tissues and of any discharge which may be present.
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  • The chief peculiarities that distinguish Trematodes from their free-living allies, the Turbellaria, are the development of adhering organs for attachment to the tissues of the host; the replacement of the primitively ciliated epidermis by a thick cuticular layer and deeply sunk cells to ensure protection against the solvent action of the host; and (in one large order) a prolonged and peculiar life-history.
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  • If present in large numbers they may give rise to obstruction of the liver-ducts or to inflammation of other tissues.
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  • The rapid multiplication that takes place in the larval stage of nearly all endoparasitic forms affects the tissues of the "intermediate" host in which they live.
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  • By extravasation of blood is meant the pouring out of blood into the areolar tissues, which become boggy.
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  • And though Spencer's general position - that it is absurd to suppose that organisms after being modified by their life should give birth to offspring showing no traces of such modifications - seems the more philosophic, yet it does not dispose of the facts which go to show that most of the evidence for the direct transmission of adaptations is illusory, and that beings are organised to minimize the effects of life on the reproductive tissues, so that the transmission of the effects of use and disuse, if it occurs, must be both difficult and rare - far more so than is convenient for Spencer's psychology.
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  • His knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathology was necessarily defective, the respect in which the dead body was held by the Greeks precluding him from practising dissection; thus we find him writing of the tissues without distinguishing between the various textures of the body, confusing arteries, veins and nerves, and speaking vaguely of the muscles as " flesh."
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  • If, on the other hand, the alcohol be rubbed into the skin, or if its evaporation be prevented - as by a watch-glass - it absorbs water from the tissues and thus hardens them.
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  • Hence the diminished oxidation of the tissues, which leads to the accumulation of unused fat and so to the obesity which is so often seen in those who habitually take much alcohol.
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  • It follows that alcohol is a food in fever, and its value in this regard is greatly increased by the fact that it requires no primary digestion, but passes without changes, and without needing change, to the tissues which are to use it.
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  • Gall-fly grubs are provided with vegetable food through the eggs being laid by the mother insect within plant tissues.
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  • Most saw-fly larvae devour leaves, and the beautifully serrate processes of the ovipositor are well adapted for egg-laying in plant tissues.
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  • They feed entirely by suction, and the majority of the species pierce plant tissues and suck sap. The leaves of plants are for the most part the objects of attack, but many aphids and scale-insects pierce stems, and some go underground and feed on roots.
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  • They are of extremely widespread occurrence; there is hardly one of the chief classes of animals which does not furnish hosts for these parasites, scarcely one of the common tissues or organs of the Metazoan body which may not be liable to infection.
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  • P. Moldenhawer isolated cells by maceration of tissues in water.
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  • This virus causes the rapid enlargement and subdivision of the cells affected by it, so as to form the tissues of the gall.
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  • When two different generations are produced in one year on the same kind of tree it is clear the properties of the sap and tissues of the tree must be diverse so that the two generations are adapted to different conditions.
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  • To these three characters the Hydrozoa add a fourth which is distinctive of the subdivision of the Coelenterata termed the Cnidaria; that is to say, they always possess peculiar stinging organs known as nettle-cells, or nematocysts (Cnidae), each produced in a cell forming an integral part of the animal's tissues.
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  • In Tubularia, on the other hand, the parenchymula develops into an actinula within the maternal tissues, and is then set free, creeps about for a time, and after fixing itself, changes into a polyp; hence in this case the planula-stage, as a free larva, is entirely suppressed.
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  • Jerba has a considerable reputation for the manufacture of the woollen tissues interwoven with silk which are known as burnous stuffs; a market for the sale of sponges is held from November till March; and there is a considerable export trade in olives,.
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  • - Sodium chloride is occasionally used in warm water as an emetic, and injections of it into the rectum as a treatment for thread worms. A o 9% solution forms what is termed normal saline solution, which is frequently injected into the tissues in cases of collapse, haemorrhage and diarrhoea.
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  • It is found native as the diamond (q.v.), graphite, as a constituent of all animal and vegetable tissues and of coal and petroleum.
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  • Our ignorance of their mode of action is cloaked by the term deobstruent, which implies that they possess the power of driving out ilnpurkies fronn the blood and tissues.
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  • The essential part of the medicinal treatment of this condition is the administration of iodides, which are able to decompose the insoluble albuminates of lead which have become locked up in the tissues, rapidly causing their degeneration, and to cause the excretion of the poisonous metal by means of the intestine and the kidneys.
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  • Hydrocyanic acid is a protoplasmic poison, directly lethal to all living tissues, whether in a plant or an animal.
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  • This byssus is not homologous with that of other Lamellibranchs, but originates from a single glandular epithelial cell embedded in the tissues on the dorsal anterior side of the adductor muscle.
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  • A special feature of its manufactures consists of gold and silver tissues and brocades for sacerdotal use.
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  • The great bulk of the group is pelagic, as the transparent nature of all their tissues indicates.
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  • Bertrand have shown that certain fungi, the tissues of which, when exposed, to the air by injury, become immediately coloured, do so owing to the action of tyrosinase upon one or more chromogenous substances present in the plant.
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  • We may conceive, then, that a pigmented animal owes its colour to the power that certain tissues of its body possess to secrete both tyrosinases and chromogenic substances.
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  • It may be carried as a somatic character, when it will be visible in the body tissues, or it may be carried as a gametic character, and its presence can only then be detected in subsequent generations, by adequately devised breeding tests.
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  • Delage has distinguished as multiplication those cases in which the new individual arises from a mass of cells which remain a part of the maternal tissues during differentiation, reserving the term reproduction for those cases in which the spore or cell which is the starting-point of the new individual begins by separating from the maternal tissues; but the distinction is inconvenient in practice and does not appear to carry with it any fundamental biological significance.
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  • The operation must be so performed that the growing tissues, or cambium-layer of the scion, may fit accurately to the corresponding layer of the stock.
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  • As a rule they are not formed until the plant has arrived at a certain degree of vigour, or until a sufficient supply of nourishment has been stored in the tissues of the plant.
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  • Deficiency of light is less injurious than might at first be expected, because the plant to be forced has stored up in its tissues, and available for use, a reserve stock of material formed through the agency of light in former seasons.
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  • To be successful the operation should be performed with a quick and light hand, so that no part of the delicate tissues be injured, as would happen if they were left for a time exposed, or if the bud were forced in like a wedge.
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  • Such ferns as Gymnogrammes, which have their surface covered with golden or silver powder, and certain species of scaly-surfaced Cheilanthes and Nothochlaena, as they cannot bear to have their fronds wetted, should never be syringed; but most other ferns may have a moderate sprinkling occasionally (not necessarily daily), and as the season advances, sufficient air and light must be admitted to solidify the tissues.
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  • A widespread disease known as pocket-plums or bladderplums is due to an ascomycetous fungus, Exoascus pruni, the mycelium of which lives parasitically in the tissues of the host plant, passes into the ovary of the flower and causes the characteristic malformation of the fruit which becomes a deformed, sometimes curved or flattened, wrinkled dry structure, with a hollow occupying the place of the stone; the bladder plums are yellow at first, subsequently dingy red.
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  • The venous blood is conducted from the tissues to a large sinus on either side above the pallial groove, and from this sinus passes to the gills by an afferent vessel in each gill on the internal or pedal margin of the axis.
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  • The latter may in certain cases attain large dimensions, and even undergo cell-divisions in their interior, resulting in the development of true tissues.
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  • - Fungi, like other plants, are often found to store up large quantities of reserve materials (oil, glycogen, carbohydrates, &c.) in special parts of their vegetative tissues, where they lie accumulated between a period of active assimilation and one of renewed activity, forming reserves to be consumed particularly during the formation of large fructifications.
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  • Latex-tubes abound in the tissues of Lactarius, Stereum, Mycena, Fistulina, filled with white or coloured milky fluids, and Istvanffvi has shown that similar tubes with fluid or oily contents are widely spread in other Hymenomycetes.
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  • The same fact is indicated by the wide range of organic substances which can be utilized by Penicillium and other moulds, and by the behaviour of parasitic fungi which destroy various cell-contents and tissues.
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  • Among the simplest cases are the sheet-like aggregates of sporogenous hyphae in Puccinia, Uromyces, &c., or of basidia in Exobasidium, Corticium, &c., or of asci in Exoascus, Ascocorticium, &c. In the former, where the layer is small, it is often termed a sorus, but where, as in the latter, the sporogenous layer is extensive, and spread out more or less sheet-like on the supporting tissues, it is more frequently termed a hymenium.
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  • Other series of modifications arise in which the tissues corresponding to the stroma invest the sporogenous hyphal ends, and thus enclose the spores, asci, basidia, &c., in a cavity.
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  • In such examples as the above we may regard the hymenium (Solenia, Cyphella), zygospores, or asci as truly invested by later growth, but in the vast majority of cases the processes which result in the enclosure of the spores, asci, &c., in a "fructification" are much more involved, inasmuch as the latter is developed in the interior of hyphal tissues, which are by no means obviously homologous with a stroma.
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  • Pythium is a semiaquatic form attacking seedlings which are too plentifully supplied with water; its hyphae penetrate the cell-walls and rapidly destroy the watery tissues of the living plant; then the fungus lives in the dead remains.
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  • They form a superficial mycelium on the surface of the plant, the hyphae not usually penetrating the tissues but merely sending haustoria into the epidermal cells.
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  • By the breaking down of the inner tissues the spores often come to lie as a loose powdery mass in the interior of the hollow fruitbody, mixed sometimes with a capillitium.
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  • An epiphytic fungus is not necessarily a parasite, however, as many saprophytes (moulds, &c.) germinate and develop a loose mycelium on living leaves, but only enter and destroy the tissues after the leaf has fallen; in some cases, however, these saprophytic epiphytes can do harm by intercepting light and air from the leaf (Fumago, &c.), and such cases make it difficult to draw the line between saprophytism and parasitism.
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  • No sharp lines can be drawn, however, since many mycelia are intercellular at first and subsequently become intracellular (Ustilagineae), and the various stages doubtless depend on the degrees of resistance which the host tissues are able to offer.
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  • In combination it is found as a constituent of water, of the gases from certain mineral springs, in many minerals, and in most animal and vegetable tissues.
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  • Since that time active investigation into the action of radium on diseased tissues has been carried on, resulting in the establishment in Paris in 1906 of the "Laboratoire biologique du Radium."
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  • The leaves always arise from the outer portion of the primary meristem of the plant, and the tissues of the leaf are continuous with those of the stem.
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  • Geiger and Hesse and by Mein in the tissues of Atropa belladonna, from which it may be extracted by means of chloroform.
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  • A characteristic feature of the more massive species is the occurrence of air-vesicles in their tissues.
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  • The presence of phycocyanin, phyco a role in the morphological development of land plants is entirely wanting in algae, such conducting tissues as do exist in the larger Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae serving rather for the convection of elaborated organic substance, and being thus comparable with the phloem of the higher plants.
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  • Both these preparations should only be used in cases where it is possible to exclude any tuberculous foci, or by their action in breaking down protective fibrous tissues they may cause a quiescent lesion to become active.
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  • The simplest of such repeated elements are the cells of the tissues, more complex are cell-aggregates, from hairs, scales, teeth and the like, up to limbs or metameres in animals, or the .00 '00 leaves and their homologues in plants.
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  • In the form of alkaline chlorides it is found in sea-water and various spring waters, and in the tissues of animals and plants; while, as hydrochloric acid it is found in volcanic gases.
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  • Given in large doses it causes rapid and characteristic poisoning, with alterations in the blood and rapid degeneration of nearly all the internal organs; but in small doses-5 to 15 grains - it partly undergoes reduction in the blood and tissues, the chloride being formed and oxygen being supplied to the body-cells in nascent form.
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  • The chief articles of export are: timber and wood articles (£5,250,000), paper and paper pulp, some tissues, metallic goods, leather, &c. The chief ports are Helsingfors, Abo, Viborg, Hanger and Vasa.
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  • The astonishing feat of photographing the bones of the living animal within the tissues soon rendered the Rontgen rays indispensable in surgery and directed an army of investigators to their study.
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  • It is moreover an astringent to the tissues, hindering the further discharge of fluid.
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  • Thus a very strong heart, although it may be useful to its possessor for many years, driving the blood rapidly through the vessels, and supplying all his tissues with such abundant nutriment as to enable him to endure great exertion, mental or bodily, may in the end cause death by bursting a vessel in the brain, which might have resisted the pressure of a feebler circulation for years longer.
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  • The thyroid gland, which is situated in front of the neck, yields a secretion which passes into the blood and there tends to maintain a state of moderate dilatation in the blood-vessels and of oxidization in the tissues, so that the circulation remains good and the body-heat and muscular activity remain well maintained.
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  • These enter the body through various channels, and once they have effected a lodgment they grow, multiply and give rise to various poisons which attack and injure or destroy different tissues or organs in the body.
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  • On the skin we have a thick epidermis through which microbes cannot pass, although if an entrance is obtained for them by a prick or cut they may readily grow in the tissues below and spread from them throughout the whole body.
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  • Where there has been local mischief due to inflammation the dead leucocytes must be removed, and this is done either by their being converted into pus in one mass, and making their way through the tissues to the nearest surface, whether of skin or mucous membrane, from which it can be discharged, or they may undergo a process of fatty degeneration and absorption, leaving behind in some cases cheesy matter, in others hard connective tissue.
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  • The reason of this appears to he that the diplococcus is frequently present in the mouth or air-passages without giving rise to any symptoms; but when the patient is exposed to chill, and the tissues of the respiratory passages are thereby weakened, the diplococcus grows, multiplies and gives rise to inflammation of the lungs.
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  • The pain is due to stretching of the nerve fibrils or compression of them by the turgid vessels in the swollen tissues.
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  • This latter cause is chiefly observed when the tissues are of a very unyielding character; for example, when the inflammation occurs in a bone or under a thick fibrous and unyielding membrane.
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  • When the inflammation occurs in soft parts where the surrounding vessels can be readily dilated, heat often affords more relief to the pain than cold, but when the inflammation is in a bone or in unyielding fibrous tissues, cold generally gives more relief.
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  • For example, the pain of a gum-boil is generally relieved more by warmth, because the yielding tissues of the gum, mouth and cheek can be readily relaxed by heat and their vessels dilated; but when the pain is dependent upon inflammation in the hard unyielding socket of a tooth, cold generally gives greater relief.
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  • In health most of the nitrogenous waste in the body is eliminated as urea, but in gout uric acid is either formed in too great quantity or too little is eliminated, so that it tends to be deposited as urate of soda in the joints and other tissues.
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  • The best-known disease of potatoes is caused by the growth of a fungus named Phytophihora infestans, within the tissues of the host plant, and this fungus has the peculiar property of piercing and breaking up the cellular tissues and setting up putrescence in the course of its growth.
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  • It grows within the tissues from central spots towards an ever-extending circumference, carrying putrescence in its course.
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  • Their Presence causes the appearance of blackish streaks in the stem and a dark ring some little distance below the surface in the tissues of the tuber.
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  • These forms are termed by Fischer Metatrophic, because they require various kinds of organic materials obtained from the dead remains of other organisms or from the surfaces of their bodies, and can utilize and decompose them in various ways (Polytrophic) or, if monotrophic, are at least unable to work them up. The true parasites - obligate parasites of de Bary - are placed by Fischer in a third biological group, Paratrophic bacteria, to mark the importance of their mode of life in the interior of living organisms where they live and multiply in the blood, juices or tissues.
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  • These enter the root-hairs of leguminous plants, and passing down the hair in the form of a long, slimy (zoogloea) thread, penetrate the tissues of the root.
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  • As a result the tissues become hypertrophied, producing the well-known nodule.
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  • (After Woromv.) c, cell from bacterial tissues showing nucleus and protoplasm filled with bacteria.
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  • By 1876 the anthrax bacillus had been obtained in pure culture by Koch, and some other pathogenic bacteria had been observed in the tissues, but it was in the decade 1880-1890 that the most important discoveries were made in this field.
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  • By means of microscopic examination more than one organism may sometimes be observed in the tissues,but one single organism by its constant presence and special relations to the tissue changes can usually be selected as the probable cause of the disease, and attempts towards its cultivation can then be made.
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  • The methods vary much in detail, though in each case the endeavour is to colour the bacteria as deeply, and the tissues as faintly, as possible.
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  • Excess of stain is afterwards removed from the tissues by the use of decolorizing agents, such as acids of varying strength and concentration, alcohol, &c. Different bacteria behave very differently to stains; some take them up rapidly, others slowly, some resist decolorization, others are easily decolorized.
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  • In some instances the stain can be entirely removed from the tissues, leaving the bacteria alone coloured, and the tissues can then be stained by another colour.
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  • The tissues and fluids are treated by various histological methods, but, to speak generally, examination is made either in films smeared on thin cover-glasses and allowed to dry, or in thin sections cut by the microtome after suitable fixation and hardening of the tissue.
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  • From the point of view of evolution we may suppose that certain races of a group of bacteria have gradually acquired the power of invading the tissues of the body and producing disease.
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  • It may be stated that the introduction of a particular bacterium into the tissues of the body leads to certain properties appearing in the serum, which are chiefly exerted towards this particular bacterium.
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  • The various tissues affected are examined microscopically and cultures made from them; in this way the structural changes and the relation of bacteria to them can be determined.
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  • In other words, the toxins of different bacteria are closely similar in their results on the body and the features of the corresponding diseases are largely regulated by the vital properties of the bacteria, their distribution in the tissues, &c. The distinction between the two varieties of toxins, though convenient.
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  • It is interesting to note that in the case of the closely analogous example of snake venoms, there may be separated from a single venom a number of toxic bodies which have a selective action on different animal tissues.
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  • In other cases such changes cannot be detected, and the only evidence of their occurrence may be the associated symptoms. The very important work of Ehrlich on diphtheria toxin shows that in the molecule of toxin there are at least two chief atom groups - one, the " haptophorous," by which the toxin molecule is attached to the cell protoplasm; and the other the " toxophorous," which has a ferment-like action on the living molecule, producing a disturbance which results in the toxic symptoms. On this theory, susceptibility to a toxin will imply both a chemical affinity of certain tissues for the toxin molecule and also sensitiveness to its actions, and, furthermore, non-susceptibility may result from the absence of either of these two properties.
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  • It is to be noted that there is no fixed relation between toxin production and bacterial multiplication in the body, some of the organisms most active as toxin producers having comparatively little power of invading the tissues.
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  • In the lastmentioned disease even the local multiplication depends upon the presence of other bacteria, as the tetanus bacillus has practically no power of multiplying in the healthy tissues when introduced alone.
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  • The effects produced by bacteria may be considered under the following heads: (I) tissue changes produced in the vicinity of the bacteria, either at the primary or secondary foci; (2) tissue changes produced at a distance by absorption of their toxins; (3) symptoms. The changes in the vicinity of bacteria are to be regarded partly as the direct result of the action of toxins on living cells, and partly as indicating a reaction on the part of the tissues.
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  • The result of the entrance of a virulent bacterium into the tissues of an animal is not a disease with hard and fast characters, but varies greatly with circumstances.
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  • In health the blood and internal tissues are bacterium-free; after death they offer a most suitable pabulum for various bacteria; but between these two extremes lie states of varying liability to infection.
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  • The circumstances which alter the virulence of bacteria will be referred to again in connexion with immunity, but it may be stated here that, as a general rule, the virulence of an organism towards an animal is increased by sojourn in the tissues of that animal.
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  • The second - passive immunity - is produced by the transference of a quantity of the serum of an animal actively immunized to a fresh animal; the term is applied because there is brought into play no active change in the tissues of the second animal.
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  • In such a case it has been shown that, without the introduction of fresh toxin, new antitoxin appears, and therefore must be produced by the living tissues.
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  • The principle in such treatment by means of vaccines is to stimulate the general production of anti-substances throughout the body, so that these may be carried to the sites of bacterial growth, and aid the destruction of the organisms by means of the cells of the tissues.
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  • Probably the lining endothelium of the blood-vessels as well as other tissues of the body participate in the production of anti-substances.
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  • Natural immunity against toxins must be taken into account, and, if Ehrlich's view with regard to toxic action be correct, this may depend upon either the absence of chemical affinity of the living molecules of the tissues for the toxic molecule, or upon insensitiveness to the action of the toxophorous group. It has been shown with regard to the former, for example, that the nervous system of the fowl, which possesses immunity against tetanus toxin, has little combining affinity for it.
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  • Externally the nitrate has a caustic action, destroying the superficial tissues and separating the part acted on as a slough.
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  • Nitrate of silver is eliminated from the system very slowly and the objection to its employment continuously as a drug is that it is deposited in the tissues causing argyria, chronic silver poisoning, of which the most prominent symptom is dark slate-blue colour of the lips, cheeks, gums and later of the skin.
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  • The transparent prolonged into the four long tissues allow the enteric cavities and oral arms, perradial in position.
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  • Long after this, however, various tissues remain alive and active, and the event to which we give the name of death is no more than a superficially visible stage in a series of changes.
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  • Like alcohol and prussic acid, quinine interferes with oxidation, so that oxyhaemoglobin is relatively unable to give up its oxygen to the tissues, the metabolism of which is therefore greatly modified.
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  • Hence quinine stops the process of diapedesis or emigration of the leucocytes from the blood-vessels into the tissues, and if applied to the, extravascular spaces it arrests the leucocytic movements there.
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  • No definite knowledge has as yet been attained of the exact steps by which quinine is formed in nature in the tissues of the bark.
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  • Free access of air to the tissues also seems to increase the yield of quinine, for the renewed bark is found to contain more quinine than the original bark
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  • The secondary phloem contains numerous thick-walled fibres, parenchymatous cells, and large sieve-tubes with plates on the radial walls; swollen parenchymatous cells containing crystals are commonly met with in the cortex, pith and medullary-ray tissues.
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  • It occurs in the urine, blood, tissues, and bones of animals, calcium phosphate forming about 58% of bones, which owe their rigidity to its presence.
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  • For external use, sulphuric acid is a powerful irritant and caustic, acting by its powerful affinity for water and therefore dehydrating the tissues and causing them to turn black.
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  • In Actinians the epithelio-muscular cells of the endoderm are crowded with yellow spherical bodies, which are unicellular plants or Algae, living symbiotically in the tissues of the zooid.
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  • B, Single zooid with the adjacent soft tissues as seen after removal of the skeleton by decalcification.
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  • In A, B, and C the thick black lines represent the soft tissues; the corallurn is dotted.
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  • All living Echinoderms have a lacunar, haemal system of diverse origin; this, the ambulacral system, and the coelomic cavities, contain a fluid holding albumen in solution and carrying numerous amoebocytes, which are developed in special lymph-glands and are capable of wandering through all tissues.
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  • Externally, it is not absorbed by the unbroken skin, but when applied to the broken skin, sores, ulcers and mucous surfaces, the ferric salts are powerful astringents, because they coagulate the albuminous fluids in the tissues themselves.
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  • The antheridia and archegonia are produced above the meristematic zone, and are more or less sunk in the tissues of the prothallus.
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  • The simple, uni-nerved leaves have a ligule near the base; the base of the ligule is somewhat sharply marked off from the other tissues of the leaf.
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  • The stem is monostelic, the vascular tissues being separated into curved groups comparable with collateral vascular bundles, which surround the pith.
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  • - Wheat, like other cereals, is liable to epidemic diseases caused by parasitic organisms which prey on the plant tissues.
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  • Consequently the facts of moral development imply with the emergence of human consciousness the appearance of something qualitatively different from the facts with which physiology for instance deals, imply a stratum as it were in development which no examination of animal tissues, no calculation of consequences with regard to the preservation of the species can ever satisfactorily explain.
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  • The imports consist chiefly of tissues (mostly cotton goods), breadstuffs and rice, liquors, metal-ware and coal.
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  • It seems probable that in such cases the spermatozoa make their way from the adherent spermatophore through the body-wall into the body, and so by traversing the tissues reach the ovary.
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  • The oils and fats are distributed throughout the animal and vegetable kingdom from the lowest organism up to the most highly organized forms of animal and vegetable life, and are found in almost all tissues and organs.
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  • The vegetable oils and fats occur chiefly in the seeds, where they are stored to nourish the embryo, whereas in animals the oils and fats are enclosed mainly in the cellular tissues of the intestines and of the back.
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  • Since the methods of preparing the vegetable and animal fats are comparatively crude ones, they usually contain certain impurities of one kind or another, such as colouring and mucilaginous matter, remnants of vegetable and animal tissues, &c. For the most part these foreign substances can be removed by processes of refining, but even after this purification they still retain small quantities of foreign substances, such as traces of colouring matters, albuminoid and (or) resinous substances, and other foreign substances, which remain dissolved in the oils and fats, and can only be isolated after saponification of the fat.
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  • Formerly the animal oils and fats were obtained by heating the tissues containing the oils or fats over a free fire, when the cell membranes burst and the liquid fat flowed out.
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  • On the other hand, there are specimens in which the tissues of the plant have been permeated by some mineral in solution, which, subsequently setting hard, has fixed and preserved the internal structure, often with astonishing perfection of detail.
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  • Even the most delicate tissues, such as cambium and phloem, the endosperm of seeds, or the formative tissue of the growing-point, are frequently preserved cell for cell, both in calcareous and silicious material.
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  • ' Gloioconis, found by Renault in a coprolite of Permian age, was regarded by him as a Cyanophycean allied to Gloeocapsa; this may be so, but the argument drawn from the absence of nuclei, considering the extreme rarity of recognizable nuclei even in the best preserved fossil tissues, can hardly be taken seriously.
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  • For this view however, there is no evidence, though the tissues of the two fossils are somewhat similar.
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  • In examining the tissues of fossil plants of that epoch nothing is more common than to meet with mycelial hyphae in and among the cells; in many cases the hyphae are septate, showing that the higher Fungi (Mycomycetes), as distinguished from the more algoid Phycomycetes, already existed.
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  • Small spores, almost certainly those of Fungi, are very common in the petrified tissues of Palaeozoic plants.
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  • Around the cast the organic tissues may be represented by a carbonaceous layer, on the outer surface of which the external features, such as the remains of leaves, can sometimes be traced.
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  • In the peduncle of the strobilus secondary tissues are formed.
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  • In the Lower Carboniferous of central Russia beds of coal occur consisting of the cuticles of a Bothrodendron, which are not fossilized, but retain the consistency and chemical composition of similar tissues in recent plants.
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  • Heterangium shows, on the whole, a decided preponderance of Filicinean vegetative characters, though in the leaf-traces and the secondary tissues the Cycads are approached.
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  • Part of the stele of the stem in transverse section, showing a primary xylem-strand and adjacent tissues.
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  • A few Coal Measure and Permian stems (Cycadoxylon and Ptychoxylon) resemble Lyginodendron in the general character of their tissues, but show a marked reduction of the primary wood, together with an extensive development of anomalous wood and bast around the pith, a peculiarity which appears as an individual variation in some specimens of Lyginodendron oldhamium.
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  • The tissues, in fact, are preserved just as they would be in Canada balsam.
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  • Pharmacology is a branch of biology; it is also closely connected with pathology and bacteriology, for certain drugs produce structural as well as functional changes in the tissues, and in germ diseases the peculiar symptoms are caused by foreign substances (toxins) formed by the infective organisms present in the body.
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  • Prolonged or excessive stimulation invariably leads to depression or paralysis, the tissues becoming fatigued, and from this condition they may recover or they may not.
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  • Some drugs given in excess are poisons to all forms of protoplasm, but when given in doses much short of the lethal they usually exhibit a distinct tendency to affect specially, and at an early period, certain organs or tissues, and hence result differences in action; others may act only on certain organs, leaving the others practically untouched.
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  • There are exceptions to this, however, as children are more affected in proportion by opium and some other substances, and less by mercury and arsenic. In old age also the nervous system and the tissues generally do not react so readily as in youth.
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  • Recent researches on arsenic and atropine, however, point to the leucocytes as playing an important part in the production of tolerance, as these gradually become capable of ingesting large amounts of the foreign substances, and thus render them more or less harmless to the tissues, until they are gradually excreted from the body.
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  • Just as drugs act upon the tissues, so they themselves are in many cases reacted upon, and broken up or altered.
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  • The concentrated acids have an intense local action, varying from complete destruction of the tissues to more or less irritation.
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  • Caustic potash and caustic soda are locally very irritating, and destroy the tissues, but lose this quality when combined with acids as in the case of their carbonates, bicarbonates and borax.
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  • Silver resembles them closely, but differs by the circumstance that it is deposited permanently in minute granules in the tissues, and, without affecting the general health, stains the skin of a bluish colour (argyria).
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  • Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) was at one time believed to act simply by cutting off the supply of oxygen to the tissues, but it also has a specific effect in producing paralysis of certain parts of the central nervous system, and hence its value as an anaesthetic; when given in small amounts mixed with air it produces a condition of exhilaration.
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  • In these the variety of tannic acid is not exactly the same, but although there are slight chemical differences, they all possess the power of tanning raw hides and of preserving albuminous tissues.
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  • In specific germ diseases a similar antitoxin forms, and in cases which recover it counteracts the toxin, while the germs are destroyed by the tissues.
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  • The acacias and the Rosaceae yield their gums most abundantly when sickly and in an abnormal state, caused by a fulness of sap in the young tissues, whereby the new cells are softened and finally disorganized; the cavities thus formed fill with liquid, which exudes, dries and constitutes the gum.
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  • These tissues are degraded in an orderly fashion, and release mainly alanine and glutamine into the blood.
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  • Most anemones have symbiotic algae that live in their tissues.
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  • Dietary changes that may be helpful The body repairs and builds new tissues in a process called anabolism.
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  • One defect a fluorescein angiogram test may reveal are abnormal blood vessels which leak blood into the surrounding tissues.
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  • A fluorescent, Gram-negative bacterium was consistently isolated from diseased tissues onto King's B medium.
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  • It exerts its effects directly in inflamed tissues underlying the site of application, mainly by inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis.
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  • This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II in blood plasma and in vascular endothelial tissues and degrades bradykinin.
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  • Tissues can be obtained via ethically-sourced cadavers from animals that have died naturally or in accidents or been euthanased for medical reasons.
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  • This prolonged hypercalcaemia causes dystrophic calcification of the gastrointestinal tissues, the kidneys, lungs, blood vessels, and joints.
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  • There has been little success in any area except when using the patient's own adult stem cells to mend damaged organs and tissues.
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  • For example, the enzyme cellulase breaks down cellulose, an insoluble polymer, which makes up a major part of plant tissues.
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  • Within these tissues, there are small particles called chloroplasts which contain pigments, including the green pigment chlorophyll.
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  • Necessary to produce collagen, the connective material of all body tissues.
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  • The tunnel runs in the loose connective tissues: Behind the sigmoid colon.
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  • Tissues containing predominantly stromal cells are often called connective tissue.
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  • Sprains usually refer to injuries to ligaments, but sometimes to other connective tissues, such as tendons and the capsules surrounding joints.
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  • Theory is I'm having spontaneous contusions into the soft tissues on top of the joints.
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  • The muscles and associated tissues in this region had been destroyed and there were very extensive subcutaneous contusions.
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  • The use of these tissues should be firmly discouraged.
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  • It also contains silica, which can help restore elasticity to the body's tissues.
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  • Moreover any alternating magnetic field will induce an electric field in the tissues exposed to it.
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  • The rats will be humanely killed to supply serum, which is essential for the in vitro culture of mouse embryo tissues.
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  • They are also expressed in brain, egg cells and many other tissues, where they regulate calcium release from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
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  • The better you prepare your perineal tissues for stretching, the less likely they are to tear, or to need an episiotomy.
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  • Other research suggests a wider role for epoetin, which seems to have effects other than stimulating erythropoiesis in a range of tissues.
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  • The young fluke then penetrates the liver tissues, through which it migrates, feeding on mainly on blood, for about six weeks.
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  • New genetic techniques allow the precise decoration of tissues or sub-cellular compartments with intrinsically fluorescent proteins.
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  • Guthrie also advocated the destruction with mineral acids of the diseased tissues in cases of ' hospital gangrene ' .
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  • The first time I saw gone With The Wind I went through a whole box of tissues.
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  • You will learn about anatomical structure including the histology of the major tissues.
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  • Carbon monoxide replaces oxygen in the bloodstream causing hypoxia, an abnormal reduction of oxygen in the body tissues also called oxygen deficiency.
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  • Despite the SBO ban, some potentially infective bovine tissues continued to enter the human food chain.
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  • Don't smoke it starves the tissues and brain of oxygen and causes lethargy.
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  • Please note that Vitagnost Highlight emits cold laser light emits cold laser light that does not heat the treated tissues.
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  • A good lens care kit will always include soft lint free cloth, dust free tissues, cleaning fluid and a blower brush.
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  • Barbiturates readily cross the placental barrier and are distributed throughout fetal tissues with highest concentrations in placenta, fetal liver and brain.
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  • Its dry, warming energy is highly compatible with the human body and it heats the tissues deeply, stimulating lymph and blood flow.
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