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tirol

tirol

tirol Sentence Examples

  • Albert married Elizabeth, daughter of Meinhard IV., count of Gdrz and Tirol, who bore him six sons and five daughters.

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  • At Kufstein, down to which point it has still pursued a north-easterly direction, it breaks through the north Tirol limestone formation, and, now keeping a northerly course, enters at Rosenheim the Bavarian high plateau.

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  • On the outbreak of war in 1859 he was placed in command of the Alpine infantry, defeating the Austrians at Casale on the 8th of May, crossing the Ticino on the 23rd of May, and, after a series of victorious fights, liberating Alpine territory as far as the frontier of Tirol.

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  • He then retired to Vienna, and in 1812 he took part in the attempt to excite a second insurrection against Napoleon in Tirol.

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  • In March 1490 the county of Tirol was added to his possessions through the abdication of his kinsman, Count Sigismund, and this district soon became his favourite residence.

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  • I've also moved articles on cities in South Tirol and Kustenland to this category, as well as those on cities in Galicia, Bukovina, Transylvania, and Dalmatia.

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  • It then turns south-west, and, after receiving the Noce (right) and the Avisio (left), leaves Tirol, and enters Lombardy, 13 m.

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  • The most considerable towns on its banks (south of Botzen) are Trent and Rovereto, in Tirol, and Verona and Legnago, in Italy.

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  • It is navigable from the heart of Tirol to the sea.

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  • The only other part of the northern frontier of Italy where the boundary is not clearly marked by nature is Tirol or the valley of the Adige.

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  • The Adige, formed by the junction of two streams—the Etsch or Adige proper and the Eisak, both of which belong to Tirol rather than to Italy—descends as far as Verona, where it enters the great plain, with a course from north to south nearly parallel to the rivers last described, and would seem likely to discharge its waters into those of the Po, but below Legnago it turns eastward and runs parallel to the Po for about 40 m., entering the Adriatic by an independent mouth about 8 m.

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  • But the withdrawal of the Neapolitans left Durando too weak to intercept Nugent and his 30,000 men; and the latter, although harassed by the inhabitants of Venetia and repulsed at Vicenza, succeeded in joining Radetzky, who was soon further reinforced from Tirol.

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  • In the Industrial Museum there is (besides collections of various kinds) some good painted glass of the 16th century, taken from the neighbouring Benedictine monastery of Muri (founded 1027, suppressed 1841 - the monks, are now quartered at Gries, near Botzen, in Tirol).

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  • It is preserved in a single MS. which was prepared at the command of Maximilian I., and was discovered as late as 1820 in the Castle of Ambras in Tirol.

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  • The Swabian lands of the Habsburgs went to the South German states (allies of Napoleon), while Bavaria also received Tirol and Vorarlberg.

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  • by Tirol, and S.

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  • ROVERETO, the most important industrial town in the southern or Italian-speaking portion of the Austrian province of Tirol, though its population (which in 1900 was io, r 80, Italian-speaking and Romanist) is less than that of Trent.

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  • The town is dominated by the castle (now used as barracks), which was reconstructed in 1492 by the Venetians, after it had been burnt in 1487 by the count of Tirol.

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  • In 1509, at the outset of the war of the League of Cambray, the town gave itself voluntarily to the emperor Maximilian, to whom it was ceded formally by Venice in 1517, and next year incorporated with Tirol.

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  • Learning, however, that these were still beyond striking radius, he determined to deal with Mack's army first, having formed the fixed conviction that a threat at the latter's communications would compel him to endeavour to retreat southwards towards Tirol.

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  • On the 22nd of October, the day after Trafalgar, the remnant of the Austrian army, 23,000 strong, laid down its arms. About 5000 men under Jellachich had escaped to Tirol, 2000 cuirassiers with Prince Ferdinand to Eger in Bohemia, and about io,000 men under Werneck, had surrendered at Heidenheim.

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  • Practically the lines of communication along the Danube were denuded of combatants, even Bernadotte being called up from Passau, and the viceroy of Italy, who driving the archduke Johann before him (action of Raab) had brought up 56,000 men through Tirol, was disposed towards Pressburg within easy call.

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  • Marsilius of Padua also composed a treatise De translations imperii romani, which is merely a rearrangement of a work of Landolfo Colonna, De jurisdictione imperatoris in causa matrimoniali, intended to prove the exclusive jurisdiction of the emperor in matrimonial affairs, or rather, to justify the intervention of Louis of Bavaria, who, in the interests of his policy, had just annulled the marriage of the son of the king of Bohemia and the countess of Tirol.

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  • On the lawn near the cathedral stand two of the earliest larches grown in Great Britain, having been introduced from Tirol by the 2nd duke in 1738.

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  • RHETICUS, or RHAETICUS (1514-1576), a surname given to GEORGE JOACHIM, German astronomer and mathematician, from his birth at Feldkirch in that part of Tirol which was anciently the territory of the Rhaeti.

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  • But it is noticeable that where women engage in occupations of a more than usually strenuous nature, they frequently don male costume while at their work; as, for instance, women who work in mines (Belgium) and who tend cattle (Switzerland, Tirol).

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  • Tirol >>

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  • Undeterred by the news of heavy attacks on his rear from Tirol and from Bohemia, Napoleon hurried all available troops to the bridges, and by daybreak on the 21st, 40,000 men were collected on the Marchfeld, the broad open plain of the left bank, which was also to be the scene of the battle of Wagram.

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  • In August 1833 Arthur Hallam started with his father, the great historian, for Tirol.

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  • FUSSEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, at the foot of the Alps (Tirol), on the Lech, 2500 ft.

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  • Trient), the capital of the south or Italian-speaking portion of the Austrian province of Tirol.

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  • The Venetian attacks were finally repulsed in 1487, and the bishop retained his temporal powers till 1803 when they passed to Austria, to which (save 1805-1814, when first the Bavarians and then Napoleon held the region) they have ever since belonged, the Trentino being annexed formally to Tirol in 1814.

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  • TIROL (or Tyrol 1), the most southerly province of the Austrian Empire.

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  • It is traversed from west to east by the main chain of the Alps, which rises in various snow-covered summits, the more important being the Ortler (12,802 ft., the loftiest peak in Tirol and in the Eastern Alps generally), the Wildspitze (12,382 ft., Oetzthal group), the Zuckerhiitl (11,520 ft., Stubai group), the Hochfeiler (11, 559 ft., Zillerthal group), the Gross Venediger (12,008 ft.) and the Gross Glockner (12,461 ft., both in the Tauern range), while more to the south are the Dolomites, which culminate in the Marmolata (10,972 ft.).

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  • The Brenner, too, being on the main watershed of the Alps, separates the two main river systems of which Tirol is composed.

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  • The original Tirol consisted of part of the middle Inn valley and of the uppermost portion (the Vintschgau) of the Adige valley.

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  • In 1500, by inheritance from the counts of Gdrz, the Pusterthal and upper Drave valley (east) were added; in 1505 the lower portion of the Zillerthal, with the Inn 1 To speak, as is commonly done, of "the Tirol" is as absurd as speaking of "the England."

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  • In southern Tirol, silk-spinning is still one of the principal industries, while good local wines are produced near Meran and Botzen.

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  • But, save in the towns, Tirol is above all a pastoral land.

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  • Ecclesiastically, Tirol is ruled by the archbishop of Salzburg and his two suffragans, the bishops of Trent and of Brixen.

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  • Tirol sends 25 representatives to the Austrian parliament at Vienna.

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  • By far the greater portion of the region later called Tirol was inhabited, when it makes its appearance in history, by the Raetians (perhaps a Celtic race, though some still hold that they were connected with the Etruscans), who were conquered (14 B.C.) by Drusus and Tiberius, and were later organized into the Roman province of Raetia.

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  • On the extinction of this family in 1248, most of their fiefs were given by the two bishops to the father-in-law of the last lord of Andechs, Albert, count of Tirol.

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  • This new family took its name from the still existing castle of Tirol (Later Roman, Teriolis), above Meran, in the upper Adige valley, and is mentioned for the first time in 1140.

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  • 1295) took Tirol, and the younger G6rz; but in 1500 the latter's line became extinct, and the elder line inherited its possessions.

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  • 1361), and whose only child Meinhard died in her lifetime in 1363; Tirol accordingly passed by agreement in the latter year of the junior branch of the elder line, the Habsburgers, dukes of Austria since 1282.

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  • In this way Tirol came to the dynasty which has ever since held it (save 1805-1814).

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  • From that time onwards till 1665 Tirol was generally entrusted to a cadet of the Austrian house, who ruled first at Meran, and from about 1420 at Innsbruck, as a nearly independent prince; but since 1665 the province has been governed from Vienna.

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  • We have noted above the manner in which the limits of Tirol were gradually extended.

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  • Several of these additions were due to the archduke Maximilian, who ruled Tirol from 1490 onwards, becoming emperor in 1493 and dying in 1519.

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  • Owing to its position astride of the Alps, and so commanding the road across them, Tirol has often been the scene of sharp fighting.

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  • In 1805, by the peace of Pressburg, Napoleon forced Austria to hand over Tirol to his ally, Bavaria, which held it till 1814.

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  • On the r5th of August, Hofer, yielding to the popular wish, assumed the government of Tirol.

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  • But in October the ill-success of the Austrians against the French elsewhere forced them to conclude the peace of Vienna, by which Tirol was definitely secured to Bavaria.

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  • xiii., Tirol (Vienna, 1893), of the great official work entitled Die oesterreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort and Bild.

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  • Ubl, Tirol and Vorarlberg (Leipzig, 18 95); J.

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  • Baillie-Grohman, Tirol and the Tirolese (London, 1876), Gaddings with a Primitive People (2 vols., London, 1878), Sport in the Alps (London, 1896), and The Land in the Mountains (1907); Miss R.

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  • Busk, The Valleys of Tirol (London, 1874); E.

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  • C. Churchill, The Dolomite Mountains (London, 1864); Max Haushofer, Tirol (Bielefeld and Leipzig, 1899) J.

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  • landstaindischen Verfassung von Tirol (3 vols., Innsbruck, 1882-1885); W.

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  • Schneller, Landeskunde von Tirol (Innsbruck, 1872); F.

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  • Kirche Sctben and Brixen (really a special territorial history of Tirol) (to vols., Brixen, 1821-1837); J.

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  • Staffler, Tirol and Vorarlberg, (2 vols., Innsbruck, 1839-1846); A.

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  • Steinitzer, Geschichtliche and kulturgeschichtliche Wanderungen durch Tirol and Vorarlberg (Innsbruck, 1905); Th.

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  • Vernaleken, Alpensagen (largely Tirolese; Vienna, 1858); Beda Weber, Das Land Tirol (3 vols., Innsbruck, 1837-1838); Martin Wilckens, Die Alpenwirthschaft der Schweiz, des Algau, and der westoesterreichischen Al enleinder (Vienna, 1874); I.

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  • Zingerle, Sagen, Mr rchen, and G brc uche aus Tirol (Innsbruck, 1859); I.

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  • In formation it resembles the limestone Alps of Tirol and there are on its elevated plateaus a number of doline or funnel-shaped depressions into which the melted snow and the rain sink.

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  • An arrangement was made with regard to Apulia, after which Lothair, returning to Germany, died at Breitenwang, a village in the Tirol, on the 3rd or 4th of December 1137.

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  • The course of the journey was first northwards to Plombieres, then by Basel to Augsburg and Munich, then through Tirol to Verona and Padua in Italy.

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  • The sudden death of the king, by a fall from his carriage in Tirol in 1854, left the throne to his brother John, a learned and accomplished prince, whose name is known in German literature as a translator and annotator of Dante.

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  • From 1358 to 1368, however, the restless ambition of Rudolph, duke of Austria, who acquired Tirol and raised Vienna to the first rank among the cities of Europe, caused Louis great uneasiness.

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  • The Germans of the Alpine lands were less ready to carry out the same principle in Tirol and the regions leading down to the Adriatic. The divided policy of the Germans led on all sides to their failure.

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  • In Tirol they lost even purely German territories; they were pressed back from the Adriatic; and in the lands S.

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  • A general strike at the universities was averted by a compromise, by which Wahrmund was transferred from the pious land of Tirol to Prague, which was more than he had desired.

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  • Tirol issued a loyal declaration " in the name of the overwhelming majority of the population," as they asserted (June 14 1915).

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  • 17 a (invasion of Austria) he commanded the detached left wing of Bonaparte's army in Tirol, and fought his way through the mountains to rejoin his chief in Styria.

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  • Bolzano), a town in the Austrian province of Tirol, situated at the confluence of the Talfer with the Eisak, and a short way above the junction of the latter with the Adige or Etsch.

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  • Botzen is the busiest commercial town in the German-speaking portion of Tirol, being admirably situated at the junction of the Brenner route from Germany to Italy with that from Switzerland down the Upper Adige valley or the Vintschgau.

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  • From 1028 onwards it was ruled by local counts, the vassals of the bishops, but after Tirol fell into the hands of the Habsburgers (1363) their power grew at the expense of that of the bishops.

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  • In 1381 Leopold granted to the citizens the privilege of having a town council, while in 1462 the bishops resigned all rights of jurisdiction over the town to the Habsburgers, so that its later history is merged in that of Tirol.

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  • From Cividate, the terminus, the road goes on to Edolo (2290 ft.), whence passes lead into Tirol and the Valtellina.

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  • by Bavaria and Tirol and S.

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  • by Carinthia and Tirol.

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  • into a part of southern Tirol.

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  • The name of the district means the "land that is beyond the Arlberg Pass," that is, as it seems to one looking at it from the Tirol.

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  • This name is modern and is a collective appellation for the various counties or lordships in the region which the Habsburgs (after they secured Tirol in 1363) succeeded in purchasing or acquiring - Feldkirch (1375, but Hohenems in 1765 only), Bludenz with the Montafon valley (1394), Bregenz (in two parts, 1451 and 1523) and Sonnenberg (14s5).

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  • transferred the region to the province of Tirol.

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  • Vorarlberg (Innsbruck, 1868); Max Haushofer, Tirol and Vorarlberg (Bielefeld and Leipzig, 18 99); J.

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  • Staffier, Tirol and Vorarlberg (5 vols., Innsbruck, 1839-46); A.

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  • Steinitzer, Geschichtliche and Kulturgeschichtliche Wanderungen durch Tirol and Vorarlberg (Innsbruck, 1905); A.

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  • See also the list of books at the end of TIROL, and especially vol.

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  • ("Tirol u.

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  • The larch abounds on the Alps of Switzerland, on which it flourishes at an elevation of 5000 ft., and also on those of Tirol and Savoy, on the Carpathians, and in most of the hill regions of central Europe; it is not wild on the Apennine Branchlet of Larch (Larix europaea).

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  • In Tirol, a single hole is made near the root of the tree in the spring; this is stopped with a plug, and the turpentine is removed by a scoop in the autumn; but each tree yields only from a few ounces to z lb by this process.

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  • In the nth century it became the seat of the Eppenstein family, who frequently bore the title of counts of Gorizia; and in the beginning of the 12th century the countship passed from them to the Lurngau family which continued to exist till the year 1500, and acquired possessions in Tirol, Carinthia, Friuli and Styria.

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  • In Tirol cakes are left for them on the table and the room kept warm for their comfort.

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  • Yet, as a matter of fact, several important mountain groups are situated on one or other side of the watershed of the Alps, and form almost independent ranges, being only connected with the main chain by a kind of peninsula: such are the Dauphine Alps, the Eastern and Western Graians, the entire Bernese Oberland, the Todi, Albula and Silvretta groups, the Ortler and Adamello ranges, and the Dolomites of south Tirol, not to speak of the lower Alps of the Vorarlberg, Bavaria and Salzburg.

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  • Central Tirol Alps (from the Brenner Pass to the Radstalter Tauern Pass, north of the Drave Valley and south of the Pinzgau and the Enns Valley).

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  • Chief Peaks of the Central Tirol Alps.

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  • 11,041 Reckner (Tuxergebirge) Chief Passes of the Central Tirol Alps.

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  • The Dolomites of South Tirol (from the Brenner Pass Monte Croce Pass, and south of the Pusterthal).

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  • Chief Peaks of the Dolomites of South Tirol.

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  • Chief Passes of the Dolomites of South Tirol.

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  • Thus they won the duchy of Austria with Styria in 1282, Carinthia and Carniola in 1335, Tirol in 1363, and the Vorarlberg in bits from 1375 to 1523, not to speak of minor " rectifications " of frontiers on the northern slope of the Alps.

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  • Zingerle, Sagen aus Tirol (1859); and as to Alpine poetry-J.

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  • von Ruthner, Aus den Tauern (1864) and Aus Tirol (1869); V.

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  • On the west the belt is narrow, but towards the east it gradually widens, and north of Lago di Garda its northern boundary is suddenly deflected to the north and the zone spreads out so as to include the whole of the Dolomite mountains of Tirol.

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  • The folding, moreover, is less intense; but in the Dolomites of Tirol there are great outbursts of igneous rock, and faulting has occurred on an extensive scale.

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  • The ranges seldom exceed the height of 3000 or 4000 ft.; but the ridges in the south, towards Tirol, frequently attain an elevation of 9000 or 10,000 ft.

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  • The climate of Bavaria differs greatly according to the character of the region, being cold in the vicinity of Tirol but warm in the plains adjoining the Danube and the Main.

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  • The increasing importance of the mark of Styria, erected into a duchy in 1180, and the county of Tirol, had diminished both the actual and the relative strength of Bavaria, which was now deprived on almost all sides of opportunities for expansion.

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  • Its history, however, was complicated by its connexion with Brandenburg, Holland and Tirol, all of which had also been left by the emperor to his sons.

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  • Albert's rival was George's son-in-law, Rupert, formerly bishop of Freising, and son of Philip, count palatine of the Rhine; and the emperor Maximilian I., interested as archduke of Austria and count of Tirol, interfered in the dispute.

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  • On the other hand Wurzburg, obtained in 1803, was to be ceded by Bavaria to the elector of Salzburg in exchange for Tirol.

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  • In 1809 Bavaria was again engaged in war with Austria on the side of France, and by the treaty signed at Paris on the 28th of February 1810 ceded southern Tirol to Italy and some small districts to Wurttemberg, receiving as compensation parts of Salzburg, the quarters of the Inn and Hausruck and the principalities of Bayreuth and Regensburg.

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  • (For Bavaria's share in the war see Napoleonic Campaigns.) Immediately after the first peace of Paris (1814), Bavaria ceded to Austria Tirol and Vorarlberg; by the congress of 1 See Reces de la deputation de l'empire.

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  • So he left school chemistry as he had forsaken university culture, and started for the mines in Tirol owned by the wealthy family of the Fuggers.

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  • In 1866, with the rank of colonel, he assisted Garibaldi in Tirol, in 1867 fought at Mentana, and in 1870 conducted the negotiations with Bismarck, during which the German chancellor is alleged to have promised Italy possession of Rome and of her natural frontiers if the Democratic party could prevent an alliance between Victor Emmanuel and Napoleon.

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  • Carinthia was given to Meinhard, count of Tirol, on condition that when his male line became extinct it should pass to the Habsburgs.

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  • But this was soon broken by a dispute over the succession to the duchy of Carinthia and the county of Tirol, then ruled by Henry V., who was without sons, and whose daughter, Margaret Maultasch, was married to John Henry, margrave of Moravia, a son of John of Bohemia.

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  • In 1335 Duke Henry died and the emperor adjudged his lands to the Habsburgs; wars broke out, and the result was that John Henry secured Tirol while the other contending family added Carinthia to its Austrian possessions.

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  • very unpopular in Tirol, where his wife soon, counted herself among his enemies, and in 1341 he was driven from the land, while Margaret announced her intention of repudiating him and marrying the emperors son Louis, margrave of Brandenburg.

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  • The emperor himself entered heartily into this scheme for increasing the power of his family; he declared the marriage with John Henry void, and bestowed upon his son and his bride Margaret not only Tirol, but also Carinthia, now in the hands of the Habsburgs.

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  • The general result was that the power of the territorial lords became greater than eve-r, although in some cases, especially in Tirol and in Baden, the condition of the peasants was somewhat improved.

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  • While Prussia was thus established on the Rhine, Austria, by exchanging the Netherlands for LombardoVenetia and abandoning her claims to the former Habsburg possessions in Swabia, definitively resigned to Prussia the task of defending the western frontier of Germany, while she strengthened her power in the south-east by recovering from Bavaria, Salzburg, Vorarlberg and Tirol.

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  • The Alpine frontiers, especially those in Tirol, have numerous fortifications, whose centre is formed by Trent and Franzensfeste; while all the military roads leading into Carinthia have been provided with strong defensive works, as at Malborgeth, Predil Pass, &c. The two capitals, Vienna and Budapest, are not fortified.

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  • He retained Carinthia in his own hands until 1286, when, in return for valuable services, he bestowed it upon Meinhard IV., count of Tirol.

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  • obtained the county of Tirol.

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  • and Albert III., made a division of their lands, by which Albert retained Austria proper and Carniola, and Leopold got Styria, Carinthia and Tirol.

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  • In the same year he made an arrangement with his kinsman, Sigismund of Tirol, by which he brought this county under his rule, and when the emperor Frederick died in 1493, Maximilian united the whole of the Austrian lands under his sway.

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  • Continuing his acquisitions of territory, he inherited the possessions of the counts of Gorz in 1500, added some districts to Tirol by intervening in a succession war in Bavaria, and acquired Gradisca in 1512 as the result of a struggle with Venice.

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  • H.*) At the time of the death of the emperor Maximilian in 1519 the Habsburg dominions in eastern Germany included the duchies of Upper and Lower Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Austria Carniola and the county of Tirol.

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  • To his brother Ferdinand Charles resigned all his Austrian lands, including his claims on Bohemia and Leopold, the two eldest sons of Duke Leopold III., and, with their younger brothers Ernest and Frederick, the joint rulers of Styria, Carinthia and Tirol, died early in the 15th century, and in 1406 Ernest and Frederick made a division of their lands.

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  • Ernest became duke of Styria and Carinthia, and Frederick, count of Tirol.

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  • Frederick, who succeeded Albert as German king, and was soon crowned emperor as Frederick III., acted as guardian for Sigismund of Tirol, who was a minor, and also became regent of Austria in consequence of the Regency of the infancy of Ladislaus.

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  • Austria proper was policy left to his eldest son Maximilian, Tirol to the archduke The of Ferdi- Ferdinand; and Styria with Carinthia and Carniola nand and to the archduke Charles.

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  • The whole of Austria and nearly the whole of Styria were mainly Lutheran; in Bohemia, Silesia and Moravia, various forms of Christian belief struggled for mastery; and Catholicism was almost confined to the mountains of Tirol.

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  • By the death of the archduke Sigismund in 1665 he not only gained Tirol, but a considerable sum of money, which he used to buy back the Silesian principalities of Oppeln and Ratibor, pledged by Ferdinand III.

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  • (J anuary 1, 1806), by which Austria lost Venice and Tirol, and Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine had broken the unity of Germany, Francis formally abdicated the title and functions of Holy Roman emperor (August 6, 1806).

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  • Meanwhile the old system of provincial diets and estates was continued or revived (in 1816 in Tirol and Vorarlberg, 1817 in Galicia, 1818 in Carniola, 1828 in the circle of Salzburg), but they were in no sense representative, clergy and nobles alone being eligible, with a few delegates from the towns, and they had practically no functions beyond registering the imperial decrees, relative to recruiting or taxation, and dealing with matters of local police.

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  • By the treaty of Prague (August 23, 1866) the emperor surrendered the position in Germany which his ancestors had held for so many centuries; Austria and Tirol, Bohemia and Salzburg, ceased to be German, and eight million Germans were cut off from all political union with their fellow-countrymen.

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  • In that country was a large party which, under the name of the " Irredentists," demanded that those Italian-speaking districts, South Tirol, Istria and the t rea Trieste, which were under Austrian rule, should be joined to Italy; there were public meetings and riots in Italy; the Austrian flag was torn down from the consulate in Venice and the embassy at Rome insulted.

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  • The excitement spread across the frontier; there were riots in Trieste, and in Tirol it was necessary to make some slight movement of troops as a sign that the Austrian government was determined not to surrender any territory.

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  • In Hungary this national force or honved was kept quite distinct from the ordinary army; in Austria, however (except in Dalmatia and Tirol, where there was a separate local militia), the Landwehr, as it was called, was practically organized as part of the standing army.

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  • The southern Tirol, the chief passes into Italy, strategic points on the Istrian and Dalmatian coasts, were strongly fortified, while in the interior the Tauern, Karawanken and Wochein railways were constructed, partly in order to facilitate the movement of troops towards the Italian border.

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  • The kernel of the empire was the purely German district, including Upper and Lower Austria, Salzburg, Tirol (except the south) and Vorarlberg,.

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  • The feeling was less strong in Tirol, where, except in the city of Trent, they seem chiefly to have wished for separate local institutions, so that they should no longer be governed from Innsbruck.

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  • those of Bohemia, Moravia, Carinthia and Tirol, which were already pledged to support the January policy of the government, did not acquiesce in the February policy; and they refused to elect except on terms which the government could not accept.

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  • In the rural districts the clergy had much influence; they were supported by the peasants, and the diets of Tirol and Vorarlberg, where there was a clerical majority, refused to carry out the school law.

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  • The only exception was in the Italian districts; not only in Italy itself (in Lombardy, and afterwards in Venetia), but in South Tirol, Trieste, Istria and Dalmatia, Italian has always been used, even for the internal service of the government offices, and though the actual words of command are now given in German and the officers are obliged to know Serbo-Croatian it remains to this day the language of the Austrian navy.

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  • Important deposits of rocksalt occur in the Keuper at Berchtesgaden, in the Bavarian Alps; at Hall in Tirol and at Hallein, Hallstatt, Ischl and Aussee in the Salzkammergut in Austria.

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  • The evidences of this travel (which are really incontestable, though a small minority of critics still decline to admit them) consist of (1) some fine drawings, three of them dated 1494 and others undated, but plainly of the same time, in which Diirer has copied, or rather boldly translated into his own Gothic and German style, two famous engravings by Mantegna, a number of the "Tarocchi" prints of single figures which pass erroneously under that master's name, and one by yet another minor master of the North-Italian school; with another drawing dated 1495 and plainly copied from a lost original by Antonio Pollaiuolo, and yet another of an infant Christ copied in 1495 from Lorenzo di Credi, from whom also Diirer took a motive for the composition of one of his earliest Madonnas; (2) several landscape drawings done in the passes of Tirol and the Trentino, which technically will not fit in with any other period of his work, and furnish a clear record of his having crossed the Alps about this date; (3) two or three drawings of the costumes of Venetian courtesans, which he could not have made anywhere but in Venice itself, and one of which is used in his great woodcut Apocalypse series of 1498 (4) a general preoccupation which he shows for some years from this date with the problems of the female nude, treated in a manner for which Italy only could have set him the example; and (5) the clear implication contained in a letter written from Venice in 1506 that he had been there already eleven years before; when things, he says, pleased him much which at the time of writing please him no more.

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  • Nuremberg was the chief mart for the merchandise that came to central Europe from the east through Venice and over the passes of Tirol.

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  • In France and Italy the system is badly managed, as also in Tirol (where the local name is Almen), where, too, these pastures have in the course of years been largely alienated by the valley inhabitants, and belong to large villages or small towns almost in the plains.

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  • ANTONIO ROSMINI-SERBATI (1797-1855), Italian philosopher, was born at Rovereto in Italian Tirol on the 25th of March 1797.

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  • Louis was the soul of all hostile coalitions, especially urging on the Swiss and Sigismund of Austria, who ruled Tirol and Alsace.

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  • 1201), queen of France, was the daughter of Bertold IV., duke of Meran in Tirol.

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  • It has been argued that the runes of the Teutonic peoples have been derived from a form of the Etruscan alphabet, inscriptions in which are spread over a great part of northern Italy, but of which the most characteristic are found in the neighbourhood of Lugano, and in Tirol near Innsbruck, Botzen and Trent.

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  • ORTLER, the highest point (12,802 ft.) in Tirol, and so in the whole of the Eastern Alps.

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  • The strong positions around Rivoli, which command the approaches from Tirol and the upper Adige into the Italian plain, have always been celebrated in military history as a formidable obstacle, and Charles V.

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  • The chief places where it is carried on are in the neighbourhood of the Rhine, on the Lake of Geneva and in Tirol.

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  • Amongst places in the Rhine and its vicinity may be mentioned Kreuznach, Neustadt, Riidesheim and St Goar; on the Lake of Geneva are Montreux and Vevey; and in Tirol Gries and Meran.

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  • This race is often termed `` Celtic " or " Alpine " from the fact of its occurrence all along the great mountain chain from south-west France, in Savoy, in Switzerland, the Po valley and Tirol, as well as in Auvergne, Brittany, Normandy, Burgundy, the Ardennes and the Vosges.

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  • A part of its territory was ceded to Bavaria in 1814, and when Salzburg became a separate crownland in 1849 several of its districts were added to Tirol.

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  • The manna ash is a small tree found in Italy, and extending to Switzerland, South Tirol, Hungary, Greece, Turkey and Asia Minor.

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  • He achieved a rapid success, crossing the mountains from Tirol into Italy in spite of almost insurmountable difficulties (Journal d.

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  • The crisis of his mental conflict had just been passed in Tirol, and he was now beginning to let his creed grow again from the one fixed point which nothing had availed to shift: "The one great certainty to which, in the midst of the darkest doubt, I never ceased to cling - the entire symmetry and loveliness and the unequalled nobleness of the humanity of the Son of Man."

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  • His death occurred accidentally through the upsetting of his carriage near Brennbiihel, between Imst and Wenns in Tirol (August 9, 1854).

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  • To the Friedenskirche is attached a mausoleum built after the model of a chapel at Innichen in Tirol, in which are buried Emperor Frederick III.

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  • By the treaty of Pressburg (1805) Tirol was transferred from Austria to Bavaria, and Hofer, who was almost fanatically devoted to the Austrian house, became conspicuous as a leader of the agitation against Bavarian rule.

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  • The rapid advance of Napoleon, indeed, and the defeat of the main Austrian army under the archduke Charles, once more exposed Tirol to the French and Bavarians, who reoccupied Innsbruck.

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  • An autograph letter of the emperor Francis (May 29) assured him that no peace would be concluded by which Tirol would again be separated from the Austrian monarchy, and Hofer, believing his work accomplished, returned to his home.

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  • Then came the news of the armistice of Znaim (July 12), by which Tirol and Vorarlberg were surrendered by Austria unconditionally and given up to the vengeance of the French.

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  • Hofer was now elected Oberkommandant of Tirol, took up his quarters in the Hofburg at Innsbruck, and for two months ruled the country in the emperor's name.

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  • On the 29th of September Hofer received from the emperor a chain and medal of honour, which encouraged him in the belief that Austria did not intend again to desert him; the news of the conclusion of the treaty of Schonbrunn (October 14), by which Tirol was again ceded to Bavaria, came upon him as an overwhelming surprise.

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  • Weber, Das Thal Passeyr and seine Bewohner mit besonderer Riicksicht auf Andreas Hofer and das Jahr 180p (Innsbruck, 1851); Rapp, Tirol im Jahr 1809 (Innsbruck, 1852); Weidinger, Andreas Hofer and seine Kampfgenossen (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1861); Heigel, Andreas Hofer (Munich, 1874); Stampfer, Sandwirt Andreas Hofer (Freiburg, 1874); Schmolze, Andreas Hofer and seine Kampfgenossen (Innsbruck, 1900).

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  • Venice turpentine is yielded by the larch tree, Larix europaea, from which it is collected principally in Tirol.

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  • In 1501 he sought the German King Maximilian in Tirol, and received from him a promise of substantial assistance in case of an attempt on the English crown.

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  • Thus, Tirol, Styria and Carinthia belong, like Switzerland, to the system of the Alps, but these provinces together with those lying in the basin of the Danube form, nevertheless, a compact stretch of country.

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  • It rises in the mountains of Tirol, flows south, then east, and afterwards south, into the plains of Lombardy.

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  • Austria does not possess any great lakes; but has numerous small mountain lakes situated in the Alpine region, the most renowned for the beauty of their situation being found in Salzburg, Salzkammergut, Tirol and Carinthia.

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  • (See also Alps; Carpathians; Hungary and Tirol.) (P. La.) Climate.

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  • lat., and includes Dalmatia and the country along the coast, together with the southern portions of Tirol and Carinthia.

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  • For administrative purposes Trieste, with Gorz-Gradisca and Istria, constituting the Kiistenland (the Coast land) and Tirol and Vorarlberg, are each comprehended as one administrative territory.

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  • Therefore she endeavoured to obtain full control of the Valtellina, the valley leading from Lombardy to Tirol, and from thence to the German ecclesiastical states, which allowed a free passage to the Spanish troops.

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  • Formerly the ibex was common on the mountain-ranges of Germany, Switzerland and Tirol, but is now confined to the Alps which separate Valais from Piedmont, and to the lofty peaks of Savoy, where its existence is mainly due to game-laws.

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  • The calcareous Siphoneae are represented by several forms, identified as species of Diplopora, Triploporella, Neomeris and other genera, from strata ranging from the lower Trias limestones of Tirol to the Cretaceous rocks of Mexico and elsewhere.

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  • Similar interGlacial deposits in Tirol contain leaves of Rhododendron ponticum.

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  • Albert married Elizabeth, daughter of Meinhard IV., count of Gdrz and Tirol, who bore him six sons and five daughters.

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  • At Kufstein, down to which point it has still pursued a north-easterly direction, it breaks through the north Tirol limestone formation, and, now keeping a northerly course, enters at Rosenheim the Bavarian high plateau.

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  • On the outbreak of war in 1859 he was placed in command of the Alpine infantry, defeating the Austrians at Casale on the 8th of May, crossing the Ticino on the 23rd of May, and, after a series of victorious fights, liberating Alpine territory as far as the frontier of Tirol.

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  • He then retired to Vienna, and in 1812 he took part in the attempt to excite a second insurrection against Napoleon in Tirol.

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  • In March 1490 the county of Tirol was added to his possessions through the abdication of his kinsman, Count Sigismund, and this district soon became his favourite residence.

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  • I've also moved articles on cities in South Tirol and Kustenland to this category, as well as those on cities in Galicia, Bukovina, Transylvania, and Dalmatia.

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  • It then turns south-west, and, after receiving the Noce (right) and the Avisio (left), leaves Tirol, and enters Lombardy, 13 m.

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  • The most considerable towns on its banks (south of Botzen) are Trent and Rovereto, in Tirol, and Verona and Legnago, in Italy.

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  • It is navigable from the heart of Tirol to the sea.

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  • The only other part of the northern frontier of Italy where the boundary is not clearly marked by nature is Tirol or the valley of the Adige.

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  • The Adige, formed by the junction of two streams—the Etsch or Adige proper and the Eisak, both of which belong to Tirol rather than to Italy—descends as far as Verona, where it enters the great plain, with a course from north to south nearly parallel to the rivers last described, and would seem likely to discharge its waters into those of the Po, but below Legnago it turns eastward and runs parallel to the Po for about 40 m., entering the Adriatic by an independent mouth about 8 m.

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  • By an arrangement with Bavaria, they were able to march through Tirol and down the valley of the Adige in force, and overpowered the troops of Eugene whose position was fatally compromised by the defection of Murat and the dissensions among the Italians.

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  • But the withdrawal of the Neapolitans left Durando too weak to intercept Nugent and his 30,000 men; and the latter, although harassed by the inhabitants of Venetia and repulsed at Vicenza, succeeded in joining Radetzky, who was soon further reinforced from Tirol.

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  • In the Industrial Museum there is (besides collections of various kinds) some good painted glass of the 16th century, taken from the neighbouring Benedictine monastery of Muri (founded 1027, suppressed 1841 - the monks, are now quartered at Gries, near Botzen, in Tirol).

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  • It is preserved in a single MS. which was prepared at the command of Maximilian I., and was discovered as late as 1820 in the Castle of Ambras in Tirol.

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  • The Swabian lands of the Habsburgs went to the South German states (allies of Napoleon), while Bavaria also received Tirol and Vorarlberg.

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  • by Tirol, and S.

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  • ROVERETO, the most important industrial town in the southern or Italian-speaking portion of the Austrian province of Tirol, though its population (which in 1900 was io, r 80, Italian-speaking and Romanist) is less than that of Trent.

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  • The town is dominated by the castle (now used as barracks), which was reconstructed in 1492 by the Venetians, after it had been burnt in 1487 by the count of Tirol.

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  • In 1416 it was taken by the Venetians, who in 1487 successfully resisted, at Calliano, an attempt to take it made by the count of Tirol and the bishop of Trent.

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  • In 1509, at the outset of the war of the League of Cambray, the town gave itself voluntarily to the emperor Maximilian, to whom it was ceded formally by Venice in 1517, and next year incorporated with Tirol.

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  • Learning, however, that these were still beyond striking radius, he determined to deal with Mack's army first, having formed the fixed conviction that a threat at the latter's communications would compel him to endeavour to retreat southwards towards Tirol.

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  • On the 22nd of October, the day after Trafalgar, the remnant of the Austrian army, 23,000 strong, laid down its arms. About 5000 men under Jellachich had escaped to Tirol, 2000 cuirassiers with Prince Ferdinand to Eger in Bohemia, and about io,000 men under Werneck, had surrendered at Heidenheim.

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  • Practically the lines of communication along the Danube were denuded of combatants, even Bernadotte being called up from Passau, and the viceroy of Italy, who driving the archduke Johann before him (action of Raab) had brought up 56,000 men through Tirol, was disposed towards Pressburg within easy call.

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  • Marsilius of Padua also composed a treatise De translations imperii romani, which is merely a rearrangement of a work of Landolfo Colonna, De jurisdictione imperatoris in causa matrimoniali, intended to prove the exclusive jurisdiction of the emperor in matrimonial affairs, or rather, to justify the intervention of Louis of Bavaria, who, in the interests of his policy, had just annulled the marriage of the son of the king of Bohemia and the countess of Tirol.

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  • On the lawn near the cathedral stand two of the earliest larches grown in Great Britain, having been introduced from Tirol by the 2nd duke in 1738.

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  • RHETICUS, or RHAETICUS (1514-1576), a surname given to GEORGE JOACHIM, German astronomer and mathematician, from his birth at Feldkirch in that part of Tirol which was anciently the territory of the Rhaeti.

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  • But it is noticeable that where women engage in occupations of a more than usually strenuous nature, they frequently don male costume while at their work; as, for instance, women who work in mines (Belgium) and who tend cattle (Switzerland, Tirol).

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  • Undeterred by the news of heavy attacks on his rear from Tirol and from Bohemia, Napoleon hurried all available troops to the bridges, and by daybreak on the 21st, 40,000 men were collected on the Marchfeld, the broad open plain of the left bank, which was also to be the scene of the battle of Wagram.

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  • In August 1833 Arthur Hallam started with his father, the great historian, for Tirol.

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  • FUSSEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, at the foot of the Alps (Tirol), on the Lech, 2500 ft.

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  • Trient), the capital of the south or Italian-speaking portion of the Austrian province of Tirol.

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  • The Venetian attacks were finally repulsed in 1487, and the bishop retained his temporal powers till 1803 when they passed to Austria, to which (save 1805-1814, when first the Bavarians and then Napoleon held the region) they have ever since belonged, the Trentino being annexed formally to Tirol in 1814.

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  • TIROL (or Tyrol 1), the most southerly province of the Austrian Empire.

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  • It is traversed from west to east by the main chain of the Alps, which rises in various snow-covered summits, the more important being the Ortler (12,802 ft., the loftiest peak in Tirol and in the Eastern Alps generally), the Wildspitze (12,382 ft., Oetzthal group), the Zuckerhiitl (11,520 ft., Stubai group), the Hochfeiler (11, 559 ft., Zillerthal group), the Gross Venediger (12,008 ft.) and the Gross Glockner (12,461 ft., both in the Tauern range), while more to the south are the Dolomites, which culminate in the Marmolata (10,972 ft.).

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  • The Brenner, too, being on the main watershed of the Alps, separates the two main river systems of which Tirol is composed.

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  • The area of Tirol is 10,204 sq.

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  • The original Tirol consisted of part of the middle Inn valley and of the uppermost portion (the Vintschgau) of the Adige valley.

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  • In 1500, by inheritance from the counts of Gdrz, the Pusterthal and upper Drave valley (east) were added; in 1505 the lower portion of the Zillerthal, with the Inn 1 To speak, as is commonly done, of "the Tirol" is as absurd as speaking of "the England."

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  • In southern Tirol, silk-spinning is still one of the principal industries, while good local wines are produced near Meran and Botzen.

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  • But, save in the towns, Tirol is above all a pastoral land.

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  • Ecclesiastically, Tirol is ruled by the archbishop of Salzburg and his two suffragans, the bishops of Trent and of Brixen.

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  • Tirol sends 25 representatives to the Austrian parliament at Vienna.

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  • By far the greater portion of the region later called Tirol was inhabited, when it makes its appearance in history, by the Raetians (perhaps a Celtic race, though some still hold that they were connected with the Etruscans), who were conquered (14 B.C.) by Drusus and Tiberius, and were later organized into the Roman province of Raetia.

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  • On the extinction of this family in 1248, most of their fiefs were given by the two bishops to the father-in-law of the last lord of Andechs, Albert, count of Tirol.

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  • This new family took its name from the still existing castle of Tirol (Later Roman, Teriolis), above Meran, in the upper Adige valley, and is mentioned for the first time in 1140.

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  • 1295) took Tirol, and the younger G6rz; but in 1500 the latter's line became extinct, and the elder line inherited its possessions.

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  • 1361), and whose only child Meinhard died in her lifetime in 1363; Tirol accordingly passed by agreement in the latter year of the junior branch of the elder line, the Habsburgers, dukes of Austria since 1282.

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  • In this way Tirol came to the dynasty which has ever since held it (save 1805-1814).

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  • From that time onwards till 1665 Tirol was generally entrusted to a cadet of the Austrian house, who ruled first at Meran, and from about 1420 at Innsbruck, as a nearly independent prince; but since 1665 the province has been governed from Vienna.

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  • We have noted above the manner in which the limits of Tirol were gradually extended.

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  • Several of these additions were due to the archduke Maximilian, who ruled Tirol from 1490 onwards, becoming emperor in 1493 and dying in 1519.

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  • Owing to its position astride of the Alps, and so commanding the road across them, Tirol has often been the scene of sharp fighting.

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  • In 1805, by the peace of Pressburg, Napoleon forced Austria to hand over Tirol to his ally, Bavaria, which held it till 1814.

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  • On the r5th of August, Hofer, yielding to the popular wish, assumed the government of Tirol.

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  • But in October the ill-success of the Austrians against the French elsewhere forced them to conclude the peace of Vienna, by which Tirol was definitely secured to Bavaria.

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  • xiii., Tirol (Vienna, 1893), of the great official work entitled Die oesterreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort and Bild.

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  • Ubl, Tirol and Vorarlberg (Leipzig, 18 95); J.

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  • Baillie-Grohman, Tirol and the Tirolese (London, 1876), Gaddings with a Primitive People (2 vols., London, 1878), Sport in the Alps (London, 1896), and The Land in the Mountains (1907); Miss R.

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  • Busk, The Valleys of Tirol (London, 1874); E.

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  • C. Churchill, The Dolomite Mountains (London, 1864); Max Haushofer, Tirol (Bielefeld and Leipzig, 1899) J.

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  • landstaindischen Verfassung von Tirol (3 vols., Innsbruck, 1882-1885); W.

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  • Schneller, Landeskunde von Tirol (Innsbruck, 1872); F.

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  • Kirche Sctben and Brixen (really a special territorial history of Tirol) (to vols., Brixen, 1821-1837); J.

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  • Staffler, Tirol and Vorarlberg, (2 vols., Innsbruck, 1839-1846); A.

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  • Steinitzer, Geschichtliche and kulturgeschichtliche Wanderungen durch Tirol and Vorarlberg (Innsbruck, 1905); Th.

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  • Vernaleken, Alpensagen (largely Tirolese; Vienna, 1858); Beda Weber, Das Land Tirol (3 vols., Innsbruck, 1837-1838); Martin Wilckens, Die Alpenwirthschaft der Schweiz, des Algau, and der westoesterreichischen Al enleinder (Vienna, 1874); I.

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  • Zingerle, Sagen, Mr rchen, and G brc uche aus Tirol (Innsbruck, 1859); I.

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  • In formation it resembles the limestone Alps of Tirol and there are on its elevated plateaus a number of doline or funnel-shaped depressions into which the melted snow and the rain sink.

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  • An arrangement was made with regard to Apulia, after which Lothair, returning to Germany, died at Breitenwang, a village in the Tirol, on the 3rd or 4th of December 1137.

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  • The course of the journey was first northwards to Plombieres, then by Basel to Augsburg and Munich, then through Tirol to Verona and Padua in Italy.

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  • The sudden death of the king, by a fall from his carriage in Tirol in 1854, left the throne to his brother John, a learned and accomplished prince, whose name is known in German literature as a translator and annotator of Dante.

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  • The canary readily imitates the notes of other birds, and in Germany and especially Tirol, where the breeding of canaries gives employment to a large number of people, they are usually placed for this purpose beside the nightingale.

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  • From 1358 to 1368, however, the restless ambition of Rudolph, duke of Austria, who acquired Tirol and raised Vienna to the first rank among the cities of Europe, caused Louis great uneasiness.

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  • The Germans of the Alpine lands were less ready to carry out the same principle in Tirol and the regions leading down to the Adriatic. The divided policy of the Germans led on all sides to their failure.

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  • In Tirol they lost even purely German territories; they were pressed back from the Adriatic; and in the lands S.

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  • A general strike at the universities was averted by a compromise, by which Wahrmund was transferred from the pious land of Tirol to Prague, which was more than he had desired.

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  • Tirol issued a loyal declaration " in the name of the overwhelming majority of the population," as they asserted (June 14 1915).

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  • 17 a (invasion of Austria) he commanded the detached left wing of Bonaparte's army in Tirol, and fought his way through the mountains to rejoin his chief in Styria.

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  • Bolzano), a town in the Austrian province of Tirol, situated at the confluence of the Talfer with the Eisak, and a short way above the junction of the latter with the Adige or Etsch.

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  • Botzen is the busiest commercial town in the German-speaking portion of Tirol, being admirably situated at the junction of the Brenner route from Germany to Italy with that from Switzerland down the Upper Adige valley or the Vintschgau.

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  • From 1028 onwards it was ruled by local counts, the vassals of the bishops, but after Tirol fell into the hands of the Habsburgers (1363) their power grew at the expense of that of the bishops.

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  • In 1381 Leopold granted to the citizens the privilege of having a town council, while in 1462 the bishops resigned all rights of jurisdiction over the town to the Habsburgers, so that its later history is merged in that of Tirol.

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  • From Cividate, the terminus, the road goes on to Edolo (2290 ft.), whence passes lead into Tirol and the Valtellina.

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  • by Bavaria and Tirol and S.

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  • by Carinthia and Tirol.

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  • into a part of southern Tirol.

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  • The name of the district means the "land that is beyond the Arlberg Pass," that is, as it seems to one looking at it from the Tirol.

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  • This name is modern and is a collective appellation for the various counties or lordships in the region which the Habsburgs (after they secured Tirol in 1363) succeeded in purchasing or acquiring - Feldkirch (1375, but Hohenems in 1765 only), Bludenz with the Montafon valley (1394), Bregenz (in two parts, 1451 and 1523) and Sonnenberg (14s5).

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  • transferred the region to the province of Tirol.

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  • Vorarlberg (Innsbruck, 1868); Max Haushofer, Tirol and Vorarlberg (Bielefeld and Leipzig, 18 99); J.

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  • Staffier, Tirol and Vorarlberg (5 vols., Innsbruck, 1839-46); A.

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  • Steinitzer, Geschichtliche and Kulturgeschichtliche Wanderungen durch Tirol and Vorarlberg (Innsbruck, 1905); A.

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  • See also the list of books at the end of TIROL, and especially vol.

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  • ("Tirol u.

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  • The larch abounds on the Alps of Switzerland, on which it flourishes at an elevation of 5000 ft., and also on those of Tirol and Savoy, on the Carpathians, and in most of the hill regions of central Europe; it is not wild on the Apennine Branchlet of Larch (Larix europaea).

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  • In Tirol, a single hole is made near the root of the tree in the spring; this is stopped with a plug, and the turpentine is removed by a scoop in the autumn; but each tree yields only from a few ounces to z lb by this process.

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  • In the nth century it became the seat of the Eppenstein family, who frequently bore the title of counts of Gorizia; and in the beginning of the 12th century the countship passed from them to the Lurngau family which continued to exist till the year 1500, and acquired possessions in Tirol, Carinthia, Friuli and Styria.

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  • In Tirol cakes are left for them on the table and the room kept warm for their comfort.

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  • Yet, as a matter of fact, several important mountain groups are situated on one or other side of the watershed of the Alps, and form almost independent ranges, being only connected with the main chain by a kind of peninsula: such are the Dauphine Alps, the Eastern and Western Graians, the entire Bernese Oberland, the Todi, Albula and Silvretta groups, the Ortler and Adamello ranges, and the Dolomites of south Tirol, not to speak of the lower Alps of the Vorarlberg, Bavaria and Salzburg.

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  • Central Tirol Alps (from the Brenner Pass to the Radstalter Tauern Pass, north of the Drave Valley and south of the Pinzgau and the Enns Valley).

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  • Chief Peaks of the Central Tirol Alps.

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  • 11,041 Reckner (Tuxergebirge) Chief Passes of the Central Tirol Alps.

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  • The Dolomites of South Tirol (from the Brenner Pass Monte Croce Pass, and south of the Pusterthal).

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  • Chief Peaks of the Dolomites of South Tirol.

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  • Chief Passes of the Dolomites of South Tirol.

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  • Thus they won the duchy of Austria with Styria in 1282, Carinthia and Carniola in 1335, Tirol in 1363, and the Vorarlberg in bits from 1375 to 1523, not to speak of minor " rectifications " of frontiers on the northern slope of the Alps.

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  • Zingerle, Sagen aus Tirol (1859); and as to Alpine poetry-J.

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  • von Ruthner, Aus den Tauern (1864) and Aus Tirol (1869); V.

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  • On the west the belt is narrow, but towards the east it gradually widens, and north of Lago di Garda its northern boundary is suddenly deflected to the north and the zone spreads out so as to include the whole of the Dolomite mountains of Tirol.

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  • The folding, moreover, is less intense; but in the Dolomites of Tirol there are great outbursts of igneous rock, and faulting has occurred on an extensive scale.

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  • The ranges seldom exceed the height of 3000 or 4000 ft.; but the ridges in the south, towards Tirol, frequently attain an elevation of 9000 or 10,000 ft.

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  • The climate of Bavaria differs greatly according to the character of the region, being cold in the vicinity of Tirol but warm in the plains adjoining the Danube and the Main.

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  • The increasing importance of the mark of Styria, erected into a duchy in 1180, and the county of Tirol, had diminished both the actual and the relative strength of Bavaria, which was now deprived on almost all sides of opportunities for expansion.

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  • Its history, however, was complicated by its connexion with Brandenburg, Holland and Tirol, all of which had also been left by the emperor to his sons.

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  • Albert's rival was George's son-in-law, Rupert, formerly bishop of Freising, and son of Philip, count palatine of the Rhine; and the emperor Maximilian I., interested as archduke of Austria and count of Tirol, interfered in the dispute.

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  • On the other hand Wurzburg, obtained in 1803, was to be ceded by Bavaria to the elector of Salzburg in exchange for Tirol.

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  • In 1809 Bavaria was again engaged in war with Austria on the side of France, and by the treaty signed at Paris on the 28th of February 1810 ceded southern Tirol to Italy and some small districts to Wurttemberg, receiving as compensation parts of Salzburg, the quarters of the Inn and Hausruck and the principalities of Bayreuth and Regensburg.

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  • (For Bavaria's share in the war see Napoleonic Campaigns.) Immediately after the first peace of Paris (1814), Bavaria ceded to Austria Tirol and Vorarlberg; by the congress of 1 See Reces de la deputation de l'empire.

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  • So he left school chemistry as he had forsaken university culture, and started for the mines in Tirol owned by the wealthy family of the Fuggers.

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  • Chamois-hunting, in spite of, or perhaps owing to the great danger attending it, has always been a favourite pursuit among the hardy mountaineers of Switzerland and Tirol, as well as of the amateur sportsmen of all countries, with the result that the animal is now comparatively rare in many districts where it was formerly common.

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  • In 1866, with the rank of colonel, he assisted Garibaldi in Tirol, in 1867 fought at Mentana, and in 1870 conducted the negotiations with Bismarck, during which the German chancellor is alleged to have promised Italy possession of Rome and of her natural frontiers if the Democratic party could prevent an alliance between Victor Emmanuel and Napoleon.

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  • Carinthia was given to Meinhard, count of Tirol, on condition that when his male line became extinct it should pass to the Habsburgs.

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  • But this was soon broken by a dispute over the succession to the duchy of Carinthia and the county of Tirol, then ruled by Henry V., who was without sons, and whose daughter, Margaret Maultasch, was married to John Henry, margrave of Moravia, a son of John of Bohemia.

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  • In 1335 Duke Henry died and the emperor adjudged his lands to the Habsburgs; wars broke out, and the result was that John Henry secured Tirol while the other contending family added Carinthia to its Austrian possessions.

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  • very unpopular in Tirol, where his wife soon, counted herself among his enemies, and in 1341 he was driven from the land, while Margaret announced her intention of repudiating him and marrying the emperors son Louis, margrave of Brandenburg.

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  • The emperor himself entered heartily into this scheme for increasing the power of his family; he declared the marriage with John Henry void, and bestowed upon his son and his bride Margaret not only Tirol, but also Carinthia, now in the hands of the Habsburgs.

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  • The general result was that the power of the territorial lords became greater than eve-r, although in some cases, especially in Tirol and in Baden, the condition of the peasants was somewhat improved.

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  • While Prussia was thus established on the Rhine, Austria, by exchanging the Netherlands for LombardoVenetia and abandoning her claims to the former Habsburg possessions in Swabia, definitively resigned to Prussia the task of defending the western frontier of Germany, while she strengthened her power in the south-east by recovering from Bavaria, Salzburg, Vorarlberg and Tirol.

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  • The Alpine frontiers, especially those in Tirol, have numerous fortifications, whose centre is formed by Trent and Franzensfeste; while all the military roads leading into Carinthia have been provided with strong defensive works, as at Malborgeth, Predil Pass, &c. The two capitals, Vienna and Budapest, are not fortified.

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  • He retained Carinthia in his own hands until 1286, when, in return for valuable services, he bestowed it upon Meinhard IV., count of Tirol.

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  • obtained the county of Tirol.

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  • and Albert III., made a division of their lands, by which Albert retained Austria proper and Carniola, and Leopold got Styria, Carinthia and Tirol.

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  • In the same year he made an arrangement with his kinsman, Sigismund of Tirol, by which he brought this county under his rule, and when the emperor Frederick died in 1493, Maximilian united the whole of the Austrian lands under his sway.

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  • Continuing his acquisitions of territory, he inherited the possessions of the counts of Gorz in 1500, added some districts to Tirol by intervening in a succession war in Bavaria, and acquired Gradisca in 1512 as the result of a struggle with Venice.

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  • H.*) At the time of the death of the emperor Maximilian in 1519 the Habsburg dominions in eastern Germany included the duchies of Upper and Lower Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Austria Carniola and the county of Tirol.

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  • To his brother Ferdinand Charles resigned all his Austrian lands, including his claims on Bohemia and Leopold, the two eldest sons of Duke Leopold III., and, with their younger brothers Ernest and Frederick, the joint rulers of Styria, Carinthia and Tirol, died early in the 15th century, and in 1406 Ernest and Frederick made a division of their lands.

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  • Ernest became duke of Styria and Carinthia, and Frederick, count of Tirol.

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  • Frederick, who succeeded Albert as German king, and was soon crowned emperor as Frederick III., acted as guardian for Sigismund of Tirol, who was a minor, and also became regent of Austria in consequence of the Regency of the infancy of Ladislaus.

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  • Austria proper was policy left to his eldest son Maximilian, Tirol to the archduke The of Ferdi- Ferdinand; and Styria with Carinthia and Carniola nand and to the archduke Charles.

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  • The whole of Austria and nearly the whole of Styria were mainly Lutheran; in Bohemia, Silesia and Moravia, various forms of Christian belief struggled for mastery; and Catholicism was almost confined to the mountains of Tirol.

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  • By the death of the archduke Sigismund in 1665 he not only gained Tirol, but a considerable sum of money, which he used to buy back the Silesian principalities of Oppeln and Ratibor, pledged by Ferdinand III.

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  • The threatened revolt of Hungary, and the actual revolt of Tirol and of the Netherlands (see Belgium: History) together with the disasters of the war with Turkey, forced him, before he died, to the formal reversal of the whole policy of reform.

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  • (J anuary 1, 1806), by which Austria lost Venice and Tirol, and Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine had broken the unity of Germany, Francis formally abdicated the title and functions of Holy Roman emperor (August 6, 1806).

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  • Meanwhile the old system of provincial diets and estates was continued or revived (in 1816 in Tirol and Vorarlberg, 1817 in Galicia, 1818 in Carniola, 1828 in the circle of Salzburg), but they were in no sense representative, clergy and nobles alone being eligible, with a few delegates from the towns, and they had practically no functions beyond registering the imperial decrees, relative to recruiting or taxation, and dealing with matters of local police.

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  • By the treaty of Prague (August 23, 1866) the emperor surrendered the position in Germany which his ancestors had held for so many centuries; Austria and Tirol, Bohemia and Salzburg, ceased to be German, and eight million Germans were cut off from all political union with their fellow-countrymen.

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  • In that country was a large party which, under the name of the " Irredentists," demanded that those Italian-speaking districts, South Tirol, Istria and the t rea Trieste, which were under Austrian rule, should be joined to Italy; there were public meetings and riots in Italy; the Austrian flag was torn down from the consulate in Venice and the embassy at Rome insulted.

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  • The excitement spread across the frontier; there were riots in Trieste, and in Tirol it was necessary to make some slight movement of troops as a sign that the Austrian government was determined not to surrender any territory.

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  • In Hungary this national force or honved was kept quite distinct from the ordinary army; in Austria, however (except in Dalmatia and Tirol, where there was a separate local militia), the Landwehr, as it was called, was practically organized as part of the standing army.

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  • The southern Tirol, the chief passes into Italy, strategic points on the Istrian and Dalmatian coasts, were strongly fortified, while in the interior the Tauern, Karawanken and Wochein railways were constructed, partly in order to facilitate the movement of troops towards the Italian border.

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  • The kernel of the empire was the purely German district, including Upper and Lower Austria, Salzburg, Tirol (except the south) and Vorarlberg,.

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  • There was strong local feeling, especially in Tirol, but it was local feeling similar to that which formerly existed in the provinces of France; among all classes and parties there was great loyalty both to the ruling house and to the idea of the Austrian state; but while the Liberal party, which was dominant in Lower Austria and Styria, desired to develop the central institutions, there was a strong Conservative and Clerical party which supported local institutions as a protection against the Liberal influence of a centralized parliament and bureaucracy, and the bishops and clergy were willing to gain support in the struggle by alliance with the Federalists.

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  • The feeling was less strong in Tirol, where, except in the city of Trent, they seem chiefly to have wished for separate local institutions, so that they should no longer be governed from Innsbruck.

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  • those of Bohemia, Moravia, Carinthia and Tirol, which were already pledged to support the January policy of the government, did not acquiesce in the February policy; and they refused to elect except on terms which the government could not accept.

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  • In the rural districts the clergy had much influence; they were supported by the peasants, and the diets of Tirol and Vorarlberg, where there was a clerical majority, refused to carry out the school law.

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  • The only exception was in the Italian districts; not only in Italy itself (in Lombardy, and afterwards in Venetia), but in South Tirol, Trieste, Istria and Dalmatia, Italian has always been used, even for the internal service of the government offices, and though the actual words of command are now given in German and the officers are obliged to know Serbo-Croatian it remains to this day the language of the Austrian navy.

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  • Important deposits of rocksalt occur in the Keuper at Berchtesgaden, in the Bavarian Alps; at Hall in Tirol and at Hallein, Hallstatt, Ischl and Aussee in the Salzkammergut in Austria.

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  • The evidences of this travel (which are really incontestable, though a small minority of critics still decline to admit them) consist of (1) some fine drawings, three of them dated 1494 and others undated, but plainly of the same time, in which Diirer has copied, or rather boldly translated into his own Gothic and German style, two famous engravings by Mantegna, a number of the "Tarocchi" prints of single figures which pass erroneously under that master's name, and one by yet another minor master of the North-Italian school; with another drawing dated 1495 and plainly copied from a lost original by Antonio Pollaiuolo, and yet another of an infant Christ copied in 1495 from Lorenzo di Credi, from whom also Diirer took a motive for the composition of one of his earliest Madonnas; (2) several landscape drawings done in the passes of Tirol and the Trentino, which technically will not fit in with any other period of his work, and furnish a clear record of his having crossed the Alps about this date; (3) two or three drawings of the costumes of Venetian courtesans, which he could not have made anywhere but in Venice itself, and one of which is used in his great woodcut Apocalypse series of 1498 (4) a general preoccupation which he shows for some years from this date with the problems of the female nude, treated in a manner for which Italy only could have set him the example; and (5) the clear implication contained in a letter written from Venice in 1506 that he had been there already eleven years before; when things, he says, pleased him much which at the time of writing please him no more.

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  • Nuremberg was the chief mart for the merchandise that came to central Europe from the east through Venice and over the passes of Tirol.

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  • In France and Italy the system is badly managed, as also in Tirol (where the local name is Almen), where, too, these pastures have in the course of years been largely alienated by the valley inhabitants, and belong to large villages or small towns almost in the plains.

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  • ANTONIO ROSMINI-SERBATI (1797-1855), Italian philosopher, was born at Rovereto in Italian Tirol on the 25th of March 1797.

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  • Louis was the soul of all hostile coalitions, especially urging on the Swiss and Sigismund of Austria, who ruled Tirol and Alsace.

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  • 1201), queen of France, was the daughter of Bertold IV., duke of Meran in Tirol.

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  • It has been argued that the runes of the Teutonic peoples have been derived from a form of the Etruscan alphabet, inscriptions in which are spread over a great part of northern Italy, but of which the most characteristic are found in the neighbourhood of Lugano, and in Tirol near Innsbruck, Botzen and Trent.

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  • ORTLER, the highest point (12,802 ft.) in Tirol, and so in the whole of the Eastern Alps.

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  • The strong positions around Rivoli, which command the approaches from Tirol and the upper Adige into the Italian plain, have always been celebrated in military history as a formidable obstacle, and Charles V.

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  • The chief places where it is carried on are in the neighbourhood of the Rhine, on the Lake of Geneva and in Tirol.

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  • Amongst places in the Rhine and its vicinity may be mentioned Kreuznach, Neustadt, Riidesheim and St Goar; on the Lake of Geneva are Montreux and Vevey; and in Tirol Gries and Meran.

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  • This race is often termed `` Celtic " or " Alpine " from the fact of its occurrence all along the great mountain chain from south-west France, in Savoy, in Switzerland, the Po valley and Tirol, as well as in Auvergne, Brittany, Normandy, Burgundy, the Ardennes and the Vosges.

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  • A part of its territory was ceded to Bavaria in 1814, and when Salzburg became a separate crownland in 1849 several of its districts were added to Tirol.

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  • The manna ash is a small tree found in Italy, and extending to Switzerland, South Tirol, Hungary, Greece, Turkey and Asia Minor.

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  • He achieved a rapid success, crossing the mountains from Tirol into Italy in spite of almost insurmountable difficulties (Journal d.

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  • The crisis of his mental conflict had just been passed in Tirol, and he was now beginning to let his creed grow again from the one fixed point which nothing had availed to shift: "The one great certainty to which, in the midst of the darkest doubt, I never ceased to cling - the entire symmetry and loveliness and the unequalled nobleness of the humanity of the Son of Man."

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  • His death occurred accidentally through the upsetting of his carriage near Brennbiihel, between Imst and Wenns in Tirol (August 9, 1854).

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  • To the Friedenskirche is attached a mausoleum built after the model of a chapel at Innichen in Tirol, in which are buried Emperor Frederick III.

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  • By the treaty of Pressburg (1805) Tirol was transferred from Austria to Bavaria, and Hofer, who was almost fanatically devoted to the Austrian house, became conspicuous as a leader of the agitation against Bavarian rule.

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  • The rapid advance of Napoleon, indeed, and the defeat of the main Austrian army under the archduke Charles, once more exposed Tirol to the French and Bavarians, who reoccupied Innsbruck.

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  • An autograph letter of the emperor Francis (May 29) assured him that no peace would be concluded by which Tirol would again be separated from the Austrian monarchy, and Hofer, believing his work accomplished, returned to his home.

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  • Then came the news of the armistice of Znaim (July 12), by which Tirol and Vorarlberg were surrendered by Austria unconditionally and given up to the vengeance of the French.

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  • Hofer was now elected Oberkommandant of Tirol, took up his quarters in the Hofburg at Innsbruck, and for two months ruled the country in the emperor's name.

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  • On the 29th of September Hofer received from the emperor a chain and medal of honour, which encouraged him in the belief that Austria did not intend again to desert him; the news of the conclusion of the treaty of Schonbrunn (October 14), by which Tirol was again ceded to Bavaria, came upon him as an overwhelming surprise.

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  • Weber, Das Thal Passeyr and seine Bewohner mit besonderer Riicksicht auf Andreas Hofer and das Jahr 180p (Innsbruck, 1851); Rapp, Tirol im Jahr 1809 (Innsbruck, 1852); Weidinger, Andreas Hofer and seine Kampfgenossen (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1861); Heigel, Andreas Hofer (Munich, 1874); Stampfer, Sandwirt Andreas Hofer (Freiburg, 1874); Schmolze, Andreas Hofer and seine Kampfgenossen (Innsbruck, 1900).

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  • Venice turpentine is yielded by the larch tree, Larix europaea, from which it is collected principally in Tirol.

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  • In 1501 he sought the German King Maximilian in Tirol, and received from him a promise of substantial assistance in case of an attempt on the English crown.

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  • Thus, Tirol, Styria and Carinthia belong, like Switzerland, to the system of the Alps, but these provinces together with those lying in the basin of the Danube form, nevertheless, a compact stretch of country.

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  • It rises in the mountains of Tirol, flows south, then east, and afterwards south, into the plains of Lombardy.

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  • Austria does not possess any great lakes; but has numerous small mountain lakes situated in the Alpine region, the most renowned for the beauty of their situation being found in Salzburg, Salzkammergut, Tirol and Carinthia.

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  • (See also Alps; Carpathians; Hungary and Tirol.) (P. La.) Climate.

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  • lat., and includes Dalmatia and the country along the coast, together with the southern portions of Tirol and Carinthia.

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  • lat., and includes Lower and Upper Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Central and Northern Tirol, Southern Moravia Triassic Siluro-Cambrian Permian Carboniferous R.

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  • For administrative purposes Trieste, with Gorz-Gradisca and Istria, constituting the Kiistenland (the Coast land) and Tirol and Vorarlberg, are each comprehended as one administrative territory.

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  • Therefore she endeavoured to obtain full control of the Valtellina, the valley leading from Lombardy to Tirol, and from thence to the German ecclesiastical states, which allowed a free passage to the Spanish troops.

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  • Formerly the ibex was common on the mountain-ranges of Germany, Switzerland and Tirol, but is now confined to the Alps which separate Valais from Piedmont, and to the lofty peaks of Savoy, where its existence is mainly due to game-laws.

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  • The calcareous Siphoneae are represented by several forms, identified as species of Diplopora, Triploporella, Neomeris and other genera, from strata ranging from the lower Trias limestones of Tirol to the Cretaceous rocks of Mexico and elsewhere.

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  • Similar interGlacial deposits in Tirol contain leaves of Rhododendron ponticum.

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  • In 1416 it was taken by the Venetians, who in 1487 successfully resisted, at Calliano, an attempt to take it made by the count of Tirol and the bishop of Trent.

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