How to use Tin in a sentence
She accepted the coffee and scowled into the tin cup.
It was a green tin, with a red spot on it.
Tin has been manufactured since 1892.
He accepted the tin of flapjacks she offered and jerked his head toward her wagon.
But Ozma soon conquered her, with the help of Glinda the Good, and after that I went to live with Nick Chopper, the Tin Woodman.Advertisement
Another place for a tin can lid.
Deposits of copper, tin, iron and tungsten have been discovered, and a variety of other mineral products (graphite, mica, spodumene, coal, petroleum, &c.).
It is usually found in association with tin and other minerals.
But unlike the floating package that danced among the rocks, the tin had not floated away.
The Lucky Strike tin is a common one, but some containers sell for a whole lot more than that.Advertisement
It roared on the tin roof and plunged off the eves, where the wind caught it and drove it across the yard in horizontal sheets.
Tin was known to exist in Australia from the first years of colonization.
In New South Wales lode tin occurs principally in the granite and stream tin under the basaltic country in the extreme north of the state, at Tenterfield, Emmaville, Tingha, and in other districts of New England.
The yield of tin in Victoria is very small, and until lately no fields of importance have been discovered; but towards the latter end of 1890 extensive deposits were reported to exist in the Gippsland district - at Omeo and Tarwin.
Tasmania during the last few years has attained the foremost position in the production of tin, the annual output now being about £363,000.Advertisement
The total value of tin produced in Australia is nearly a million sterling per annum, and the total production to the end of 1905 was £22,500,000, of which Tasmania produced about 40%, New South Wales one-third, Queensland a little more than a fourth.
Iridosmine occurs commonly with gold or tin in alluvial drifts.
Molybdenum, in the form of molybdenite (sulphide of molybdenum), is found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, associated in the parent state with tin and bismuth in quartz reefs.
Other precious stones, including the sapphire, emerald, oriental emerald, ruby, opal, amethyst, garnet, chrysolite, topaz, cairngorm, onyx, zircon, etc., have been found in the gold and tin bearing drifts and river gravels in numerous localities throughout the states.
We thus learn that the bronzes referred to above, although chemically uniform when solid, are not so when they begin to solidify, but that the liquid deposits crystals richer in copper than itself, and therefore that the residual liquid becomes richer in tin.Advertisement
Why would someone who switched the bones take the cigarette tin?
Somebody switched the bones, stole the finger, and took the cigarette tin.
You couldn't bear to let loose of a ten dollar cigarette tin.
The principal items of export are wool, skins, tallow, frozen mutton, chilled beef, preserved meats, butter and other articles of pastoral produce, timber, wheat, flour and fruits, gold, silver, lead, copper, tin and other metals.
The descent from the summits of the range into the plain is somewhat less abrupt on the western than it is on the eastern side, and between the foot of the mountains and the Strait of Malacca the largest known alluvial deposits of tin are situated.Advertisement
The tin occurs in the form of cassiterite, and is found chiefly in or near the crystalline rocks, especially the granite.
As stream tin it occurs abundantly in some of the alluvial deposits derived from the crystalline area, especially on the west coast.
Only two tin lodes are worked, however, and both are situated on the east coast, the one at Kuantan in Pahang, the other at Bandi in Trengganu territory.
Since 1890 the tin produced from these alluvial beds has supplied between 50% and 75% of the tin of the world.
This precipitate is insoluble in cold dilute acids, in ammonium sulphide, and in solutions of the caustic alkalis," a behaviour which distinguishes it from the yellow sulphides of arsenic and tin.Advertisement
A good example may be made with two cylindrical tin cups; the bottoms form the membranes and the cups the mouthpieces.
Quicksilver and tin are found (the latter in small quantities) in Tuscany.
Later writers, Posidonius, Diodorus, Strabo and others, call them smallish islands off (Strabo says, some way off) the north-west coast of Spain, which contained tin mines, or, as Strabo says, tin and lead mines - though a passage in Diodorus derives the name rather from their nearness to the tin districts of north-west Spain.
While geographical knowledge of the west was still scanty and the secrets of the tin-trade were still successfully guarded by the seamen of Gades and others who dealt in the metal, the Greeks knew only that tin came to them by sea from the far west, and the idea of tin-producing islands easily arose.
Later, when the west was better explored, it was found that tin actually came from two regions, north-west Spain and Cornwall.Advertisement
Instead, they became a third, ill-understood source of tin, conceived of as distinct from Spain or Britain.
The mining industry, for which the town was formerly also famous and which embraced tin, silver and cobalt, has now ceased.
Silks, wood-carvings, silver and jade ornaments, tin and copper wares, fruits and tobacco are the chief articles of the local trade.
One of the neighbouring mines, the Proprietary, is the richest in the world; gold is associated with the silver; large quantities of lead, good copper lodes, zinc and tin are also found.
Among the city's manufactures are oxide of tin and other chemicals, iron and steel, leather goods, automobiles and bicycles, electrical and telephone supplies, butted tubing, gas engines, screws and bolts, silk, lace and hosiery.Advertisement
Manufacturing industry is confined to a few articles and commodities, such as cement, tea, tin cans (for oil), cotton goods, oil refineries, tobacco factories, flour-mills, silk-winding mills (especially at Shusha and Jebrail in the south of Elisavetpol), distilleries and breweries.
It is placed in tin canisters of about 31 to 5 in.
Other exports are tin and copper, granite, serpentine, vegetables and china clay.
In 1663 Ienzance was constituted a coinage town for tin.
Subsequently electrum (an alloy of gold and silver) disappeared as a specific metal, and tin was ascribed to Jupiter instead, the sign of mercury becoming common to the metal and the planet.Advertisement
Thus in the Speculum Naturale of Vincent of Beauvais (c. 1250) it is said that there are four spirits - mercury, sulphur, arsenic and sal ammoniac - and six bodies - gold, silver, copper, tin, lead and iron.
Ruthenium in bulk resembles platinum in its general appearance, and has been obtained crystalline by heating an alloy of ruthenium and tin in a current of hydrochloric acid gas.
From an analogy instituted between the healthy human being and gold, the most perfect of the metals, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead and tin, were regarded in the light of lepers that required to be healed.
Gold, the most perfect metal, had the symbol of the Sun, 0; silver, the semiperfect metal, had the symbol of the Moon, 0j; copper, iron and antimony, the imperfect metals of the gold class, had the symbols of Venus Mars and the Earth tin and lead, the imperfect metals of the silver class, had the symbols of Jupiter 94, and Saturn h; while mercury, the imperfect metal of both the gold and silver class, had the symbol of the planet,.
The Egyptians obtained silver, iron, copper, lead, zinc and tin, either pure or as alloys, by smelting the ores; mercury is mentioned by Theophrastus (c. 300 B.C.).Advertisement
The black films of tin, lead and cadmium dissolve at once in the acid, the lead film being also soluble in bleaching-powder.
The oxide films of antimony, arsenic, tin and bismuth are white, that of bismuth slightly yellowish; lead yields a very pale yellow film, and cadmium a brown one; mercury yields no oxide film.
The solution is filtered and treated with an excess of sulphuretted hydrogen, either in solution or by passing in the gas; this precipitates mercury (mercuric), any lead left over from the first group, copper, bismuth, cadmium, arsenic, antimony and tin as sulphides.
The precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain the black mercuric, lead, and copper sulphides, dark-brown bismuth sulphide, yellow cadmium and arsenious sulphides, orange-red antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, dull-yellow stannic sulphide, and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation of sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromates, &c. Warming with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and tin salts, which are reprecipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid to the ammonium sulphide solution.
Dissolve the residue in hydrochloric acid and test separately for antimony and tin.
We see however the similarity of the metal-working of both countries at approximately the same time; both are in the same style of artistic development, the Egyptian perhaps the more advanced of the two, and (if the published analysis by Mosso is to be relied upon) with the additional technique of the alloy with tin, making the metal bronze, and so easier for the heads to be cast.
Whence the Egyptians and a little later on the Babylonians got their tin for the alloy we do not yet know.
The geographical knowledge of Anaximander was naturally more ample than that of Homer, for it extended from the Cassiterides or Tin Islands in the west to the Caspian in the east, which he conceived to open out into Oceanus.
Not far off, similar relics were found at Sobunar, Zlatiste and Debelobrdo; iron and bronze ornaments, vessels and weapons, often of elaborate design, occur in the huts and cemeteries of Glasinac, and in the cemetery of Jezerine, where they are associated with objects in silver, tin, amber, glass, &c. Among the numerous finds made in other districts may be mentioned the discovery, at Vrankamer, near Bihac, of 98 African coins, the oldest of which dates from 300 B.C. Many vestiges of Roman rule survive, such as roads, mines, ruins, tombs, coins, frescoes and inscriptions.
It is a centre of the iron and steel industries, producing principally cast steel, cast iron, iron pipes, wire and wire ropes, and lamps, with tin and zinc works, coal-mining, factories for carpets, calcium carbide and paper-roofing, brickworks and breweries.
Platinum, palladium and tin are occasionally deposited for special purposes.
Silver and lead ores exist in the Altai and the Nerchinsk Mountains, as well as, copper, cinnabar and tin.
The import trade consists of timber, maize, paper, crockery, sugar, tobacco, kerosene oil, &c. Gold has been found in the territory, and silver, tin, lead and iron are said to exist.
A volume entitled Opera posthuma (Leiden, 1703) contained his "Dioptrica," in which the ratio between the respective focal lengths of object-glass and eye-glass is given as the measure of magnifying power, together with the shorter essays De vitris figurandis, De corona et parheliis, &c. An early tract De ratiociniis tin ludo aleae, printed in 16J7 with Schooten's Exercitationes mathematicae, is notable as one of the first formal treatises on the theory of probabilities; nor should his investigations of the properties of the cissoid, logarithmic and catenary curves be left unnoticed.
The Romans used it largely, as it is still used, for the making of water pipes, and soldered these with an alloy of lead and tin.
To remove tin, arsenic and antimony, the lead has to be brought up to a bright-red heat, when the air has a strongly oxidizing effect.
Tin is removed mainly as a powdery mixture of stannate of lead and lead oxide, arsenic and antimony as a slagged mixture of arsenate and antimonate of lead and lead oxide.
The temperature is then raised, and the scum which forms on the surface is withdrawn until pure litharge forms, which only takes place after all the tin, arsenic and antimony have been eliminated.
Tin unites with lead in any proportion with slight expansion, the alloy fusing at a lower temperature than either component.
At the same time, however, it forms a number of compounds in which it is most decidedly tetravalent; and thus it shows relations to carbon, silicon, germanium and tin.
These salts are like those of tin; and the resemblance to this metal is clearly enhanced by the study of the alkyl compounds.
The metals used in different combinations included tin, aluminium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and boron; each of these, when united in certain proportions with manganese, together with a larger quantity of copper (which appears to serve merely as a menstruum), constituted a magnetizable alloy.
Next to aluminium, tin was found to be the most effective of the metals enumerated above.
Guillaume 6 explains the ferromagnetism of Heusler's alloy by supposing that the naturally low critical temperature of the manganese contained in it is greatly raised by the admixture of another appropriate metal, such as aluminium or tin; thus the alloy as a whole becomes magnetizable at the ordinary temperature.
Columbium compounds are usually prepared by fusing columbite with an excess of acid potassium sulphate, boiling out the fused mass with much water, and removing tin and tungsten from the residue by digestion with ammonium sulphide, any iron present being simultaneously converted into ferrous sulphide.
Of agricultural produce there was barely sufficient for home consumption, but the mining industries had reached a very high level of excellence, and iron, tin and copper were very largely exported from the northern counties to Danzig and other Baltic ports.
Next in value came wool (£226,000), horses and mules (£110,000), skins, hides and horns (£106,000), tobacco (£89,000), tin, coal, copper and lead.
Being a component of bronze, it was used as a metal thousands of years prior to the dawn of history; but it does not follow that prehistoric bronzes were made from metallic tin.
The "tin" of the Bible (KauoLTEpos in the Septuagint) corresponds to the Hebrew bedhil, which is really a copper alloy known as early as 1600 B.C. in Egypt.
All we know is that about the 1st century the Greek word Kacroircpos designated tin, and that tin was imported from Cornwall into Italy after, if not before, the invasion of Britain by Julius Caesar.
Grains of metallic tin occur intermingled with the gold ores of Siberia, Guiana and Bolivia, and in a few other localities.
Of minerals containing this element mention may be made of cassiterite or tinstone, Sn02, tin pyrites, Cu 4 SnS 4 + (Fe,Zn) 2 SnS 4; the metal also occurs in some epidotes, and in company with columbium, tantalum and other metals.
It is also found in the form of rolled lumps and grains, "stream tin," in alluvial gravels; the latter are secondary deposits, the products of the disintegration of the first-named primary deposits.
During the 18th century the world's supply of tin was mainly drawn from the deposits of England, Saxony and Bohemia; in 1801 England produced about 2500 tons, while the supplies of Saxony and Bohemia had been greatly diminished.
The first stage has for its purpose the production of a fairly pure tinstone; the second the conversion of the oxide into metallic tin; and the third preparing a tin pure enough for commercial purposes.
The alluvial extracted, which in the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago carries from 5 to 60 lb of tinstone (or "black tin," as it is termed by Cornish miners) to the cubic yard of gravel, is washed in various simple sluicing appliances, by which the lighter clay, sand and stones are removed and tinstone is left behind comparatively pure, containing usually 65 to 75% of metallic tin (chemically pure tinstone contains 78.7%).
Lode tin, as tinstone derived from primary deposits is often termed, is mined in the ordinary method, the very hard gangue in which it occurs necessitating a liberal use of explosives.
The crude tinstuff raised in Cornwall carries on an average a little over 2% of black tin.
The Bolivian tin ore is treated by first extracting the silver by amalgamation, &c., and afterwards concentrating the residues; there are, however, considerable difficulties in the way of treating the poorer of these very complex ores, and several chemical processes for extracting their metallic contents have been worked out.
All tin, except a small quantity produced by the shaft furnace process from exceptionally pure stream tin ore, requires refining by liquation and "boiling" before it is ready for the market.
In the English process the bars are heated cautiously on an inclined hearth, when relatively pure tin runs off, while a skeleton of impure metal remains.
The original top stratum is the purest, and each succeeding lower stratum has a greater proportion of impurities; the lowest consists largely of a solid or semi-solid alloy of tin and iron.
If the tin is pure it splits into a mass of granular strings.
Tin which has been thus manipulated and proved incidentally to be very pure is sold as grain tin.
A lower quality goes by the name of block tin.
Of the several commercial varieties Banka tin is the purest; it is indeed almost chemically pure.
Next comes English grain tin.
For the preparation of chemically pure tin two methods are employed.
The whole is then left to itself, when crystals of tin gradually separate out on the bottom of the basin.
An ingot of tin is pure white (except for a slight tinge of blue); the colour depends, however, upon the temperature at which it is poured - if too low, the surface is dull, if too high, iridescent.
The specific gravity of cast tin is 7.29, of rolled tin 7.299, and of electrically deposited tin 7.143 to 7.178.
A tin ingot is distinctly crystalline; hence the characteristic crackling noise, or "cry" of tin, which a bar of tin gives out when being bent.
As pure tin does not tarnish in the air and is proof against acid liquids, such as vinegar, lime juice, &c., it is utilized for culinary and domestic vessels.
But it is expensive, and tin vessels have to be made very heavy to give them sufficient stability of form; hence it is generally employed merely as a protecting coating for utensils made essentially of copper or iron.
The basin, made scrupulously clean, is heated to beyond the fusing point of tin.
Molten tin is then poured in, a little powdered salammoniac added, and the tin spread over the inside with a bunch of tow.
The sal-ammoniac removes the last unavoidable film of oxide, leaving a purely metallic surface, to .which the tin adheres firmly.
One part of cream of tartar, two of alum and two of common salt are dissolved in boiling water, and the solution is boiled with granulated metallic tin (or, better, mixed with a little stannous chloride) to produce a tin solution; and into this the articles are put at a boiling heat.
In the absence of metallic tin there is no visible change; but, as soon as the metal is introduced, an electrolytic action sets in and the articles get coated over with a firmly adhering film of tin.
The most important form of the operation is making tinned from ordinary sheet iron (making what is called "sheet tin").
They are next steeped in a bath, first of molten ferruginous, then of pure tin.
The tin of the second bath dissolves iron gradually and becomes fit for the first bath.
To tin cast-iron articles they must be decarburetted superficially by ignition within a bath of ferric oxide (powdered haematite or similar material), then cleaned with acid, and tinned by immersion, as explained above.
Tin forms two well-marked series of salts, in one of which it is divalent, these salts being derived from stannous oxide, SnO, in the other it is tetravalent, this series being derived from stannic oxide, Sn02.
Of these sodium stannate, Na2Sn03, is produced industrially by heating tin with Chile saltpetre and caustic soda, or by fusing very finely powdered tinstone with caustic soda in iron vessels.
A colloidal or soluble stannic acid is obtained by dialysing a mixture of tin tetrachloride and alkali, or of sodium stannate and hydrochloric acid.
A hydrated tin trioxide, Sn03, was obtained by Spring by adding barium dioxide to a solution of stannous chloride and hydrochloric acid; the solution is dialysed, and the colloidal solution is evaporated to form a white mass of 2Sn03 H20.
Stannous Chloride, SnC1 2, can only be obtained pure by heating pure tin in a current of pure dry hydrochloric acid gas.
The chloride readily combines with water to form a crystallizable hydrate SnCl 2.2H 2 O, known as "tin salt" or "tin crystals."
This salt is also formed by dissolving tin in strong hydrochloric acid and allowing it to crystallize, and is industrially prepared by passing sufficiently hydrated hydrochloric acid gas over granulated tin contained in stoneware bottles and evaporating the concentrated solution produced in tin basins over granulated tin.
According to Michel and Kraft, one litre of cold saturated solution of tin crystals weighs 1827 grammes and contains 1333 grammes of SnCl 2.
Hence all tin crystals as kept in the laboratory give with water a turbid solution, which contains stannic in addition to stannous chloride.
A strip of metallic zinc when placed in a solution of stannous chloride precipitates the tin in crystals and takes its place in the solution.
Stannic Chloride, SnC1 4, named by Andreas Libavius in 1605 Spiritus argenti vivi sublimate from its preparation by distilling tin or its amalgam with corrosive sublimate, and afterwards termed Spiritus fumans Libavii, is obtained by passing dry chlorine over granulated tin contained in a retort; the tetrachloride distils over as a heavy liquid, from which the excess of chlorine is easily removed by shaking with a small quantity of tin filings and re-distilling.
With one-third its weight of water it forms the so-called "butter of tin."
The oxymuriate of tin used by dyers is SnCl4.5H20.
Stannous bromide, SnBr 2, is a light yellow substance formed from tin and hydrobromic acid.
Stannous sulphide, SnS, is obtained as a lead-grey mass by heating tin with sulphur, and as a brown precipitate by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannous solution; this is soluble in ammonium polysulphide, and dries to a black powder.
Stannic sulphide, SnS 2, is obtained by heating a mixture of tin (or, better, tin amalgam), sulphur and sal-ammoniac in proper proportions in the beautiful form of aurum musivum (mosaic gold) - a solid consisting of golden yellow, metallic lustrous scales, and used chiefly as a yellow "bronze" for plaster-of-Paris statuettes, &c. The yellow precipitate of stannic sulphide obtained by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannic solution readily dissolves in solutions of the alkaline sulphides to form thiostannates of the formula M 2 SnS 31 the free acid, H2SnS3, may be obtained as an almost black powder by drying the yellow precipitate formed when hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of a thiostannate.
Tin compounds when heated on charcoal with sodium carbonate or potassium cyanide in the reducing blowpipe flame yield the metal and a scanty ring of white Sn02.
Tin is generally quantitatively estimated as the dioxide.
Silver, tin, lead, mercury and precious stones are listed among the mineral resources of the country, but no mines have been developed, and they are possibilities only.
The mineral wealth is great, including copper, tin, lead, zinc, iron and especially coal.
The mineral resources include silver, gold, copper, lead, tin, iron and coal, and mining is the chief industry.
Tin is abundant in Tenasserim, and lead and silver have been worked extensively in the Shan States.
The tin mines in Lower Burma are worked by natives, but a company at one time worked mines in the Maliwun township of Mergui by European methods.
Semi-opacity and opacity are usually produced by the addition to the glass-mixtures of materials which will remain in suspension in the glass, such as oxide of tin, oxide of arsenic, phosphate of lime, cryolite or a mixture of felspar and fluorspar.
The surface of vessels may be spangled with gold or platinum by rolling the hot glass on metallic leaf, or iridescent, by the deposition of metallic tin, or by the corrosion caused by the chemical action of acid fumes.
The principle of applying metallic films to glass seems to have been known to the Romans and even to the Egyptians, and is mentioned by Alexander Neckam in the 12th century, but it would appear that it was not until the 16th century that the process of " silvering " mirrors by the use of an amalgam of tin and mercury had been perfected.
Originally applied to gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, lead and bronze, i.e.
Gold is yellow; copper is red; silver, tin, and some others are pure white; the majority are greyish.
Hence tin and lead, though very malleable, are little ductile.
Of the rest, the following are readily oxidized by steam at a red heat, with formation of hydrogen gas - zinc, iron, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, tin.
In the case of iron, ferric sulphate, Fe2(S04) 3, is produced; tin yields a somewhat indefinite sulphate of its oxide Sn02.
Tin and antimony (also arsenic) are converted by it (ultimately) into hydrates of their highest oxides Sn0 2, Sb205 (As 2 O 5) - the oxides of tin and antimony being insoluble in water and in the acid itself.
Iron, zinc, cadmium, also tin under certain conditions, reduce the dilute acid, partially at least, to nitrous oxide, N 2 0, or ammonium nitrate, NH4N03.
Tin, at high temperatures, passes slowly into oxide, Sn02.
There is a large export trade in coal, I copper, iron and tin, mostly shipped from nieghbouring ports, while the principal imrorts are timber and general merchandise.
Tin and gold are worked in the district, in which also good coffee and rice are grown.
Aristotle refers to brass as the "metal of the Mosynoeci," 2 which is produced as a bright and light-coloured XaXK6s, not by addition of tin, but by fusing up with an earth.
In 1597 Libavius described a "peculiar kind of tin" which was prepared in India, and of which a friend had given him a quantity.
The staple productions are machinery, railway engines and carriages, steel, tin and bronze wares, pottery, bent and carved wood furniture, textiles and chemicals.
The nature of the breeding-place varies greatly according to the species, and while many of the mosquitoes that infest houses will breed even in the smallest accidental accumulation of water such as may have collected in a discarded bottle or tin, the larvae of other species less closely associated with man are found in natural pools or ditches, at the margins of slow-moving streams, in collections of water in hollow trees and bamboo-stumps, or even in the water-receptacles of certain plants.
TiN 2 is a dark blue powder obtained when the oxide is ignited in an atmosphere of ammonia; while TiN is obtained as a bronze yellow mass as hard as the diamond by heating the oxide in an atmosphere of nitrogen in the electric furnace.
Titanic oxide separates out as a white hydrate, which, however, is generally contaminated with ferric hydrate and often with tin oxide.
In the reducing flame the bead becomes violet, more readily on the addition of tin; in the presence of iron it becomes blood-red.
From his committee he reported in April 1888 the "Mills Bill," which provided for a reduction of the duties on sugar, earthenware, glassware, plate glass, woollen goods and other articles, the substitution of ad valorem for specific duties in many cases, and the placing of lumber (of certain kinds), hemp, wool, flax, borax, tin plates, salt and other articles on the free list.
Of other common types of condenser, we may notice the "spiral" or "worm" type, which consists of a glass, copper or tin worm enclosed in a vessel in which water circulates; and the ball condenser, which consists of two concentric spheres, the vapour passing through the inner sphere and water circulating in the space between this and the outer (in another form the vapour circulates in a shell, on the outside and inside of which water circulates).
The body of the still is made of copper, with a head and worm, or condensing apparatus, either of copper or tin.
Silver, tin and diamond mines are worked near the town.
Lead is of frequent occurrence, and indeed the area through which copper, silver, lead, tin and zinc are distributed in sufficient quantities to make mining answer, comprises at least 80,000 sq.
Cotton yarn and cloth, petroleum, timber and furs are among the chief imports; copper, tin, hides and tea are important exports; medicines in the shape not only of herbs and roots, but also of fossils, shells, bones, teeth and various products of the animal kingdom; and precious stones, principally jade and rubies, are among the other exports.
Silver, gold, copper, mercury, lead, tin, antimony and precious stones are found, in some cases in very rich deposits.
Copper, tin, lead and zinc, mixed in various proportions by different experts, are the ingredients, and the beautiful golden hues and glossy texture of the surface are obtained by patina-producing processes, in which branch of metal-work the Japanese show altogether unique skill.
If we melt copper and add to it about 30% of zinc, or 20 of tin, we obtain uniform liquids which when solidified are the well-known substances brass and bell-metal.
The acid used to etch the surface has darkened the parts richest in copper, while those richest in tin remained white.
The two ingredients revealed by this process are not pure copper and pure tin, but each material contains both metals.
Dark parts are rich in copper, light parts in tin.
Fromm have shown that alloys may be precipitated from dilute solutions by zinc, cadmium, tin, lead and copper.
Spring has shown that by compressing a finely divided mixture of i 5 parts of bismuth, 8 parts of lead, 4 parts of tin and 3 parts of cadmium, an alloy is pro duced which melts at ioo C., that is, much below the meltingpoint of any of the four metals.
The phenomena which succeed each other are then very similar, whether A and B are two metals, such as lead and tin or silver and copper, or are a pair of fused salts, or are water and common salt.
The two sloping lines cutting at the eutectic point are the freezing-point curves of alloys that, when they begin to solidify, deposit crystals of lead and tin respectively.
If we examine alloys on the tin side we shall find large crystals of tin embedded in the same complex.
The lighter part surrounding them was liquid before the chill; it is rich in tin.
This is the case with the copper-tin alloys containing less than 9% by weight of tin; a microscopic examination reveals only one material, a copper-like substance, the tin having disappeared, being in solution in the copper.
In the case of some bronzes, for example that with about 25% of tin, the solid solution is soft, and the complex into which it FIG.
Various compounds of the alkali metals with bismuth, antimony, tin and lead have been prepared in a pure state.
In the cases of aluminium dissolved in tin and of mercury or bismuth in lead, it is at least probable that the molecules in solution are Al 2j Hg 2 and Bit respectively, while tin in lead appears to form a molecule of the type Sn4.
Among the manufactures are brass and copper work, wire for electrical uses, foundry and machine-shop products, locomotives, knit goods, tin cans and canned goods (especially vegetables).
Slate quarries and copper and tin mines were formerly valuable.
His son Edmund, earl of Cornwall, built a great hall at Lostwithiel and decreed that the coinage of tin should be at Lostwithiel only.
The presence of minute quantities of cadmium, lead, bismuth, antimony, arsenic, tin, tellurium and zinc renders gold brittle, 2 ' 0 15th part of one of the three metals first named being sufficient to produce that quality.
They may be said to possess a series of bronzes, in which gold and silver replace tin and zinc, all these alloys being characterized by patina having a wonderful range of tint.
The alloys of tin and gold are hard and brittle, and the combination of the metals is attended with contraction; thus the alloy SnAu has a density 14.243, instead of 14.828 indicated by calculation.
Matthiessen and Bose obtained large crystals of the alloy Au 2 Sn 5, having the colour of tin, which changed to a bronze tint by oxidation.
The most characteristic is the " pan," a circular dish of sheetiron or " tin," with sloping sides about 13 or 14 in.
The slime so obtained consists of finely divided gold and silver (5-5 0%), zinc (30-60%), lead (io%), carbon (io%), together with tin, copper, antimony, arsenic and other impurities of the zinc and ores.
In addition to the separation of the silver the operation extends to the elimination of the last traces of lead, tin, arsenic, &c. which have resisted the preceding cupeilation.
It is necessary to remove as completely as possible any lead, tin, bismuth, antimony, arsenic and tellurium, impurities which impair the properties of gold and silver, by an oxidizing fusion, e.g.
The metal can be reduced by magnesium, zinc, cadmium, iron, tin, copper and substances like hypophosphorous acid from acid solutions or from alkaline ones by formaldehyde.
Tin amalgam is used for "silvering" mirrors, gold and silver amalgam in gilding and silvering, cadmium and copper amalgam in dentistry, and an amalgam of zinc and tin for the rubbers of electrical machines; the zinc plates of electric batteries are amalgamated in order to reduce polarization.
Other minerals found in small quantities are copper, lead, zinc, iron ores, manganese ores and tin.
Gold, copper, iron and manganese are also found in various parts of the district, and there are tin mines at Maliwun, upon which European methods have been tried without much profit, owing to the cost of labour.
The chief exports consist of rice, rattans, torches, dried fish, areca-nuts, sesamum seeds, molasses, sea-slugs, edible birds' nests and tin.
This theory was supported by the French physician Jean Ray, who showed also that in the cases of tin and lead there was a limit to the increase in weight.
Mispickel occurs in metalliferous veins with ores of tin, copper, silver, &c. It is occasionally found as embedded crystals, for example, in serpentine at Reichenstein, Silesia.
The tomb was opened in 1 774, and on the king's head was found an imitation crown of tin or latten gilt, with trefoils rising from its upper edge.
They split the silicious rocks with stonehammers,and then chipped Metal- Gold, silver, copper, pure or mixed with tin or silver, thread, but in the Gulf states the existence of excellent cane and grasses gave opportunity for several varieties of weaving.
The metal has a blue-grey colour, and may be obtained in the crystalline state by solution in tin.
The best metals for coinage are gold, silver, platinum, copper, tin, nickel, aluminium, zinc, iron, and their alloys; certain alloys of gold, silver, copper and nickel have the best combination of the required qualities.
Silver bullion, and the copper, tin and zinc required to make up bronze, are bought by the Mint and manufactured into coin, which is kept in stock and issued as it may be required.
Coinage bronze consists of copper 95 parts, tin 4 parts and zinc I part, and a ton yields X44 8 in pence or £ 373, 6s.
The Japanese hand grenades consisted of about 1 lb of high explosive in a tin case; the Russian cases were of all sorts, including old Chinese shell.
Silver was raised in the 12th century, and argentiferous lead is still the most valuable ore mined; tin, iron and cobalt rank next, and coal is one of the chief exports.
Silver follows gold in importance, but the other minerals met with, including gypsum, mica, petroleum, natural gas, granite, marble and tin are not found in paying quantities.
The minerals of Siam include gold, silver, rubies, sapphires, tin, copper, iron, zinc and coal.
The export of tin in 1908 exceeded 5000 tons, valued at over f600,000.
In 1799 he proved that carbonate of copper, whether natural or artificial, always has the same composition, and later he showed that the two oxides of tin and the two sulphides of iron always contain the same relative weights of their components and that no intermediate indeterminate compounds exist.
Diamonds are obtained in Borneo, garnets in Sumatra, Bachian and Timor, and topazes in Bachian, antimony in Borneo and the Philippines; lead in Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines; copper and malachite in the Philippines, Timor, Borneo and Sumatra; and, most important of all, tin in Banka, Billiton and Singkep. Iron is pretty frequent in various forms. Gold is not uncommon in the older ranges of Sumatra, Banka, Celebes, Bachian, Timor and Borneo.
The revenue of Netherlands India has been derived mainly from customs, excise, ground-tax, licences, poll-tax, &c., from monopolies - opium, salt and pawn-shops (the management of which began to be taken over by the government in 1903, in place of the previous system of farming-out), coffee, &c., railways, tin mines and forests, and from agricultural and other concessions.
The principal articles of export are sugar, tobacco, copra, forest products (various gums, &c.), coffee, petroleum, tea, cinchona, tin, rice, pepper, spices and gambier.
An indication of the mineral products has already been given; as regards the export trade, tin is the most important of these, but the Ombilin coalfields of Sumatra, connected by a railway with the coast, call for mention here also.
The total annual yield of the tin mines is about 15,000 tons, and of the coal mines 240,000 tons.
The produce of the Eastern Islands is also collected at its ports for re-exportation to India, China and Europe - namely, gold-dust, diamonds, camphor, benzoin and other drugs; edible bird-nests, trepang, rattans, beeswax, tortoiseshell, and dyeing woods from Borneo and Sumatra; tin from Banka; spices from the Moluccas; fine cloths from Celebes and Bali; and pepper from Sumatra.
The yield of iron ore is almost one million tons annually, while gold, silver, tin, graphite and salt are also mined.
His speculum metal is composed of four atoms of copper (126.4 parts) and one of tin (58.9 parts), a brilliant alloy, which resists tarnish better than any other compound tried.
In 1796 he was made a member of the Institute, was appointed to a professorship of political economy, and founded tin Journal d'economie publique, de morale et de legislation.
Gold is found in Chihuahua, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora, Vera Cruz, Zacatecas, and to a limited extent in other states; silver in every state and territory except Campeche, Chiapas, Tabasco, Tlaxcala and the Yucatan peninsula; copper in Lower California, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Sonora, Tamaulipas and some other states; mercury chiefly in Guanajuato, Guerrero, San Luis Potosi, Vera Cruz and Zacatecas; tin in Guanajuato; coal, petroleum and asphalt in 20 states, but chiefly in Coahuila, Hidalgo, Michoacan, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas and Vera Cruz; iron in Durango, Hidalgo, Oaxaca and other states; and lead in Hidalgo, Queretaro and in many of the silver-producing districts.
Iron was not known, but copper and tin ores were mined, and the metals combined into bronze of much the same alloy as in the Old World, of which hatchet blades and other instruments were made, though their use had not superseded that of obsidian and other sharp stone flakes for cutting, shaving, &c. Metals had passed into a currency for trading purposes, especially quills of gold-dust and T-shaped pieces of copper, while coco-beans furnished small change.
The brass and bronze industries are carried on at Iserlohn and Altena, those of tin and Britannia metal at Ludenscheid; needles are made at Iserlohn and wire at Altena.
The minerals discovered in Guatemala include gold, silver, lead, tin, copper, mercury, antimony, coal, salt and sulphur; but it is uncertain if many of these exist in quantities sufficient to repay exploitation.
Antimony, bismuth, selenium, tellurium, chromic iron ore, tin, nickel, cobalt, vanadium, titanium, molybdenum, uranium and tantalum are produced in the United States in small amounts, but such production in several cases has amounted to only slight discoveries, and in general they are of little importance in the market.
Tin ores have been widely discovered, but though much has been hoped for from them, particularly from the deposits in the Black Hills region of South Dakota, there has been no more than a relatively insignificant commercial production.
Precious stones ($43,620,591); fruits and nuts; copper, iron and steel; tobacco (leaf $25,897,650; manufactured, $4,138,521); tin; spirits, wines and liquors; oils, paper, works of art, tea and leather ($16,270,406), being the remaining items in excess of $15,000,000 each.
Glover, The Conflict of Religions tin the Early Roman Empire, chap. x.
It lies on the northward slope of the central elevation of the county, and is in the neighbourhood of some of the most productive tin and copper mines.
Its interests were economically insignificant until the beginning of the 18th century when the rich deposits of copper and tin began to be vigorously worked at Dolcoath.
Gold, silver, lead, copper, tin and bauxite have also been discovered, but the greater richness of the iron and coal deposits has prevented their development.
Dr Joseph Black's instrument consists of a conical tube of tin plate, with a small brass tube, supporting the nozzle, inserted near the wider end, and a mouth-piece at the narrow end.
Up to 1857 the utmost the dyer could add was " weight for weight," but an accidental discovery that year put dyers into the way of using tin salts in weighting with the result that they were enabled to add 40 oz.
The use of tin salts, especially stannic chloride, SnC1 4, enables dyers to weight all colours the same as black.
Thus the protoand per-salts of iron, as well as the protoand per-salts of tin, including also a large variety of tannin, sumac, divi-divi, chestnut, valonia, the acacias (Areca Catechu and Acacia Catechu from India), from which are obtained cutch and gambier, &c., are no longer used solely as mordants or tinctorial matters, but mainly to serve the object of converting the silk into a greatly-expanded fibre, consisting of a conglomeration of more or less of these substances."
Bichloride of tin, having chemical affinity for silk fibre, bids fair to extinguish the use of sugar, which, from its hygrometric qualities, has a tendency to ruin the silk to which it is applied, if great care be not taken to regulate the quantity.
The Cornish tin, according to present evidence, was worked comparatively little, and perhaps most in the later Empire.
The superintendent, who is a naval officer, has to investigate the magnetic character of the ships, to point out the most suitable positions for the compasses when a ship is designed, and subsequently to keep himself informed of their behaviour from the tin g e of the ship's first trial.
Further he prepared a large number of substances, including the chlorides and other salts of lead, tin, iron, zinc, copper, antimony and arsenic, and he even noted some of the phenomena of double decomposition.
The most marked advances from 1900 to 1905 were in worsted goods (61.4%) structural iron-work (60%), and tin and terne-plate (54.4%) Philadelphia is the great manufacturing centre.
The silk and cement industries are confined largely to the eastern cities and boroughs; the coke, tin and terne-plate, and pickling industries to the western; and the construction and repair of railway cars to Altoona, Meadville, Dunmore, and repair of railway cars to Altoona, Meadville, Dunmore, Chambersburg, Butler and Philadelphia.
It is the chief mining town in Cornwall, and the bulk of the population is engaged in the tin mines or at the numerous tinstreaming works.
A large quantity of the tin is sold by public auction at the mining exchange, the sales being known as tin-ticketings.
Mines of copper, manganese, lead, silver and tin are in the neighbourhood, and the town possesses a considerable trade in cattle and corn, and industries in brewing and iron-founding.
Tavistock was one of the four stannary towns appointed by charter of Edward I., at which tin was stamped and weighed, and monthly courts were held for the regulation of mining affairs.
The principal industrial establishment is the metalfoundry of Sainte-Marguerite, where copper, tin and other metals are worked; there are also flour-mills, saw-mills and dye-works.
Aluminium is a white metal with a characteristic tint which most nearly resembles that of tin; when impure, or after pro longed exposure to air, it has a slight violet shade.
When quite pure it is somewhat harder than tin, and its hardness is considerably increased by rolling.
To inorganic acids, except hydrochloric, it is highly resistant, ranking well with tin in this respect; but alkalis dissolve it quickly.
The industries of the town include sugar-refining, steam mills, brewing, and the manufacture of starch, syrup, spirits, potash and tin ware.
Tin, or what is called tin, is worked in Bawlake.
Tin is known, especially in Siak.
If iron thus preceded copper in many places, still more must it have preceded bronze, an alloy of copper and tin much less likely than either iron or copper to be made unintentionally.
Indeed, though iron ores abound in many places which have neither copper nor tin, yet there are but few places which have both copper and tin.
The borough of Connellsville has various manufactures including iron, tin plate, automobiles and various kinds of machinery; and a state hospital for the treatment of persons injured in mines is located here.
Among minerals, iron ore, sulphur, copper, coal, tin, lead and diamonds are the most imported.
Coal and iron ore abound in the vicinity, and the city, manufactures iron, steel, tin plate, electrical and telephone supplies, shovels, boilers, leather, flour, brick and tile, salt, furniture and several kinds of vehicles.
Under all these three conditions the diamond is associated with fragments of the rocks of the country and the minerals derived from them, 'especially quartz, hornstone, jasper, the polymorphous oxide of titanium (rutile, anatase and brookite), oxides and hydrates of iron (magnetite, ilmenite, haematite, limonite), oxide of tin, iron pyrites, tourmaline, garnet, xenotime, monazite, kyanite, diaspore, sphene, topaz, and several phosphates, and also gold.
Other varieties contain small amounts of mercury, tin, manganese or thallium.
Anthracite and steam-coal from the collieries of the coast and along the Loughor Valley are exported from the extensive docks; and there are also large works for the smelting of copper and the manufacture of tin plates.
Tin and japanned goods..
Tin and tin wares..
Raw tin (including waste) 2,357 2,581 787 688
About the time that the Prussian parliament was thus created, and that the emperor Ferdinand resigned, the Frankfori parliament succeeded in formulating the fundamental me queslaws, which were duly proclaimed to be those of Ger- tion of tin many as it was now to be constituted.
A considerable export trade in copper, tin and granite was formerly carried on, and the last is still exported, hut the chief trade is in grain; while timber, coal and limestone are imported.
Tin ore of excellent quality is found in the province of Bauchi, alkali salts are abundant in Kano province, iron ore and red and yellow ochres are found in Kontagora and other provinces, kaolin (china clay) and limestone in the west central regions.
The essential coloring materials are, for blue, copper; green, copper and iron; purple, cobalt; red, haematite; white, tin.
On the island of Palau Brani stand the largest tin-smelting works in existence, which for many years have annually passed through their furnaces more than half the total tin output of the world.
The metals, which by combination with oxygen became oxides, were antimony, silver, arsenic, bismuth, cobalt, copper, tin, iron, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, gold, platinum, lead, tungsten and zinc; and the "simple earthy salifiable substances" were lime, baryta, magnesia, alumina and silica.
The metals chiefly used in the arts have been gold, silver, copper and tin (the last two generally mixed, forming an alloy called bronze), iron and lead (see the separate articles on these metals).
Copper and tin have been but little used separately.
Tin is too weak and brittle a metal to be employed alone for any but small objects.
Some considerable number of tin drinkingcups and bowls of the Celtic period have been found in Cornwall in the neighbourhood of the celebrated tin and copper mines, which have been worked from a very early period.
Homer's description of the shield of Achilles, made of bronze, enriched with bands of figure reliefs in gold, silver and tin, could hardly have been written by a man who had not some personal acquaintance with works in metal of a very elaborate kind.
There are, however, differences of treatment in detail, because copper is more malleable and softer than tin plate.
In tin it is effected by stamping.
This is the case with gold, silver, copper, tin, lead and others, and especially with low carbon steel, which is first cast as an ingot, then annealed and rolled into plates as well as the thinnest sheets.
Newton's fusible metal (named after Sir Isaac Newton) contains 50 parts of bismuth, 31.25 of lead and 18.75 of tin; that of Jean Darcet (1725-1801), 50 parts of bismuth with 25 each of lead and tin; and that of Valentin Rose the elder, so of bismuth with 28 1 of lead and 24 I of tin.
The industries are growing, the chief being breweries and distilleries, saw-mills and planing-mills, shipbuilding, fish-curing, the manufacture of machinery, engines, bricks, resin, preserves, enamelled and tin goods, cigars, furniture, soap and leather.
Putting aside salt, which has been already treated, the chief mining resources of India at the present day are the coal mines, the gold mines, the petroleum oil-fields, the ruby mines, manganese deposits, mica mines in Bengal, and the tin ores and jade of Burma.
In Madras also a mica industry has recently grown up. Tin is found in the Tavoy and Mergui districts of Lower Burma, and has for many years been worked in an unprogressive manner chiefly by Chinese labour.
In 1900 tin of good quality was found in the Southern Shan States.
Homer was acquainted with tin and other articles of Indian merchandise by their Sanskrit names; and a long list has been made of Indian products mentioned in the Bible.
Under Mahommedan influence Hindu clothing developed into " suits," consisting of five pieces for men, hence called pancho tuk kapra - (z) head-dress, (2) dhoti, (3) coat, (4) chaddar or sheet, (5) bathing cloth; and three for women, hence called tin tuk - (i) dhoti, (2) jacket, (3) shawl.
After much experiment he selected an alloy of tin and copper as the most suitable material for his specula, and he devised means for grinding and polishing them.
Dr John Bevis of London suggested, in 1746, the use of sheet lead coatings within and without the jar, and subsequently the use of tin foil or silver leaf made closely adherent to the glass.
About half the outside and half the inside surface is coated smoothly with tin foil, and the remainder of the glazed surface is painted with shellac varnish.
In other cases, Leyden jars or condensers take the form of sheets of mica or micanite or ebonite partly coated with tin foil or silver leaf on both sides; or a pile of sheets of alternate tin foil and mica may be built up, the tin foil sheets having lugs projecting out first on one side and then on the other.
All the lugs on one side are connected together, and so also are all the lugs on the other side, and the two sets of tin foils separated by sheets of mica constitute the two metallic surfaces of the Leyden jar condenser.
For the purposes of wireless telegraphy, when large condensers are required, the ordinary Leyden jar occupies too much space in comparison with its electrical capacity, and hence the best form of con denser consists of a number of sheets of crown glass, each partly coated on both sides with tin foil.
The tin foil sheets have lugs attached which project beyond the glass.
All the tin foils on one side of the glass plates are connected together and all the tin foils on the opposite sides, so as to construct a condenser of any required capacity.
When glass tubes are used it is better to employ tubes thicker at the ends than in the middle, as it has been found that when the safe voltage is exceeded and the glass gives way under electric strain, the piercing of the glass nearly always takes place at the edges of the tin foil.
Owing to the variation in the value of the dielectric constant of glass with the temperature and with the frequency of the applied electromotive force, and also owing to electric glow discharge from the edges of the tin foil coatings, the capacity of an ordinary Leyden jar is not an absolutely fixed quantity, but its numerical value varies somewhat with the method by which it is measured, and with the other circumstances above mentioned.
In metallurgy he devised improved methods for the manufacture of zinc and the purification of silver, tin and other metals.
The sodium compound was first obtained by Wohler on reducing sodium tungstate with hydrogen; coal-gas, zinc, iron or tin also effect the reduction.
Beer, Prussian blue, leather, tin, pottery, cigars, and gold and silver work are the chief industrial products, and there is a considerable trade by rail and river.
It includes diamonds, the majority of which, however, are of a somewhat yellow colour, gold, quicksilver, cinnabar, copper, iron, tin, antimony, mineral oils, sulphur, rock-salt, marble and coal.
They are called Kehs by the Malays, and are of the same tribes as those which furnish the bulk of the workers to the tin mines of the Malay Peninsula.
Iodine, antimony trichloride, molybdenum pentachloride, ferric chloride, ferric oxide, antimony, tin, stannic oxide and ferrous sulphate have all been used as chlorine carriers.
Without further purification it is also used for "souring" in bleaching, and in tin and lead soldering.
Minerals produced in small quantities include gypsum, millstones, salt and sandstone, and among those found but not produced (in 1902) in commercial quantities may be mentioned allanite, alum, arsenic, bismuth, carbonite, felspar, kaolin, marble, plumbago, quartz, serpentine and tin.
The iron mines of Elba, and the tin and copper of the mainland, were owned and smelted by the people of Populonia; hot springs too lay some 6 m.
Canton first suggested the use of an amalgam of mercury and tin for use with glass cylinder electrical machines to improve their action.
In the first, the implements are rather of copper than of bronze, tin being absent or in small quantities (2 to 3%); the types are common to Syria and Asia Minor as far as the Hellespont, and resemble also the earliest forms in the Aegean and in central Europe; the pottery is all hand-made, with a red burnished surface, gourd-like and often fantastic forms, and simple geometrical patterns incised; zoomorphic art is very rare, and imported objects are unknown.
In the second stage, implements of true bronze (9 to io% tin) become common; painted pottery of buff clay with dull black geometrical patterns appears alongside the red-ware; and foreign imports occur, such as Egyptian blue-glazed beads (XIIth-XIIIth Dynasty, 2500-2000 B.C.),1 and cylindrical Asiatic seals (one of Sargon I., 2000 B.C.).2 In the third stage, Aegean colonists introduced the Mycenaean (late Minoan) culture and industries; with new types of weapons, wheel-made pottery, and a naturalistic art which rapidly becomes conventional; gold and ivory are abundant, and glass and enamels are known.
Copper, tin and lead works are everywhere numerous in the busy valleys of north Glamorgan and in the neighbourhoods of Swansea, Neath, Cardiff and Llanelly.
Its alloy with tin (bronze) was the first metallic compound in common use by mankind, and so extensive and characteristic was its employment in prehistoric times that the epoch is known as the Bronze Age.
Bituminous coal and natural gas abound in the vicinity, and iron, steel, and tin and terne plate are extensively manufactured in the city, the tin-plate plant being one of the most important in the United States.
Among manufactures are iron and steel, tin and terne plate, glass, paper and wood pulp, and pottery.
The annual output of tin ore, which in 1878 amounted to 1 5, 0 45 tons, valued at £530,737, fell to 12,898 tons in 1881, though the value in that year rose to £697,444.
Tin ore is obtained almost exclusively in Cornwall.
Bolivian tin is exported from Chilean ports.
Tin,,,less absorbed in.
Type-metal is an alloy of lead with antimony and tin, to which occasionally a small quantity of copper or zinc is added.
For the linings of brasses, various white metals are used, these being alloys of copper, antimony and tin, and occasionally lead.
Iron is obtained near Beja and Evora, tin in the district of Braganza.
The gold, silver and tin of Bolivia occur chiefly in the Palaeozoic rocks of the eastern ranges.
Thus, a shallow tin vessel, such as the lid of a biscuit box, may be levelled and filled with tap-water through a rubber hose.
Water, the carbonates and sulphates, and probably phosphates, and the metals platinum, gold, silver, cadmium, tin and copper have a specific cohesion double that of mercury.
The total exports (foreign and coastwise) from Swansea during 1907 amounted to 4,825,898 tons, of which coal and coke made up 3, 6 55, 0 5 0 tons; patent fuel, 679,002 tons; tin, terne and black plates, 348,240 tons; liron and steel and their manufactures, 38,438 tons; various chemicals (mostly the by-products of the metal industries), 37,100 tons; copper, zinc and silver, 22,633 tons.
Its imports during the same year amounted to 899,201 tons, including 172,319 tons of grain and other agricultural produce, 156,620 tons of firewood, 145,255 tons of pig-iron and manufactured iron and steel, 47,201 tons of iron ore, 121,168 tons of copper, -silver, lead, tin and nickel with their ores and alloys, 63,009 tons of zinc, its ores and alloys, 41,029 tons of sulphur ore, phosphates and other raw material for the chemical trade.
Lead is extracted at Pfibram, tin at Graupen in the Erzgebirge, the only place in Austria where this metal is found.
Valuable indications of tin have been found to the north of the Kibyen plateau, and have attracted the attention of the Niger Company.
It is turned out of the pots into wide tin vessels or " tagars," in which it is weighed in quantities not exceeding 21 lb.
Liskeard was made a coinage town for tin in 1304.
The sources of tin in Europe are practically restricted to Cornwall and Saxony.
Either by the Phoenicians or by the Greeks metallurgy was taught to men who no sooner recognized the nature and malleable properties of copper than they learnt that by application of heat a substance could be manufactured with tin far better suited to their purposes.
The leading silver minerals are native silver; argentite or silver glance, Ag 2 S, usually containing small amounts of lead, copper and tin; dyscrasite or antimonial silver, Ag 2 Sb to Ag,3Sb, an isomorphous mixture of silver and antimony; proustite or light red silver ore, Ag 3 AsS 3; pyrargyrite or dark red silver ore, Ag 3 SbS 3; stephanite, Ag 5 SbS 4; miargyrite, AgSbS2; stromeyerite, CuAgS; polybasite, 9(Cu 2 S,Ag 2 S) (Sb 2 S 3, As 2 S 3); cerargyrite or horn silver, AgCI; bromite or bromargyrite, AgBr; embolite, Ag(C1,Br); iodite or iodargyrite, AgI.
Thus arsenic, antimony, bismuth, tin or zinc render the metal brittle, so that it fractures under a die or rolling mill; copper, on the other hand, increases its hardness, makes it tougher and more readily fusible.
Tin is worked in the rivers of the New England tableland as at Vegetable Creek.
Of these, 10,700 were employed in goldmining; in coal-mining there were 14,100; silver, 7100; tin, 2750, and copper, 1850.
In 1909, 2041 ships of 2,710,691 tons (1,153,564 being British) entered at Vigo; the imports in that year, including tin and tinplate, coal, machinery, cement, sulphate of copper and foodstuffs, were valued at £481,752; the exports, including sardines, mineral waters and eggs, were valued at 554,824.
In the north of the field, where the limestone crops out and supplies the necessary flux, Merthyr Tydfil has become great through iron-smelting; and in the west Swansea is the chief centre in the world for copper and tin smelting.
China clay from the decomposing granites; tin and copper ore, once abounding at the contacts between the granite and the rocks it pierced, were the former staples of wealth, and the mining largely accounts for the exceptional density of population in Cornwall.
The exploitation of tin in the south-west is commonly referred back to the time of the Phoenician sea-traders, and in the first half of the 13th century England supplied Europe with this metal.
At a later period tin and lead were regarded as the English minerals of highest commercial value; whereas to-day both, but especially lead, have fallen far from this position.<