Timur sentence example
Born on the 14th of February 1483, he was a descendant of Timur, and his father, Omar Sheik, was king of Ferghana, a district of what is now Russian Turkestan.
In 1402 a great battle was fought in the vicinity of Angora, in which the Turkish sultan Bayezid was defeated and made prisoner by the Tatar conqueror Timur.
It excited the admiration of Gonzales Clavijo, the Spanish envoy, when he passed through it on his way to visit the court of Timur at Samarkand (Clavijo, Historia del gran Tamorlan, p. 84); and Cardinal Bessarion, who was a native of the place, in the latter part of his life, when the city had passed into the hands of the Mahommedans, and he was himself a dignitary of the Roman Church, so little forgot the impression it had made upon him that he wrote a work entitled "The Praise of Trebizond" ('E-yac c uLovTpaire oiivros), which exists in manuscript at Venice.
In the time of Timur Fujah was a fortress of Sarukhan, but had been previously in Genoese hands.
In 1403 the Spanish king sent a knight of Madrid, Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo, to the distant court of Timur, at Samarkand.Advertisement
Astarabad owes its origin to Yazid ibn Mohallab, who occupied the province early in the 8th century for Suleiman, the seventh of the Omayyad caliphs (715-717), and was destroyed by Timur (Tamerlane) in 1384.
Jenghiz Khan and Timur covered more ground than Napoleon, and no European has had such an effect on the world as Mahomet.
Manuel subsequently set out in person to seek help from the West, and for this purpose visited Italy, France, Germany and England, but without material success; the victory of Timur in 1402, and the death of Bayezid in the following year were the first events to give him a genuine respite from Ottoman oppression.
Not the Western Crusades but an Eastern rival, Timur (Tamerlane), king of Transoxiana and conqueror of southern Russia and India, was destined to arrest the progress of Bayezid; and from the battle of Angora (1402) till the days of Murad II.
But a Mahommedan reaction came, thanks in large measure to the zeal of Timur; and central Asia was lost to Christianity.Advertisement
In 1400 he was sent to Damascus, in connexion with the expedition intended to oppose Timur or Tamerlane.
When Timur had become master of the situation, Ibn Khaldun let himself down from the walls of the city by a rope, and presented himself before the conqueror, who permitted him to return to Egypt.
By a brilliant march to the Danube Bayezid subjugated them; then returning to Asia he crushed the prince of Karamania, who had made head again and had defeated Timur Tash Pasha.
Between 1397 and 1399 Bayezid overran Thessaly, while in Asia his lieutenant Timur Tash was extending his conquests.
Meanwhile Timur (Tamerlane) had started from Samarkand on his victorious career.Advertisement
Some of the dispossessed princes of Asia Minor had repaired to Timur and begged him to reinstate them; accordingly Timur sent to Bayezid to request that this might be done.
The tone of the demand offended Bayezid, who rejected it in terms equally sharp. As a result Timur's countless hordes attacked and took Sivas, plundering the town and massacring its inhabitants.
Then, to avenge an insult sustained from the ruler of Egypt, Timur marched southwards and devastated Syria, thence turning to Bagdad, which shared the same fate.
Bayezid had taken advantage of his absence to defeat the ruler of Erzingan, a protege of Timur.
Timur's army is said to have numbered 200,000, Bayezid's force to have amounted to about half that figure, mostly seasoned veterans.Advertisement
Prodigies of valour on the part of Bayezid's troops could not make up for the defection of the newly-absorbed levies from Aidin, Sarukhan and Menteshe who went over to their former princes in Timur's camp. The rout of the Turkish army was complete.
After the disaster of Angora, from which it seemed impossible that the Ottoman fortunes could ever recover, the princes fled each with as many troops as he could induce to Inter- follow him, being hotly pursued by Timur's armies.
Meanwhile Timur sent letters after the fugitive sons of Bayezid promising to confer on them their father's dominions, and protesting that his attack had been due merely to the insulting tone adopted towards him by Bayezid and to the entreaties of the dispossessed princes of Asia Minor.
Timur did not cross into Europe, and contented himself with accepting some trifling presents from the Greek emperor.Advertisement
In 1413 Mahommed defeated Mussa, and thus remained sole heir to Bayezid's throne; in seven or eight years he succeeded Mahom- in regaining all the territories over which his father med 1., had ruled, whereas Timur's empire fell to pieces 1413-1421.
His services in the regeneration of the Turkish power can hardly be over-estimated; all agree in recognizing his great qualities and the charm of his character; even Timur is said to have admired him so much as to offer him his daughter in marriage.
Then it was taken by Timur, from whom the sultan Ahmed Ben Avis fled, and, finding refuge with the Greek emperor, contrived later to repossess himself of the city, whence he was finally expelled by Kara Yusuf of the KaraKuyunli ("Black Sheep") Mongols in 1417.
It was one of the chief towns of the kingdom of Trebizond and of the Seljuks, one of whose sultans, Kaikobad I., enriched it with fine buildings and restored the castle, which was thus enabled to stand a seven months' siege by Timur.
There is a tradition that Timur attempted the passage of the Hindu Kush by one of the unmapped passes hereabouts, and that, having failed, he left a record of his failure engraved on a rock in the pass.Advertisement
Greeks, White Huns, Samanidae of Bokhara, Ghaznevides, Mongols, Timur and Timuridae, down to Saddozais and Barakzais, have ruled both sides of this great alpine chain.
In 1258 Hulagu Khan took Bagdad, and about 1400 Timur again seized and sacked the city.
Those who escaped capture by Timur fled to the mountains of Kurdistan, and the community that had played so large a part in Mesopotamian history for a thousand years was thus shattered.
It became the seat of the Ayyubite sultan Saladin in 1184; was bequeathed in 1233 to the caliphs of Bagdad; was plundered by the Mongols in 1236 and in 1393 by Timur, and was taken in 1732 by the Persians under Nadir Shah.
The latest reference to the city of Sardis relates its capture (and probable destruction) by Timur in 1402.Advertisement
For a short time the glory of the Golden Horde was renewed, until it was finally crushed by Timur in 1395.
Twelve years later it was captured by Timur, who built a wall with the corpses of his prisoners.
It was erected towards the close of the 15th century, during the reign of Shah Sultan Hussein of the family of Timur, and is said when perfect to have been 465 ft.
This building, which was erected by Shah Rukh Mirza, the grandson of Timur, over Soo years ago, contains some exquisite specimens of sculpture in the best style of Oriental art.
Adjoining the tomb also are numerous marble mausoleums, the sepulchres of princes of the house of Timur; and especially deserving of notice is a royal building tastefully decorated by an Italian artist named Geraldi, who was in the service of Shah Abbas the Great.Advertisement
It was indeed under the princes of the house of Timur that most of the noble buildings were erected, of which the remains still excite our admiration at Herat, while all the great historical works relative to Asia, such as the Rozetes-Sefa, the Habib-es-seir, Hafiz Abru's Tarikh, the Mallet' a-esSa'adin, &c., date from the same place and the same age.
Karshi was a favourite residence of Timur (Tamerlane).
In 1400 Timur pillaged it, and in 1517 it passed, with the rest of Syria, to the Ottoman dominion.
His posterity kept possession till 1369, when Timur or Tamerlane bore down everything before him, and established his capital at Samarkand, which with Bokhara regained for a time its former splendour.
Babar, the fifth in descent from Timur, was originally prince of Ferghana, but conquered Samarkand and northern India, where he founded the Mogul (Mughal) empire.Advertisement
At length, in 1598, Baki Mehemet Khan, of the Astrakhan branch of the Timur family, mounted the throne, and thus introduced the dynasty of the Ashtarkhanides.
After the murder of Kurgan the contentions which arose among the many claimants to sovereign power were arrested by the invasion of Toghluk Timur of Kashgar, a descendant of Jenghiz.
Timur was despatched on a mission to the invader's camp, the result of which was his own appointment to the government of Mawara- 'lnahr (Transoxiana).
Mawara'lnahr was taken from Timur and entrusted to a son of Toghluk; but he was defeated in battle by the bold warrior he had replaced at the head of a numerically far inferior force.
During this period Timur and his brother-in-law, Hosain - at first fellowfugitives and wanderers in joint adventures full of interest and romance - became rivals and antagonists.Advertisement
At the close of 1369 Hosain was assassinated and Timur, having been formally proclaimed sovereign at Balkh, mounted the throne at Samarkand, the capital of his dominions.
Timur not only consolidated his rule at home by the subjection of intestine foes, but sought extension of territory by encroachments upon the lands of foreign potentates.
One of the most formidable of his opponents was Toktamish, who after having been a refugee at the court of Timur became ruler both of the eastern Kipchak and the Golden Horde, and quarrelled with Timur over the possession of Khwarizm.
In 1398, when Timur was more than sixty years of age, Farishta tells us that, "informed of the commotions and civil wars of India," he "began his expedition into that country," and on the 12th of September "arrived on the banks of the Indus."
In April 1399, some three months after quitting the capital of Mahmud Toghluk, Timur was back in his own capital beyond the Oxus.
This was Timur's last campaign.
Timur had carried his victorious arms on one side from the Irtish and the Volga to the Persian Gulf and on the other from the Hellespont to the Ganges.
But the favourable account was written under the personal supervision of Timur's grandson, Ibrahim, while the other was the production of his direst enemy.
Alhazen, quoted by Purchas in his quaint notice of Timur and referred to by Sir John Malcolm, can hardly be accepted as a serious authority.
Reference may be made to two more sources of information (I) Supposed likenesses of Timur are to be found in books and in the splendid collection of Oriental manuscripts and drawings in the British Museum.
Timur is here displayed as a stoutish, long-bodied man, below the middle-height, in age and feature not unlike the first portrait, but with thicker and more straggling hair, and distincter, though not more agreeable character in the facial expression, yet not a sign of power, genius, or any elements of grandeur or celebrity.
The uncomfortable figure in the Bodleian Library does not give much help. Sir John Malcolm has been at some pains to invest his portrait of Timur with individuality.
A Latin memoir of Tamerlane by Perondinus, printed in 1600, entitled Magni Tamerlanis scytharum imperatoris vita, describes Timur as tall and bearded, broad-chested and broadshouldered, well-built but lame, of a fierce countenance and with receding eyes, which express cruelty and strike terror into the lookers-on.
But Jean du Bec's account of Timur's appearance is quite different.
The dramatist must have heard of Timur in other quarters, equally reliable it may be with those available in the present stage of Oriental research.
At the beginning of the 18th century Timur was represented in Rowe's Tamerlane as a model of valour and virtue.
Then, before the next century was out, came the invasion of Timur (1393-94).
The district was ravaged by Timur in 1399, and thenceforward nothing is heard of it till the time of Akbar, when it formed part of the Delhi empire and so continued undisturbed, save for occasional raids, so long as the power of the Moguls survived intact.
But his conquests met with a sudden and overpowering check at the hands of Timur (Tamerlane).
In his reign occurred the invasion of Timur (1395), who ruined the Volgan regions, but did not penetrate so far as Moscow.
Indeed Timur's raid was of service to the Russian prince as it all but wiped out the Golden Horde, which for the next twelve years was in a state of anarchy.
In the beginning of the 13th century it was taken by Jenghiz Khan, and in the 14th by Timur.
Ahmad Shah died in 1773, and was succeeded by his son Timur, who died in 1793, and left the throne to his son Zaman Shah.
The shah himself added to his wives a princess of the imperial family, and bestowed another upon his son Timur Shah, whom he made governor of the Punjab and Sirhind.
After lengthened suffering from a terrible disease, said to have been cancer in the face, he died in 1773, leaving to his son Timur the kingdom he had founded.
This tract was ravaged by Timur in his invasion of India; and in 1795 paid a nominal allegiance to George Thomas, the adventurer of Hariana.
Barkk, however, died (June 20th, 1399) before Timur had time to invade Syria.
Timur, who was at this time beginning his campaign against Bayezid, turned his attention first to Syria, and on the 30th of October 1400
In the following year (September 29th, 1402) Timur who had in the interval inflicted a crushing defeat on the Ottoman sultan, sent to demand homage from Faraj, and his demand was readily granted, together with the delivery of the princes who had sought refuge from Timur in Egyptian territory.
The death of Timur in February 1405 restored Egyptian authority in Syria, which, however, became a rendezvous for all who were discontented with the rule of Faraj and his amirs, and two months after Timurs death was in open rebellion against Faraj.
The Arab geographers considered it impregnable, and from its steep approaches and well-arranged defences it was able to offer a protracted resistance to the Mongolian conqueror Hulagu and to the armies of Timur.
The Christians made efforts to creep back to their former possessions and churches were rebuilt in Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth; but another devastation was the result of the ferocious inroads of the Mongolian Timur (Tamerlane) in 1400.
All these countries were included in Timur's conquests, and Kabul at least had remained in the possession of one of his descendants till 1501, only three years before it fell into the hands of another and more illustrious one, Sultan Baber.
Having long suffered from a terrible disease, he died in 1773, bequeathing to his son Timur a dominion which embraced not only Afghanistan to its utmost limits, but the Punjab, Kashmir and Turkestan to the Oxus, with Sind, Baluchistan and Khorasan as tributary governments.
Timur transferred his residence from Kandahar to Kabul, and continued during a reign of twenty years to stave off the anarchy which followed close on his death.
The last Afghan hold of the Punjab had been lost long before - Kashmir in 181 9; Sind had cast off all allegiance since 1808; the Turkestan provinces had been practically independent since the death of Timur Shah.
The Tughlak dynasty lasted for about seventy years, until it was swept away by the invasion of Timur, the fourth Mahommedan conqueror of India, in 1398.
These and other revolts prepared the way for the fourth great invasion of India under Timur (Tamerlane).
Accordingly, when Timur invaded India in 1398, he encountered but little organized resistance.
But the invasion of Timur left no permanent impress upon the history of India, except in so far as its memory fired the imagination of Baber, the founder of the Mogul dynasty.
Timur marched back to Samarkand as he had come, by way of Kabul, and Mahmud Tughlak ventured to return to his desolate capital.
In 1526 Baber, the fifth in descent from Timur, and also the fifth Mahommedan conqueror, invaded India at the instigation of the governor of the Punjab, won the victory of Panipat over Ibrahim, the last of the Lodi dynasty, and founded the Mogul empire, which lasted, at least in name, until 1857.
After having won the battle of Panipat (1526) Baber was no more acknowledged as emperor of India than his ancestor Timur had been.
Baber, however, unlike Timur, had resolved to settle in the plains of Hindustan, and carve out for himself a new empire with the help of his Mogul followers.
On the death of Timur Osmanli supremacy was re-established after a prolonged struggle, which ended with the annexation by Mahommed II.
Timur conducted his campaigns with a ruthless disregard of life and property.
Kurt, arid (5) the Jubanians, all of which ultimately fell before the armies of Timur.
It was about this time that Timur (q.v.) began his great career of conquest, under which the power of the various Persian dynasties collapsed.
Barkuk, who had already excited the enmity of Timur by slaying one of his envoys, espoused Ahmads cause, and restored him to Bagdad after Timurs return to his normal capital Samarkand.
Timur retaliated and until his death Ahmad ruled only from time to time.
His descendants, except for Jelal ed-din (Jalaluddin) Shah Shuja, the patron of the poet Hafiz, were unimportant, and the dynasty was wiped out by Timur about 1392.
The Sarbadarids (so called from their motto Sar-ba-dar, Head to the Gibbet), descendants of Abd al-Razzak, who rebelled in Khorasan about 1337, enjoyed some measure of independence under twelve rulers till they also were destroyed by Timur (c. 1380).
The Beni Kurt (or Kart), who had governed in Khorasan from 1245, became independent in the early 1 4th century; they were abolished by Timur (c. 1383).
The authority of Timur, which, as we have seen, was dominant throughout Persia from at least as early as 395 till his death in 1405, was never unchallenged.
AurHoiuTIEs.The works relating to Persia will be found under articles on the maindynasties (CALIPHATE; SELJIJKS; MONGOLS), and the great rulers (JENGHIz KHAN; MAHMUD OF GHAZNI; TIMUR).
Timur died in 1405, when in the seventieth year of his age and about to invade China.
The third son of Timur, Miran Shah, had ruled over part of Persia in his fathers lifetime; but he was said to be insane, and his incapacity for government had caused the loss of Bagdad and revolt in other provinces.
His claim to succession had been put aside by Timur in favor of Pir Mahommed, the son of a deceased son, but KhaliI Shah, a son of the discarded prince, won the day.
His waste of time and treasure upon a fascinating mistress named Shadu l-Mulk, the delight of the kingdom, soon brought about his deposition, and in 1408 he gave way to Shah Rukh, who, with the exception of Miran Shah, was the only surviving son of Timur.
Shah Rukh, the fourth son of Timur, reigned for thirty-eight years, and appears to have been a brave, generous, and enlightened monarch.
More to the purpose is it that Sultan IJosain Mirza, great-grandson of Omar Sheikh, son of Timur, reigned 10 in Herat from 1487 to 1506.
It may be assumed that an empire like that acquired by Timur could not long be maintained by his descendants in its integrity.
It is said that his reputation for sanctity attracted the attention of Timur, who sought him out in his abode, and was so charmed by the visit that he released, at the holy mans request, a number of captives of Turkish origin, or Georgians, taken in the wars with Bayezid.
Owing to the frequent revolutions in the holy city the generals of Timur Shah, king of the Afghans, had made three expeditions on Shah Rukhs behalf.
Three years before Timur had died, and his third son, Zaman Shah, by the intrigues of an influential sirdar, Paiyanda Khan, and been proclaimed his successor at Kabul.
During the course of its history it was four times sacked, by Nadir Shah, Timur, Ahmad Shah and the Mahrattas, and its roadway has many times run with blood.
On receiving a promise that his life would be spared, the last of the house of Timur surrendered to Major Hodson; he was afterwards banished to Rangoon.
Persian Seistan was once highly cultivated by means of a great system of canal irrigation; but for centuries, since the country was devastated by Timur, it has been a barren, treeless waste of flat alluvial plain.
In 1220 Jenghiz Khan sacked Balkh, butchered its inhabitants and levelled all the buildings capable of defence, - treatment to which it was again subjected in the 14th century by Timur.
After this was destroyed by the Mongol prince Timur the Great in 1395, the existing city was built.
Bayezid subsequently invaded and laid waste a large part of Walachia, but the voivode succeeded in inflicting considerable loss on the retiring Turks, and the capture of Bayezid by Timur in 1402 gave the country a reprieve.
In the 18th century it formed part of the dominion of Ahmad Khan Durani, and so remained under his son Timur.
But under the fratricidal wars of Timur's sons the separate khanates fell back under the independent rule of various Uzbeg chiefs.
In modern times it became a capital again, under Timur Shah (see Afghanistan), and so has continued both to the end of the Durani dynasty, and under the Barakzais, who now reign.
This state of affairs lasted until the 14th century, when Tughlak Timur, who extended his dominions to the Kuen-lun, accepted Islam.
His son reigned at Samarkand, but was overthrown by Timur (Tamerlane), the Mongol sovereign of Samarkand, who, to put an end to the attacks of the wild Tianshan tribes, undertook in 1389 his renowned march to Dzungaria, which was devastated, East Turkestan also suffering severely.
An invasion of Jagatais and the irruption of Timur are salient points in the history of Seistan prior to the Sefavid conquest (1508).
The inner harbour was partially filled up by Timur in 1402, but it had not entirely disappeared till the beginning of the 19th century.
In 1402 Timur stormed the town and massacred almost all the inhabitants.
The cultivators were driven from the plains, agriculture was destroyed, and the country was seriously impoverished when its ruin was completed by the ravages and wholesale butcheries of Timur.
After the death of Timur, Armenia formed part of the territories of the Turkoman dynasties of Akand Kara-Kuyunli, and under their milder rule the seat of the Catholicus, which, during the Seljuk invasion, had been moved first to Sivas, and then to Lesser Armenia, was re-established, 1441, at Echmiadzin.
Of its later history we need only mention the Mongolian capture in 1260; its Egyptian recapture by the Mameluke Kotuz; the ferocious raid of Timur (Tamerlane) in 1399; and the conquest by the Turkish sultan Selim, whereby it became a city of the Ottoman empire (1516).
Yazd in his account of the campaigns of Timur, who reduced Mesopotamia in 1393, still calls the city (1425) Ruha.
His four months' victorious campaign against Persia was undertaken and successfully carried through contrary to the advice of his ministers, several of whom he executed for their opposition to his plans; and he achieved an enterprise which neither Jenghiz Khan nor Timur was able to carry out.
Lala Shahin Pasha was appointed feudal lord of the district of Philippopolis, and Timur Tash Pasha became beylerbey of Rumelia; Monastir, Perlepe, and parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina were next taken, a.nd the king of Servia consented to furnish to Murad a fixed contingent of auxiliary troops, besides paying a money tribute.
Meanwhile the king of Bosnia, acting in collusion with the Karamanian prince, attacked and utterly defeated Timur Tash Pasha, who lost 15,000 out of an army of 20,000 men.
The original inhabitants of Ariana were no doubt of the Aryan family, and immediately cognate with the Persian race, but they were probably intermixed at a very early period with the Sacae and Massagetae, who seem to have held the mountains from Kabul to Herat from the first dawn of history, and to whom must be ascribed - rather than to an infusion of Turco-Tartaric blood introduced by the armies of Jenghiz and Timur - the peculiar broad features and flattish countenance which distinguish the inhabitants of Herat, Seistan and the eastern provinces of Persia from their countrymen farther to the west.
But this Mogul visitation was most calamitous; forty persons, indeed, are stated to have alone survived the general massacre of 1232, and as a similar catastrophe overtook the city at the hands of Timur in 1398, when the local dynasty of Kurt, which had succeeded the Ghorides in eastern Khorasan, was put an end to, it is astonishing to find that early in the 15th century Herat was again flourishing and populous, and the favoured seat of the art and literature of the East.
Under the paternal eye the education of young Timur was such that at the age of twenty he had not only become an adept in manly outdoor exercises but had earned the reputation of being an attentive reader of the Koran.
Among less reputed biographies or materials for biography may be mentioned a second Zafarnama, by Maulana Nizamu 'd-Din Shanab Ghazani (Nizam Shami), stated to be "the earliest known history of Timur, and the only one written in his lifetime"; and vol.
The details of the fighting and of the atrocities may be found related in cold blood by Timur himself in the Malfuzat-i-Timuri, which has been translated in Elliot's History of India as told by its own Historians, vol.
From time to time the emperors of Trebizond paid tribute to the Seljuk sultans of Iconium, to the grand khans of the Mongols, to Timur the Tatar, to the Turkoman chieftains, and to the Ottomans; but by means of skilful negotiations they were enabled practically to secure their independence.