How to use Timber in a sentence

timber
  • The chief agricultural products are timber, fruit, grain, hemp, flax and vegetables.

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  • The timber was white pine.

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  • Samples of this timber have been studied after forty-three years' immersion in sea-water.

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  • This wealth of plant life is confined to the littoral and the coastal valleys, but the central valleys and the plateaux have, if not a varied flora, a considerable wealth of timber trees in every way superior to the flora inland in the same latitudes.

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  • The chief timber of indigenous growth is padouk (Pterocarpus dalbergioides) used for buildings, boats, furniture, fine joinery and all purposes to which teak, mahogany, hickory, oak and ash are applied.

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  • Tecuci has a large transit trade in grain, timber, cattle and horses, on their way from northern and eastern Moldavia to the Danubian ports.

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  • Jarrah timber is nearly impervious to the attacks of the teredo, and there is good evidence to show that, exposed to wear and weather, or placed under the soil, or used as submarine piles, the wood remained intact after nearly fifty years' trial.

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  • The portal was framed in heavy timber.

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  • She was at anchor surrounded by baulks of timber, and a cordon of boats had been stationed to row guard against an expected Federal attack.

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  • Corn from middle Russia for Astrakhan is transferred from the railway to boats at Tsaritsyn; timber and wooden wares from the upper Volga are unloaded here and sent by rail to Kalach; and fish, salt and fruits sent from Astrakhan by boat up the Volga are here unloaded and despatched by rail to the interior of Russia.

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  • Copra is also produced in considerable quantity, and there is fine timber in the vicinity.

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  • Good hard-wood timber is found in plenty, the best being the merabau, penak, rasok and chengal.

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  • The oak grows most luxuriantly on deep strong clays, calcareous marl or stiff loam, but will flourish in nearly any deep well-drained soil, excepting peat or loose sand; in marshy or moist places the tree may grow well for a time, but the timber is rarely sound; on hard rocky ground and exposed hillsides.

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  • Where artificial copsewood is the object, hazel, hornbeam and other bushes may be planted between the oaks; but, when large timber is required, the trees are best without undergrowth.

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  • The live oak is one of the most valuable timber trees of the genus, the wood being extremely durable, both exposed to air and under water; heavy and closegrained, it is perhaps the best of the American oaks for shipbuilding, and is invaluable for water-wheels and mill-work.

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  • There are considerable forests of oil palms, rubber trees and vines, and timber and dyewood trees.

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  • All yield a soft, easily-worked timber, which, though very perishable when exposed to weather, possesses sufficient durability when kept dry to give the trees a certain economic value.

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  • Sissek has a considerable trade in grain and timber.

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  • Extending from the Gulf northward for one hundred and fifty miles is the outer belt of the Coastal Plain, also called the "Timber Belt," whose soil is sandy and poor, but responds well to fertilization.

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  • You will export such articles as the country affords, purely native products, much ice and pine timber and a little granite, always in native bottoms.

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  • Its rapid current does not permit of extensive navigation, but timber rafts are floated down from above Innsbruck.

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  • Notwithstanding this, much timber is floated down, and the Panlaung is navigable for small boats all the year round.

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  • The seeds are roasted and eaten by the natives; the timber, which somewhat resembles walnut, is soft, fine-grained, and takes a good polish, but is not durable.

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  • The principal items of export are wool, skins, tallow, frozen mutton, chilled beef, preserved meats, butter and other articles of pastoral produce, timber, wheat, flour and fruits, gold, silver, lead, copper, tin and other metals.

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  • Timber is largely imported from the United States, Sweden and Russia; coal from Great Britain; dried codfish from Norway and Newfoundland.

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  • The results areaa lack of water-supply and of water-power, the streams becoming mere torrents for a short period and perfectly dry for the rest of the year; lack of a sufficient supply of timber; the denudation of the soil on the hills, and, where the valleys below have insufficient drainage, the formation of swamps.

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  • The main imports were coal, timber, metals, jute.

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  • In the vicinity of Fayetteville there are deposits of coal; and the city is in a fine fruit-growing region, apples being the principal crop. Much of the surrounding country is still covered with timber.

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  • The timber trees found towards the interior, and on the higher elevations, are of great size and beauty, the most valuable being teak (Tectona grandis), then-gan (Hopea odorata), ka-gnyeng (Dipterocarpus laevis), &c. The coast-line of the district, off which lies an archipelago of two hundred and seven islands, is much broken, and for several miles inland is very little raised above sea-level, and is drained by numerous muddy tidal creeks.

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  • A large part of the area is covered with forests, which yield teak and other timber.

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  • The river banks are lined with belts of dense forest, in which useful timber occurs.

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  • The slopes of the plateau which face the rain-bringing monsoon are in some places covered with primeval forest, in which timber is plentiful.

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  • From the forests are obtained rubber, copal, bark, various kinds of fibre, and timber (teak, mahogany, &c.).

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  • Timber of economic value is scarce.

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  • The manufacture of machinery, amber articles, tobacco and cigars, and bricks, with some iron-founding, linen-weaving, and salmon-fishing in the Stolpe, are the chief industrial occupations of the inhabitants, who also carry on trade in grain, cattle, spirits, timber, fish and geese.

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  • Iron mines, slate and stone quarries are worked at various points, and, with live stock, poultry, wool and timber form the chief exports.

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  • For many years Massachusetts controlled a vast lumber trade, drawing upon the forests of Maine, but the growth of the west changed the old channels of trade, and Boston carpenters came to make use of western timber.

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  • The beavers carry the mud and stones with their fore-paws and the timber between their teeth.

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  • The principal exports are cereals and flour, cattle, horses, hemp, flax, timber, sugar and oilcake.

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  • The Suceava department (named after Suceava or Suciava, its former capital, now Suczawa in Bukowina) is densely forested; its considerable timber trade centres in Falticheni.

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  • The soil in the valleys is volcanic and fertile, but the gradual utilization of natural timber increases the liability to drought, as there are no streams. The climate is variable and rainy.

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  • Lumber and timber products held second rank both in 1900 ($13,338,533) and in 1905 ($ 1 4,539, 000).

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  • To these may be added wool-weaving, centred at Sedan, and minor industries such as the manufacture of basket-work, wooden shoes, &c. Coal and raw wool are prominent imports, while iron goods, cloth, timber, live-stock, alcohol and the products of the soil are exported.

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  • Next in importance comes the timber trade; game is also plentiful.

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  • The industries include shoe-making and watch-making, and there is some trade in grain and timber.

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  • In the "Timber Belt" the forests of long leaf pine have an estimated stand of 21,192 million ft.; and in 1905 the product of sawed lumber was valued at $13,563,815.

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  • Fourth in value in 1905 (first, cotton goods; second, lumber and timber; third, cotton-seed oil and cake) were fertilizers, the value of which increased from $3,367,353 in 1900 to $9,461,415 in 1905, when the state ranked first of the United States in this industry; in 1900 it had ranked sixth.

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  • The larch, from its lofty straight trunk and the high quality of its wood, is one of the most important of coniferous trees; its growth is extremely rapid, the stem attaining a large size in from sixty to eighty years, while the tree yields good useful timber at forty or fifty; it forms firm heartwood at an early age, and the sapwood is less perishable than that of the firs, rendering it more valuable in the young state.

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  • It is the largest of all larches and one of the most useful timber trees of North America.

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  • Edam has some trade in timber, while shipbuilding, rope-spinning and salt-boiling are also carried on.

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  • The principal exports are granite, timber and hats; and butter through Helsingborg and Gothenburg.

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  • There are wharves on both sides of the river, and the staple exports are sugar, golden-syrup and timber.

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  • The river crosses the richest agricultural and timber districts of the state, and railways connect it with the mineral regions of north central Alabama.

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  • Every time a carpenter saws fresh timber with a saw recently put through wood attacked with dry-rot, he risks infecting it with the Fungus; and similarly in pruning, in propagating by cuttings, &c.

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  • Among other important manufactures are foundry and machine shop products ($6,944,392 in 1905); flour and grist-mill products ($4,428,664); cars and shop construction and repairs by steam railways ($2,502,789); saws; waggons and carriages ($2,049,207); printing and publishing (book and job, $1,572,688; and newspapers and periodicals, $2,715,666); starch; cotton and woollen goods; furniture ($2,528,238); canned goods ($1,693,818); lumber and timber ($1,556,466); structural iron work ($1,541,732); beer ($1,300,764); and planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds ($1,111,264).

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  • It is served by the Madras railway, and is the chief seaport on the Malabar coast, and the principal exports are coffee, timber and coco-nut products.

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  • To this group belong the Bostrychidae and Ptinidae, well known (especially the latter family) for their ravages in old timber.

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  • The Mezen enters the Bay of Mezen; it is navigable for 450 m., and is the channel of a considerable export of timber.

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  • Notwithstanding serious obstacles offered by shallows, corn, fish, salt and timber are largely shipped to and from Archangel.

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  • The Onega, which flows into Onega Bay, has rapids; but timber is floated down in spring, and fishing and some navigation are carried on in the lower portion.

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  • Dvina, which falls into the sea below Riga, is shallow above the rapids of Jacobstadt, but navigation is carried on as far as Vitebsk - corn, timber, potash, flax, &c., being the principal shipments of its navigable tributaries (the Obsha, Ulla and Kasplya).

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  • Flax is one of the principal exports of this region, timber being another.

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  • Here again both capital and labour are short, and the cultivation of the soil suffers from the fact that, owing to the absence of timber, dry dung is used for fuel instead of being employed as manure.

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  • It may be supposed that originally the public roads, when worn by the cartage of the coal, were repaired by laying planks of timber at the bottom of the ruts, and that then the planks were laid on the surface of special roads or ways' formed between the collieries and the river.

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  • Larger rivers, canals, roads, other railways and sometimes deep narrow valleys are crossed by bridges (q.v.) of timber, brick, stone, wrought iron or steel, and many of these structures rank among the largest engineering works in the world.

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  • Wood is the material most widely used, but steel is employed in some countries where timber is scarce or liable to destruction by white ants, though it is still regarded as too expensive in comparison with wood for general adoption.

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  • In that most largely used, known as " creosoting," dead oil of tar, to the amount of some 3 gallons per sleeper, is forced into the wood under pressure, or is sucked in by vacuum, both the timber and the oil being heated.

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  • They may consist of earth with a retaining wall along the tracks and with the surface gravelled or paved with stone or asphalt, or they may be constructed entirely of timber, or they may be formed of stone slabs supported on longitudinal walls.

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  • The long hauls in the United States make it specially important that the cars should carry a load in both directions, and so bcx cars which have carried grain or merchandise one way are filled with wool, coal, coke, ore, timber and other coarse articles for the return journey.

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  • On this account it is common to put small end doors, in American box cars, through which timber and rails may be loaded.

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  • The whole story was an imaginary embroidery of the facts that barnacles attach themselves to submerged timber and that a species of goose is known as the bernicle goose.

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  • Hand timber trees, of use in boat-building, &c., are especially characteristic of Savaii.

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  • The timber of the cypress is hard, close-grained, of a fine reddish hue, and very durable.

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  • The trees, except in the Washoe Mountains, are of very slow growth and therefore knotty and ill-adapted for timber.

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  • As a rule, the elevation of the timber line on the mountains increases as the latitude decreases.

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  • It also became important for the export of timber from the Alps.

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  • It has an increasing trade in iron, timber, coal and agricultural products, a trade which is fostered by a harbour opened in 1897; and also large factories for making aniline dyes and soda.

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  • There are ironworks and flour-mills; and corn and timber are shipped to Libau.

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  • Large quantities of flax are grown, while the timber trade is of considerable importance.

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  • Near the town are iron mines and quarries of limestone, and on the neighbouring mountains are forests containing valuable hardwood timber.

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  • The principal imports are grain and agricultural produce, timber and coal, and the exports cement and fish.

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  • There are several kinds of valuable timber trees.

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  • Among the more common species of game are squirrels, opossums, musk-rats, rabbits, racoons, wild turkeys, ", partridges" (quail, or Bob White), geese, and ducks; deer, black bears, grey (or timber) wolves, black wolves and "wild cats" (lynx), once common, have become rare.

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  • From the extreme south most of the merchantable timber had been cut, but immediately north of this there were still vast quantities of valuable long-leaf pine; in the marshes of the Delta was much cypress, the cotton-wood was nearly exhausted, and the gum was being used as a substitute for it; and on the rich upland soil were oak and red gum, also cotton-wood, hickory and maple.

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  • The lumber and timber product increased in value from $1,920,335 in 1880 to $ 2 4, 0 35,539 in 1905.

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  • The value of the total factory product was $57,45 1, 445 in 1905, when a little more than three-fourths was represented by lumber and timber products, cotton-seed oil and cake, and cotton goods.

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  • Several other pines are found, and among the less important timber trees are black spruce, Carolina balsam, beeches, ashes, sycamore or button wood, sweet gum and lindens.

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  • The value of the lumber and timber products was $1,074,003 in 1860; $5, 8 9 8, 74 2 in 1890; $14,862,593 in 1900; and $15731,379 in 1905.

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  • In 1890 the lumber and timber products, valued at $5,898,742, ranked second among the state's manufactures; by 1905 their value had increased to $15,731,379.

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  • Owing to its excellent harbour Baku is a chief depot for merchandise coming from Persia and Transcaspia - raw cotton, silk, rice, wine, fish, dried fruit and timber - and for Russian manufactured goods.

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  • The trees of India producing economically useful timber are comparatively few, owing to the want of durability of the wood, in the extremely hot and moist climate.

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  • The teak, Tectona grandis, supplies the finest timber.

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  • The only timber in ordinary use obtained from the Himalaya proper is the deodar, Cedrus deodara.

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  • The cinchona has recently been introduced with complete success; and the mahogany of America reaches a large size, and gives promise of being grown for use as timber.

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  • The land around Beauly is fertile and the town drives a brisk trade in coal, timber, lime, grain and fish.

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  • There are two large fish-docks, and, for general traffic, the Royal dock, communicating with the Humber through a tidal basin, the small Union dock, and the extensive Alexandra dock, together with graving docks, timber yards, a patent slip, &c. These docks have an area of about 104 acres, but were found insufficient for the growing traffic of the port, and in 1906 the construction of a large new dock, of about 40 acres' area and 30 to 35 ft.

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  • The principal imports are butter, woollens, timber, cereals, eggs, glass, cottons, preserved meat, wool, sugar and bacon.

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  • Their architecture in wood, however, was excellent; and the teak forests of their country afforded the finest timber for building and for carving.

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  • Cattle and pine lumber are sent to Cuba, and Havana tobacco and fine grades of Cuban timber are imported.

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  • The leading industries comprise manufactures of tweeds, hosiery, clogs, baskets and leather, besides the timber trade, nursery gardening and the making of machinery and iron implements.

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  • The Egri-dagh possesses a sharply defined crest, ranges at a general elevation of 8000 ft., is bare of timber, scantily supplied with water, and rugged and deeply fissured.

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  • The export that comes next in value is silk, and after it may be named wheat, barley, manganese ore, maize, wool, oilcake, carpets, rye, oats, liquorice and timber.

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  • In its native habitats it is said to endure for several centuries; but in those countries from which the commercial supply of its timber is chiefly drawn, it attains perfection in from 70 to 90 years, according to soil and situation.

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  • The smaller branches and the waste portion of the trunks, left in cutting up the timber, are exported as fire-wood, or used for splitting into matches.

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  • Eventually the tree is destroyed, and the wood rendered worthless for timber, and of little value even for fuel.

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  • The sawn timber is inferior to that of P. excelsa, besides being of a smaller size.

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  • The timber is very much twisted in grain, and liable to warp and split, but is used for making plasterers' laths and for fencing; "shingles" for roofing are sometimes made of it.

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  • It forms extensive forests in Vancouver Island, British Columbia and Oregon, whence the timber is exported, being highly prized for its strength, durability and even grain, though very heavy; it is of a deep yellow colour, abounding in resin, which oozes from the thick bark.

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  • From early historic times it has been held in high estimation in the south of Europe, being used by the Romans for masts and all purposes for which timber of great length was required.

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  • It consists of a group of old-fashioned timber and plaster buildings, a tall belfry, and a diminutive church of white marble, founded in 1190 by King Stephen Nemanya, who himself turned monk and was canonized as St Simeon.

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  • The state was originally covered with a dense forest mostly of hardwood timber, and although the merchantable portion of this has been practically all cut away, there are still undergrowths of young timber and a great variety of trees.

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  • Other leading manufactures are malt liquors ($21,620,794 in 1905), railway rolling-stock consisting largely of cars ($21,428,227), men's clothing ($18,496,173), planing mill products ($17,725,711), carriages and wagons ($16,096,125), distilled liquors ($15,976,523), rubber and elastic goods ($15,963,603), furniture ($13,322,608), cigars and cigarettes ($13,241,230), agricultural implements ($12,891,197), women's clothing ($12,803582), lumber and timber products ($12,567,992), soap and candles.

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  • The Dniester is an important channel for trade, corn, spirits and timber being exported from Mogilev, Kalus, Zhvanets, Porog and other Podolian river-ports.

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  • At the Charlestown navy-yard (1800) there are docks, manufactories, foundries, machine-shops, ordnance stores, rope-walks, furnaces, castingpits, timber sheds, ordnance-parks, ship-houses, &c. The famous frigate " Independence " was launched here in 1814, the more famous " Constitution " having been launched while the yard was still private in 1797.

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  • It exports filberts (for which product it is the centre), walnuts, hides and timber.

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  • Steamers ascend this river as far as Bilyutai, near the Mongolian frontier, and bring back tea, imported via Kiakhta, while grain, cedar nuts, salt, soda, wool and timber are shipped on rafts down the Khilok, Chikoi and Uda (tributaries of the Selenga), and manufactured goods are taken up the river for export to China.

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  • The surrounding country abounds in coal, iron ore, oil, clay, stone and timber, for which the city is a distributing centre.

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  • From the Egyptian and Assyrio-Babylonian monuments we learn that in ancient times one of the principal exports of Syria was timber; this has now entirely ceased.

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  • The lumber and timber products were valued in 1905 at $10,901,650, almost twice their valuation in 1890, and an increase of 1.

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  • Imports are principally coal, iron and timber.

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  • Swinhoe obtained no fewer than 65 different kinds of timber from a large yard in Taiwanfu; and his specimens are now to be seen in the museum at Kew.

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  • Imports include coal,timber, tar and hemp. Steam sawing, metal-founding, fish-salting, shipbuilding and repairing, and the manufacture of ship's-biscuits and fishing-nets are among the industries.

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  • The place has an active trade, especially in grain and in the timber floated down from the Black Forest by the Rhine and the Ysel; the industries include tanning, weaving, and oil and paper manufactures.

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  • The harbour, which embraces two tidal basins and six docks aggregating 832 acres, in addition to timber docks of S7 acres, covers altogether 350 acres.

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  • Timber makes up 59% of the imports, and coal and ships each about 30% of the exports.

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  • It has tanneries and flour-mills, and exports timber, corn and mushrooms.

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  • The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in tobacco manufacturing, sugar-refining and boat-building, and in the timber trade.

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  • Among the products are coco-nuts, sago, fish, trepang, timber, copra, maize, yams and tobacco.

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  • As the slopes of the Rocky Mountains to the west are reached more trees are found, until in the foot-hills of the mountains bodies of forest timber occur.

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  • The principal imports are manufactured cotton goods and other textiles, machinery, timber and coal.

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  • The value and variety of the timber are very great.

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  • The timber product of 1900 ($17,294,444) was almost ten times that of 1880 ($1,764,640); and in 1905 the product value ($35,192,374) was more than twice that of 1900.

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  • The state bureau of agriculture in 1903 estimated that of the total area 14.9 millions of acres were timber land, 5.7 millions pasture and marsh, and 5 o millions cultivated farm land.

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  • Manufacturing industries are for the most part closely related to the products of the soil, about two-thirds of the value of all manufactures in Igoo and in 1905 being represented by sugar and molasses refining, lumber and timber products, cotton-seed oil and cake, and rice cleaned and polished.

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  • The proportion of imports taken from the United States is greatest in foodstuffs, metals and metal manufactures, timber and furniture, mineral oils and lard.

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  • Andros Island and the Abaco Islands may be specially noted for their profusion of large timber, including mahogany, mastic, lignum vitae, iron and bullet woods, and many others.

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  • Below the mountain crests, where only the hardiest lichens and mosses can survive, comes a belt of large timber, including many giant trees, 200 ft.

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  • Their houses are built of timber and thatch, or clay tiles, except in the Karst region, where stone is more plentiful than wood.

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  • Situated in a region where there is no stone, and practically no timber, Bagdad was built, like all the cities of the Babylonian plain, of brick and tiles.

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  • It is the chief port for exports from and imports to east Finland and a centre of the timber trade.

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  • Tobacco, soap, soda, beer and furniture are manufactured, and there is a considerable trade in timber and grain.

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  • The South Bute dock of 502 acres, authorized in 1894 and capable of accommodating the largest vessels afloat, was opened in 1907, bringing the whole dock area of Cardiff (including timber ponds) to about 210 acres.

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  • Taking "the port of Cardiff" in its technical sense as including Barry and Penarth, it is the first port in the kingdom for shipping cleared to foreign countries and British possessions, second in the kingdom for its timber imports, and first in the world for shipment of coal.

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  • In the southern and central portions of the state open rolling prairies interspersed with groves and belts of oak and other deciduous hard-wood timber predominate.

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  • Next to flour, lumber and timber products rank in importance.

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  • The village is the nearest station to Greylock, which can be easily ascended, and affords fine views of the Hoosac and Housatonic valleys, the Berkshire Hills and the Green Mountains; the mountain has been a state timber reservation since 1898.

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  • Callias And Hipponicus The exports from Callao are guano, sugar, cotton, wool, hides, silver, copper, gold and forest products, and the imports include timber and other building materials, cotton and other textiles, general merchandise for personal, household and industrial uses, railway material, coal, kerosene, wheat, flour and other food stuffs.

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  • Its trunk furnishes timber for house-building and furniture; the leaves supply thatch; their footstalks are used as fuel, and also yield a fibre from which cordage is spun.

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  • The principal articles of export are salt, stone, timber, live-stock, woollen and iron wares and paper.

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  • The town is a centre for the local agricultural and timber trade.

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  • Palm-oil, timber, rubber, yams and shea-butter are the chief articles of trade.

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  • A considerable quantity of timber is grown on the high lands, and the rich valley pastures support large herds of cattle, while the abundance of oaks and chestnuts favours the rearing of swine.

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  • The chief trade is in corn, wine, cattle and timber.

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  • Several flour-mills and other factories have recently sprung up. Much grain is exported; timber is brought from the upper Volga, and manufactured wares from Nizhniy Novgorod.

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  • The import trade consists of timber, maize, paper, crockery, sugar, tobacco, kerosene oil, &c. Gold has been found in the territory, and silver, tin, lead and iron are said to exist.

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  • The principal imports are coal, timber and slates, and the principal export stone of the Transition limestone or Devonshire marble.

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  • The principal exports are Portland stone, bricks and tiles and provisions, and the imports are coal, timber, garden and dairy produce and wine.

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  • Resources.-The natural resources of Latvia are mainly timber and agricultural produce.

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  • Firewood and timber felled during the period of the German occupation fall to the State.

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  • Mulhausen carries on an active trade in grain, wine, colonial produce and timber, which is facilitated by its river harbour.

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  • Fredrikshald is one of the principal ports of the kingdom for the export of timber.

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  • Besides wool, leading imports are jute, cotton, flax, timber, petroleum, coal, pitch, wine, cereals, oil-seeds and oil-cake, nitrate of soda and other chemical products, and metals.

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  • The town has a small trade in timber, petroleum and farm produce.

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  • It is divided into four sanjaks - Kastamuni, Boli, Changra and Sinope - is rich in mineral wealth, and has many mineral springs and extensive forests, the timber being used for charcoal and building and the bark for tanning.

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  • The ita palm, Mauritia, flexuosa (a fanleaf palm) provides an edible fruit, medullary meal, drink, fibre, roofing and timber, but is less used on the Amazon than it is on the lower Orinoco.

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  • Another highly useful palm is the carnauba or carnahuba (Copernicia cerifera) which supplies fruit, medullary meal, food for cattle, boards and timber, fibre, wax and medicine.

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  • There is a harbour on the Elbe here, and a brisk trade is carried on in coal, grain and timber.

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  • The south-eastern sides of the mountains are in part covered with heavy timber, while the semi-tropical luxuriance of the coast belt has earned for Natal the title of " the garden colony."

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  • A grass belt separates the thorn bush from the districts carrying heavy timber, found mainly in the upland zone, along the sides of the mountains exposed to the rains and in kloofs.

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  • The ferns are most common in the midland zone and in the heavy timber forests.

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  • Baboons (Cynocephalus porcarius) and monkeys of different kinds frequent the mountains and rocky kloofs and bush and timber lands.

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  • Valuable timber is obtained from the forests.

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  • Timber is also exported, being floated in large quantities down the Lule.

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  • Besides wine, fruit, grain and timber, the surrounding uplands yield petroleum and salt.

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  • Besides its manufactures of leather, silk, velvet and ribbons, Gandia has a thriving export trade in fruit, and imports coal, guano, timber and flour.

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  • Wine, timber and iron are important articles of commerce.

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  • It has a considerable trade in timber, and a local trade by steamers on Storsjb.

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  • The town contains large iron foundries and chemical works, and has an active trade in fruit, cider, timber and live stock.

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  • Among the timber trees of this region is the bolkenhout of terblanz (Faurea Saligna) which yields a fine wood resembling mahogany.

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  • Few of the low veld bushes are large or straight enough to furnish any useful wood, and timber trees are wholly absent from the level country.

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  • Machinery, provisions, largely in the form of tinned and otherwise preserved food, and liquors, clothing, textiles and hardware, chemicals and dynamite, iron and steel work and timber, and jewelry are the chief items in the imports.

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  • The department imports coal, lime, stone, salt, raw sulphur, skins and timber and exports agricultural and mineral products, bricks and tiles, and other manufactured goods.

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  • The shipping trade is considerable, chiefly in coal, timber and agricultural produce.

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  • In 1890 Portland cement works were built, and there is a large trade in timber.

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  • The chief imports are coal, timber and iron, and the exports grain and other agricultural products and salt.

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  • In addition to goods thus conveyed, enormous quantities of timber are floated down the Elbe; the Ix.

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  • Fishing is carried on, and timber, oil, wine, lemons and other sub-tropical fruits are exported to some extent.

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  • One of the most interesting features of the Rhine navigation is afforded by the huge rafts of timber that are floated down the river.

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  • Though not so large as formerly, these timber rafts are still sometimes 400 or 500 ft.

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  • They contain stunted timber trees, palms, mangroves and other tropical and sub-tropical plants and have an almost impenetrable undergrowth.

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  • The upland regions are those of high timber forests, the trees including the yellow-wood and iron-wood.

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  • The most noteworthy timber forests are those of Nkandhla and Kyudeni and that near Eshowe.

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  • This tendency is overcome by the use of timber supports so disposed as to ensure the breaking of the overhanging roof at a safe distance from the workingface and prevent the interruption of the work that might otherwise result.

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  • In the robbing of pillars, timber is necessary for the support of only a single line of timber and lagging over the level, called the stull.

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  • More effective support and control of the roof may be secured by the use of rock-filling alone or with timber.

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  • There is considerable thickness of old timber left from the working of the upper levels.

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  • On completion of any room the timbers are withdrawn and the overlying mass of timber and rock is allowed to fall and a new room is started immediately alongside of the one just completed.

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  • In this way the whole floor is worked out and the mat of timber and overlying rock is gradually lowered and rests upon the top of the ore forming the floor below.

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  • Steel frames are more durable than those of wood, and have become common in nearly all mining countries, especially where timber is scarce.

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  • Similar swelling ground is not infrequently met with in metal mines, as, for example, in the Phoenix copper mine in Houghton county, Michigan, where the force developed was sufficient to crush the strongest timber that could be used.

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  • A fire underground speedily becomes formidable, not only in coal but also in metal mines, on account of the large quantity of timber used to support the excavations.

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  • These laws are enforced by mine inspectors of the timber produces falls of ground, making necessary the excavawho are empowered to call upon the courts and other government tion and removal at times of hundreds of tons of heated rock and burning coal, in order to reach the fire.

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  • At the close of the First Burmese War in 1826 Tenasserim was annexed because it was supposed to contain large supplies of this valuable timber; and it was trouble with a British forest company that directly led to the Third Burmese War of 1885.

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  • In addition to rice-growing and the felling and extraction of timber, and the fisheries, the chief occupations are rice-husking, silk-weaving and dyeing.

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  • The chief articles of export from Burma are rice and timber.

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  • The district is watered by the Geuk Su (Calycadnus and its tributaries), and is covered to a large extent by forests, which still, as of old, supply timber to Egypt and Syria.

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  • It has an important trade in timber, and numerous windmills in the vicinity provide power for oil, cement and paper works, timber-sawing and corn-grinding.

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  • Oderberg is an important emporium for the Russian timber trade.

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  • Gudea was also a great builder, and the materials for his buildings and statues were brought from all parts of western Asia, cedar wood from the Amanus mountains, quarried stones from Lebanon, copper from northern Arabia, gold and precious stones from the desert between Palestine and Egypt, dolerite from Magan (the Sinaitic peninsula) and timber from Dilmun in the Persian Gulf.

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  • There is a large export trade in coal, I copper, iron and tin, mostly shipped from nieghbouring ports, while the principal imrorts are timber and general merchandise.

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  • There is considerable agricultural trade, and iron founding is carried on; while in the neighbourhood some copper, lead, granite and slate are worked and exported in small vessels; coal, timber and general merchandise being imported.

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  • Before that time timber had been one of its most important exports.

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  • There is much less moisture, and the flora is of a less tropical character than farther north; it has some Polynesian and New Zealand affinities, and on the west coast a partially Australian character; on the higher hills it is stunted; on the lower, however, there are fine .grass lands, and a scattered growth of niaulis (Melaleuca viridiflora), useful for its timber, bark and cajeput oil.

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  • There is a great variety of fine timber trees.

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  • At the present day the tree is largely cultivated in most temperate countries for the sake of its timber or for its edible nuts.

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  • The timber is specially valued for furniture and cabinet work and for gunstocks, the beauty of its markings rendering it desirable for the first-named purpose, while its strength and elasticity fit it for the second.

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  • Considerable trade in wine, fruit, grain and timber is carried on by boats on the Main.

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  • It has a medieval castle, several churches, a synagogue and various industries - iron-foundries, saw-mills, brick-works, and breweries; also an extensive trade in cereals and timber.

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  • Large quantities of timber are floated down the Ilz.

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  • It is the principal waterway of Wurttemberg, and is greatly used for floating down timber.

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  • It seems very probable that the fourscore thousand hewers employed by Solomon for cutting timber did not confine their operations simply to what would now be termed cedars and fir-trees.

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  • It became a colony in 180 B.C., and was important for the fertility of its territory, for its quarries, and for the timber it yielded for ship-building.

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  • The imports consist mainly of European manufactured goods (especially British cotton), machinery, flour, alcohol, sugar, timber, coal and petroleum.

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  • In the vast untrodden forests farther east there are timber trees of many kinds, incense trees, a great wealth of rubber trees of the Hevea genus, numerous varieties of beautiful palms, sarsaparilla, vanilla, ipecacuanha and copaiba.

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  • In,the vicinity of some of the deposits of argentiferous galena are large coal beds, but timber is scarce on the table-lands.

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  • The first dock (opened in 1846), the second (1859) and the third (1882) cover an area of '28 acres, with timber ponds of 44 acres and a total quayage of 2500 yards.

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  • Timber, pig-iron and iron ore are the leading imports, and coal, produce and iron the chief exports.

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  • The exports mainly consist of grain, cattle, fish, dairy produce and potatoes; the imports of coal and timber.

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  • The town is situated in low, malarious ground, and was originally buried in jungle, but the Russians during their occupation of the place in 1723-34 cleared much timber and jungle and made some open spaces.

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  • The principal exports are grain, eggs, cattle, linen cloth and flax, and the imports include timber, groceries and coal.

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  • The surplus brine of Berchtesgaden is conducted to Reichenhall, and thence, in increased volume, to Traunstein and Rosenheim, which possess larger supplies of timber for use as fuel in the process of boiling.

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  • The staple exports are beans, pulse and peas, marine products, sulphur, furs and timber; the staple imports, comestibles (especially salted fish), kerosene and oil-cake.

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  • It is now, however, the chief emporium of the Rhenish wine traffic, and also carries on an extensive transit trade in grain, timber, flour, petroleum, paper and vegetables.

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  • Forests cover nearly r z million acres, yielding valuable timber (teak, sandalwood, &c.), and affording grazing-ground for cattle.

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  • Cotton yarn and cloth, petroleum, timber and furs are among the chief imports; copper, tin, hides and tea are important exports; medicines in the shape not only of herbs and roots, but also of fossils, shells, bones, teeth and various products of the animal kingdom; and precious stones, principally jade and rubies, are among the other exports.

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  • A third, at least, of the annual supply of timber is exported.

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  • The dock is specially designed and equipped for dealing with the coal, timber, grain and wool trades.

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  • Imports include cotton and silk goods, coal, iron and steel, petroleum, timber, raw wool, cotton yarn and cork.

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  • The west front is flanked by two towers and the crossing is surmounted by a slender timber spire.

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  • This is one of the principal centres of the timber export trade, having saw-mills, planing-mills and wood-pulp works.

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  • The town has two interesting museums. Emden is the seat of an active trade in agricultural produce and live-stock, horses, timber, coal, tea and wine.

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  • The abolition of serfdom without cancellation of the peasants' prerogatives as to pasturage and timber rights served to accentuate classantagonism.

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  • The country is thickly wooded (the areas under timber comprising some 25.5% of the whole against 35% fifty years ago).

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  • Sixty per cent of the present output of timber being needed for internal consumption, about 200,000 festmetres are available annually for export.

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  • In 1920 were exported farm products, live stock, fowls, timber and flax valued at 501,797,000 marks, and imported foreign products and machines at 428,728,000 marks.

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  • Derwent Isle, about six acres in extent, contains a handsome residence surrounded by lawns, gardens and timber of large growth.

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  • The other industries of Johannesburg include brewing, printing and bookbinding, timber sawing, flour milling, iron and brass founding, brick making and the manufacture of tobacco.

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  • Large quantities of timber are imported from Canada and Norway; coal, iron, manufactured goods and agricultural produce are the chief exports.

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  • The timber, however, is small, and is of little value except as fuel.

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  • Under the act of 1877 the forest is administered rather as a national park than for the growing of timber on commercial principles.

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  • The town has a handsome church (Early English and Decorated), a grammar school, and some trade in coal, timber, malt and cheese.

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  • Teak timber is floated down the rivers to the Madras coast.

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  • As timber trees many of the species are valuable from their rapidity of growth and for the production of light durable wood, serviceable for many purposes.

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  • In addition to their use for timber or basket-making, willows contain a large quantity of tannin in their bark.

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  • The river is here crossed by two iron bridges, and one stone and one timber bridge, and the upper and lower towns are connected by a funicular railway.

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  • In 1662, as appears by a map still extant, there were i 50 houses within the wall, forming five streets and as many lanes; and the upland districts around were one dense forest of giant oaks and sycamores, yielding an unfailing supply of timber to the woodmen of Carrickfergus.

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  • The largest timber tree is the mvule, which attains vast dimensions, its trunk supplying the natives with the dug-out canoes with which they navigate the lake.

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  • Bees can excavate timber and make their brood-chambers in hollow plant-stems.

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  • In 205 B.C. in the Second Punic War we hear that they promised ship timber and corn to Scipio.

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  • It has various industries, including saw and planing mills, shipbuilding, glassworks and factories for wood-pulp, barrels and potato flour; and an active trade in exporting timber, ice, wood-pulp and granite, chiefly to Great Britain, and in importing from the same country coal and salt.

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  • The banks of the port are closely lined with the offices, warehouses and wharves of commercial houses, with timber yards and innumerable ricemills, while the custom house, the harbour master's office and many of the foreign legations and consulates are also situated here.

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  • The chief exports are stone for road-making, butter, eggs and vegetables; the chief imports are coal, timber, superphosphates and wine from Algeria.

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  • In the United States and Scotland rectangular pits secured by timber framings are still common, but the tendency the pressure being reduced to that of the external atmosphere when it is desired to open the upper door, and increased to that of the working space below when it is intended to communicate with the sinkers, or to raise the stuff broken in the bottom.

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  • In securing the roof and sides of coal workings, malleable iron and steel are now used to some extent instead of timber, although the consumption of the latter material is extremely large.

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  • As a substitute for timber props at the face, pieces of steel joists, with the web cut out for a short distance on either end, with the flanges turned back to give a square bearing surface, have been introduced.

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  • Boat-building is also prosecuted, and a brisk transit trade is carried on in salt, grain and timber.

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  • Coal and wine are leading imports, while cereals, timber, wool, fruit and industrial products are exported.

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  • Coyotes or prairie wolves (of which there is a local sub-species, Canis nebracensis texensis), grey wolves, prairie dogs (gophers), and jack rabbits are common on the plains; less common are the grey wolf or lobo (Canis griseus) and the timber wolf; and there are several species of foxes, including the swift.

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  • Farther west two narrow belts of timber, consisting mostly of stunted post oak and black jack, and known as the Eastern and Western Cross Timbers, cross the prairies southward from the Red river, and a low growth of mesquite, other shrubs and vines are common in the eastern half of the Prairie Plains.

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  • Sparse scrub timber, of little value except for posts, poles and rough beams and for fuel, occupies the region westward to approximately the longitude of the Pease river.

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  • Among the lesser manufactures are lumber and timber products (value in 1905, $5,610,772), most of the raw material being floated down on rafts from Wisconsin and Minnesota.

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  • The absence of good bark, dugout timber, and chisels of stone deprived the whole Mississippi valley of creditable water-craft, and reduced the natives to the clumsy trough for a dugout and miserable bull-boat, made by stretching dressed buffalo hide over a crate.

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  • The Nahuatl lapidaries had at hand many varieties of workable and beautiful stone - onyx, marble, limestone, quartz and quartz crystal, granite, syenite, basalt, trachyte, rhyolite, diorite and obsidian, the best of material prepared for them by nature; while the Mayas had only limestone, and hard, tenacious rock with which to work it, and timber for burning lime.

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  • There are saw-mills and textile factories in Piatra, which has a considerable trade in wine and timber.

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  • The principal kind of tree is the so-called "Bermudas cedar," really a species of juniper, which furnishes timber for small vessels.

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  • The islands produce some coco-nuts, sago, trepang and timber.

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  • There is a considerable trade in cattle, grain and other agricultural produce, and in timber and spirits.

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  • Half a dozen landed estates were purchased in Saxony to supply timber for pit props.

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  • This shape is most suitable for planing uneven timber, as inequalities are "hooked off" by the curved blade.

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  • Tilsit carries on trade in timber, grain, hemp, flax, herrings and coal; but its trade with Russia, at one time considerable, has fallen off since the construction of the railway from Konigsberg to Kovno.

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  • The Jews and Armenians are engaged in a brisk trade with Odessa, to which they send corn, wine, spirits and timber, floated down from Galicia, as well as with the interior, to which they send manufactured wares imported from Austria.

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  • To find the quantity of timber in a trunk with parallel ends, the areas of a few sections must be calculated as accurately as possible, and a formula applied.

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  • Livonia carries on a large export trade, especially through Riga and Pernau, in petroleum, wool, oilcake, flax, linseed, hemp, grain, timber and wooden wares; the Dvina is the chief channel for this trade.

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  • There may be mentioned also the church of St Nicholas, of the 13th century; and the King's House (Kungsstuga), an old and picturesque timber building.

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  • Even the higher summits are worn to a rounded condition, and are therefore for the most part forest covered up to the timber line which, on Mount Marcy, is at an elevation of about 4900 ft.

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  • The state has a forest preserve also in the Catskill region (in Delaware, Greene, Sullivan and Ulster counties) of 110,964 acres, and there are wood-lots on many farms throughout the state that produce commercial timber.

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  • Originally white pine was the principal timber of the Adirondacks, but most of the merchantable portion has been cut, and in 1905 nearly one-half of the lumber product of this section was spruce, the other half mainly hemlock, pine and hardwoods (yellow birch, maple, beech and basswood, and smaller amounts of elm, cherry and ash).

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  • The state's entire timber product in 1905 was 1,212,070,168 ft.

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  • Though much of the timber is of commercial value - notably the kauri, totara, puriri, rimu, matai and kahikatea - this has not saved the forests from wholesale, often reckless, destruction.

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  • After him came other navigators, French, Spanish, Russian and American; and, as the 8th century neared its end, came sealers, whalers and trading-schooners in quest of flax and timber.

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  • Some trade is carried on in corn and timber, and in brewing and distilling.

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  • Poultry, fish and timber are important sources of wealth.

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    0
  • An active trade is carried on in corn, wine and timber (exports), and manufactures and grocery wares (imports).

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  • The present church of St Mary is in various styles, with a lofty tower and spire and carved timber roof.

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  • In 1907 the estimated area of standing timber in Washington was 11,720 sq.

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  • Next in commercial importance to lumber and timber products are flour and grist mill products, valued in 1905 at $14,663,612.

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  • Timber trees are almost confined to the river valleys, where willows, yellow wood, iron wood, red wood, mimosas and, in deep gorges, the wild fig are found.

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  • The mountain valleys are covered with little except grasses; on the higher parts of the mountains there are barren rocks or only a scant growth of timber; but many of the lower mountain slopes, especially those along the western border, are clothed with heavy timber, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and western larch being the principal species.

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  • There is scarcely any hardwood timber in the state.

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  • Lumber and timber products, which ranked second, increased in value from $2,846,268 in 1900, to $3,024,674 in 1905.

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  • Hippocrates, writing in the 5th century B.C., says of the people of the Phasis that their country is hot and marshy and subject to frequent inundations, and that they live in houses of timber and reeds constructed in the midst of the waters, and use boats of a single tree trunk.

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  • In classical and medieval times bridges were constructed of timber or masonry, and later of brick or concrete.

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  • Then late in the 18th century wrought iron began to be used, at first in combination with timber or cast iron.

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  • Masonry and concrete are more durable than metal, and metal than timber.

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  • Bridges with stone piers and timber superstructures were no doubt constructed from Roman times onward, but they have perished.

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  • The first bridges over the Thames at London were no doubt of timber.

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  • Timber bridges of large span were constructed in America between the end of the 18th and the middle of the r 9th century.

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  • Some of these timber bridges are said to have lasted ninety years with ordinary repairs, but they were road bridges not heavily loaded.

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  • From 1840, trusses, chiefly of timber but with wrought-iron tensionrods and cast-iron shoes, were adopted in America.

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  • The Howe truss had timber chords and a lattice of timber struts, with vertical iron ties.

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  • As railway loads increased and greater spans were demanded, the Howe truss was stiffened by timber arches on each side of each girder.

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  • Remarkably high timber piers were built.

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  • After various repairs and strengthenings, including the replacement of the timber girder by an iron one in 1880, this bridge in 1896-1897 was taken down and a steel arch built _ _ __ _ I ?

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  • In America such girders were used from the first and naturally followed the general design of the earlier timber bridges.

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  • The heads of the piles are sawn off, and a platform of timber or concrete rests on them.

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  • Formerly when bridge piers had to be placed where a firm bearing stratum could only be reached at a considerable depth, a timber cofferdam was used in which piles were driven down to the firm stratum.

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  • The most ordinary type of staging consists of timber piles at nearly equal distances of 20 ft.

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  • Sometimes a wide space is left for navigation, and the platform at this part is carried by a timber and iron truss.

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  • These carry temporary trusses of timber or steel.

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  • The Kuilenburg bridge in Holland, which has a span of 492 ft., was erected on a timber staging of this kind, containing 81,000 cub.

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  • In such rolling operations the girder is subjected to straining actions different from those which it is intended to resist, and parts intended for tension may be in compression; hence it may need to be stiffened by timber during rolling.

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  • Some timber bridges consist of queenpost trusses in the upright position, as shown diagrammatically in fig.

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  • A combination bridge is built partly of timber, partly of steel, FIG.

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  • The floor beams, floor and railing are of timber.

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  • The compression members are of timber, except the struts and bottom chord panels next the river piers, which are of steel.

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  • There, too, the grey (or timber) wolf and the coyote are found.

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  • Valuable timber was afforded by the vast forest of the Weald, but the restrictions imposed on the felling of wood for fuel did serious detriment to the iron-trade, and after the statute of 1558 forbidding the felling of timber for iron-smelting within fourteen miles of the coast the industry steadily declined.

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  • Here are found the lynx, the " mountain lion " or puma, the prairie and timber wolves, the jack rabbit, the prairie dog (gopher), the black, the brown and, occasionally, the grizzly bear.

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  • The remainder is covered for the most part with dense forest containing several kinds of valuable timber.

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  • In the temperate uplands of the interior, as about Luang Prabang, Himalayan and Japanese species occur - oaks, pines, chestnuts, peach and great apple trees, raspberries, honeysuckle, vines, saxifrages, Cichoraceae, anemones and Violaceae; there are many valuable timber trees - teak, sappan, eagle-wood, wood-oil (Hopea), and other Dlpterocarpaceae, Cedrelaceae, Pterocarpaceae, Xylia, ironwood and other dye-woods and resinous trees, these last forming in many districts a large proportion of the more open forests, with an undergrowth of bamboo.

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  • The more important places of northern Siam include Chieng Mai, the capital of the north, Chieng Rai, near the northern frontier; Lampun, also known as Labong (originally Haribunchai), the first Lao settlement in Siam; Lampang, Tern, Nan and Pre, each the seat of a Lao chief and of a Siamese commissioner; Utaradit, Pichai, Pichit, Pechabun and Raheng, the last of importance as a timber station, with Phitsnulok, Sukhotai, Swankalok, Kampeng Pet and Nakhon Sawan, former capitals of Khmer-Siamese kingdoms, and at present the headquarters of provincial governments.

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  • In southern Siam the chief towns are Chumpon; Bandon, with a growing timber industry; Nakhon Sri Tammarat (q.v.); Singora; Puket (q.v.); Patani.

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  • Imports, principally timber, grain, cotton and linseed, increased owing to these improvements from L116,179 in 1881 to £816,698 in 1899; and exports (coal, machinery and manufactured goods) from £83,000 in 1883 to £261,873 in 1899.

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  • The timber used, chiefly white pine, is obtained from the Zuni mountains.

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  • The chief industry is silk-weaving, but there are also rice and timber mills.

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  • Fairs are periodically held in the town; and the trade in timber, cereals, and linen and woollen goods is generally brisk.

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  • The exports from Batavia to the other islands of the archipelago, and to the ports in the Malay Peninsula, are rice, sago, coffee, sugar, salt, oil, tobacco, teak timber and planks, Java cloths, brass wares, &c., and European, Indian and Chinese goods.

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