The course of the Tigris is much shorter than that of the Euphrates, about 1150 m.
At Bagdad the Tigris and Euphrates are less than 35 m.
From Bagdad downward, the course of the Tigris is peculiarly serpentine and shifting.
Along the Tigris the city spreads out into suburbs, the most important of which is Kazemain, on the western side of the river northward, opposite which on the eastern side lies Muazzam.
Near the source of the Tigris, at Arghana-Ma'den, are copper mines.
From Seleucia on the Tigris he led a short expedition down the Persian Gulf against the Gerrhaeans of the Arabian coast (205/4).
From him emanates Yardena rabba, " the great Jordan," which, as the higher-world 1 In 1882 they were said to have shrunk to 200 families, and to be seeking a new settlement on the Tigris, to escape the persecutions to which they are exposed.
The site of Nisibis, on the great road between the Tigris and the Mediterranean, and commanding alike the mountain country to the north and the then fertile plain to the south, gave it an importance which began during the Assyrian period and continued under the Seleucid empire.
There was an atabeg dynasty in Damascus founded by Tughtigin (1103-1128): there was another to the N.E., that of the Ortokids,, represented by Sokman, who established himself at Kaifa in Diarbekr about i 101, and by his brother Ilghazi, who received Mardin from Sokman about 1108, and added to it Aleppo in 1117.1 But the greatest of the atabegs were those of Mosul on the Tigris - Maudud, who died in 1113; Aksunkur, his successor; and finally, greatest of all, Zengi himself, who ruled in Mosul from 1127 onwards.
The improvement of waterways in the interior of the empire was not neglected, the Babylonian canal system was repaired, the obstructions in the Tigris removed.
CTESIPHON, a large village on the left bank of the Tigris, opposite to Seleucia, of which it formed a suburb, about 25 m.
Includes receipts from commercial and industrial undertakings belonging to the stateThese are the Hejaz railway, £T152,000; the Dolma-Bagtche gas-works, £T59,130; technical school, £T8536; the Tigris and Euphrates steamships, £T62,513; and mines (Heraclea coal and other), £T120,710; forming a combined total of £T402,889.
In January 1902 the German group holding the Anatolian railway concession was granted a further concession for extending that railway from Konia, then its terminus, through the Taurus range and by way of the Euphrates, Nisibin, Mosul, the Tigris, Bagdad, Kerbela and Nejef to Basra, thus establishing railway communication between the Bosporus and the Persian Gulf.
It lies on both sides of the river Tigris, in an extensive desert plain which has scarcely a tree or village throughout its whole extent, in latitude 33° 20' N., longitude 44° 24' E.
At this point the Tigris and the Euphrates approach each other most nearly, the distance between them being little more than 25 m.
As it approaches Bagdad it spreads out in a great marsh, and finally, through the Masudi canal, which encircles western Bagdad, enters the Tigris below the town.
Ormsby, in 1852, also reported a river, the Asas Amir, as coming down from the Sinjar hills and joining the Tigris near Kal-'at Shergat, about 35° 30' N.; but this seems now to be a dry bed.
Of these canals the best known, and probably the greatest, was the Nahrawan, which, leaving the Tigris, on its eastern side, above Samarra, over loo m.
At the point of entering the alluvial plain the bed of the Tigris seems to be lower than that of the Euphrates, so that the canals run from the latter to the former stream.
On the west side, however, there are the remains of several canals or channels, some still carrying water, one of which, the Shattel-Hai, leaving the Tigris at Kut-el-Amara, and emptying into the Euphrates at Nasrieh, is still navigable.
Indeed, in the time of the caliphate this was the channel of the Tigris, and on its banks stood the important city of Wasit.
In the time of the Sassanian kings, however, as at the present time, the Tigris occupied a more easterly course.
Indeed, the lower course of the Tigris, even more than that of the Euphrates, has always been subject to change.
While the Tigris never played the same role historically as the Euphrates, numerous remains of antiquity are to be seen along its course.
Cuneiform inscriptions and bas-reliefs have been found at the sources of both the western and eastern Tigris, as well as at various points on the cliffs along the upper course of both branches.
Chesney, Expedition to the Euphrates and Tigris (1850); W.
Sachau, Am Euphrat and Tigris (1900.
Struck the Tigris some four marches above the site of Nineveh.
He crossed the Tigris, destroyed the towns and spoiled the tombs of Arbela; but when Artabanus advanced at the head of an army, he retired to Carrhae.
The world was henceforth viewed as a very large place stretching far on every side beyond the Midland or Mediterranean Sea, and the land journey of Alexander resulted in a voyage of discovery in the outer ocean from the mouth of the Indus to that of the Tigris, thus opening direct intercourse between Grecian and Hindu civilization.
I, &c.) and other writers would limit it to the mountainous district to the east of Babylonia, lying between the Oroatis and the Tigris, and stretching from India to the Persian Gulf.
Along with this mountainous district went a fertile low tract of country on the western side, which also included the marshes at the mouths of the Euphrates and Tigris and the north-eastern coast land of the Gulf.
There were numerous rivers flowing into either the Tigris or the Persian Gulf.
When he died, his dominions reached from the Tigris to the Indus.
After running south-east through the grandest scenery, and closely approaching the source of the western Tigris, it turns south-west and leaves the mountains a few miles above Samsat (Samosata; altitude, 1500 ft.).
To its junction with the Tigris below Korna, through an unbroken plain, with no natural hills, except a few sand (or sandstone ?) hills in the neighbourhood of Warka, and no trace of rock, except at el-Haswa, above Hillah.
The next important canal, the Dujayl (Dojail), left the Euphrates on the left, about a league above Ramadiya (Ar-Rabb), and flowed into the Tigris between Ukbara and Bagdad.
The `Isa, which is largely identical with the modern Sakhlawiya, left the Euphrates a little below Anbar (Perisabora) and joined the Tigris at Bagdad.
Sarsar, the modern Abu-Ghurayb, leaves the Euphrates three leagues lower down and enters the Tigris between Bagdad and Ctesiphon.
The Nahr Malk or royal river, modern Radhwaniya, leaves the Euphrates five leagues below this and joins the Tigris three leagues below Ctesiphon; while the Kutha, modern Habl-Ibrahim, leaving the Euphrates three leagues below the Malk joins the Tigris ten leagues below Ctesiphon.
Below the bifurcation the river of Babylon was again divided into several streams, and indeed the most famous of all the ancient canals was the Arakhat (Archous of the Greeks and Serrat and Nil of the Arabs), which left that river just above Babylon and ran due east to the Tigris, irrigating all the central part of the Jezireh, and sending down a branch through Nippur and Erech to rejoin the Euphrates a little above the modern Nasrieh.
Down to this point, the bed of the Euphrates being higher than that of the Tigris, the canals run from the former to the latter, but below this the situation is reversed.
At Nasrieh the Shattel-Hal, at one time the bed of the Tigris, and still navigable during the greater part of the year, joins the Euphrates.
From Garmat Ali, where the Tigris and Euphrates at present unite,' under the title of Shattel-Arab, the river sweeps on to Basra, Ex p o yds.
Following on this first experiment, the East India Company, in 1841, proposed to maintain a permanent flotilla on the Tigris and Euphrates, and set two vessels, the " Nitocris " and the " Nimrod," under the command of Captain Campbell of the Indian navy, to attempt the ascent of the latter river.
Tigris (1900); Guy Le Strange, " Description of Mesopotamia," in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1895), and Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate (1901); J.
It begins among those peoples which occupied the area lying between the Nile on the one side and the Tigris and the Euphrates on the other.
While the history of the great area between the Nile and the Tigris irresistibly emphasizes the insignificance of Palestine, this land's achievements for humanity grow the more remarkable as research tells more of its environment.
The population of the southern part of Mesopotamia - the strip of land enclosed between the Tigris and the Euphrates - was, according to Graetz, mainly Jewish; while the district extending for about 70 m.
Gulf, the Tigris, and thence westward to the north-east angle of the Levant; on the north the high land follows nearly 36° N.
The southern and south-western face follows the coast closely up the Persian Gulf from the mouth of the Indus, and is formed farther west by the mountain scarp, which, rising in many points to 10,000 ft., flanks the Tigris and the Mesopotamian plains, and extends along Kurdistan and Armenia nearly to the 40th meridian; beyond which it turns along the Taurus range, and the north - eastern angle of the Mediterranean.
The Cyprinidae, or carp, are largely represented in southern Asia, and there grow to a size unknown in Europe; a Barbus in the Tigris has been taken of the weight of 300 Th.
West of the Indus the dialects approach more to Persian, which language meets Arabic and Turki west of the Tigris, and along the Turkoman desert and the Caspian.
The Persian troops dared not attack the Greeks, but decoyed them into the interior, beyond the Tigris, and tried to annihilate them by treachery.
The agriculture of the region bordering the Tigris and Euphrates, like that of Egypt, depended largely on irrigation, and traces of ancient canals are still to be seen in Babylonia.
His previous capital had been the city of Seleucia which he had founded upon, the Tigris (almost coinciding in site with Bagdad), and this continued to be the capital for the eastern satrapies.
Berenice's brother, Ptolemy III., who had just succeeded to the Egyptian throne, at once invaded the Seleucid realm and marched victoriously to the Tigris or beyond, receiving the submission of the eastern provinces, whilst his fleets swept the coasts of Asia Minor.
Tigris 0[900); C. Humann and O.
The original city of Bagdad was built on the western bank of the Tigris, but this is now, and has been for centuries, little more than a suburb of the larger and more important city on the eastern shore, the former containing an area of only 146 acres within the walls, while the latter extends over 591 acres.