Of these may be named the Tibetans, the Burmese and the Siamese.
(ii.) The Burmese are linguistically allied to the Tibetans, and probably entered Burma from the north-west.
Of the Kachins or Chingpaw were the Indo-Chinese race who, before the beginnings of history, but after the Mon-Annam wave had covered Indo-China, forsook their home in western China to pour over the region where Tibet, Assam, Burma and China converge, and that the Chingpaw are the residue left round the headquarters of the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin after those branches, destined to become the Tibetans, the Nagas, the Burmans and the Kuki Chins, had gone westwards and southwards.
The Burmese in person have the Mongoloid characteristics common to the Indo-Chinese races, the Tibetans and tribes of the Eastern Himalaya.
The Mongols, Tibetans, Chinese and other neighbouring nations have a cycle or series of twelve animals, viz.
Interest depends on its resemblance to the calendar-system of central and eastern Asia, where among Mongols, Tibetans, Chinese, &c., series of signs are thus combined to reckon years, months and days;: for instance, the Mongol cycle of 60 years is recorded by the zodiac or series of 12 signs - mouse, bull, tiger, &c., combined.
The Tibetans call their country Bod, which (For the northern part, see China) Scale, 1:9.500.000 0 Railways Longitude East 85 of Greenwich word in colloquial pronunciation is aspirated into Bhod or Bhot, and in the modern Lhasa dialect is curtailed into Bho.
Among the Mongols, Tibetans are called Tangutu and the country Barontala or the " right side," in contradistinction to Dzontala or " left side," which was their own name for Mongolia itself.
The southern portion, from Lake Pangong to Tengri Nor, is inhabited by pastoral tribes of Tibetans, and possesses a few hamlets, such as Ombo, Rudok and Senja jong.
The Tibetan race, which probably belongs to the Turko-Mongol stock, is divided between the nomadic tentdwelling Tibetans of the lake region and transition zone between it and the river region, and the settled sedentary population of the valleys.
The tent-dwelling Tibetans, called Dokpa or Drupa (spelt hbrog-pa), or " Steppe-dwellers," are generally of a more Mongolized type than the people of the lowlands.
The colour of the skin of the Tibetans is a light brown, sometimes so light as to show ruddy cheeks in children; where exposed to the weather it becomes a dark brown.
Among the customs of the Tibetans, perhaps the most peculiar is polyandry, the brothers in a family having one wife in common.
The mediae have become aspirate tenues with a low intonation, which also marks the words having a simple initial consonant; while the former aspirates and the complex initials simplified in speech are uttered with a high tone, or, as the Tibetans say, " with a woman's voice," shrill and rapidly.
It includes three divisions - the Djiung ling, which describes the invasion of part of Tibet by the Djiung or Moso; the Hor ling, which recounts the conquest of the Hor (Turk tribes) by the Tibetans, and conveys much historical information in a tale of magic and marvel; and the Djia ling (Chinese division), which narrates a contest of unknown date between the Tibetans and the Chinese.
- Tibetans divide their country into five provinces: (i) Amdo, which comprises that part of the Chinese province of Kansuh which is inhabited by Tibetans, and Koko Nor region, extending southwards to the Yellow river and westwards as far as the Tsaidam.
Amdo is inhabited in its eastern part by Tibetans, called Rongwa or " ravine-folk," who are agriculturists, and in the western by pastoral tribes, collectively called Panaka or the Three Panakas.
Most of these districts are governed by deba or chiefs, while a few have kings or gyalpo, the most powerful of the latter being the king of Derge, famous for its inlaid metal and leather work, and of Chagla, or, as it is better known, Tachienlu, as it is called by the Chinese or the Dartsemdo of the Tibetans, the headquarters of the tea trade with China.
For convenience of classification we may include in Khamdo a long strip of country extending along the northern border of the Lhasa territory of Lhorong jong and Larego as far as Tengri Nor, and bounded to the north by the Dang-la mountains, which is designated by Tibetans as Gyade or " the Chinese province."
(5) The fifth division, called Ndri (Mngah-ris) by the Tibetans or Hundesh by the Indians, who call the inhabitants Huniyas, comprises the whole country around the sources and along the upper course of the Indus and the Sutlej, and also all north-western Tibet generally, as far as Ladak and the border of Kashmir.
The quality of these coins (weighing about 81 grains troy) was low, and at last deteriorated so much that the Tibetans deserted the Nepal mints.
The Gurkhas, however, in 1788 and following years continued to strike coins of progressively debased quality, which were rude imitations of the old Nepalese mintage, and to endeavour to force this currency on the Tibetans, eventually making the departure of the latter from old usage a pretext for war and invasion.
Added to this was the religious exclusiveness of the Tibetans themselves.
In 1891 Mr Rockhill, starting again from Kumbum with three Chinese, passed south of Koko Nor through the country of the pastoral Panaka Tibetans, and by a very difficult pass (Vahon jamkar la) entered again the basin of the Tsaidam.
Here they were finally stopped by the Tibetans, and after a delay of six weeks passed in vain attempts to obtain permission to go to Lhasa, they were only allowed to proceed to Nagchuka on the Sining-Lhasa road, and to continue by the Gyade route to Yekundo, near the upper Dre chu, and thence to Sining in Kansuh.
After a journey of half a year Hedin reached Shigatse; on leaving it he turned north again, intending to explore the large sacred lake Dangra-yumso, west of Ngantse t'so, but when within sight of it he was prevented by Tibetans from approaching it.
Whilst giving an Aryan descent to their first kings, the ancient Tibetans assigned to their princesses a divine origin, and called them lhamo, " goddess."
During his reign the Tibetans obtained their first knowledge of arithmetic and medicine from China; the prosperity and pastoral wealth of the country were so great that " the king built his palace with cement moistened with the milk of the cow and the yak."
The Tibetans assumed this to show England's weakness; they invaded Sikkim, and in 1888 it was necessary to send a force under General Graham to expel them.
A further encroachment on British territory in Sikkim was made by Tibetans, and various other slights were offered.
P g on the 31st of March 1904, the first hostile encounter took place at Guru, when the Tibetans (the aggressors) were defeated.
The principal provisions were - the Sikkim frontier violated by the Tibetans was to be respected; marts were to be established for British trade at Gyantse, Gartok and Yatung; Tibet was to pay an indemnity of L.
He retained in office the high officials then appointed, and pardoned all Tibetans who had assisted the mission.
C. Rijnhart, With the Tibetans in Tent and Temple (London, 1901); Delmar Morgan, Geog.
It was to them that the Tibetans owed the great collection of what are still regarded as their sacred books - the Kandjur.
But, on the outbreak of internal disturbances in China, the Tibetans took possession of the western provinces of China, and intercepted the communications of the Chinese with Kashgaria, so that they had to send their troops through the lands of the Hui-khe (Hoei-ke, or Hoei-hu).
In 790 the Tibetans were masters of East Turkestan; but their rule was never strong, and towards the 9th century we find the country under the Hoi-he.