How to use Tibetan in a sentence
This route is called Gya-lam, "the China road" (or "high road"); the great bulk of Tibetan travel goes over it.
The coins were at first not struck specially for Tibetan use, but were so afterwards.
Notched sticks (shing-chram) and knotted cords were in current use, but the latter contrivance is only faintly alluded to in the Tibetan records, while of the other there are numerous examples.
The close resemblance of the Tibetan characters " with heads " to the Gupta inscriptions of Allahabad shows them to have been derived from the monumental writing of the period; and various arguments appear to show that the other Tibetan letters came from the same Indian character in the style in which it was used in common life.
The Tibetan half-cursive was further developed into the more current " headless " (u-med) characters, of which there are several styles.Advertisement
Aurel Stein in Khotan seem to include very early, if not the earliest known, Tibetan documents.
This state of things, occurring just as the last rulers of the Ming dynasty of China were struggling against the encroachments of the Manchus, their future successors, favoured the interference of a Khoshot Mongol prince, Tengir To, called in the Tibetan sources king of Koko Nor.
No responsible Tibetan representatives appeared, and such negotiations as were carried on were abortive.
In January 1908 the final instalment of the Tibetan indemnity was paid to Great Britain, and the Chumbi valley was evacuated.
They inhabit the desolate plateau of Tibet, at elevations of between 13,000 and 18,000 ft., and, like all Tibetan animals, have a firm thick coat, formed in this instance of close woolly hair of a grey fawn-colour.Advertisement
Chinese and Tibetan authorities differ as to the name of this monarch; but it apparently is meant to represent an Indian name Satavahana, which is a dynastic title, not a personal name.
A translation into English of a Tibetan version of this piece has been published by Dr Wenzel.
The bricks are wrapped in paper bearing hong marks, or some writing in Tibetan.
In the 11th century the Pala empire, which, according to the Tibetan historian Taranath, extended in the 9th century from the Bay of Bengal to Delhi and Jalandhar (Jullundur) in the north and the Vindhyan range in the south, was partly dismembered by the rise of the "Sena" dynasty in Bengal; and at the close of the 12th century both Palas and Senas were swept away by the Mahommedan conquerors, the city of Behar itself being captured by the Turki free-lance Mahommed-i-Bakhtyar Khilji in 1193, by surprise, with a party of 200 horsemen.
In Asia the group is represented by the Tibetan Felis tristis.Advertisement
The upper levels of the Himalayas slope northwards gradually to the Tibetan uplands, over which the Siberian temperate vegetation ranges.
Three distinct varieties, the white, the red and the black wolf, are found in the Tibetan Himalayas.
The Himalayan or Tibetan sun bear (Ursus torquatus) is found along the north, from the Punjab to Assam.
The greater part of the remainder are found in Bengal on the borders of Burma, on the borders of Nepal, Tibet and Bhutan, and in the Spiti, Lahul and Kanawar districts of the Punjab Himalayas, where many of the inhabitants are of Tibetan origin.
These commentaries supplied in part materials for the Tibetan or northern canon, drawn up at a subsequent period.Advertisement
In this way Kanishka and his Kashmir council became in some degree to the northern or Tibetan Buddhists what Asoka and his council had been to the Buddhists of Ceylon and the south.'
The Abors, together with the cognate tribes of Miris, Daphlas and Akas, are supposed to be descended from a Tibetan stock.
Rising in the Tibetan plateau, far to the north of the Himalayas, and skirting round their eastern passes not far from the Yang-tsze-kiang and the great river of Cambodia, it enters Assam by a series of waterfalls and rapids, amid vast boulders and accumulations of rocks.
The Tibetan mineral deposits have been known since very early times, and formerly the crude material was exported to Europe, under the name of tincal, for the preparation of pure borax and other boron salts.
The main Central Asian axis, the Kuen Lun forming the northern edge or ridge of the Tibetan plateau.Advertisement
The Trans-Himalayan chain of Murtagh (or Karakoram), which is lost in the Tibetan uplands, passing to the north of the sources of the Indus.
The general result of their investigations has been to prove that the o f India, Murtagh range, as it trends south-eastwards and finally forms a continuous mountain barrier together with the Karakoram, is the true water-divide west of the Tibetan plateau.
The Tibetan plateau, or Chang, breaks up about the meridian of 92 E., and to the east of this meridian the affluents of the Tsanpo (the same river as the Dihong and subsequently as the Brahmaputra) drain no longer from the elevated Eastern ' 'Tibet.
Neither immediately beyond this great bend, nor within it in the Himalayan regions lying north of Assam and east of Bhutan, have scientific investigations yet been systematically carried out; but it is known that the largest of the Himalayan affluents of the Brahmaputra west of the bend derive their sources from the Tibetan plateau, and break down through the containing bands of hills, carrying deposits of gold from their sources to the plains, as do all the rivers of Tibet.
J Y Y explored from Lhasa to the sources of the Brahmaputra and Indus, at the conclusion of the Tibetan mission in 1904, conclusively prove that Mount Everest, which appears from the Tibetan plateau as a single dominating peak, has no rival amongst Himalayan altitudes, whilst the very remarkable investigations made by permission of the Nepal durbar from peaks near Kathmandu in 1903, by Captain Wood, R.E., not only place the Everest group apart from other peaks with which they have been confused by scientists, isolating them in the topographical system of Nepal, but clearly show that there is no one dominating and continuous range indicating a main Himalayan chain which includes both Everest and Kinchinjunga.Advertisement
The northern zone is the Tibetan, in which fossiliferous beds of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic age are largely developed - excepting in the north-west no such rocks are known on the southern flanks.
The result of this process is well exhibited in the relative steepness of slope on the Indian and Tibetan sides of the passes to the Indus plateau.
This shows how large a proportion of the vapour is arrested and how it is that only by drifting through the deeper gorges can any moisture find its way to the Tibetan table-land.
On the Tibetan plateau, with the increased dryness, a Siberian type is established, with many true Siberian species and more genera; and some of the Siberian forms are further disseminated, even to the plains of Upper India.
Cultivation hardly extends above 7000 ft., except in the valleys behind the great snowy peaks, where a few fields of buckwheat and Tibetan barley are sown up to 11,000 or 12,000 ft.Advertisement
The fauna of the Tibetan Himalaya is essentially European or rather that of the northern half of the old continent, which region has by zoologists been termed Palaearctic. Among the characteristic animals may be named the yak, from which is reared a cross breed with the ordinary horned cattle of India, many wild sheep, and two antelopes, as well as the musk-deer; several hares and some burrowing animals, including pikas (Lagomys) and two or three species of marmot; certain arctic forms of carnivora - fox, wolf, lynx, ounce, marten and ermine; also wild asses.
Moles, which are unknown in the Indian peninsula, abound in the forest regions of the eastern Himalayas at a moderate altitude, and shrews of several species are found almost everywhere; amongst them are two very remarkable forms of water shrew, one of which, however, Nectogale, is probably Tibetan rather than Himalayan.
Many of the Himalayan forms are Indian fish which appear to go up to the higher streams to deposit their ova, and the Tibetan species as a rule are confined to the rivers on the table-land or to the streams at the greatest elevations, the characteristics of which are Tibetan rather than Himalayan.
Thumi Sambhota accordingly invented an alphabet for the Tibetan language on the model of the Indian alphabets then in use.
He is also very probably the author of another very ancient standard work of Tibetan Buddhism, the Samatog, a short digest of Buddhist morality, on which the civil laws of Tibet have been founded.Advertisement
It is said in the Mani Kambum to have fallen from heaven in a casket (Tibetan, samatog), and, like the last-mentioned work, is only known to us in meagre abstract.
But the great bulk of the collection consists of Mahayana books, belonging to all the previously existing varieties of that widely extended Buddhist sect; and, as the Sanskrit originals of many of these writings are now lost, the Tibetan translations will be of great value, not only for the history of Lamaism, but also for the history of the later forms of Indian Buddhism.
Meanwhile Jenghiz Khan had founded the Mongol empire, and his grandson Kublai Khan became a convert to the Buddhism of the Tibetan Lamas.
One of the first acts of the " head of the church " was the printing of a carefully revised edition of the Tibetan Scriptures - an undertaking which occupied altogether nearly thirty years and was not completed till 1306.
In doctrine the great Tibetan teacher, who had no access to the Pali Pitakas, adhered in the main to the purer forms of the Mahayana school; in questions of church government he took little part, and did not dispute the titular supremacy of the Sakya Lamas.Advertisement
Under these high officials of the Tibetan hierarchy there come the Chubil Khans, who fill the post of abbot to the lesser monasteries, and are also incarnations.
Besides these mystical persons there are in the Tibetan church other ranks and degrees, corresponding to the deacon, full priest, dean and doctor of divinity in the West.
Within the limits of these partially explored highlands, lying between the Pamirs and the Tibetan table-land, exact geographical definition is impossible.
But we may follow Godwin-Austen in accepting the main chain of the Murtagh as merging into the central mountain system of the Tibetan Chang, its axis being defined and divided by the transverse stream of the Shyok at its westward bend, whilst the Karakoram range, in which the Shyok rises, is a subsidiary northern branch.
On his third expedition in1879-1880he penetrated, by Hami, the Tsai-dam and the great valley of the Tibetan river Kara-su, to Napchu, 170 m.Advertisement
As it lacks the thick woolly coat of the two Tibetan antelopes known as the chiru and the goa, there can be little doubt that it inhabits a country with a less severe climate than that of the Central Tibetan plateau, and it is probably a native of the more or less wooded districts of comparatively low elevation forming the outskirts of Tibet.
In the 7th century the Tibetan king, Srong-btsan, with the help of the western Turks, subjugated the western part of the Tarim basin.
Very close to this group, if indeed really separable, is the Tibetan yak, forming by itself the sub-genus Poephagus.
The Tibetan muntjac (C. lachrymans), from Moupin in eastern Tibet and Hangchow in China, is somewhat smaller than the Indian animal, with a bright reddish-brown coat.
It may come from a sheep, goat, or Tibetan antelope.
From the Roof of the World includes a Tibetan noble's jacket made from a silk brocade woven Chinese carpet.
He had immense collections of Tibetan and Chinese curios and knew the price of them as well as any professional dealer.
This attractive package consists of an illustrated hardcover and a long, colorful Tibetan prayer flag, packaged together in a lovely gift box.
We head back from the Tibetan border south until we reach the Jiri road, heading east.
This seems to illustrate the general American infatuation with all things Tibetan.
Ordinarily the term denotes a reincarnate lama, but in the terminology of Tibetan religious art it came to designate any outstandingly inspired artist.
My ambition is to become a Tibetan scholar and teach other monks, and to become a big lama.
One of these latter was a Tibetan lama with whom Alan had been friendly for several years.
So here then we should understand what is meant by ' venerable lamas ' by looking at the Tibetan word.
In reality it's the home of the re-incarnated Tibetan Buddhist lamas who guard some of the eternal truths.
A chance to learn about the symbolism behind the hand mudra, Tibetan chanting of the mandala offering and using a mandala set.
His well-taken cue that we must first understand the Tibetan mandala on its own terms is the starting point for any analysis.
Reiki - is a healing therapy, known to have been used by the Tibetan monks.
In June of 2005, I went there to see the birds of the Tibetan plateau... George Wagner reports.
It's an apt, if ironic, tag given that the hotel lies in an autonomous Tibetan prefecture.
The only resource the Tibetan government has is its image of moral probity which is indivisible from the perception of the Dalai Lama.
Over 8000 people gathered in the heart of Amsterdam to take part a Tibetan freedom concert condemning repression in Tibet and the death penalty.
There is a general agreement among Tibetan scholastics regarding the pedagogical value of debate in internalizing their tradition.
In chapters 10-12 Dreyfus presents an inquiry into the nature of debate and its function in Tibetan scholasticism.
Leaving Langtang, you ascend gradually to a chorten (a small Tibetan Buddhist stupa) behind which is a very long mani wall.
Common ailments susceptibility To Illness Low History Ancestors of the Tibetan Mastiff have been known to exist in Tibet for many centuries.
Several of those drawing on Tibetan written sources include a transliteration or photocopy of the Tibetan text(s ).
Conflict with the native Tibetan religion of Bon caused it to go largely underground until its revival in the 11th century.
From the delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra on the east to that of the Indus on the west, and intervening between the tableland of the peninsula and the foot of the Himalayan slope of the Tibetan plateau, lies the great plain of northern India, which rises at its highest point to about moo ft., and includes altogether, with its prolongation up the valley of Assam, an area of about 500,000 sq.
Ellsworth Huntington threw new light on the Tian-shan plateau and the Alai range by his explorations of 1903; and Sven Hedin, between 1899 and 1902, was collecting material in Turkestan and Tibetan fields, and resumed his journeys in 1905-1908, the result being to revolutionize our knowledge of the region north of the upper Tsanpo (see Tibet).
Some light has been thrown on the connexion between the Tibetan race and certain tribes of central India, the Bhils and Kols; and it seems more probable that these tribes are the remnants of a Mongolian race which first displaced a yet earlier Negroid population, and was then itself shouldered out by a Caucasian irruption, than that they entered India by any of the northern passages within historic times.
The best example, however, of a full-blown priestly system with a monastic hierarchy grafted in this way on a religion originally not priestly is found in Tibetan Buddhism (see LAMAisM), and similar causes undoubtedly had their share in the development of sacerdotalism in the Christian Church.
It is not a uniform speech, but comprises several dialects which have been classed by Jaeschke into three groups, namely (i) the central or the dialects of Lhasa and the central provinces of U and Tsang (including Spiti) which is the lingua franca of the whole country, (2) the western dialects of Ladak, Lahul, Baltistan and Purig, and (3) the eastern dialects of the province of Khams. In addition to these, however, are many sub-dialects of Tibetan spoken in the frontier Himalayan districts and states outside Tibet, namely, in Kunawar and Bashahr, Garhwal, Kumaon, Nepal including especially the Serpa and Murmi of eastern Nepal, Sikkim (where the dialect is called Danjong-ka), Bhutan (Lho-ka or Duk-ka.), all of which are affiliated to a central group of dialects.
This collection also contains other works of the same kind, dictionaries by later writers, translations of many Sanskrit works on grammar, vocabulary, &c., and bilingual dictionaries, Sanskrit and Tibetan.
The verb, which is properly a kind of noun or participle, has no element of person, and denotes the conditions of tense and mood by an external and internal inflexion, or the addition of auxiliary verbs and suffixes when the stem is not susceptible of inflexion, so that instead of saying " I go," a Tibetan says " my going."
The chief differences between the classical language of the Tibetan translators of the 9th century and the vernacular, as well as the language of native words, existed in vocabulary, phraseology and grammatical structure, and arose from the influence of the translated texts.
This route is called Gya-lam, " the China road " (or " high road "); the great bulk of Tibetan travel goes over it.
These bales are carried on the backs of coolies for great distances across very high passes into Tibet, and the trade is estimated at an average of 19,000,000 lb per annum, of which 8,000,000 is a subsidy from the emperor of China to the Tibetan monasteries.
His voluminous works, of which the most famous are the Sumbun and the Lam Nim Tshenpo, exist in printed Tibetan copies in Europe, but have not yet been translated or analysed.
Two years later she became the proud recipient of her own hearing dog, a Tibetan spaniel called William.
Cyberspace is a place for mutual trust Note about Tarthang Tulku, Tibetan lama Do straitened minds compensate with mystical hopes?
Our highest point is a tiny Tibetan hamlet balanced on a narrow spur at 3200m.
Several of those drawing on Tibetan written sources include a transliteration or photocopy of the Tibetan text(s).
However, in 1959 following a Tibetan uprising against the Chinese occupation, the practice of Buddhism was banned.
Tibetan herbal medicine is an ancient practice that can trace its roots as far back as 300 BC.
According to the Institure for Traditional Medicine, principles of Tibetan medicine have their origins in traditional folk medicine known as Bon.
Traditional Chinese medicine has influenced the development of Tibetan herbalism, as have the medical practices common to India.
Known as Ayurveda, Indian medicine exerted its most profound influence on the development of Tibetan herbalism with the visit of two Indian doctors who introduced Buddhism to the region along with the concept of tridosha, or three faults.
Buddhist teachings refer to tridosha as the three poisons, and it is on these three attributes that many Tibetan diagnoses and remedies are based.
Tibetan medicine teaches that the body is ruled by three humors known as rLung, mKrhispa and Badkan, roughly translated in English as wind, bile and phlegm, respectively.
Tibetan herbalists diagnose illnessees based on their association with these characteristics, and prescribe remedies according to a book that encompasses the known properties of herbal remedies in Tibetan medicine.
This book, known as Jingzhu Bencao, or The Pearl Herbs in English, was published in 1835 and represents a comprehensive survey of Tibetan herbal remedies.
Most of the remedies outlined in Tibetan herbal medicine are indigenous to Tibet or neighboring China and India.
Western people hoping to make use of these remedies are most likely to be successful if doing so under the consultation of a qualified Tibetan physician or a Western herbalist who is very familiar with Tibetan medicine.
Tibetan herbalism is an ancient and complex system based on science, folk medicine and spirituality.
They might think of Tibetan monks or levitating gurus who've been practicing the techniques for years.
Newberg performed experiments with Tibetan Monks who meditate and Catholic Nuns who pray.
These include such materials as untreated flat white and brown diamonds, millennium-aged Tibetan coral beads, rutilated quartz, and hand-picked Brazilian stones.
It features over 20 chefs each year, and all proceeds go to benefit Tibetan aid.
One of the most amazing stories is that of the Tibetan monks and the reincarnation of Lama Yeshe in the 1980s.
Lama Zopa followed Tibetan tradition of using Oracles, dreams and clairvoyants for insight.
The following facts proved to the Tibetan monks that the reincarnation was real.
According to Tibetan tradition, reincarnated Lamas must undergo a series of tests to confirm that the reincarnation is legitimate.
Tibetan monks are probably the most famous eastern practitioners of these ancient practices.
Other languages whose lettering is popular currently include Tibetan, Arabic and Chinese lettering.
From here, you'll board an overnight train to Lanzhou, which will include a side trip to Xiahe to see the Labrang Tibetan Monastery.
Perricone, a master of the Tibetan singing bowls, has released three CDs of his music, including his latest, Savasana Bowls Live.
Considered to be one of the last true Vedic sadhus, or ascetic monks of India, Brahmachari lived in a Tibetan cave in the 19th century.
The drinks contain 100% juice and provide herbal energy via the Tibetan Goji Berry.
In fact, many of the characteristics of the Lord of the Rings Elven Alphabet mirror those of languages like Latin or Tibetan languages.
The cannon-bones are remarkably short and wide, and in this respect differ from those of all allied ruminants, except the Tibetan takin.
Two English missions sent by Warren Hastings to Tibet, one led by George Bogle in 1774, and the other by Captain Turner in 1783, complete Tibetan exploration in the 18th century.
Starting from the Amur river and reaching along the eastern margin of the Gobi desert towards the sources of the Hwangho, it merges into the Altyn-tagh and the Kuen-lun, forming the northern face of the vast Tibetan highlands which are bounded on the south by the Himalaya.
British India comprises approximately the area between the 95th and 10th meridians, and between the Tibetan table-land and the Indian Ocean.
The great rivers of northern India - the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Indus - all derive their waters from the Tibetan mountain mass; and it is a remarkable circumstance that the northern water-parting of India should lie to the north of the Himalaya in the regions of central Tibet.
From it the Oxus, or Amu, flows off to the west, and the Jaxartes, or Syr, to the north, through the Turki state of Khokand, while to the east the waters run down past Kashgar to the central desert of the Gobi, uniting with the streams from the northern slope of the Tibetan plateau that traverse the principalities of Yarkand and Khotan, which are also Turki.
Here the Tibetan mountains unite with the line of elevation which stretches across the continent from the Pacific, and which separates Siberia from the region commonly spoken of under the name of central Asia.
The central area bounded on the north and north-west by the Yablonoi Mountains and their western extension in the Tian-shan, on the south by the northern face of the Tibetan plateau, and on the east by the Khingan range before alluded to, forms the great desert of central Asia, known as the Gobi.
Bonvalot, accompanied by Prince Henri d'Orleans, crossed the Tibetan plateau from north to south, but failed to enter Lhasa.
Rockhill, commenced his Tibetan journeys, and also attempted to reach Lhasa, without success.
He, too, failed to penetrate the jealouslyguarded portals of Lhasa; but he secured (with the assistance of a native surveyor) a splendid addition to our previous Tibetan mapping.
Southern China is very different in structure, consisting largely of folded mountain chains, but the geological succession is very similar, and excepting near the Tibetan and Burmese borders, there are no marine deposits of Mesozoic or Tertiary age.
On reaching the Tibetan plateau, with the increased dryness the flora assumes many features of the Siberian type.
The Tibetan mastiff is equally powerful, but has still larger pendent ears, a shaggy coat and a long brush-like tail.
In June the waters of the Mekong, swollen by the rains and the melting of the Tibetan snows, rise to a height of 40 to 45 ft.
From Manchuria and China it is separated by the border ridge of the plateau - the Great Khingan, while in the south-west it runs up to the foot of the high northern border ridges of the Tibetan plateau - an artificial frontier separating it from east Turkestan and Dzungaria.
The second river in the province in point of size is the Salween, a huge river, believed from the volume of its waters to rise in the Tibetan mountains to the north of Lhasa.
Some excellent survey work was done in Bhutan by a native surveyor during the progress of the Tibetan Expedition in 1904.
The tracts inhabited by the aboriginal tribes entitled Lo Nakpo, Lo Karpo and Lo Tawa ("Lo" signifies "barbarous" in Tibetan), are described as a pleasant country; the lands on either side of the Tsanpo being well cultivated and planted with mangoes, plantains and oranges.
Ustun-tagh, which appears on Stieler's map as an alternative name for Altyn-tagh, means Higher or Farther Mountains, and though not used locally of any specific range, would be appropriately employed to designate the higher and more southerly of the twin border-ranges of the Tibetan plateau.
But there exists a striking difference between the crests of the Astin-tagh and those of the ranges which give rise to the gigantic ridge and furrow arrangement on the Tibetan plateau.
On the Tibetan plateau, on the other hand, most of the ranges are distinguished by their rounded outlines and soft consistency, and their striking poverty in hard rock, which in the best cases only crops out near the summits.
On the other hand, the precipitation on the Tibetan plateau is so copious, and so uniformly distributed, that it is able to retain the loosened material in situ, and causes it to heap itself up in rounded masses on the flanks of the mountains that are its primitive source of origin, these projecting in great part like skeletons from the midst of their own ruins."
At the same time the Arkatagh is the actual border-range of the Tibetan plateau properly socalled; to the south.
Hence these ten parallel ranges of the middle Kuen-lun system may be grouped in three divisions - (1) the more strictly border ranges of the Upper and Lower Astin-tagh and the Akatotagh; (2) the three ranges of Chimen-tagh, Ara-tagh and Kaltaalaghan, which may be considered as forming a transitional system between the foregoing and the third division; (3) the Arka-tagh, which constitute the elevated rampart of the Tibetan plateau proper.
In 1875 she conceived the plan of combining the spiritualistic " control " with the Buddhistic legends about Tibetan sages.
Henceforth she determined to exclude all control save that of two Tibetan adepts or " mahatmas."
September of that year found the missionary at Dolon Nor occupied with the final arrangements for his journey, and shortly afterwards, accompanied by his fellow-Lazarist, Joseph Gabet, and a young Tibetan priest who had embraced Christianity, he set out.
Rather than encounter alone the horrors of a four months' journey to Lhasa they resolved to wait for eight months till the arrival of a Tibetan embassy on its return from Peking.
Under an intelligent teacher they meanwhile studied the Tibetan language and Buddhist.
Other Tibetan epithets for the country sometimes used by flowery native writers are " The Icy Land " (Gangs-c'an) and the " Country of the Red Faces " (Gdong-mar-gyi yul).
The Chinese name for central Tibet is Wei-Ts'ang, which is a transcription of the Tibetan designation of the two, provinces V and Tsang (spelt dbus-gtsang) that constitute central Tibet.
The general structure of the trans-Himalayan chains appears to indicate that the main axis of upheaval of the whole vast mass of the Tibetan highlands is to be found on two approximately parallel lines, represented the one by the Kuen-lun and the other by a line which is more or less coincident with the watershed between India and the central lake region, extending from Lake Pangong to Tengri Nor, the plateau enclosed between the two being wrinkled by minor folds, of which the relative elevation is comparatively low, averaging from woo to 1500 ft.
The Tibetan diggers collected together at the mines chiefly during the winter, when the frost assisted to bind the loose alluvial soil and render excavation easy.
They are worked in crude desultory fashion and are sometimes abandoned owing to the exorbitant imposts levied on gold production by Chinese and Tibetan officials.
But little gold at present finds its way across the Tibetan passes to India; and the export to China has diminished of late years.
Modern travellers bear witness to a gradual progress of desiccation in the Tibetan uplands.
Western and southern Tibetan flora were partially explored previously to the advent of these travellers.
The peculiar form of tussocky grass which prevails in the Pamirs is the characteristic feature of the Tibetan Chang-t'ang of the Tsaidam plains and of the bogs north-east of Lhasa.
Here are to be found yak, wild asses (kyang), several varieties of deer, musk deer and Tibetan antelope (Pantholops); also wild sheep (the bharal of the Himalaya), Ovis hodgsoni and possibly Ovis poli, together with wild goats, bears (in large numbers in the north-eastern districts), leopards, otter, wolves, wild cats, foxes, marmots, squirrels, monkeys and wild dogs.
The Tibetan sand-grouse is peculiar to the country, and the snow-partridge (Lerva nivicola) and the snow-cock (Tetraogallus tibetanus) are occasionally met with in the uplands, while the ordinary partridge (Perdix hodgsoni) is common in the ravines on the plateau.
The Tibetan race, which probably belongs to the Turko-Mongol stock, is divided between the nomadic tentdwelling Tibetans of the lake region and transition zone between it and the river region, and the settled sedentary population of the valleys.
The number of speakers of Tibetan dialects is probably not far short of eight millions.
Linguistically, Tibetan is allied to the Burmese languages, and forms with the latter a family of the so-called Turano-Scythian stock called " Tibeto-Burman " (q.v.), the unity of which family was first recognized by Brian Hodgson in 1828, and indeed several of the dialects of Tibetan are still only known through the copious vocabularies collected by him.
The little that was known of the Tibetan language before Hodgson's time was mainly derived from the writings of the Romish friars who resided for several years in Lhasa in the first half of the 18th century.'
The first serious European student of Tibetan was Csoma de Koros (1784-1842), an indefatigable Hungarian, who devoted his life to the study of this language and the ancient Buddhist records enshrined in its unknown literature.
His Tibetan-English Dictionary, and pioneer Tibetan Grammar, both published in 1834, opened to Europeans the way to acquire a knowledge of the Tibetan language as found in the ancient classics.
The Tibetan characters were drawn by Della Penna and engraved by Ant.
In 1820 Abel Remusat published his Recherches sur les langues tartares, a chapter of which was devoted to Tibetan.
Schroeter and published without supervision by any Tibetan scholar; and Csoma was unaware of its existence when compiling his dictionary.
Foucaux published in 1847 a translation from the Rgya tcher rol-pa, the Tibetan version of the Lalita Vistara, and in 1858 a Grammaire thibe'taine; while Ant.
In 1861 Lepsius published his paper Ueber chinesische and tibetische Lautverhdltnisse; and after 1864 Leon Feer brought out in Paris many translations of texts from Tibetan Buddhist literature.
Hodgson, and grammatical notices of Tibetan (according to Csoma's grammar).
By means of agglutination, that is, by adding to the bases form-words as prefixes, suffixes or infixes, the Tibetan language has developed a considerable grammatical system and is now agglutinating rather than isolating.
In 1868 at Kyelang he published by lithography A Short Practical Grammar of the Tibetan Language, with special reference to the spoken dialects, and the following year a Romanized Tibetan and English Dictionary.
He also published in1871-1876at Gnadau in Prussia by the same process a Tibetan and German dictionary.
Wenzel, one of his pupils, edited in 1883 from his MS. a Simplified Tibetan Grammar.
Lewin with the help of a Sikkimese lama compiled A Manual of Tibetan, or rather a series of colloquial phrases in the Sikkimese dialect, in 1879.
In 1894 Mr Graham Sandberg compiled a useful Handbook of Colloquial Tibetan.
As regards native philology, the most ancient work extant is a grammar of the Tibetan tongue preserved in the Bstan-hgyur (mdo cxxiv.).
As separate publications there are several vocabularies of Chinese and Tibetan; Mongol and Tibetan; Chinese, Manchu, Mongol, Oelot, Tibetan and Turkish; Tibetan, Sanskrit, Manchu, Mongol and Chinese.
The Tibetan language, presenting such marked differences between its written and spoken forms, has a great interest for philologists, Philology.
Jaeschke first noted the existence of tones in Tibetan, and these have been found by Professor Conrady to have developed on the Tones .
Many of these old soft initial consonants which are now hardened in the modern dialects are preserved in classical Tibetan, i.e.
The concurrence of the evidence indicated above enables us to form the following outline of the evolution of Tibetan.
These transcriptions show by their variety that they were made from the spoken and not from the written forms, and, considering the limited capacities of Chinese orthoepy, were the nearest attempt at rendering the Tibetan sounds.
Brjod (to speak), pronounced jod, is cognate to the Burmese pyauhtso, the Garo brot, &c. The word for " cowries " is gron- in written, rum- in spoken Tibetan, and grwa in written Burmese; slop (to learn), spoken lop, is slop in Melam.
Another Tibetan epic in Khaur, the Gyaldrung, praises Dagyolong, a famous warrior who subdued the savage men of Kham.
According to tradition - a tradition of which the, details are still open to criticism - the alphabet was introduced from India by Tonmi, a lay Tibetan minister who was sent to India in 632 by King Srong-btsan to study the Sanskrit language and Buddhist literature.
The Landza of Nepal, however, is certainly not the origin of the Tibetan letter, but rather an ornamental development of the parent letter.
Yet Tsaidam is geographically but a northern extension of the great Tibetan plateau, and in most of its essential physical features it is more closely allied to the Chang-t'ang of the south than to the great sandy depressions of Chinese Turkestan or Mongolia on the north.
The native chiefs of the Panaka and other Tibetan tribes of this region are styled pdmbo (" official " or " headman ") by both the natives and the Chinese.
The army is under the command of the senior Chinese amban, a Tibetan generalissimo or mag-pon, and six Tibetan generals (dah-pon or de-pon).
All high Tibetan officials, whether ecclesiastics or laymen, are appointed subject to confirmation by the Chinese government.
Efforts have been made by the planters of the Duars to prepare Indian brick-tea for the Tibetan market, which is calculated to consume some 11,000,000 lb yearly.
These latter bore (obverse) a Nepalese emblem surrounded by eight fleurons containing the eight sacred Buddhist jewels, and (reverse) an eight-petalled flower surrounded by eight fleurons containing the names of the eight jewels in Tibetan characters.
This brought the intervention of the Chinese, who drove the Gurkhas out of Tibet (1792), and then began to strike silver coins for Lhasa use, bearing Chinese and Tibetan characters.
The Tibetan regent, with his enlightened and kindly spirit, is painted by Huc in most attractive colours, and Markham expressed the opinion that the native authorities were then willing to receive strangers, while the jealousy that excluded them was Chinese only.
Lama Ugyen Gyatso, a semi-Tibetan, who was originally a teacher of Tibetan in a Darjeeling school, was trained by the Indian Survey Department as a surveyor, and being deputed to take tribute from his monastery to Tashilhunpo, he secured permission in 1879 from the Tashilhunpo authorities for Sarat Chandra Das, Bengali schoolmaster at Darjeeling, to visit that monastery, where his name was entered as a student.
This was the opportunity for a series of valuable exploratory journeys through the Tibetan provinces adjoining the Indian and Nepalese frontiers, which added greatly to our stock of information about Lhasa and the districts surrounding that city.
Chandra Das also brought back from his journeys a large number of interesting books in Tibetan and Sanskrit, the most valuable of which have been edited and published by him, some with the assistance of Ugyen Gyatso and other lamas.
Here the party was stopped by Tibetan authorities and forced to take the tea route through Chinese Tibet (Gyade) by way of Batasumdo, Chebotenchin, Riwoche, Chiamdo to Chiangka, near the upper Yangtse-kiang, whence they proceeded to Tachienlu by Batang and Litang.
At this point Bower was stopped by some of the headmen of the Tibetan pastoral tribes (here under the rule of Lhasa), and obliged to make a long circuit to the north well out of Lhasa territory, and then eastward - till he struck the road to Chiamdo through Gyade or Chinese Tibet.
How far southward this dominion at first extended is not known; but in 703 Nepal and the country of the Brahmans rebelled, and the Tibetan king, the third successor of Srong tsan gam-po, was killed while attempting to restore his power.
It is rather curious that nothing is said of this Tibetan rule in India, except in the Chinese annals, where it is mentioned until the end of the monarchy in the 10th century, as extending over Bengal to the sea - the Bay of Bengal being called the Tibetan Sea.
He remained twelve years with the emperor, and at his request framed for the Mongol language an alphabet imitated from the Tibetan, which, however, did not prove satisfactory, and disappeared after eightyfive years without having been very largely used.
When the Mongol dynasty of China passed away, the Mings confirmed and enlarged the dominion of the Tibetan rulers, recognizing at the same time the chief lamas of the eight principal monasteries of the country.
The falls can only be approached from below, where a monastery has been erected, the resort of countless pilgrims. Their height is estimated at 70 ft., and by Tibetan report the hills around are enveloped in perpetual mist, and the Sangdong (the " lion's face "), over which the waters rush, is demon-haunted and full of mystic import.