Kang-hi next ordered a similar map to be made of Tibet, the survey being executed by two lamas who were carefully trained as surveyors by the Jesuits at Peking.
Professor Takakusu has shown the possibility of several complete books belonging to it being still extant in Chinese translations,' and we may yet hope to recover original fragments in central Asia, Tibet, or Nepal.
The mean elevation of Tibet may be taken as 15,000 ft.
The main stream of this last is called Dichu in Tibet, and its chief feeder is the Ya-lung-kiang, which rises not far from the Hwang-ho, and is considered the territorial boundary between China and Tibet.
The portion of Asia west of British India, excluding Arabia and Syria, forms another extensive plateau covering an area as large as that of Tibet, though at a much lower altitude.
He was the first to attempt to open a trade route with Tibet, and to organize a survey of Bengal and of the eastern seas.
Odoric set out on his travels about 1318, and his journeys embraced parts of India, the Malay Archipelago, China and even Tibet, where he was the first European to enter Lhasa, not yet a forbidden city.
Antonio Andrada, in 1624, was the first European to enter Tibet since the visit of Friar Odoric in 1325.
The next journey was that of Fathers Grueber and Dorville about 1660, who succeeded in passing from China, through Tibet, into India.
Two English missions sent by Warren Hastings to Tibet, one led by George Bogle in 1774, and the other by Captain Turner in 1783, complete Tibetan exploration in the 18th century.
The Amphizoidae, for example, a small family of aquatic beetles, are known only from western North America and Eastern Tibet, while an allied family, the Pelobiidae, inhabit the British Isles, the Mediterranean region, Tibet and Australia.
The high tableland of Tibet and Pamir to the lower plateaus of Mongolia, and thence N.E.
These differences have given rise to a supposed multiplicity of species, expressed by the names C. lycaon (Central Europe), C. laniger and C. niger (Tibet), the C. occidentalis, C. nubilus, C. mexicanus, &c., of North America, and the great blackish-brown Alaskan C. pambasileus, the largest of them all.
The summit of the great mountain mass is occupied by Tibet, a country known by its inhabitants under the name of Bod or Bodyul.
On the west the table-land is prolonged beyond the political limits of Tibet, though with much the same physical features, to about 70°east, beyond which it terminates; and the ranges which are covered with perpetual snow as far west as Samarkand, thence rapidly diminish in height, and terminate in low hills north of Bokhara.
The extreme rigour of the climate of Tibet, which combines great cold with great drought, makes the country essentially very poor, and the chief portion of it little better than desert.
The two great rivers of China, the Hwang-ho and the Yang-tsze-kiang take their rise from the eastern face of Tibet, the former from the north-east angle, the latter from the south-east.
The north - eastern portion of the Afghan tableland abuts on the Himalaya and Tibet, with which it forms a continuous mass of mountain between the 71st and 72nd meridians, and 34° and 36° N.
The reason that the source of the noise is such an enigma is that no one ever traced the sound when they heard it.
The great elevated tableland of Tibet or to the central depression which exists to the north of it.
He subsequently passed through eastern Tibet to the town of Darchendo, or Tachienlu, on the high road between Lhasa and Peking, and on the borders of China.
His fourth journey in 1883-1885 was to Sining (the great trade centre of the Chinese borderland), and thence through northern Tibet (crossing the Altyn Tagh to Lop Nor), and by the Cherchen-Keriya trade route to Khotan.
Following Prjevalsky the Russian explorers, Pevtsov and Roborovski, in 1889-1890 (and again in 1894), added greatly to our knowledge of the topography of western Chinese Turkestan and the northern borders of Tibet; all these Russian expeditions being conducted on scientific principles and yielding results of the highest value.
In 1891-1892-1893 the gallant French explorer, Dutreuil de Rhins, was in the field of Tibet, where he finally sacrificed his life to his work; and the same years saw George N.
Greatest among modern Asiatic explorers (if we except Prjevalsky) is the brave Swede, Professor Sven Hedin, whose travels through the deserts of Takla Makan and Tibet, and whose investigations in the glacial regions of the Sarikol mountains, occupied him from 1894 to 1896.
Since the beginning of the century the work of Deasy in western Tibet has been well extended by Dr M.
Captain William Gill, of the Indian survey, first made his way across China to eastern Tibet and Burma, and subsequently delighted the world with his story of the River of Golden Sand.
This very remarkable longitudinal chain is undoubtedly the northern limit of the Chang Tang, the elevated highland steppes of Tibet; but from it there branches a minor system to the north-east from a point in about 83° E.
Thus between Tibet and the low-lying sands of Gobi we have, thrust in, a system of elevated valleys (Tsaidam), 8000 to 9000 ft.
Farther east no part of Asia has been brought under more careful investigation than the hydrography of the strange mountain wilderness that divides Tibet and Burma from China.
We know now for certain that the great Tsanpo of Tibet and the Brahmaputra are one and the same river; that north of the point where the great countermarch of that river from east to west is effected are to be found the sources of the Salween, the Mekong, the Yang-tsze-kiang and the Hwang-ho, or Yellow river, in order, from west to east; and that south of it, thrust in between the extreme eastern edge of the Brahmaputra basin 94 23" 94°48' 94°49' 94° 58' and the Salween, rise the dual sources of the Irrawaddy.
Eastwards of this the great Kashgar depression, which includes the Tarim desert, separates Russia from the vast sterile highlands of Tibet; and a continuous series of desert spaces of low elevation, marking the limits of a primeval inland sea from the Sarikol meridional watershed to the Khingan mountains on the western borders of Manchuria, divide her from the northern provinces of China.
The Triassic deposits of the Verkhoyansk Range show that this land did not extend to the Bering Sea; while the marine Mesozoic deposits of Japan on the east, the western Tian-shan on the west and Tibet on the south give us some idea of its limits in other directions.
Marine Tertiary beds occur in Burma; in the Himalayas and in south Tibet there is a nearly complete series of marine deposits from the Carboniferous to the Eocene; in Afghanistan the Mesozoic beds are in part marine and in part fluviatile.
In the interior of the chain the rain is far less, and the quantity of precipitation is so small in Tibet that it can be hardly measured.
Assemblages of marine plants form another remarkable feature of Tibet, these being frequently met with growing at elevations of 14,000 to 15,000 ft.
Vegetation ascends on the drier and less snowy mountain slopes of Tibet to above 18,00o ft.
A hybrid between the yak and Indian cattle, called zo, is commonly reared in Tibet and the Himalaya.
In general terms they extend, with modifications of character probably due to admixture with other types and to varying conditions of life, over the whole of northern Asia as far south as the plains bordering the Caspian Sea, including Tibet and China, and also over the IndoMalayan peninsula and Archipelago, excepting Papua and some of the more eastern islands.
In the sphere of direct influence fall Korea, Japan and Annam; in the outer sphere are Mongolia, Tibet, Siam, Cambodia and Burma, where Indian and Chinese influence are combined, the.
Its sphere includes Indo-China, much of the Malay Archipelago, Tibet and Mongolia.
Indian alphabets have spread to Tibet, Cambodia, Java and Korea.
Such civilization as the Mongols possess is a mixture of Chinese and Indian, the latter derived chiefly through Tibet, but their alphabet is a curious instance of transplantation.
Thus with the exception of a little folklore the literature of Indo-China, Tibet, Mongolia, Korea and Manchuria is mainly Indian or Chinese.
R.G.S., 1897; Ney Elias and Ross, A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia, from the Tarskh-i-Rastisdi of Mirza Haidar (London, 1898); Grenard, Mission scientifique sur la Haute Asie (Paris, 1898); Dr Sven Hedin, Through Asia (London, 1898); Central Asia and Tibet (1903); Geographie des Hochlandes von Pamir (Berlin, 1894); Captain M.
Wellby, " Through Tibet," R.G.S.
R.G.S.; In Tibet and Chinese Turkestan (London, 1901); A.
In Tibet a lama (priest) is called in to cut off some hairs from the head of a dying person, in order that his soul may escape through the top of his head, which is deemed an essential condition of a good transmigration (Horace de la Penna, in Bogle and Manning's Travels in Tibet, ed.
But besides an immense resort to Benares of poor pilgrims from every part of India, as well as from Tibet and Burma, numbers of rich Hindus in the decline of life go there for religious salvation.
Of the Kachins or Chingpaw were the Indo-Chinese race who, before the beginnings of history, but after the Mon-Annam wave had covered Indo-China, forsook their home in western China to pour over the region where Tibet, Assam, Burma and China converge, and that the Chingpaw are the residue left round the headquarters of the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin after those branches, destined to become the Tibetans, the Nagas, the Burmans and the Kuki Chins, had gone westwards and southwards.
From a geographical point of view nothing is more likely, for the takin forms a type confined to Eastern Asia (Tibet and Szechuen), and it would be reasonable to expect that, like so many other peculiar forms from the same region, they should have representatives on the American side of the Pacific. (R.
It is an important feature as affording foothold for the Janglam (the great high road of southern Tibet connecting Ladakh with China), which is denied by the actual valley of the Brahmaputra.
The great river itself is known in Tibet by many names, being generally called the Nari Chu, Maghang Tsanpo or Yaro Tsanpo, above Lhasa; the word " tsanpo " (tsang-po) meaning (according to Waddell) the " pure one," and applying to all great rivers.
To the Dihong junction, and about 1000 in Tibet and eastern Bhutan, above the Dihong.
ALTYN-TAGH, or Astyn-Tagh, one of the chief constituent ranges of the Kuen-lun in Central Asia, separating Tibet from east Turkestan and the Desert of Gobi.
In length, of which 1 200 flow through portions of the Chinese Empire and Tibet and 1600 through French territory.
Throughout the greater part of its course in Tibet, where it is called the Dza-Chu, it flows south-eastwards to Chiamdo, on the great east and west caravan route from China to Lhasa.