Tibet Sentence Examples
The main stream of this last is called Dichu in Tibet, and its chief feeder is the Ya-lung-kiang, which rises not far from the Hwang-ho, and is considered the territorial boundary between China and Tibet.
The summit of the great mountain mass is occupied by Tibet, a country known by its inhabitants under the name of Bod or Bodyul.
The mean elevation of Tibet may be taken as 15,000 ft.
Professor Takakusu has shown the possibility of several complete books belonging to it being still extant in Chinese translations,' and we may yet hope to recover original fragments in central Asia, Tibet, or Nepal.
Kang-hi next ordered a similar map to be made of Tibet, the survey being executed by two lamas who were carefully trained as surveyors by the Jesuits at Peking.Advertisement
He was the first to attempt to open a trade route with Tibet, and to organize a survey of Bengal and of the eastern seas.
Odoric set out on his travels about 1318, and his journeys embraced parts of India, the Malay Archipelago, China and even Tibet, where he was the first European to enter Lhasa, not yet a forbidden city.
Several European missionaries had previously found their way from India to Tibet.
The next journey was that of Fathers Grueber and Dorville about 1660, who succeeded in passing from China, through Tibet, into India.
Two English missions sent by Warren Hastings to Tibet, one led by George Bogle in 1774, and the other by Captain Turner in 1783, complete Tibetan exploration in the 18th century.Advertisement
These differences have given rise to a supposed multiplicity of species, expressed by the names C. lycaon (Central Europe), C. laniger and C. niger (Tibet), the C. occidentalis, C. nubilus, C. mexicanus, &c., of North America, and the great blackish-brown Alaskan C. pambasileus, the largest of them all.
He subsequently passed through eastern Tibet to the town of Darchendo, or Tachienlu, on the high road between Lhasa and Peking, and on the borders of China.
His fourth journey in 1883-1885 was to Sining (the great trade centre of the Chinese borderland), and thence through northern Tibet (crossing the Altyn Tagh to Lop Nor), and by the Cherchen-Keriya trade route to Khotan.
Following Prjevalsky the Russian explorers, Pevtsov and Roborovski, in 1889-1890 (and again in 1894), added greatly to our knowledge of the topography of western Chinese Turkestan and the northern borders of Tibet; all these Russian expeditions being conducted on scientific principles and yielding results of the highest value.
Greatest among modern Asiatic explorers (if we except Prjevalsky) is the brave Swede, Professor Sven Hedin, whose travels through the deserts of Takla Makan and Tibet, and whose investigations in the glacial regions of the Sarikol mountains, occupied him from 1894 to 1896.Advertisement
Rawling, who have increased our knowledge of ancient fields of industry and commerce in Turkestan and Tibet.
Captain William Gill, of the Indian survey, first made his way across China to eastern Tibet and Burma, and subsequently delighted the world with his story of the River of Golden Sand.
Thus between Tibet and the low-lying sands of Gobi we have, thrust in, a system of elevated valleys (Tsaidam), 8000 to 9000 ft.
Farther east no part of Asia has been brought under more careful investigation than the hydrography of the strange mountain wilderness that divides Tibet and Burma from China.
Eastwards of this the great Kashgar depression, which includes the Tarim desert, separates Russia from the vast sterile highlands of Tibet; and a continuous series of desert spaces of low elevation, marking the limits of a primeval inland sea from the Sarikol meridional watershed to the Khingan mountains on the western borders of Manchuria, divide her from the northern provinces of China.Advertisement
The Triassic deposits of the Verkhoyansk Range show that this land did not extend to the Bering Sea; while the marine Mesozoic deposits of Japan on the east, the western Tian-shan on the west and Tibet on the south give us some idea of its limits in other directions.
Marine Tertiary beds occur in Burma; in the Himalayas and in south Tibet there is a nearly complete series of marine deposits from the Carboniferous to the Eocene; in Afghanistan the Mesozoic beds are in part marine and in part fluviatile.
In the interior of the chain the rain is far less, and the quantity of precipitation is so small in Tibet that it can be hardly measured.
Assemblages of marine plants form another remarkable feature of Tibet, these being frequently met with growing at elevations of 14,000 to 15,000 ft.
Vegetation ascends on the drier and less snowy mountain slopes of Tibet to above 18,00o ft.Advertisement
Quercus Ilex, the evergreen oak of southern Europe, is found in forests as far east as the Sutlej, accompanied with other European forms. In the higher parts of Afghanistan and Persia Boraginaceae and thistles abound; gigantic Umbelliferae, such as Ferula, Galbanum, Dorema, Bubon, Peucedanum, Prangos, and others, also characterize the same districts, and some of them extend into Tibet.
Consequently the Quadrumana, or monkeys, are nearly unrepresented, a single species occurring in Japan, and one or two others in northern China and Tibet.
The horned cattle include the humped oxen and buffaloes of India, and the yak of Tibet.
A hybrid between the yak and Indian cattle, called zo, is commonly reared in Tibet and the Himalaya.
Sheep abound in the more temperate regions, and goats are universally met with; both of these animals are used as beasts of burden in the mountains of Tibet.
In general terms they extend, with modifications of character probably due to admixture with other types and to varying conditions of life, over the whole of northern Asia as far south as the plains bordering the Caspian Sea, including Tibet and China, and also over the IndoMalayan peninsula and Archipelago, excepting Papua and some of the more eastern islands.
In the sphere of direct influence fall Korea, Japan and Annam; in the outer sphere are Mongolia, Tibet, Siam, Cambodia and Burma, where Indian and Chinese influence are combined, the.
Its sphere includes Indo-China, much of the Malay Archipelago, Tibet and Mongolia.
Indian alphabets have spread to Tibet, Cambodia, Java and Korea.
Such civilization as the Mongols possess is a mixture of Chinese and Indian, the latter derived chiefly through Tibet, but their alphabet is a curious instance of transplantation.
Thus with the exception of a little folklore the literature of Indo-China, Tibet, Mongolia, Korea and Manchuria is mainly Indian or Chinese.
A great field for missionary enterprise opened itself in the Mongol empire, in which, as has already been mentioned, there were many Christians to be found; and by 1350 this field had been so well worked that Christian missions and Christian bishops were established from Persia to Peking, and from the Dnieper to Tibet itself.
But besides an immense resort to Benares of poor pilgrims from every part of India, as well as from Tibet and Burma, numbers of rich Hindus in the decline of life go there for religious salvation.
It is an important feature as affording foothold for the Janglam (the great high road of southern Tibet connecting Ladakh with China), which is denied by the actual valley of the Brahmaputra.
The great river itself is known in Tibet by many names, being generally called the Nari Chu, Maghang Tsanpo or Yaro Tsanpo, above Lhasa; the word " tsanpo " (tsang-po) meaning (according to Waddell) the " pure one," and applying to all great rivers.
Throughout the greater part of its course in Tibet, where it is called the Dza-Chu, it flows south-eastwards to Chiamdo, on the great east and west caravan route from China to Lhasa.
Its use was obviously continued by the Buddhists during the prevalence of their religion in India, for it is still used by them in Nepal, Tibet, Ceylon, Burma, China and Japan.
The Hindu Kush is, in fact, but the face of a great upheaved mass of plateau-land lying beyond it northwards, just as the Himalaya forms the southern face of the great central tableland of Tibet, and its general physiography, exhibiting long, narrow, lateral valleys and transverse lines of "antecedent" drainage, is XIII.
It rises possibly beyond the confines of Burma in the unexplored regions, where India, Tibet and China meet, and seems to be formed by the junction of a number of considerable streams of no great length.
East of Bhutan, amongst the semi-independent hill states which sometimes own allegiance to Tibet and sometimes assert complete freedom from all authority, the geographical puzzle of the course of the Tsanpo, the great river of Tibet, has been solved by the researches of Captain Harman, and the explorations of the native surveyor "K.
Some of the roots and branches were examined by Captain Samuel Turner during his journey to Tibet; but the plant being neither in blossom nor bearing fruit, it was impossible to decide whether it was the true cinnamon or an inferior kind of cassia.
It is peculiar to this tract, not being found in any of the neighbouring countries of Assam, Nepal, Tibet or Bengal, and unites in an eminent degree the two qualities of strength and beauty.
Trade connections are rather with Tibet than with India.
Upon the intercession of Teshu Lama, then regent of Tibet, a treaty of peace was concluded in 1774 between the East India Company and the ruler of Bhutan.
The recent relations between the Indian government and Bhutan have been satisfactory; and during the troubles with Tibet in 1904 the attitude of the Bhutias was perfectly correct and friendly.
See Report on Explorations in Sikkim, Bhutan and Tibet (Deva Dun, 1889); Tanner, "Our present Knowledge of the Himalayas," R.G.S.
More or less nearly related to the saiga is the chiru, Pantholops hodgsoni, of Tibet, characterized by the long upright black horns of the bucks, and the less convex nose, in which the nostrils open anteriorly instead of downwards.
In the latter respect this ruminant resembles the takin (Budorcas) of Tibet, which, as already mentioned, has horns recalling those of the white-tailed gnu.
To hold sovereignty not to be divisible is for juridical purposes not a working theory; states part, permanently or temporarily, with few or many of the rights and powers comprehended in sovereignty; to speak of it as undivided in the case of Crete, Egypt or Tibet is to do violence to facts.
It was adopted by Tatars, Turks and Mongols, in Tibet and Tong-king, Japan and Korea.
In the broad orographical disposition of the ranges there is considerable similarity between north Tibet and west Persia, in that in both cases the ranges are crowded together in the west, but spread out wider as they advance towards the east.
And here at least four principal ranges or groups of ranges admit of being discriminated, namely the Astin-tagh, the Chimen-tagh, the Kalta-alaghan and the Arka-tagh, all belonging to the mountainous country which borders on the north the actual plateau region of Tibet.
But as each successive range, proceeding south, represents a higher step in the terraced ascent from the desert of Gobi to the plateau of Tibet, the ranges when viewed from the north frequently appear like veritable upstanding mountain ranges, and this appearance is accentuated by the general steepness of the ascent; whereas, when viewed on the other hand from the south, these several ranges, owing to their long and gentle slope in that direction, have the appearance of comparatively gentle swellings of the earth's service rather than of well-defined mountain ranges.
Nevertheless, owing to the fact that nearly all the longer and more important crossings of Tibet and its northern montane region have been made from north to south, or vice versa, that is, transversely across the ranges, and comparatively few from east to west along the intermont latitudinal valleys, the identifications between ranges in the east and ranges in the west are in more than one instance more or less doubtful.
But though the great morphological features of this latitudinal valley forcibly recall the latitudinal valleys of Tibet, the climatic differences give rise to differences between the basins corresponding to the differences between the mountain-ranges themselves.
For while the self-contained basins of Tibet generally possess a salt lake in the middle, into which brooks and streams of greater or less magnitude gather, often from very considerable distances, these self-contained basins of the Astintagh are very small in area, and it is extremely seldom that their central parts receive any water at all, only in fact after copious rain.
Tibet, the Kalta-alaghan does not decrease, but it increases in elevation towards the east, where, like the Chimen-tagh, it abuts upon and merges in the ranges that border Tsaidam on the south.
The next succeeding parallel range, the Koko-shili, which is continued eastwards by the Bayan-khara-ula, between the upper headstreams of the Hwang-ho or Yellow River and the Yangtszekiang, belongs orographically to the plateau of Tibet.
The succession of ranges which follow one another from the deserts of Takla-makan and Gobi up to the plateau proper of Tibet rise in steps or terraces, each range being higher than the range to the north of it and lower than the range to the south of it.
The Kashmir, or rather Tibet, goat has a delicate head, with semi-pendulous ears, which are both long and wide.
There are several varieties possessing this valuable quality, but those of Kashmir, Tibet and Mongolia are the most esteemed.
During the next twenty years Mme Blavatsky appears to have travelled widely in Canada, Texas, Mexico and India, with two attempts on Tibet.
The years from 1848 to 1858 were alluded to subsequently as "the veiled period " of her life, and she spoke vaguely of a seven years' sojourn in " Little and Great Tibet," or preferably of a " Himalayan retreat."
The mahatmas exhibited their " astral bodies " to her, " precipitated " messages which reached her from the confines of Tibet in an instant of time, supplied her with sound doctrine, and incited her to perform tricks for the conversion of sceptics.
In the bamboo-rats, Rhizomys, from the Indo-Malay countries, China and Tibet, as well as in the closely allied East African Tachyoryctes, the eyes are, however, functional, and the head is rounded.
See, for information specially relating to the whole subject, the Abbe Desgodin's Mission du Thibet de 1855 a 1870 (Verdun, 1872); and "Account of the Pundit's Journey in Great Tibet," in the Royal Geographical Society's Journal for 1877.
The inhabitants of Tibet call themselves Bod-pa (pronounced usually Bho-pa), or " people of Bod."
The Chinese name for central Tibet is Wei-Ts'ang, which is a transcription of the Tibetan designation of the two, provinces V and Tsang (spelt dbus-gtsang) that constitute central Tibet.
Physically Tibet may be divided into two parts, the lake region in the west and north-west, and the river region, which spreads out on three sides of the former on the east, south, and west.
This region is called the Chang-t'ang (Byang tang) or " Northern Plateau " by the people of Tibet.
So intense is the cold in Tibet that these springs are sometimes represented by columns of ice, the nearly boiling water having frozen in the act of ejection.
The northern portion of Tibet is an arid and wind-swept desert; but in the southern portion the valleys of Lhasa, Shigatse, Gyantse and the Brahmaputra are covered with good soil and groves of trees, well irrigated, and richly cultivated.
The valley of the Brahmaputra (q.v.), or Yaru Tsang-po or simply Tsang-po - the river has also various local names - is the great arterial valley of southern Tibet.
He found the system to form the chief physiographical feature of southern Tibet, and stated it to be " on the whole the most massive range on the crust of the earth, its average height above the sealevel being greater than that of the Himalayas.
A remarkable economic feature is the almost universal distribution of gold throughout Tibet.
Every river which rises in Tibet washes down sands impregnated with gold, and it has been proved that this gold is not the product of intervening strata, but must have existed primarily in the crystalline rocks of the main axes of upheaval.
In western Tibet the gold mines of Jalung have been worked since 1875.
The researches of Prjevalsky demonstrate that gold is plentiful in northern and eastern Tibet.
Mesny, has observed similar evidences of the existence of gold at comparatively shallow depths in Koko Nor region, and records that he has seen nuggets, " varying from the size of a pea to that of a hazel-nut," in eastern Tibet.
Prjevalsky, indeed, predicts of northern Tibet that it will prove a " second California " in course of time.
Iron is found in eastern Tibet in the form of pyrites, and is rudely smelted locally.
The climate of Tibet varies so greatly over the enormous area and different altitudes of the country that no two travellers agree precisely in their records.
Tibet is affected by the south-west monsoon, just as the Pamirs are affected, but in varying degrees according to geographical position.
In western Tibet, bordering the Kashmir frontier, the climate differs little from that of Ladak.
Northern Tibet is an arid waste, subject to intense heat in summer and intense cold in winter.
All travellers testify to the perpetual wind currents from the west, which sweep across the salt bogs of Tsaidam (9500 ft.) and through the higher valleys of eastern Tibet.
Wind is a prevailing feature throughout Tibet at certain seasons of the year, as it is in the Pamirs, in Turkestan, in western Afghanistan and in Persia.
The climate of southern Tibet is, however, subject to considerable modifications from that of the northern and central regions, owing doubtless to its geographical connexion with northern India.
Our knowledge of the flora of northern and central Tibet has been considerably increased by the collections of Prjevalsky, Wellby, Bower, Thorold, Littledale and the Lhasa Mission, and that of eastern Tibet by Rockhill.
Professor Maximowicz concludes from an analysis of the Prjevalsky collection that the flora of Tibet is extremely ancient, and that it is chiefly composed of immigrants from the Himalaya and Mongolia.
Those species which are distinctive of the eastern border ridges are found to reach the plateau, but do not spread westwards, so that a botanic separation or distinction is found to exist between the true plateau of Tibet in the west and the alpine tracts of the east.
Thiselton-Dyer classes the flora of Tibet on the whole as belonging to the Arctic-Alpine section of the great northern division, but containing a purely endemic element.
Of the forty or fifty genera obtained by Littledale in central Tibet a large proportion are British, including many of the most characteristic mountain forms. In the higher regions of northern and western Tibet the conditions under which vegetation exists are extreme.
In south-eastern Tibet, where Himalayan conditions of climate prevail, we have a completely different class of flora.
A variety of mountain bamboo is found in southern and parts of eastern Tibet, and is much used for basket work.
Tibet produces a large number of medicinal plants much prized by the medical profession in China and Mongolia, among others the Cordyceps sinensis, the Coptis teeta, Wall., and Pickorhiza kuwoa, Royle, &c. Rhubarb is also found in great quantities in eastern Tibet and Amdo; it is largely exported for European use, but does not appear to be used medicinally in the country.
Some valuable plants are obtained in the mountains of south and southwestern Tibet, yielding the excellent yellow and red colours used to dye the native cloths."
The fauna of Tibet has been by no means exhaustively investigated, especially the rodents and smaller species of animals.
Birds are fairly numerous, and include many varieties of water-fowl, several of which (Anser indicus, the bar-headed goose, for instance) breed in Tibet, while others are only found as birds of passage.
In eastern Tibet, on the Chinese border, varieties of the pheasant tribe abound, some of which are rare.
The beard is sparse, and, with the exception of the moustache, which is sometimes worn, especially in central Tibet, it is plucked out with tweezers.
Monogamy, however, seems to be the rule among the pastoral tribes, and polygamy is not unknown in Tibet, especially in the eastern parts of the country.
This scholarly linguist, equipped with modern methods of scientific research, did not confine himself to the classical period like Csoma, but extended his ' The Capuchin friars who were settled in Lhasa for a quarter of a century from 1719 studied the language; two of them, Francisco Orazio della Penna, well known from his accurate description of Tibet, and Cassian di Macerata sent home materials which were utilized by the Augustine friar Aug.
Ramsay published at Lahore his useful Practical Dictionary of Western Tibet.
The old language seems to have pronounced prefixes extensively which in modern pronunciation in central Tibet are largely lost, whilst the soft initials have become aspirated or hardened and tones have developed, and in the west and east, where prefixes and soft initials have been preserved, there are no tones.
The words introduced from Tibet into the border languages at that time differ greatly from those introduced at an earlier period.
The non-religious literature of Tibet is not extensive, probably owing to the printing being in the hands of the priests.
Their author Milaraspa (unless the work should be attributed to his disciples), often called Mila, was a Buddhist ascetic of the I ith century, who, during the intervals of meditation travelled through the southern part of middle Tibet as a mendicant friar, instructing the people by his improvisations in poetry and song, proselytizing, refuting and converting heretics, and working manifold miracles.
It includes three divisions - the Djiung ling, which describes the invasion of part of Tibet by the Djiung or Moso; the Hor ling, which recounts the conquest of the Hor (Turk tribes) by the Tibetans, and conveys much historical information in a tale of magic and marvel; and the Djia ling (Chinese division), which narrates a contest of unknown date between the Tibetans and the Chinese.
It includes Lhasa and a large number of outlying districts in south-eastern Tibet, such as Po, Pemakoichen, Zayul.
Though the whole of Tibet is under the suzerainty of China, the government of the country is divided into two distinct administrations, the one under the rule of the Dalai lama of Lhasa, the other under local kings or chiefs, and comprising a number of ecclesiastical fiefs.
Northeastern Tibet or Amdo, and also a portion of Khamdo, are under the supervision of a high official (Manchu) residing at Sining Fu in Kansuh, whose title is Imperial Controller-General of Koko Nor.
The province of Khamdo, including all eastern Tibet, is governed by local chiefs, styled gyalpo, " king," and deba, " chief," succession to the chieftainship being usually assured to the eldest son not a lama.
The part of Tibet under the rule of Lhasa, by far the largest and wealthiest, includes the central province of V, Tsang, Nari and a number of large outlying districts in southern and even in eastern Tibet.
Farther west Tibet may be reached from Kumaon by one of a group of passes (of which the best known is the Milam) leading to Lake Manasarowar.
The lake becomes a sort of obligatory point on all routes to Tibet which lie between Ladak and Nepal.
The exports from Tibet are silver, gold, salt, wool, woollen cloth, rugs, furs, drugs, musk.
One of the most universal articles of consumption in Tibet is the Chinese brick-tea, which even passes as currency.
It is curious that Tibet, though using coined money, seems never, strictly speaking, to have had a coinage of its own.
A coinage was then issued (it would appear once only) in Tibet for domestic use, modelled on an old Kathmandu pattern and struck by Nepalese artists.
This brought the intervention of the Chinese, who drove the Gurkhas out of Tibet (1792), and then began to strike silver coins for Lhasa use, bearing Chinese and Tibetan characters.
Its great elevation causes the climate to be rather arctic than tropical, so that there is no gradual blending of the climates and physical conditions of India and Tibet, such as would tend to promote intercourse between the inhabitants of these neighbouring regions; on the contrary, there are sharp lines of demarcation, in a mountain barrier which is scalable at only a few points, and in the social aspects and conditions of life on either side.
No great armies have ever crossed Tibet to invade India; even those of Jenghiz Khan took the circuitous route via Bokhara and Afghanistan, not the direct route from Mongolia across Tibet.
Thus it was no easy matter for the early European travellers to find their way into and explore Tibet.
The Jesuit Antonio Andrada, a native of Portugal (1580-1634), travelling from India, appears to have entered Tibet on the west, in the Manasarowar Lake region, and made his way across to Tangut and north-western China; in 1661 the Jesuit fathers Johann Grueber (an Austrian) and Albert D 'Orville (a Belgian) travelled from Peking via Tangut to Lhasa, and thence through Nepal to India.
His departure was due to controversies between the Jesuits and Capuchins at Rome, which caused an order to be issued for his retirement from Tibet.
The first Englishman to enter Tibet was George Bogle, a writer of the East India Company, in 1774, on an embassy from Warren Hastings to the Tashi lama of Shigatse.
After residing some years at Canton, Manning went to Calcutta, bent on reaching the interior of China through Tibet, since from the seaboard it was sealed.
But the Abbe Huc states that William Moorcroft, an Englishman who made a journey into Tibet in the neighbourhood of Lake Manasarowar in 1812, and another into Kashgar in 1824, lived in Lhasa for twelve years disguised as a Mussulman.
In 1866 the Abbe Desgodins travelled through portions of eastern Tibet and reached Chiamdo (in Kham), but was prevented from approaching any closer to Lhasa.
Beginning in 1863 a number of native Indian explorers were sent by the government of India into Tibet, for the purpose of surveying.
These men were specially Service trained at Dehra Dun in the work of surveying, and entered Tibet with a strong wooden box with a specially concealed secret drawer for holding observing instruments, .a prayer wheel with rolls of blank paper instead of prayers in the barrel on which observations might be noted, and lamaic rosaries by the beads of which each hundred paces might be counted.
In their first journey the travellers set out from Jongri in Sikkim, and traversing the north-east corner of Nepal, crossed into Tibet by the Chatang la, and travelled northwards to Shigatse and Tashilhunpo.
They contain valuable information on the superstitions, ethnology and religion of Tibet.
The Russian explorer Prjevalsky, although he was not, strictly speaking, an explorer of Tibet, did much incidentally towards determining the conformation of its north-eastern and eastern mountain systems. His third journey Explorers.
His fourth journey, between November 1883 and October 1885, covered much of northern Tibet, and established the true character of Tsaidam.
Roborovski, with several companions, explored the western ranges of the Kuen-lun, and crossed southwards into Tibet, tracing the course of the Kiria river to the north-western plains of the central plateau.
He then turned west, followed the base of the south Tsaidam range as far as the Naichi Gol, where he entered the southern mountainous region forming the northern borderland of Tibet.
From this point the traveller followed a general south-westerly direction around the heads of all the feeders of the upper Dre chu, and thence into the lake region of northern central Tibet, crossing Bonvalot's route south of the Chi-chang t'so and that of Bower a few days farther south.
Here the party was stopped by Tibetan authorities and forced to take the tea route through Chinese Tibet (Gyade) by way of Batasumdo, Chebotenchin, Riwoche, Chiamdo to Chiangka, near the upper Yangtse-kiang, whence they proceeded to Tachienlu by Batang and Litang.
Bonvalot noted some extinct volcanoes in the northern Tibet desert.
At this point Bower was stopped by some of the headmen of the Tibetan pastoral tribes (here under the rule of Lhasa), and obliged to make a long circuit to the north well out of Lhasa territory, and then eastward - till he struck the road to Chiamdo through Gyade or Chinese Tibet.
After crossing the Kara muren davan in the Arka Tagh, they Dutreuil de entered the lake region of north Tibet and followed a Rhins and general southerly direction across low ranges of hills F., Grenard, 1893-1894.
He finally completed a valuable survey of an important part of western Tibet.
During his second and more important journey in Central Asia (1899-1902), Sven Hedin left Charkhlik, on the edge of the Taklamakan desert, in May 1901, intending to cross Tibet in a diagonal direction to the sources of the Indus.
On a third journey (1906-1908) he travelled by way of Turkish Armenia, Persia, Baluchistan and India, and entered Tibet by way of the Aksai Chin.
From the 11th century B.C. the Chinese used to call by the name of Kiang (or Shepherds) the tribes (about 150 in number) of nomads and shepherds in Koko Nor and the north-east of present Tibet; but their knowledge continued to be confined to the border tribes until the sixth century of our era.
Through the exertions of Prinsep, Csoma de Koros, Emil Schlag intweit, Chandra Das, Rockhill, Huth, Waddell and others, we possess many copies of lists of kings, forming the dynasties of Tibet from the legendary beginnings between the 5th and 2nd century B.C. down to the end of the monarchy in 914.
He fled north of the Himalayas into the Bod country, where he was elected king by the twelve chiefs of the tribes of southern and central Tibet.
This threefold succession is apparently an imitation or a debased form of the ancient legend of heavenly, earthly and human rulers, which was carried into Persia and China, and from the latter country into Japan and Tibet - the relative number of kings being altered in the last-named countries to suit local convenience and the small amount of truth which they contain.
His name was Lha-tho thori gnyan-tsan, otherwise Gnyan-tsan of Lha-tho thori, according to the custom usual in Tibet of calling great personages after the name of their birthplace.
It was during his reign that the first Buddhist objects are reputed to have reached Tibet, probably from Nepal.
To the same king is attributed the discovery of the inexhaustible salt mine called Chang-gitsa'wa (Byang-gi-tsa'wa =" northern salt "), which still supplies the greater portion of Tibet.
He was greatly helped in his proselytism by his two wives, one a Nepal princess, daughter of King Jyoti varma, the other an imperial daughter of China; afterwards, they being childless, he took two more princesses from the Ru-yong (= "left corner " o) and Man (general appellative for the nations between Tibet and the Indian plains) countries.
While the dynasty of Khorre in Shang-shung and that of Thich'ung in U were running, another authority, destined to become the superior of both, had arisen in Tibet.
Khorre left his throne to his son Lhade, who was himself succeeded by his three sons, the youngest of whom invited the celebrated Indian Buddhist, Atisha, to leave his monastery Vikramashila for Tibet, where he settled in the great lamaserai of Thoding in Nari.
Five years afterwards Kublai Khan conquered all the east of Tibet; and, after he had ascended the throne of China, the Mongol emperor invited to his court Phagspa Lodoi Gyaltshan, the nephew of the same Pandita.
In return for his services, Kublai invested Phagspa with sovereign power over (1) Tibet proper, comprising the thirteen districts of U and Tsang, (2) Khalil and (3) Amdo.
From this time the Sakya-pa lamas became the universal rulers of Tibet, and remained so, at least nominally, under twenty-one successive lamas during seventy years (1270-1340).
He subdued Tibet proper and Kham, for the continued possession of which he was, however, compelled to fight for several years; but he succeeded in the long run, and with the approval of the court of Peking established a dynasty which furnished twelve rulers in succession.
This step enraged the Mongols, and caused the advance of Gushri Khan, son and successor of Tengir To, who invaded Tibet, dethroned all the petty princes, including the king of Tsang, and, after having subjugated the whole of the country, made the fifth Dalai lama supreme monarch of all Tibet, in 1645.
It is probable that the isolation of Tibet was inspired originally by the Chinese, with the idea of creating a buffer state against European aggression from this direction.
In1872-1873some attempt was made by Indian officials to open up trade with Tibet; further attempts followed in 1884, and in 1886 a mission was .organized to proceed to Lhasa.
When subsequently visiting Russia, he appears to have drawn the attention of the authorities towards Tibet as a field for their statecraft, and he established himself as the unofficial representative of Russia in Lhasa.
He obtained a commanding influence over the Dalai Lama, impressed upon him the dangers which threatened Tibet from England, and suggested the desirability of securing Russian protection and even the possibility of converting the tsar and his empire to Buddhism.
It was suspected, although denied, that a treaty was in draft under which Russia should assume the suzerainty of Tibet.
On the 3rd of October, therefore, the British government authorized the occupation of the Chumbi valley, and an advance to Gyantse in Tibet and military preparations, with the difficult attendant problem of transport, were undertaken.
The Jelep pass was crossed and the entry into Tibet effected on the 12th of December.
The Anglo-Russian convention of 1907 determined the following conditions with respect to Tibet - the recognition of the suzerain rights of China and the territorial and administrative integrity of the country; that no official representative at Lhasa should be appointed either by England or by Russia, and that no concessions for railways, mines, &c., should be sought by either power.
The British government, in view of the apparent intention of China to establish effective suzerainty in Tibet, drew the attention of the government at Peking to the necessity of strictly observing its treaty obligations, and especially pointing out that the integrity of the frontier states of Nepal, Bhutan and Sikkim must be respected.
To the Dalai Lama, who had attempted to obtain British intervention at Peking, it was made clear that he personally had no claim to this, as the British government could only recognize the de facto government in Tibet.
Its total membership is under ioo,000, and it has some 350 missionaries, labouring in the most unpromising fields - Greenland, Labrador, Alaska, Central America, Tibet, and among the Hottentots.
They inhabit the desolate plateau of Tibet, at elevations of between 13,000 and 18,000 ft., and, like all Tibetan animals, have a firm thick coat, formed in this instance of close woolly hair of a grey fawn-colour.
The Carnivora include bears, wolverines, wolves, raccoons, foxes, sables, martens, skunks, kolinskis, fitch, fishers, ermines, cats, sea otters, fur seals, hair seals, lions, tigers, leopards, lynxes, jackals, &c. The Rodentia include beavers, nutrias, musk-rats or musquash, marmots, hamsters, chinchillas, hares, rabbits, squirrels, &c. The Ungulata include Persian, Astrachan, Crimean, Chinese and Tibet lambs, mouflon, guanaco, goats, ponies, &c. The Marsupialia include opossums, wallabies and kangaroos.
The Tibet goat is similar to the Angora in the fineness of its wool, and many are used in the making of cashmere shawls.
The Tibet lamb so largely imported and used for children's wear is often miscalled Tibet goat.
With, however, the exception of the best white Tibet lambs, the majority of Chinese furs can only be regarded as inferior material.
Of a somewhat different nature is the brick tea prepared chiefly at Ya-chou in Brick t ea the province of Ssu-chuan, for overland transit to Tibet, for Tibet.
In Mongolia and other parts of Central Asia tea is made into a kind of soup, somewhat on the lines of the following written regarding tea in Tibet by Colonel Waddell in his book Lhasa and its Mysteries.
It was in the reign of Bimbisara that Vardhamana Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, and Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, preached in Magadha, and Buddhist missionaries issued thence to the conversion of China, Ceylon, Tibet and Tatary.
Under Mahipala (c. 1026), the ninth of his line, and his successor Nayapala, missionaries from Magadha succeeded in firmly re-establishing Buddhism in Tibet.
Most of the monks were massacred in the first heat of the assault; those who survived fled to Tibet, Nepal and the south.
Cakes of salt have been used as money in more than one part of the world - for example, in Abyssinia and elsewhere in Africa, and in Tibet and adjoining parts.
India is shut off from the rest of Asia on the north by a vast mountainous region, known in the aggregate as the Himalayas, amid which lie the independent states of Nepal and Bhutan, - with the great table-land of Tibet behind.
At the northeastern angle of that frontier, the Dihang river, the connecting link between the Tsanpo of Tibet and the Brahmaputra of Assam, bursts through the main axis of the range.
Across this mountain barrier there appears to be a constant flow of air, more active in the day-time than at night, northwards to the arid plateau of Tibet.
Among other dogs of India are the pariah, which is merely a mongrel, run wild and half starved; the poligar dog, an immense creature peculiar to the south; the greyhound, used for coursing; and the mastiff of Tibet and Bhutan.
The musk deer (Moschus moschiferus) is confined to Tibet.
The greater part of the remainder are found in Bengal on the borders of Burma, on the borders of Nepal, Tibet and Bhutan, and in the Spiti, Lahul and Kanawar districts of the Punjab Himalayas, where many of the inhabitants are of Tibetan origin.
Afghanistan, Nepal, Eastern Turkestan, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, China, Japan, the Eastern Archipelago, Siam, Burma, Ceylon and India at one time marked the magnificent circumference of its conquests.
The east road is the great Tung-kwan road, which forms the principal means of communication between Peking and the northeastern provinces of the empire, and Sze-ch'uen, Yun-nan and Tibet.
Modern geographers restrict the term Himalaya to that portion of the mountain region between India and Tibet enclosed within the arms of the Indus and the Brahmaputra.
Thus the Himalaya represents the southern face of the great central upheaval - the plateau of Tibet - the northern face of which is buttressed by the Kuen Lun.
Neither immediately beyond this great bend, nor within it in the Himalayan regions lying north of Assam and east of Bhutan, have scientific investigations yet been systematically carried out; but it is known that the largest of the Himalayan affluents of the Brahmaputra west of the bend derive their sources from the Tibetan plateau, and break down through the containing bands of hills, carrying deposits of gold from their sources to the plains, as do all the rivers of Tibet.
On the southern or Indian side the routes to Tibet and Ladakh follow the levels of Himalayan valleys with no remarkably steep gradients till they near the approach to the water-divide.
The Zoji La, the Kashmir water-divide between the Jhelum and the Indus, is a prominent case in point, and all the passes from the Kumaon and Garhwal hills into Tibet exhibit this formation in a marked degree.
It should be noted that the thermometrical conditions of Tibet vary considerably from those of the Himalaya.
At the same time the rain is heavier as we approach the Himalaya and the greatest falls are measured in its outer ranges; but the quantity again diminishes as we pass onward across the chain, and on arriving at the border of Tibet, behind the great line of snowy peaks, the rain falls in such small quantities as to be hardly susceptible of measurement.
On all the passes into Tibet vegetation reaches to about 17,500 ft., and in August they may be crossed in ordinary years up to 18,400 ft.
Glaciers on the outer slopes of the Himalaya descend much lower than is commonly the case in Tibet, or in the most elevated valleys near the snowy range.
In the elevated valleys of northern Tibet, where the destructive action of the summer heat is far less, the development of the glaciers is enormous.
The ranges of the Himalaya, from the border of Tibet to the plains, form a zoological region which is one of the richest of the world, particularly in respect to birds, to which the forest-clad mountains offer almost every range of temperature.
Lizards are numerous, and as well as frogs are found at all elevations from the plains to the upper Himalayan valleys, and even extend to Tibet.
None of these fishes are found in Tibet.
A few Siluridae have been found in Tibet, but the carps constitute the larger part of the species.
The Salmonidae are entirely absent from the waters of the Himalaya proper, of Tibet and of Turkestan east of the Terektag.
Religiously it is the corrupt form of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet and Mongolia.
It is the union of these ideas with a hierarchical system, and with the temporal sovereignty of the head of that system in Tibet, which constitutes what is distinctively understood by the term Lamaism.
The former was afterwards identified with the mythical first Buddhist missionary, who is supposed to have introduced civilization into Tibet about two hundred and fifty years after the death of the Buddha.
Such had been the decline and fall of Buddhism considered as an ethical system before its introduction into Tibet.
The manner in which its order of mendicant recluses, at first founded to afford better opportunities to those who wished to carry out that system in practical life, developed at last into a hierarchical monarchy will best be understood by a sketch of the history of Tibet.
He was the founder of the present capital of Tibet, now known as Lhasa; and in the year 622 (the same year as that in which Mahomet fled from Mecca) he began the formal introduction of Buddhism into Tibet.
He is also very probably the author of another very ancient standard work of Tibetan Buddhism, the Samatog, a short digest of Buddhist morality, on which the civil laws of Tibet have been founded.
These are the cloisters of La Brang (Jokhang) and Ra Moche, still, though much changed and enlarged, the most sacred abbeys in Tibet, and the glory of Lhasa.
Many are the stories of martyrs and confessors who are believed to have lived in these troublous times, and their efforts were at last crowned with success, for in the century commencing with the reign of Bilamgur in 971 there took place " the second introduction of religion " into Tibet, more especially under the guidance of the pandit Atisha, who came to Tibet in 1041, and of his famous native pupil and follower Brom Ston.
For about three hundred years the Buddhist church of Tibet was left in peace, subjecting the country more and more com pletely to its control, and growing in power and in wealth.
He granted to the abbot of the Sakya monastery in southern Tibet the title of tributary sovereign of the country, head of the Buddhist church, and overlord over the numerous barons and abbots, and in return was officially crowned by the abbot as ruler over the extensive domain of the Mongol empire.
Thus was the foundation laid at one and the same time of the temporal sovereignty of the Lamas of Tibet, and of the suzerainty over Tibet of the emperors of China.
Tsongkapa, the Luther of Tibet, was born about 1357 on the spot where the famous monastery of Kunbum now stands.
He then spent eight years as a hermit in Takpo in southern Tibet, where the comparatively purer teaching of Atisha (referred to above) was still prevalent.
The " orange-hoods," as his followers were called, rapidly gained in numbers and influence, until they so overshadowed the " red-hoods," as the followers of the older sect were called, that in the middle of the r 5th century the emperor of China acknowledged the two leaders of the new sect at that time as the titular overlords of the church and tributary rulers over the realm of Tibet.
These two leaders were then known as the Dalai Lama and the Pantshen Lama, and were the abbots of the great monasteries at Gedun Dubpa, near Lhasa, and at Tashi Lunpo, in Farther Tibet, respectively.
Since that time the abbots of these monasteries have continued to exercise the sovereignty over Tibet.
Their number is very large; there are few monasteries in Tibet or in Mongolia which do not claim to possess one of these living Buddhas.
The political authority of the Dalai Lama is confined to Tibet itself, but he is the acknowledged head also of the Buddhist church throughout Mongolia and China.
From the time it leaves Tibet it has a very narrow basin, and preserves the character of a gigantic ditch, or railway cutting, with for long stretches no other affluents than the mountain torrents from the hills, which rise from 3000 to S000 or 6000 ft.
It has been too often assumed that the plateau of Tibet and the uplands of the Pamirs are analogous in physiography, and that they merge into each other.
Lastly C. albirostris, of Tibet, is easily recognized by its white muzzle, and smooth, whitish, flattened antlers, which have fewer tines than those of the other members of the group, all placed in one plane.
The frontier trade of Bengal is registered with Nepal, Sikkim, Tibet and Bhutan, but except with Nepal the amount is insignificant.
The work in which he embodied his researches was immediately translated into all civilized languages, the English version, Mongolia, the Tangut Country, and the Solitudes of Northern Tibet (1876), being edited by Sir Henry Yule.
As it lacks the thick woolly coat of the two Tibetan antelopes known as the chiru and the goa, there can be little doubt that it inhabits a country with a less severe climate than that of the Central Tibetan plateau, and it is probably a native of the more or less wooded districts of comparatively low elevation forming the outskirts of Tibet.
In the unicorn sheep of Nepal or Tibet the two horns of the rams are completely welded together.
They range all over India and Ceylon, thence northward to Tibet, and eastwards to China, Japan, Formosa, Borneo, Sumatra and Java; while by some naturalists the black ape of Celebes (Cynopithecus ',tiger) is included in the same genus.
The Tibetan muntjac (C. lachrymans), from Moupin in eastern Tibet and Hangchow in China, is somewhat smaller than the Indian animal, with a bright reddish-brown coat.
The last-mentioned species, by its frontal tuft, small rounded ears, general brown coloration, and minute antlers, connects the typical muntjacs with the small tufted deer or tufted muntjacs of the genus Elaphodus of eastern China and Tibet.
On the lowlands they feed on dry grasses, and in Tibet on small woody plants.
In India and Persia they are difficult to approach, although this is not the case in Tibet.
No fewer than five species have been discriminated from various parts of Asia, extending to Japan; but only one of them, the P. leucoptera of Turkestan and Tibet, has of late been admitted as valid.
The continental crust under Tibet is over 70 kilometers thick.
Regardless of these visits, the situation in Tibet still remains grim.
Scaly-sided mergansers have also occurred in North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Taiwan, Myanmar, Tibet and Thailand.
For centuries Ladakh has been on the Buddhist pilgrimage trail linking Kashmir and Tibet through the Himalaya.
Despite the obvious need, the European Union cannot even agree to appoint a special rapporteur to investigate human rights abuses in Tibet.
Over 8000 people gathered in the heart of Amsterdam to take part a Tibetan freedom concert condemning repression in Tibet and the death penalty.
Buddhist scholar Joanna Macy writes of visiting a group of monks in Tibet.
Common ailments susceptibility To Illness Low History Ancestors of the Tibetan Mastiff have been known to exist in Tibet for many centuries.
Of course the whole group also chants the sutras in that special low resonance found only in Tibet.
Like a medieval time capsule, the contents of this seated Buddha have revealed hidden details of its production and worship in Tibet.
Tibet is a rugged table-land, narrow as compared with its length, broken up by a succession of mountain ranges, which follow as a rule the direction of the length of the table-land, and commonly rise into the regions of perpetual snow; between the flanks of these lie valleys, closely hemmed in, usually narrow, having a very moderate inclination, but at intervals opening out into wide plains, and occupied either by rivers, or frequently by lakes from which there is no outflow and the waters of which are salt.
The geography of the region in which the mountains of Cochin-China and Siam join Tibet is still imperfectly known, but there is no ground left for doubting that the great river of eastern Tibet, the Tsanpo, supplies the main stream of the Brahmaputra.
This region is known as Pamir; it has all the characteristics of the highest regions of Tibet, and so far fitly receives the Russian designation of steppe; but it seems to have no special peculiarities, and the reason of its having been so long regarded as a geographical enigma is not obvious.
In southern Tibet the trans-Himalayan explorations of the native surveyors attached to the Indian survey, notably Pundits Nain Singh and Krishna, added largely to our knowledge of the great plateau.
Ellsworth Huntington threw new light on the Tian-shan plateau and the Alai range by his explorations of 1903; and Sven Hedin, between 1899 and 1902, was collecting material in Turkestan and Tibetan fields, and resumed his journeys in 1905-1908, the result being to revolutionize our knowledge of the region north of the upper Tsanpo (see Tibet).
Peculiar forms of Leguminosae also prevail, and these, with many of the other plants of the southern and drier regions of Siberia, or of the colder regions of the desert tracts of Persia and Afghanistan, extend into Tibet, where the extreme drought and the hot (nearly vertical) sun combine to produce a summer climate not greatly differing from that of the plains of central Asia.
Returning overland across Asia, through the Land of Prester John and through Casan, the adventurous traveller seems to have entered Tibet, and even perhaps to have visited Lhasa.
The group is typified by the European hamster (Cricetus vulgaris or C. cricetus), to which a separate article is devoted (see Hamster); the genus includes a number of species ranged under several sub-genera, such as Mesocricetus, Cricetulus, and Urocricetus, widely spread in Western and Central Asia, the last-mentioned, which is from Tibet, being distinguished by its relatively long tail.
The sedentary population of Tibet has to a greater or less degree the same physical traits as the Dokpa, but as one approaches China, India or the border lands generally, one observes that the admixture of foreign blood has considerably modified the primitive type.
It is not a uniform speech, but comprises several dialects which have been classed by Jaeschke into three groups, namely (i) the central or the dialects of Lhasa and the central provinces of U and Tsang (including Spiti) which is the lingua franca of the whole country, (2) the western dialects of Ladak, Lahul, Baltistan and Purig, and (3) the eastern dialects of the province of Khams. In addition to these, however, are many sub-dialects of Tibetan spoken in the frontier Himalayan districts and states outside Tibet, namely, in Kunawar and Bashahr, Garhwal, Kumaon, Nepal including especially the Serpa and Murmi of eastern Nepal, Sikkim (where the dialect is called Danjong-ka), Bhutan (Lho-ka or Duk-ka.), all of which are affiliated to a central group of dialects.
It is plain that her intellect had begun to fail just before her death, for she allowed the reigning favourite, Platon Zubov, to persuade her to despatch his brother Valerian, with the rank of field marshal and an army of 20,000 men, on a crack-brained scheme to invade India by way of Persia and Tibet.
These bales are carried on the backs of coolies for great distances across very high passes into Tibet, and the trade is estimated at an average of 19,000,000 lb per annum, of which 8,000,000 is a subsidy from the emperor of China to the Tibetan monasteries.
Prismatic borax is found widely distributed as a natural product (see below, Mineralogy) in Tibet, and in Canada, Peru and Transylvania, while the bed of Borax Lake, near Clear Lake in California, is occupied by a large mass of crystallized borax, which is fit for use by the assayer without undergoing any preliminary purification.
The most famous of the works ascribed to him is the Mani Kambum, " the Myriad of Precious Words " - a treatise chiefly on religion, but which also contains an account of the introduction of Buddhism into Tibet, and of the closing part of the life of Srong Tsan Gampo.
At the great yearly festival at Lhasa they make in the cathedral an imposing array, not much less magnificent than that of the clergy in Rome; for the ancient simplicity of dress has disappeared in the growing differences of rank, and each division of the spiritual army is distinguished in Tibet, as in the West, by a special uniform.
The Drepung Monastery used to nourish a lot of scholars of Buddhism in Tibet.
Most of the remedies outlined in Tibetan herbal medicine are indigenous to Tibet or neighboring China and India.
Some cruises even travel through Mongolia, Hong Kong and Tibet.
A tomb found in the Dulan-Reshui area in Tibet was filled with a variety of animals that would have been needed in the afterlife.
Legend believes the two lovers arrive every year in a province near Tibet named Butterfly Spring in the form of carefree butterflies sharing true love.
On a Tibet Tour, you will travel almost 12,000 feet above sea-level to visit the land of Tibet, roof of the world.
You will enjoy the mysterious beauty and unique Buddhist culture of Tibet, including the Reed Flute Cave, Pujiang Cruise, the Potala Palace, the Jokhang Temple, Leshan Giant Budha and other great destinations.
China Odyssey Tours offers a 3 Nights & 4 Days Tour Program in Tibet.
China Odyssey Tours is the country's leading tour operator, with service provided for Hong Kong and Tibet.
For a period of time, Steven Seagal lived in Tibet as an official Buddhist Monk.
Antonio Andrada, in 1624, was the first European to enter Tibet since the visit of Friar Odoric in 1325.
The Amphizoidae, for example, a small family of aquatic beetles, are known only from western North America and Eastern Tibet, while an allied family, the Pelobiidae, inhabit the British Isles, the Mediterranean region, Tibet and Australia.
The extreme rigour of the climate of Tibet, which combines great cold with great drought, makes the country essentially very poor, and the chief portion of it little better than desert.
The two great rivers of China, the Hwang-ho and the Yang-tsze-kiang take their rise from the eastern face of Tibet, the former from the north-east angle, the latter from the south-east.
The great rivers of northern India - the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Indus - all derive their waters from the Tibetan mountain mass; and it is a remarkable circumstance that the northern water-parting of India should lie to the north of the Himalaya in the regions of central Tibet.
The portion of Asia west of British India, excluding Arabia and Syria, forms another extensive plateau covering an area as large as that of Tibet, though at a much lower altitude.