direct), situated on the left bank of the Tiber, 945 ft.
Indeed it forms the right arm of the Tiber, by which navigation is carried on at the present day, and is known as the Fossa Trajana.
In prehistoric times the river ran straight on along the valley of the Chiana and joined the Tiber near Orvieto; and there was a great lake, the north end of which was at Incisa and the south at the lake of Chiusi.
South of this the country between the frontier of Tuscany and the Tiber is in great part of volcanic origin, forming hills with distinct crater-shaped basins, in several instances occupied by small lakes (the Lake of Bolsena, Lake of Vico and Lake of Bracciano).
Beginning from the group called the Alpi della Luna near the sources of the Tiber, which attain 4435 ft., they are continued by the Monte Nerone (5010 ft.), Monte Catria (5590), and Monte Maggio to the Monte Pennino near Nocera (5169 ft.), and thence to the Monte della Sibilla, at the source of the Nar or Nera, which attains 7663 ft.
103, owing to the silting up of the Claudian harbour, and the increase of trade, to construct another port further inland - a hexagonal basin enclosing an area of 97 acres with enormous warehouses - communicating with the harbour of Claudius and with the Tiber by means of the channel already constructed by Claudius, this channel being prolonged so as to give also direct access to the sea.
In 1557, however, a great flood caused the Tiber to change its course, so that it no longer flowed under the walls of the castle, but some half a mile farther west; and its old bed (Fiume Morto) has ever since then served as a breeding ground for the malarial mosquito (Anopheles claviger).
OSTIA, an ancient town and harbour of Latium, Italy, at the mouth of the river Tiber on its left bank.
The Tiber, a much more important river than the Arno, and the largest in Italy with the exception of the Po, rises in the Apennines, about 20 m.
This was connected with the Tiber by an artificial channel, and by this work Claudius, according to the inscriptions which he erected in A.D.
of Rome on the Via Salaria, which ran between it and the Tiber.
5, p. 231) the harbour of Ostia had become dangerous: he speaks of it as a "city without a harbour owing to the silting up brought about by the Tiber.
In the middle ages Ostia regained something of its importance, owing to the silting up of the right arm of the Tiber.
above the valley of the Tiber.
Another lateral rsnge, the Prato Magno, which branches off from the central chain at the Monte Falterona, and separates the upper valley of the Arno from its second basin, rises to 5188 ft.; while a similar branch, called the Alpe di Catenaja, of inferior elevation, divides the upper course of the Arno from that of the Tiber.
The Teverone or Anio, which enters the Tiber a few miles above Rome, is an inferior stream to the Nera, but brings down a considerable body of water from the mountains above Subiaco.
It is a singular fact in the geography of Central Italy that the valleys of the Tiber and Arno are in some measure connected by that of the Chiana, a level and marshy tract, the waters from which flow partly into the Arno and partly into the Tiber.
The sixth region was formed by Umbria, in the more extended sense of the term, as including the Ager Gallicus, along the coast of the Adriatic from the Aesis to the Ariminus, and separated from Etruria on the west by the Tiber.
The seventh region consisted of Etruria, which preserved its ancient limits, extending from the Tiber to the Tyrrhenian Sea, and separated from Liguria on the north by the river Macra.
Westward two short but important roads led on each side of the Tiber to the great harbour at its mouth; while the coast of Latium was supplied with a coast road by Septimius Severus.
The Roman territory was divided into two departmentsthe Tiber and Trasimenus; the Code Napoleon was introduced, public works were set on foot and great advance was made in the material sphere.
bank of the Tiber, 44 m.
The territory of Orvieto extended from Chiusi to the coast at Orbetello, to the Lake of Bolsena and the Tiber.
Della Rovere, feeling that Rome was a dangerous place for him, fortified himself in his bishopric of Ostia at the Tiber's mouth, while Ferdinand allied himself with Florence, Milan, Venice, and the pope formed a league against Naples (April 25, 1493) and prepared for war.
On the 14th of June the duke of Gandia, lately created duke of Benevento, disappeared; the next day his corpse was found in the Tiber.
Nay more, the difficulties of all kinds against which Eugenius had to contend, the insurrection at Rome, which forced him to escape by the Tiber, lying in the bottom of a boat, left him at first little chance of resisting the enterprises of the council.
Cato advised the agriculturist to sell his old oxen and his old slaves, as well as his sick ones; and sick slaves were exposed in the island of Aesculapius in the Tiber; by a decree of Claudius slaves so exposed, if they recovered, could not be reclaimed by their masters.
In the last method the master turned the slave round, with the words " Tiber esto," in the presence of the praetor, that officer or his lictor at the same time striking the slave with his rod.
For further information see Gordan, Vorlesungen Tiber Invariantentheorie, Bd.
The Rhine was the classic river of the middle ages; and probably the Tiber alone is of equal historical interest among European rivers.
of Rome, where the Anio falls into the Tiber.
Maxentius was defeated at Saxa Rubra near Rome and drowned in the Tiber while attempting to make his way across the Milvian bridge into Rome.
Italy from the Tiber to the Alps, but by the end of the 5th century B.C. it was considerably diminished, and about the year 100 B.C. its boundaries were the Arnus (Arno), the Apennines and the Tiber.
The Imperial fleet, moving up the Tiber and led by the great general, only just failed to succour the city, which must then, perforce, open its gates to the Goths.
According to other authorities, the Romans were obliged to surrender the city, to acknowledge Porsena's supremacy by sending him a sceptre, a royal robe, and an ivory chair, to abandon their territory north of the Tiber, to give up their arms, and in future to use iron for agricultural purposes only.
above sea-level on the right bank of the Ve]ino (a torrent subtributary to the Tiber), which at this point issues from the limestone plateau; the old town occupies the declivity and the new town spreads out on the level.
On the other hand the Mors Pilati tells how when condemned by the emperor he committed suicide; and his body, thrown first into the Tiber and then the Rhone, disturbed both waters, and was driven north into " Losania," where it was plunged in the gulf near Lucerne and below Mt Pilatus (originally no doubt Pileatus or cloud-capped), from whence it is raised every Good Friday to sit and wash unavailing hands.
Its base was in Venetia, and its point was advanced to the Tiber.
to the mouth of the Tiber, and including the duchies of Perugia and Rome, served to unite the immediate territory of Ravenna with the duchy of Naples, and to separate the two bodies under Lombard dominion, the kingdom in the north, and the southern - duchies Spoletum and Beneventum.
In 493 B.C., at a time of serious famine, they ordered the building of a temple to the Greek triad Demeter, Dionysus and Persephone, who were identified with the old Roman divinities Ceres, Liber and Libera: Apollo must have come with or before the books themselves, though his temple was not built till 433 B.C.: Mercury followed, the representative of `Epµns 'E,uuroXaaos, Asclepius was brought from Epidaurus to the Tiber island in 293 B.C., and Dis and Proserpina, with their strange chthonic associations and night ritual, probably from Tarentum in 249 B.C. With new deities came new modes of worship: the graecus ritus, in which, contrary to Roman usage, the worshipper's head was unveiled, and the lectisternium, an elaborate form of the "banquet of the gods."
8), and that in 105 he was appointed curator of the river Tiber (v.
Its first portion must be of early origin, and was the route by which the Sabines came 'to fetch salt from the marshes at the mouth of the Tiber.
According to Virgil (Aeneid, vii.-xii.), Aeneas, on landing at the mouth of the Tiber, was welcomed by Latinus, the peaceful ruler whose seat of government was Laurentum, and ultimately married his daughter Lavinia.
Fosso della Valchetta), a small stream in Etruria which falls into the Tiber about 6 m.
The remains of numerous other villas lie along the ancient coast-line (which was half a mile inland of the modern, being now marked by a row of sand-hills, and was followed by the Via Severiana), both north-west and south-east of Tor Paterno: they extended as a fact in an almost unbroken line along the low sandy coast - now entirely deserted and largely occupied by the low scrub which serves as cover for the wild boars of the king of Italy's preserves - from the mouth of the Tiber to Antium, and thence again to Astura; but there are no traces of any buildings previous to the imperial period.
The construction of the harbour of Claudius at the mouth of the Tiber adversely affected Puteoli.
- The first bridge known to have been constructed at Rome over the Tiber was the timber Pons Sub Quattro Capi), of about 62 B.C., is practically intact; and the Pons Cestius, built probably in 46 B.C., retains much of the original masonry.
Orte, where it crossed the Tiber).
Ameria is not mentioned in the history of the Roman conquest of Umbria, but is alluded to as a flourishing place, with a fertile territory extending to the Tiber, by Cicero in his speech in defence of Sextus Roscius Amerinus, and its fruit is often extolled by Roman writers.
After further struggles between Guelphs and Ghibellines, the Manfredi made themselves masters of the place early in the 14th century, and remained in power until 1501, when the town was taken by Caesar Borgia and the last legitimate members of the house of the Manfredi were drowned in the Tiber; and, after falling for a few years into the hands of the Venetians, it became a part of the states of the church in 1509.
According to Daub (Judas Ischariot, oder Betrachtungen Tiber das Bose im Verhaltniss zum Guten, 1816, 1818) Judas was "an incarnation of the devil," to whom "mercy and blessedness are alike impossible."
He fortified the Janiculum, threw a wooden bridge across the Tiber, founded the port of Ostia, established salt-works and built a prison.
The identification with Ancus is shown by the legend which makes the latter a bridge-builder (pontifex), the constructor of the first wooden bridge over the Tiber.
- Amongst the great famines of history may be named the following: 13.c.436 Famine at Rome, when thousands of starving people threw themselves into the Tiber.
They dwelt in the mountainous country east of the Tiber, and north of the districts inhabited by the Latins and the Aequians in the heart of the Central Apennines.
The populace of the Tiber welcomed and expelled him with equal enthusiasm, and when his body was brought back from exile, the mob went before the cortege and threw mud and stones upon the funeral litter.
from the latter, and after a short course through the territory of the latter town joins the Tinia, a tributary of the Tiber.
p. 228), as well as by Pliny, who terms the additional territory thus incorporated Latium Adjectum, while he designates the original Latium, extending from the Tiber to Circeii, as Latium Antiquum.
The hills on the right bank Geology, of the Tiber culminating in Monte Mario (455 ft.) belong to the first of these, being of the Pliocene formation; they consist of a lower bluish-grey clay and an upper group of yellow sands and gravels.
These hills (especially the Palatine, the site of the original settlement) with their naturally steep sides, partly surrounded at the base by marshes and situated not far from the confluence of the Anio with the Tiber, possessed natural advantages not shared by the other primitive settlements of the district; and their proximity to one another rendered it easy to bring them into a larger whole.
or more inland (see Lavinium, Tiber).
from the mouth of the Tiber to the promontory of Antium (Porto d'Anzio), a low rocky headland, projecting out into the sea, and forming the only considerable angle in this line of coast.
The district sloping down from Velletri to the dead level of the Pontine (Pomptine) Marshes has not, like the western and northern slopes of the Alban Hills, drainage towards the Tiber.
Numerous isolated palaeolithic objects of the Mousterian type have been found in the neighbourhood of Rome in the quaternary gravels of the Tiber and Anio; but no certain traces of the neolithic period have come to light, as the many Pre" flint implements found sporadically round Rome pro- historic bably belong to the period which succeeded neolithic (called by Italian archaeologists the eneolithic period) inasmuch as both stone and metal (not, however, bronze, but copper) were in use.
Nomentum was a few miles farther north, between the Apennines and the Tiber, and close to the Sabine frontier.
of the city, and close to the Tiber; and Crustumerium, in the hilly tract farther north towards the Sabine frontier.
The su trema information that we have as to the districts in which p the sixteen earliest clans (tribus rusticae) 4 were settled shows us that, except along the Tiber, Rome's dominion extended hardly more than 5 m.
But Roman sway must either from the first, or very soon, have extended to Ostia, the port of Rome at the mouth of the Tiber: and it was as the emporium of Latium that Rome acquired her first importance.6 2 Albani, Aesolani (probably E.
The tribus Romilia was settled on the right bank of the Tiber near the sanctuary of the Arvales, the Galeria perhaps a little farther west on the lower course of the stream now known as Galera, and the Fabia perhaps on the Cremera towards Veii.
The correlative of the Via Salaria was the Via Campana, so called because it led past the grove of the Arvales along the right bank of the Tiber to the Campus Salinarum Romanarum,' the salt marshes, from which the Via Salaria took its name, inasmuch as it was the route by which Sabine traders came from the interior to fetch the salt.
We find that while the later (long distance) roads bear as a rule the name of their constructor, all the short distance roads on the left bank of the Tiber bear the names of towns which belonged to the league - Nomentum, Tibur, Praeneste, Labici, Ardea, Laurentumwhile Ficulea and Collatia do not appear.
The regulation of the rivers, more especially of the Tiber, is probably the most efficient method for coping with the problem.
Since 1884 the Italian Government have been systematically enclosing, pumping dry, and generally draining the marshes of the Agro Romano, that is, the tracts around Ostia; the Isola Sacra, at the mouth of the Tiber; and Maccarese.
from Umbria by the Tiber, while on the E.
After capturing his rival Glycerius, who had been nominated by the army in 473, at the mouth of the Tiber, he was recognized as emperor in Rome, Italy and Gaul.
Two festivals called Faunalia were celebrated in honour of Faunus, one on the 13th of February in his temple on the island in the Tiber, the other in the country on the 5th of December (Ovid, Fasti, ii.
It lies in a fertile plain, on the Topino, a tributary of the Tiber; it is almost square in shape and is surrounded by walls.
Summanus had a temple at Rome near the Circus Maximus, dedicated at the time of the invasion of Italy by Pyrrhus, king of Epirus (278), when a terracotta image of the god (or of Jupiter himself) on the pediment of the Capitoline temple was struck by lightning and hurled into the river Tiber.
of Perugia by road, on a steep hill above the east bank of the Tiber, 1348 ft.
Francesco a Ripa, on the right bank of the Tiber, where some traces of the aqueduct were perhaps found in 1720.
Augustus, when he instituted a general restoration of the roads of Italy, which he assigned for the purpose among various senators, reserved the Flaminia for himself, and rebuilt all the bridges except the Pons Mulvius, by which it crosses the Tiber, 2 m.
Notwithstanding subsequent discoveries of stupendous paintings in the gardens of the Villa Farnesina on the banks of the Tiber, the monochromes of Herculaneum remain among the finest specimens of the exquisite taste and consummate skill displayed by the ancient artists.
In the Comitium was an "area Volcani," also called "Volcanal"; and here on the 23rd of August (Volcanalia) the Flamen Volcanalis sacrificed, and the heads of Roman families threw into the fire small fish, which the Tiber fishermen sold on the spot.
As was fully his due, his funeral oration was pronounced by Augustus, and he was buried in the mausoleum near the Tiber built by Augustus for himself and his family.
The ashes were reverently collected by Livia, and placed in the mausoleum by the Tiber which her husband had built for himself and his family.
The Etruscans, who were separated from the Romans only by the Tiber, gradually lost the voiced mutes.
of Corchiano, nearer the Tiber, where remains of Etruscan walls exist.
above sea-level) with a view over the valleys of the Tiber and Topino.
Velia up to the low cliffs of the Esquiline, and in another it laid waste the Aventine, the Forum Boarium and Velabrum till it reached the Tiber and the solid barrier of the Servian wall.
In June 1155 Arnold was hanged, his body burnt, and the ashes were thrown into the Tiber.
Fosso Bettina), a small tributary of the river Tiber, joining it on the left (east) bank, about 11 m.
114) differ with regard to the site of the battle, the former putting it on the left, the latter on the right bank of the Tiber.
Next we get incidental but not unimportant references to the destruction of roads and property wrought by the Goths, to the state of the havens at the mouths of the Tiber, and the general decay of nearly all the old commercial ports on the coast..
Refusing to remain with Dido, queen of Carthage, who in despair puts an end to her life, he sets sail from Africa, and after seven years' wandering lands at the mouth of the Tiber.
ACCA LARENTIA (not Laurentia), in Roman legend, the wife of the shepherd Faustulus, who saved the lives of the twins Romulus and Remus after they had been thrown into the Tiber.
TIBER (anc. Tiberis; Ital.
The area of the Tiber basin is 6845 sq.
It does not, however, form a delta proportionate to the volume of its water, owing to a strong sea current flowing northwards close to the shore, to the sudden sinking of the sea to a great depth immediately off the mouth of the river, and possibly also to the permanent subsidence of the Italian coast from the Tiber .mouth southwards to Terracina.
The lower course of the Tiber has been from the earliest ages subject to frequent and severe inundations; of more recent ones, those of 1598, 1870 and 1900 have been especially destructive, but since the year 1876 the municipality of Rome, assisted by the Italian Government, has taken steps to check, and possibly to prevent these calamities within the city by constructing embankments of stone, resting on caissons, for a total distance (counting in both sides of the river) of 6 miles.
In the prehistoric period the mouth of the Tiber must have been situated at the point where the hills which follow it on each side cease, about 12 m.
4538), performed such miracles by magic acts in Rome during the reign of Claudius, that he was regarded as a god and honoured with a statue " in the river Tiber, between the two bridges, having an inscription in Latin as follows: Simoni Deo SANCT0."
In 1574, during the pontificate of Gregory XIII., a stone was dug up in the island of the Tiber bearing the inscription - " Semoni Sango Deo Sacrum Sex.
He chose an episode in the victory won by the generals of the republic in 1440 over Niccolo Piccinino near a bridge at Anghiari, in the upper valley of the Tiber.
In 1875 he was enabled to render, in his private capacity, a signal service to the Italian government, which was much embarrassed by impracticable proposals pressed on it by Garibaldi for a rectification of the course of the Tiber and other engineering works.
This goddess had her own special priest, a grove across the Tiber where Gaius Gracchus was slain, and a festival on the 25th of July.
The god was fetched from Epidaurus in the form of a snake and a temple assigned him on the island in the Tiber (Livy x.
The Umbrian Apennines extend from the sources of the Tiber to (or perhaps rather beyond) the pass of Scheggia near Cagli, where the ancient Via Flaminia crosses the range.
The chief river is the Tiber itself: the others, among which the Foglia (Pisaurus), Metauro 1 The ancient Via Aemilia, built in 109 B.C., led over this pass, but originally turned east to Dertona (mod.
The chief rivers on the west are the Nera (Nar), with its tributaries the Velino (Velinus) and Salto, and the Anio, both of which fall into the Tiber.
The volcanic mountains of the province of Rome are separated from the Apennines by the Tiber valley, and the Monti Lepini, or Volscian mountains, by the valleys of the Sacco and Liri.
The name is clearly derived from pons and facere, but whether this should be taken as indicating any special connexion with the sacred bridge over the Tiber (Pons Sublicius), or what the original meaning may have been, cannot now be determined.
While Carlo Zeno harassed the Genoese stations in the Levant, Vettor Pisani brought one of their squadrons to action on the 30th of May 1378 off Punta di Anzio to the south of the Tiber, and defeated it.
38) resembling men tied hand and foot, which were taken down to the ancient bridge over the Tiber (pons sublicius) on the 14th of May by the pontifices and magistrates, with the flaminica Dialis in mourning guise, and there thrown into the Tiber by the Vestal virgins.
Mannhardt, who by comparing numerous examples of similar customs among other European peoples arrived at the conclusion that the rite was of extreme antiquity and of dramatic rather than sacrificial character, and that its object was possibly to procure rain; (2) that of Wissowa, who refuses to date it farther back than the latter half of the 3rd century B.C., and sees in it the yearly representation of an original sacrifice of twentyseven captive Greeks (taking Argei as a Latin form of 'Ap-yE701) by drowning in the Tiber.
There was a second chapel of Semo Sancus on the island in the Tiber with an altar, the inscription on which led Christian writers (Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Eusebius) to confuse him with Simon Magus, and to infer that the latter was worshipped at Rome as a god.
above sea-level, at the south end of the open valley of the Topino, a tributary of the Tiber, which it joins near Assisi.
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The Tiber sends back a glassy stare in the darkness.
During the pope's absence in Paris, at the coronation of Napoleon, Consalvi remained as virtual sovereign in Rome; and his regency was rendered remarkable by a great inundation, caused by the overflow of the Tiber, during which he exposed himself with heroic humanity for the preservation of the sufferers.
Ostia, however, was by no means an ideal harbour; the mouth of the Tiber is exposed to the south-west wind, which often did damage in the harbour itself; in A.D.
Hence an ancient road, leading between warehouses (into which the Tiber is encroaching), in one room of which a number of well-preserved large jars may be seen embedded in the floor, runs close to the river to a large private house with thermae, in which five mosaics were found: it (groundlessly) bears the name of "imperial palace."
It is especially necessary to make clear that the language known as Umbrian is that of a certain limited area, which cannot yet be shown to have extended very far beyond the eastern half of the Tiber valley (from Interamna Nahartium to Urvinum Mataurense), because the term is often used by archaeologists with a far wider connotation to include all the Italic, pre-Etruscan inhabitants of upper Italy; Professor Ridgeway, for instance, in his Early Age of Greece, frequently speaks of the "Umbrians" as the race to which belonged the Villanova culture of the Early Iron age.
The two valleys of the Arno and the Tiber (Ital.
It may be divided into three groups: the Monti Albani, the second highest1 of which, Monte Cavo (3115 ft.), is the ancient Mons Albanus, on the summit of which stood the temple of Jupiter Latialis, where the assemblies of the cities forming the Latin confederation were held; the Monti Cimini, which extend from the valley of the Tiber to the neighbourhood of Civita Vecchia, and attain at their culminating point an elevation of 3454 ft.; and the mountains of Radicofani and Monte Amiata, the latter of which is 5688 ft.
It thus extended from the mouth of the Tiber to that of the Silarus (see LATIUM).
By noon the whole city on the left of the Tiber was occupied and the garrison laid down their arms; the next da~, at the popes request, the Leonine City on the right bank was also occupied.
The rise of the Tiber and the flooding of Rome in December 1870 (tactfully used by Victor Emmanuel as an opportunity for a first visit to the new capital) illustrated the imperative necessity of reorganizing the drainage of the city and of constructing the Tiber embankment.
An inundation of the Tiber swept away a large part of Rome, destroying fields, drowning cattle, and causing a famine (162); then came earthquakes, fires and plagues of insects; the soldiers in Britain tried to induce their general Statius Priscus to proclaim himself emperor; finally, the Parthians under Vologaeses III.
Nero's works for his proposed canal from Baiae to the Tiber (A.D.
crossed the Tiber incognito to his former residence in the Falconieri Palace to collect his papers, returning at once to the Vatican, where he continued to regard himself as "imprisoned" so long as the Italian government occupied the city of Rome.
It is to the following effect: Gaius Plinius Caecilius, son of Lucius, of the Ufentine tribe; augur; legate-propraetor of the province of Pontus and Bithynia, with consular power, by decree of the senate sent into the said province by the emperor Nerva Trajan; curator of the bed and banks of the Tiber and of the; praefect of the Treasury of Saturn; praefect of the Treasury of War;, tribune of the plebs; emperor's quaestor, sevir of the knights; military tribune of the Gallic legion; for the adjudication of; provided by will for the erection of baths at a cost of ., adding for the furnishing of the same 300,000 sesterces (2400) and furthermore, for maintenance, 200,000 sesterces (£1600); likewise, for the support of one hundred of his own freedmen to the township 1,866,666 sesterces (c. 15,000), the eventual accretions he devised to the townsfolk for a public entertainment;.
The sea is encroaching slightly at Anzio, but some miles farther north-west the old Roman coast-line now lies slightly inland (see Tiber).
Reared in the nurture of the pope, the populace of the Tiber renounced its stormy liberty in 1209, and accepted the peace and order that a beneficent master gave; but when Innocent attempted to extend to the whole of Italy the regime of paternal subjection that had been so successful at Rome, the difficulties of the enterprise surpassed the powers even of a leader of religion.
It thus denoted the whole country from the Tiber to the mouth of the Savo, and just included the Mons Massicus, though the boundary was not very precisely fixed (see below).
On the other hand, the ossuaries of the Villanova type, while they occur as far south as Veii and Caere, have never so far been found on the left bank of the Tiber, in Latium proper (see L.
Head to Rome's southwest corner and walk across the Tiber river.
The Romans eventually conquered it but didn't build on the land, preferring to keep it merely for strategic purposes to control both sides of the Tiber river.
Upon the advent of the Left to power, however, he accepted both gift and pension, and worked energetically upon the scheme for the Tiber embankment to prevent the flooding of Rome.
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