The term Thysanoptera was first used by the Irish entomologist A.
THYSANOPTERA (Oiaavos, a fringe, and 7rTepbv, a wing), a term used in zoological classification for a small order of the class Hexapoda.
Many species of Thysanoptera are known to be habitually parthenogenetic. The eggs are laid on the food-plant, those females possessed of an ovipositor cutting through the epidermis and placing their eggs singly within the plant-tissues; a single female may take five or six weeks to deposit all her eggs.
Thysanoptera are found on the leaves and in the blossoms of plants.
While the majority of the Thysanoptera are thus vegetarian in their diet, and are frequently injurious in farm and garden, some species, at least occasionally, adopt a predaceous habit, killing aphids and small mites (so-called "red-spiders") and sucking their juices.
The usual variations in habit that characterize plant-feeding insects are exhibited by the Thysanoptera some species being found only on one particular food-plant, while others thrive indifferently on a large assortment.
The Thysanoptera are probably world-wide in their range, but they have hardly been studied outside Europe and North America.
Tubulifera: This division comprises but a single family - the Phloeothripidae; the species are not numerous, but some of them are of large size for Thysanoptera, as much as 8 mm.
- The number of important writings on the Thysanoptera is not large.
Injurious insects occur among the following orders: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera (both heteroptera and homoptera), Orthoptera, Neuroptera and Thysanoptera.
The nymph of a thrips-insect (Thysanoptera) is sluggish, its legs and wings being sheathed by a delicate membrane, while the nymph of the male scaleinsect rests enclosed beneath a waxy covering.
of Ephemeridae and in the quiescent or resting stages of Thysanoptera, Aleurodidae and Coccidae.
The sub-imago of the Ephemeroptera suggests that a moult, after the wings had become functional, was at one time general among the Hexapoda, and that the resting nymph of the Thysanoptera or the pupa of the Endopterygota represents a formerly active stage in the life-history.
This order can be traced with certainty back to the early Jurassic epoch, while the Permian fossil Eugereon, and the living order - specially modified in many respects - of the Thysanoptera indicate steps by which the aberrant suctorial and piercing mouth of the Hemiptera may have been developed from the biting mouth of primitive Isopteroids, by the elongation of some parts and the suppression of others.
Orders: Dermaptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Isoptera, Corrodentia, Ephemoptera, Odonata, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, Anoplura.
For a general account of the structure, development and relationships of insects, see Arthropoda and Hexapoda, while details of the form, habits and classification of insects will be found in articles on the various orders or groups of orders (Aptera, Coleoptera, Dipteria,Hemiptera,Hymenoptera,Lepidoptera,Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Thysanoptera), and in special articles on the more familiar divisions (ANT, BEE, Dragon-Fly, Earwig, &c.).
Since then various authors have incorporated the Thysanoptera with one of the large orders, some, following Linnaeus, regarding them as Hemiptera, others grouping with them the Orthoptera or Pseudoneurop- (The illustrations in this article are all after tera."
Uzel, Monographie der Ordnung Thysanoptera, and are used with his agree with Haliday and Burpermission.) meister in allowing the ThysanFIG.
The Thysanoptera, small insects with firmly chitinized cuticle, are recognized by the combination of imperfectly suctorial jaws - the mandibles acting as piercers and maxillae retaining their palps (see fig.
In their life-history the Thysanoptera belong to the Exopterygote division of the Hexapoda (q.v.).
Its condition thus recalls the pupal instar of the higher (Endopterygote) Hexapoda; and the Thysanoptera, though few in number, are seen to be of great interest to the student, exhibiting at once a transition between the biting and the suctorial mouth, and the passage from " incomplete " to " complete " metamorphosis.
In two of the three families of Thysanoptera the female has a conspicuous ovipositor (fig.
The internal structure of the Thysanoptera has been studied by (After H.
tion of the nervous system and in the a, Anterior; b, pof presence of four Malpighian (excretory) terior process of tubes the Thysanoptera resemble the ovipositor.
Some Thysanoptera habitually dwell on the under-surface of leaves, and others periodically migrate to roots.
While the majority of the Thysanoptera are thus vegetarian in their diet, and are frequently injurious in farm and garden, some species, at least occasionally, adopt a predaceous habit, killing aphids and small mites (so-called " red-spiders ") and sucking their juices.
Only about 150 species of Thysanoptera are known; the European species with a few exotic forms have been described by Uzel, the North American by Hinds.
Uzel's Monographie der Ordnung Thysanoptera (Koniggratz, 1895; in the Czech language.
Includes three families of Thrips (see Thysanoptera).