The chief cleruchies of Pericles are: Thracian Chersonese (453-452), Lemnos and Imbros, Andros, Naxos and Eretria (before 447); ' Brea in Thrace (446); Oreus (445); Amisus and Astacus in the Black Sea (after 440); Aegina (431).
505, in "Germania," a district on the borders of Thrace and Macedonia.
After travelling through many of the Aegean islands, through Sicily, Sardinia and Magna Graecia, everywhere conferring benefits and receiving divine honours, Aristaeus reached Thrace, where he was initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus, and finally disappeared near Mount Haemus.
While in Thrace he is said to have caused the death of Eurydice, who was bitten by a snake while fleeing from him.
ADRIANOPLE, a vilayet of European Turkey, corresponding with part of the ancient Thrace, and bounded on the N.
According to the best-known tradition, Orpheus was the son of Oeagrus, king of Thrace, and the muse Calliope.
During his residence in Thrace he joined the expedition of the Argonauts, whose leader Jason had been informed by Chiron that only by the aid of Orpheus would they be able to pass by the Sirens unscathed.
During his brief reign Decius was engaged in important operations against the Goths, who crossed the Danube and overran the districts of Moesia and Thrace.
LAMPSACUS, an ancient Greek colony in Mysia, Asia Minor, known as Pityusa or Pityussa before its colonization by Ionian Greeks from Phocaea and Miletus, was situated on the Hellespont, opposite Callipolis (Gallipoli) in Thrace.
From the mines of Thrace, and perhaps from the harbour dues and from the mines of Laurium, he derived a large revenue; under his encouragement, Miltiades had planted an Athenian colony on the shores of the Thracian Chersonese; he had even made friends with Thessaly and Macedonia, as is evidenced by the hospitality extended by them to Hippias on his final expulsion.
By the euhemeristic Hellespontine Greeks Herodotus was told that Zalmoxis was really a man, formerly a slave of Pythagoras at Samos, who, having obtained his freedom and amassed great wealth, returned to Thrace, and instructed his fellow-tribesmen in the doctrines of Pythagoras and the arts of civilization.
The power of the Achaemenidae, when at its maximum, extended from the Oxus and Indus in the east to Thrace in the west and Egypt in the south, but fell before Greece, after lasting for rather more than 200 years.
Seleucus now saw the whole empire of Alexander, Egypt alone excepted, in his hands, and moved to take possession of Macedonia and Thrace.
With his father's murderer, Ptolemy, Antiochus was soon compelled to make peace, abandoning apparently Macedonia and Thrace.
Antiochus also made some attempt to get a footing in Thrace.
Of these Pergamum now rose to greatness under Attalus I., and Antiochus Hierax perished as a fugitive in Thrace in 228/7.
It was this enterprise which brought him into antagonism with Rome, since Smyrna and Lampsacus appealed to the republic of the west, and the tension became greater after Antiochus had in 196 established a footing in Thrace.
In 385 he was appointed master of the soldiery (magister militum) in Thrace, and shortly afterwards directed energetic campaigns in Britain against Picts, Scots and Saxons, and along the Rhine against other barbarians.
Consequently in 395, after a successful campaign against the Germans on the Rhine, Stilicho marched to the east, nominally to expel the Goths and Huns from Thrace, but really with the design of displacing Rufinus, and by connivance with these same barbarians he procured the assassination of Rufinus at the close of the year, and thereby became virtual master of the empire.
According to Euripides (in the Hecuba), her youngest son Polydorus had been placed during the siege of Troy under the care of Polymestor, king of Thrace.
of Thrace, revived commercial prosperity, and carried on a.
In closest contact with the king's person were the seven, or latterly eight, body-guards, awµaTocuAaKes, Macedonians of high rank, including Ptolemy and Lysimachus, the future kings of Egypt, and Thrace (Arr.
But now a third war began, the old associates of Antigonus, alarmed by his overgrown power, combining against him - Cassander, Ptolemy, Lysimachus, the governor of Thrace, and Seleucus, who had fled before Antigonus from his satrapy of Babylonia.
The repulsive character of the Harpies is more especially seen in the legend of Phineus, king of Salmydessus in Thrace (Apollodorus i.
Syria, Pontus, Lydia, Galatia, and above all Thrace were sources of supply.
It corresponded roughly to ancient Thrace, Macedonia with Chalcidice, Epirus and a large part of Illyria, constituting the present administrative divisions of Stambul (Constantinople, including a small strip of the opposite Asiatic coast), Edirne (Adrianople), Salonica with Kossovo (Macedonia), Iannina (parts of Epirus and Thessaly), Shkodra (Scutari or upper Albania).
At that time the Greek emperor's rule was con fined to the shores of the Marmora, the Archipelago and Thrace.
At the entrance to the Euxine, at Salmydessus on the coast of Thrace, they met Phineus, the blind and aged king whose food was being constantly polluted by the Harpies.
THRACE, a name which was applied at various periods to areas of different extent.
The Hebrus, together with its tributaries which flow into it from the north, east and west, drains almost the whole of Thrace.
One district in the extreme north-west of Thrace lay beyond the watershed separating the streams that flow into the Aegean from those that reach the Danube: this was the territory of Sardica, the modern Sophia.
The climate of Thrace was regarded by the Greeks as very severe, and that country was spoken of as the home of the north wind, Boreas.
The north-eastern portion of the Aegean, owing to its proximity to the coast of Thrace, was known as the Thracian Sea, and in this were situated the islands of Thasos, Samothrace and Imbros.
The most powerful Thracian tribe was that of the Odrysae, whose king, Teres, .in the middle of the 5th century B.C. extended his dominion so as to include the greater part of Thrace.
In the course of the middle ages the northern parts of Thrace and some other districts of that country were occupied by a Bulgarian population; and in 1361 the Turks made themselves masters of Adrianople, which for a time became the Turkish capital.
The Scyths having fallen upon them from the north-east, the Cimmerians appear to have given way in two directions, towards the southwest, where the tombs of their kings were shown on the Tyras (Dniester) and one body joined with the Treres of Thrace in invading Asia Minor by the Hellespont; and towards the south-east where another body threatened the Assyrians, who called them Gimirrai (Hebrew Gomer; Gen.
About 512 B.C. Darius, having conquered Thrace, made an invasion bf Scythia, which, according to the account of Herodotus, he crossed as far as the Oarus, a river identified with the Volga, burned the town of Gelonus and returned in sixty days.
transplanted many Paulicians from Germanicia, Doliche, Melitene, and Theodosiupolis (Erzerum), to Thrace, to defend the empire from Bulgarians and Sclavonians.
He was banished to Trajanopolis in Thrace, where he died, probably about 337, though possibly not till 360.
deriving much benefit from the strategical transformation which had taken place in the Balkans consequent upon communications being opened between Thrace and the Central Powers; but there was every prospect of heavy artillery and munitions shortly beginning to find their way through from Germany and AustriaHungary to the Dardanelles.
After having withstood an attempt under Epaminondas to restore it to the Lacedaemonians, Byzantium joined with Rhodes, Chios, Cos, and Mausolus, king of Caria, in throwing off the yoke of Athens, but soon after sought Athenian assistance when Philip of Macedon, having overrun Thrace, advanced against it.
He travelled extensively, and taught and practised his profession at Athens, probably also in Thrace, Thessaly, Delos and his native island.
Of the first ten years of the league's history we know practically nothing, save that it was a period of steady, successful activity against the few remaining Persian strongholds in Thrace and the Aegean (Herod.
Trouble, however, soon arose over Zacynthus, and the Spartans not only sent help to the Zacynthian oligarchs but even besieged Corcyra (373) Timotheus was sent to relieve the island, but shortness of money compelled him to search for new allies, and he spent the summer of 373 in persuading Jason of Pherae (if he had not already joined), and certain towns in Thrace, the Chersonese, the Propontis and the Aegean to enrol themselves.
of Macedon had begun his career of conquest, and had shattered an embryonic alliance between the league and certain princes of Thrace (Cetriporis), Paeonia (Lyppeius) and Illyria (Grabus).
In 341 his army was still campaigning in eastern Thrace, when Philip felt compelled to show his presence in Thessaly.
Having defeated the Quadi and Sarmatians on the Danube, Carus proceeded through Thrace and Asia Minor, conquered Mesopotamia, pressed on to Seleucia and Ctesiphon, and carried his arms beyond the Tigris.
- (ED.) Meanwhile in Phrygia and its neighbourhood - especially in Galatia, and also in Thrace - a controversy was raging between the adherents and the opponents of the new prophecy.
They went through Thrace, visiting Athens, Bithynia, Galatia, Pontus, Cappadocia and Cilicia, to Antioch, Jerome observing and making notes as they went.
In 655, after repeated examinations, in which he maintained his theological opinions with memorable constancy, he was banished to Byzia in Thrace, and afterwards to Perberis.
He undertook the long and perilous journey from Sardis to the Persian capital Susa, visited Babylon, Colchis, and the western shores of the Black Sea as far as the estuary of the Dnieper; he travelled in Scythia and in Thrace, visited Zante and Magna Graecia, explored the antiquities of Tyre, coasted along the shores of Palestine, saw Gaza, and made a long stay in Egypt.
The stories that he had heard in Egypt of Sesostris may then have stimulated him to make voyages from Samos to Colchis, Scythia and Thrace.
He speaks in places as if his object was to record the wars between the Greeks and the barbarians; but as he omits the Trojan war, in which he fully believes, the expedition of the Teucrians and Dlysians against Thrace and Thessaly, the wars connected with the Ionian colonization of Asia Minor and others, it is evident that he does not really aim at embracing in his narrative all the wars between Greeks and barbarians with which he was acquainted.
In tracing the growth of Persia from a petty subject kingdom to a vast dominant empire, he has occasion to set out the histories of Lydia, Media, Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, Scythia, Thrace, and to describe the countries and the peoples inhabiting them, their natural productions, climate, geographical position, monuments, &c.; while, in noting the contemporaneous changes in Greece, he is led to tell of the various migrations of the Greek race, their colonies, commerce, progress in the arts, revolutions, internal struggles, wars with one another, legislation, religious tenets and the like.
After the king's death, Onesicritus appears to have completed his work at the court of Lysimachus, king of Thrace.
They deemed that now, with organized rebellion afoot in the Turkish Balkans, was the opportunity to recover Macedonia and Thrace for division among themselves.
When war broke out the Ottoman forces in Europe numbered less than 250,000 men, dispersed over Macedonia and Thrace; they were thus at great numerical disadvantage.
The war was fought in two chief theatres of operations - the less important in Macedonia, against the Serbian, Greek and Montenegrin armies, assisted by two Bulgarian divisions; the more important in Eastern Thrace against the Bulgarians, later assisted by a considerable Serbian force.
The weight of Turkish resistance lay in Eastern Thrace, concentrated there for the defence of the capital and the straits.
They were poured into Eastern Thrace from Anatolia.
The main Bulgarian advance was made south-eastward through Eastern Thrace.
Subsequent Bulgarian operations were confined to resisting Turkish attempts to advance from Chatalja; to the occupation of Thrace down to the Sea of Marmora; to resisting an attack on the Bulgar lines across the isthmus of the Gallipoli Peninsula; and to the capture of Adrianople.
The Bulgarian armies were on the Greek and Serbian frontiers; the force left in Thrace was weak, and the Turkish Government saw their opportunity.
Two months after the same Government had signed away their European provinces, Enver Bey at the head of a Turkish army overran Eastern Thrace and reentered Adrianople almost unopposed.
Eastern Thrace and a considerable territory around Smyrna were assigned to Greece.
In 355 Liberius was one of the few who, along with Eusebius of Vercelli, Dionysius of Milan and Lucifer of Cagliari, refused to sign the condemnation of Athanasius, which had anew been imposed at Milan by imperial command upon all the Western bishops; the consequence was his relegation to Beroea in Thrace, Felix II.
According to Hehn, roses and lilies entered Greece from the east by way of Phrygia, Thrace and Macedonia (Kulturpflanzen and Hausthiere, 3rd ed., p. 217).
At the council of Constantinople (381) the bishop of Constantinople or New Rome was ranked next after the bishop of Rome (canon 3), and at the council of Chalcedon (451) he was given authority over the churches of the political dioceses of Pontus, Asia and Thrace (canon 28).
The existence of a tribe called Thyni in Thrace is well attested, and the two cognate tribes of the Thyni and Bithyni appear to have settled simultaneously in the adjoining parts of Asia, where they expelled or subdued the Mysians, Caucones, and other petty tribes, the Mariandyni alone maintaining themselves in the northeast.
THASOS, an island in the north of the Aegean Sea, off the coast of Thrace and the plain of the river Nestus (now the KaraSu).
It was agreed that Vespasian should stay behind to settle affairs in the East, while Mucianus made his way through Asia Minor and Thrace to attack Vitellius.
Dumont, Mission en Thrace (Greek volumes);
Adrianople had previously been the commercial headquarters of all Thrace, and of a large portion of the region between the Balkans and the Danube, now Bulgaria.
They had split off from the army which invaded Greece under Brennus in 279 B.C., and, marching into Thrace under Leonnorius and Lutarius, crossed over to Asia at the invitation of Nicomedes I.
The Boeotians by this means secured a powerful weapon of offence against Athens, being able to impede their supplies of gold and corn from Thrace, of timber from Macedonia, and of horses from Thessaly.
He was, however, finally forced to leave, and having plundered for some time in Thrace was captured and killed by the loyal Goth Fravitta.
Under Michael Parapinaces (1071-1078) and Nicephorus Botaniates (1078-1081) he was also employed, along with his elder brother Isaac, against rebels in Asia Minor, Thrace and in Epirus (1071).
He had next to repel the invasions of Patzinaks (Petchenegs) and Kumans in Thrace, with whom the Manichaean sects of the Paulicians and Bogomilians made common cause; and thirdly, he had to cope with the fast-growing power of the Turks in Asia Minor.
His dwelling-place was on Mount Haemus in Thrace, or at Salmydessus, near the country of the Hyperboreans.
The worship of Cybele was characteristic of Thrace, whither it spread from Asia Minor at a very early period, and it deserves notice that Hypsipyle and Myrina (the name of one of the chief towns) are Amazon names, which are always connected with Asiatic Cybele-worship. Coming down to a better authenticated period, we find that Lemnos was conquered by Otanes, one of the generals of Darius FIG.
was away hunting in Thrace, he was proclaimed emperor by the troops; he captured Isaac at Stagira in Macedonia, put out his eyes, and kept him henceforth a close prisoner, though he had been redeemed by him from captivity at Antioch and loaded with honours.
Eastward the Empire was overrun by the Turks; from the north Bulgarians and Vlachs descended unchecked to ravage the plains of Macedonia and Thrace; while Alexius squandered the public treasure on his palaces and gardens.
During the fighting and carnage that followed Alexius hid in the palace, and finally, with one of his daughters, Irene, and such treasures as he could collect, got into a boat and escaped to Develton in Thrace, leaving his wife, his other daughters and his Empire to the victors.
Mo-onros), famous for his Fables, is supposed to have lived from about 620 to 560 B.C. The place of his birth is uncertain - Thrace, Phrygia, Aethiopia, Samos, Athens and Sardis all claiming the honour.
Although the Hyperborean legends are mainly connected with Delphi and Delos, traces of them are found in Argos (the stories of Heracles, Perseus, Io), Attica, Macedonia, Thrace, Sicily and Italy (which Niebuhr indeed considers their original home).
most of what we now call Asia Minor, that portion of Thrace which lay over against Bithynia, Armenia, the city of Edessa.
He died in Thrace in December 1282.
Daughter of Lysimachus, king of Thrace, first wife of Ptolemy II.
Born about 316 B.C., she married Lysimachus, king of Thrace, who made over to her the territories of his divorced wife, Amastris.
Seleucus, who had seized Lysimachus's kingdom, was murdered in 281 by Ptolemy Ceraunus (half-brother of Arsinoe), who thus became master of Thrace and Macedonia.
3.05 to 311, was born near Sardica in Thrace.
340) takes in the origin of the Sla y s in Thrace is best explained by the war against them which called the emperor Constans II.
But hardly had the new state been established when various provinces rose in rebellion and the Bulgarians invaded Thrace.
In 419 and 417 there is practically no fighting: the Mantinean War of 418 is a disconnected episode which did not lead to a resumption of hostilities: in 420 there are only obscure battles in Thrace: in 416 there is only the expedition to Melos; and finally from 421 to 413 there is official peace.
Potidaea, a Dorian town on the western promontory of Chalcidice in Thrace, a tributary ally of Athens - to which however Corinth as metropolis still sent annual magistrates - was induced to revolt,' with the support.
with Sitalces against the Chalcidians of Thrace fell through,, and Sitalces joined Perdiccas.
This solitary success had already in the spring of 423 induced Sparta in spite of the successes which Brasidas was achieving in Thrace to accept the " truce of Laches " - which, however, was rendered abortive by the refusal of Brasidas to surrender Scione.
He spent immense sums on buildings of all sorts, on quays and harbours, on fortifications, repairing the walls of cities and erecting castles in Thrace to check the inroads of the barbarians, on aqueducts, on monasteries, above all, upon churches.
Besides these three great foreign wars, Justinian's reign was troubled by a constant succession of border inroads, especially on the northern frontier, where the various Slavonic and Hunnish tribes who were established along the lower Danube and on the north coast of the Black Sea made frequent marauding expeditions into Thrace and Macedonia, sometimes penetrating as far as the walls of Constantinople in one direction and the Isthmus of Corinth in another.
(2) The second Brennus is said to have been one of the leaders of an inroad made by the Gauls from the east of the Adriatic into Thrace and Macedonia (280), when they defeated and slew Ptolemy Ceraunus, then king of Macedonia.
The winter, though short, is often intensely cold, especially in the Danubian plain and in Thrace, the rigorous climate of which is frequently alluded to by the Latin poets.
At the end of the 7th century the Bulgars, a Turanian race, crossed the Danube and subjected the Slavonic inhabitants of Moesia and Thrace, but were soon assimilated by the conquered population, which had already become partly civilized.
The abortive treaty of San Stefano, concluded in that year, reduced the Turkish possessions in the Peninsula to Albania, Epirus, Thessaly and a portion of southern Thrace.
A series of papers dealing with the little-known antiquities of Thrace has been published by G.
by the Morea, or in other words the ancient provinces, including Constantinople and Salonica, of Thrace and Macedonia.
The Romans made two attempts to avenge themselves, one by the Western emperor, Majorianus, in 460, and the other by the Eastern emperor, Leo I., eight years later; but both enterprises failed, owing principally to the genius of Gaiseric. Continuing his course on the sea the king brought Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Islands under his rule, and even extended his conquests into Thrace, Egypt and Asia Minor.
The Magyars occupied Belgrade, the Petchenegs (Patzinaks) continued their inroads, and in 1065 the Uzes (called by the Greeks Comani), a Turkish tribe from the shores of the Euxine, crossed the Danube in vast numbers, ravaged Thrace and Macedonia, and penetrated as far as Thessalonica.
Palestine was apparently allotted to Antiochus and he came to take it, while Philip created a diversion in Thrace and Asia Minor.
From Palestine Antiochus turned to the Greek cities of Asia Minor, and by 196 B.C. he was in Thrace.
Ptolemy marched triumphantly into the heart of the Seleucid realm, as far at any rate as Babylonia, and received the formal submission of the provinces of Iran, while his fleets in the Aegean recovered what his father had lost upon the seaboard, and made fresh conquests as far as Thrace.
When his perfidy became known a civil war ensued, in which he was twice severely defeated - first near Cibalae in Pannonia (October 8th, 314), and next in the plain of Mardia in Thrace; the outward reconciliation, which was effected in the following December, left Licinius in possession of Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt, but added numerous provinces to the Western empire.
The remainder of the Visigoths, under Alavivus and Fritigern, now began to seek, and ultimately were successful in obtaining (376), the permission of the emperor Valens to settle in Thrace; Athanaric meanwhile took refuge in Transylvania, thus abandoning the field without any serious struggle to the irresistible Huns.
The area was divided into Albania (now Albania and Kosovo), Macedonia (now in Serbia, Macedonia, Bulgaria and Greece) and Thrace (now divided among Greece and Turkey).
Accordingly, the enraged Goths, under their chief Fritigern, streamed across the Balkans into Thrace and the country round Adrianople, plundering, burning and slaughtering as they went.
MEHEMET ALI (1769-1849), pasha and afterwards viceroy of Egypt, was born at Kavala, a small seaport on the frontier of Thrace and Macedonia.
The same variation occurs at the neighbouring Teos and at Ephesus, while the coins of Mesembria in Thrace show regularly Meta and M ET A M B P I A N S2 N, where represents the sound which resulted from the fusion of By, and which appears in Homer as Qa in ï¿½ Vvos, while in later Greek it becomes piaos.
After Alexander's death he was appointed to the government of Thrace and the Chersonese.
He tried to carry his power beyond the Danube, but was defeated and taken prisoner by the Getae, who, however, set him free on amicable terms. Demetrius subsequently threatened Thrace, but had to retire in consequence of a rising in Boeotia, and an attack from Pyrrhus of Epirus.
Elected as the tool of the bigoted orthodox party in the Church, Michael diligently persecuted the iconoclasts on the northern and eastern frontiers of the empire, but meanwhile allowed the Bulgarians to ravage a great part of Macedonia and Thrace; having at last taken the field in the spring of 813, he was defeated near Bersinikia, and Leo the Armenian was saluted emperor in his stead in the following summer.
We have already seen that the attempt of Darius to control the predatory nomads in the nortI~ led to his expedition against the Scythians; this, again, led tc the incorporation of Thrace and Macedonia, whose king Perdiccm submitted.
Macedonian expansion, at the expense of Thrace and Illyria, and the subjection of the Balkan Peninsula.
In 282 B.C. Seleucus took the field against Lysimachus, and annexed his dominions in Asia Minor and Thrace.
A rapid march through Thrace and Macedonia brought him to Thessaly, where he repulsed the Thessalian cavalry who tried to impede him.
the Treres, settling in Thrace, and crossing into Asia; others settled in southern Russia, leaving their name in the Crimea; then when hard pressed by the Scythians most of them passed round the east end of the Euxine into Asia Minor, probably being the people known as Gimirri on Assyrian monuments, and ravaged that region, the relics of the race finally settling at Sinope.
The remnant of those who returned from Greece joined that part of their army which had remained in Thrace, and marched for the Hellespont.
Her European possessions formed two separate theatres of war, Macedonia and Thrace, which were linked only by the coastal railway Dede Aghach - Seres - Salonika, and this line, open in its middle section to Bulgarian raids from the mountains on the N.
After a new survey of the situation in 1909-10 by Marshal von der Goltz it was decided to treat Macedonia as a self-contained theatre of war garrisoned at all times by a large army with Shtip (tip) as its area of war concentration, and to constitute in Thrace a covering army which would be reinforced by the troops from Asia as they successively arrived, up to the strength adequate for offensive operations against Bulgaria.
The peace-time distribution of the Turkish forces in Europe (other than garrison troops) was as follows: In Thrace were the I.
In the alternative, they would be available, with some delay in point of time, to reinforce the army in Thrace.
Neglecting second reserve formations, therefore, the paper dispositions gave Thrace 23 and Macedonia 22 divisions, to either of which might be added a further 18.
With regard to the proportioning of effort between the two theatres of war, contemporary military opinion, impressed by a sort of primacy which Bulgaria assumed in the league, by the more regular character of her army and her civil administration, and by the nearness of Constantinople to her eastern frontier, argued a priori that Thrace was not only the" principal "theatre, but the single important theatre in which practically all military effort should have been concentrated by both sides - a judgment which ignored the relation of strategy to war policy, and one for which in the sequel Bulgaria was destined to pay heavil y.
Bulgaria cherished ambitions in Thrace which extended even to Constantinople, and she had to consider the fact that sooner or later the Turkish forces in Thrace would be reenforced not only by their own allotted reserves but also by those, above alluded to, which the Greek navy prevented from going to Macedonia.
It provided also that if the military situation in Thrace required it, troops not indispensable in Macedonia might be transferred thither, and vice versa.
The 6 (or 7) Bulgarian divisions remaining were to form the army destined for Thrace.
But when at the last moment it became clear that the Bulgarian effort was concentrated on Thrace, `Ali Riza Pasha, commander-in-chief in the Macedonian theatre, was ordered to take the offensive.
The Campaign in Thrace.
28, Thrace became for the public, military and non-military alike, the principal theatre of war.
The army in Thrace, commanded by Abdalla Pasha under the higher direction of Nazim Pasha, the Minister of War, consisted of the I., II., III.
An effort was indeed made by the Turkish field forces in Thrace to debouch from the lines of Bulair and those of Chatalja simultaneously with a view to relieving Adrianople, but after locally heavy fighting the Bulgarians succeeded in holding their own on each of these fronts, and thereafter Adrianople was left to its fate.'
The combatants were fully deployed, and their battle was the first example of the form that has ' For example, a British officer lecturing at the staff college on his return from Thrace told his hearers that the Bulgarian 7th Div.
For the campaign of 1912 in Thrace, A.
de Pennenrun's Campaine de Thrace is the best contemporary account; an interesting study by Maj.
(afterwards Brig.-Gen.) P. Howell, The Campaign in Thrace (1913), stops short before Chatalja.
After a perilous voyage to Thrace, Delos, Crete and Sicily (where his father dies), he is cast up by a storm, sent by Juno, on the African coast.
In the middle ages, when it was named Didymotichos, it was one of the principal marts of Thrace; in modern times it has regained something of its commercial importance, and exports pottery, linen, silk and grain.
- The ancient patriarchate of Constantinople included the imperial dioceses of Pontus, Asia, Thrace and Eastern Illyricum - i.e.
Aurelian is said to have won a victory over them, but the province of Dacia had to be given up. In the time of Constantine the Great Thrace and Moesia were again plundered by the Goths, A.D.
Theodore's grandson, Theodore (Lascaris), emperor from 125 4 to 1258, is chiefly noticeable for two brilliant campaigns by which he recovered Thrace from the Bulgarians (1255-56).
Rebellions broke out at home and abroad; the Normans conquered Lombardy, which subsequently (1055) became the duchy of Apulia, and thus Italy was lost to the empire; the Petchenegs (Patzinaks) crossed the Danube and attacked Thrace and Macedonia; and the Seljuk Turks made their appearance on the Armenian frontier.
Being ordered byIphicrates to take theAmphipolitan hostages to Athens, he allowed them to return to their own people, and joined Cotys, king of Thrace, against Athens.
The territories had still to be conquered; and first of all it was necessary to break the resistance of the Greeks in Thrace and secure Thessalonica.
But in February the Greeks revolted in Thrace, relying on the assistance of John (Kaloyan), king of Bulgaria, whose overtures of alliance had been unwisely rejected by the emperor.
About 332 he set out against the rebellious tribes of Thrace; but before this insurrection was quelled, the Spartan king Agis had risen against Macedonia.
Having settled affairs in Thrace as well as he could, Antipater hastened to the south, and in a battle near Megalopolis (331) gained a complete victory over the insurgents (Diodorus xvii.
In 379 Theodosius, after reorganizing the army at Thessalonica, carried on a successful campaign of skirmishes along the Danube and induced numerous Gothic bands to give in their allegiance; his lieutenant Modares, a Gothic refugee, defeated the invaders severely in Thrace.
It embraces the period from the arrival of the Cotriguri Hunni in Thrace during the reign of Justinian in 558 down to the death of the emperor Tiberius in 582.
According to the generally accepted view, she is of Hellenic origin, but Farnell regards her as a foreign importation from Thrace, the home of Bendis, with whom Hecate has many points in common.
Caecilius Metellus (148), and fled to Thrace, whose prince gave him up to Rome.
In fact, Dionysus may be regarded under two distinct aspects: that of a popular national Greek god of wine and cheerfulness, and that of a foreign deity, worshipped with ecstatic and mysterious rites introduced from Thrace.
(1907), who considers Boeotia, not Thrace, to have been the original home of Dionysus; P. Foucart, " Le Culte de Dionysos en Attique " in Memoires de l'Institut national de France, xxxvii.
Brown contains a wealth of material, but is weak in scholarship. For a striking survival of Dionysiac rites in Thrace (Bizye), see Dawkins, in J.H.S.
This would point to the fact that certain settlements of Apolline worship along the northernmost border of Greece (Illyria, Thrace, Macedonia) were in the habit of sending offerings to the god to a centre of his worship farther south (probably Delphi), advancing by the route from Tempe through Thessaly, Pherae and Doris to Delphi; while others adopted the route through Illyria, Epirus, Dodona, the Malian gulf, Carystus in Euboea, and Tenos to Delos (Farnell, Cults, iv.
Philip seized several islands and places in Caria and Thrace, whilst the battle of Panium (198) definitely transferred Palestine from the Ptolemies to the Seleucids.
Handing over the reins of government to his mother, he set out in 213 for Raetia, where he carried on war against the Alamanni; in 214 he attacked the Goths in Dacia, whence he proceeded by way of Thrace to Asia Minor, and in 215 crossed to Alexandria.
on the Hellespontine border of Thrace.
We may note that all Herodotean examples of actual Pelasgi lie round, or near, the actual Pelasgi of Homeric Thrace; that the most distant of these is confirmed by the testimony of Thucydides (iv.
he was allowed to annex part of Thrace under his own dominion and in 1353 was proclaimed joint emperor.
After the complete failure of the Ionian revolt he emigrated to Myrcinus in Thrace.
From this centre they made numerous warlike excursions - to Scythia, Thrace, the coasts of Asia Minor and the islands of the Aegean, even penetrating to Arabia, Syria and Egypt.
Other Greek statesmen, and notably Tricoupis, had worked for a Balkan League but failed, partly, no doubt, owing to adverse circumstances, but partly also because of Greek unpreparedness for war and of the inflexibility of the Greek claims. Venizelos was, it is true, favoured by circumstances - the Balkan races just then had been drawn together in self-defence against the newly fledged tyranny of the Young Turks in Macedonia and Thrace, while the military revolt of 1909 had swept the Greek political stage clear of nearly all the corrupt parties, that hitherto had blocked the wheels of the nation's progress.
It was late in June before he returned from Thrace to Pella - thus gaining, under the terms, all the towns that he had taken meanwhile.
His adventurers (known as the Catalan Grand Company) declared war upon Andronicus, and, after devastating Thrace and Macedonia, conquered the duchy of Athens and Thebes.
He was born in his father's native town, Kavala in Thrace.
Strabo was of opinion that they came originally from Thrace (cf.
In the next year, while Brasidas mustered a force at Corinth for a campaign in Thrace, he frustrated an.
In April 422 the truce with Sparta expired, and in the same summer Cleon was despatched to Thrace, where he stormed Torone and Galepsus and prepared for an attack on Amphipolis.
At the same time he was proclaimed consul elect, and adopted by Ulpius Crinitus, military governor of Illyria and Thrace.
Towards the end of 274, he started on an expedition against the Persians, halting in Thrace by the way.
Cosconius in Thrace (Livy, epit.
About 326, an expedition conducted by Zopyrion, a Macedonian governor of Thrace, against the Getae, failed disastrously.
235 to 238, was born in a village on the confines of Thrace.
He finally settled in Thrace, where he became king.
The name of Bulgarians (Bougres) was often applied to the Albigenses, and they always kept up intercourse with the Bogomil sectaries of Thrace.
In historic times it was applied to the inhabitants of (I) Attica, where some believed the Ionians to have originated; (2) parts of Euboea; (3) the Cycladic islands, except Melos and Thera; (4) a section of the west coast of Asia Minor, from the gulf of Smyrna to that of Iasus (see Ionia); (5) colonies from ' any of the foregoing, notably in Thrace, Propontis and Pontus in the west, and in Egypt (Naucratis, Daphnae); some authorities have found traces of an ancient Ionian population in (6) north-eastern Peloponnese.
Having served with distinction against the Goths in Thrace, he was sent by Theodosius in 388 against Maximus, who had usurped the empire of the west and had murdered Gratian.
They are probably the descendants of the earliest Aryan immigrants, who were represented in historical times by the kindred Illyrians, Macedonians and Epirots; the Macedonians and Epirots are believed by Hahn to have formed the core of the pre-Hellenic Tyrrheno-Pelasgian population which inhabited the southern portion of the peninsula and extended its limits to Thrace and Italy.
bishop, provincial synod, exarch of the diocese, patriarch of Constantinople (obviously the council could not here have been legislating for the entire church); forbidding clerics to be running to Constantinople with complaints, without the consent of their respective bishops; (7) confirming the possession of rural parishes to those who had actually administered them for thirty years, providing for the adjudication of conflicting claims, and guaranteeing the integrity of metropolitan provinces; (8) confirming the third canon of the second ecumenical council, which accorded to Constantinople equal privileges ('oa 7fp€ose7a) with Rome, and the second rank among the patriarchates, and, in addition, granting to Constantinople patriarchal jurisdiction over Pontus, Asia and Thrace.
MARCIAN (c. 39 0 -457), emperor of the East (A.50-457), was born in Thrace or Illyria, and spent his early life as an obscure soldier.
In Europe, (I) Thrace; in Asia Minor, (2) Phrygia on the Hellespont, (3) Lydia, (4) Caria, (5) Lycia and Pamphylia, (6) Great Phrygia, (7) Paphlagonia and Cappadocia; between the Empire.
After having served with the army in Thrace and been quaestor in Crete and Cyrene, Vespasian rose to be aedile and praetor, having meanwhile married Flavia Domitilla, the daughter of a Roman knight, by whom he had two sons, Titus and Domitian, afterwards emperors.
of Macedon on his conquest of the Bisaltae adopted the native coinage, merely placing on it his own name (see, further, Numismatics: Greek, §§ Thrace and Macedonia).
Philoxenus was sent to Philippopolis in Thrace, and afterwards to Gangra in Paphlagonia, where he met his death by foul play in 523.
Archaeological evidence points clearly now to the conclusion that the splendid but overgrown civilization of the Mycenaean or " late Minoan " period of the Aegean Bronze Age collapsed rather suddenly before a rapid succession of assaults by comparatively barbarous invaders from the European mainland north of the Aegean; that these invaders passed partly by way of Thrace and the Hellespont into Asia Minor, partly by Macedon and Thessaly into peninsular Greece and the Aegean islands; that in east Peloponnese and Crete, at all events, a first shock (somewhat later than i soo B.C.) led to the establishment of a cultural, social and political situation which in many respects resembles what is depicted in Homer as the " Achaean " age, with principal centres in Rhodes, Crete, Laconia, Argolis, Attica, Orchomenus and south-east Thessaly; and that this regime was itself shattered by a second shock or series of shocks somewhat earlier than boo B.C. These latter events correspond in character and date with the traditional irruption of the Dorians and their associates.
ABDERA, a town on the coast of Thrace near the mouth of the Nestos, and almost opposite Thasos.
Abdera, Thrace >>
According to unvarying Greek tradition the Phrygians were most closely akin to certain tribes of Macedonia and Thrace; and their near relationship to the Hellenic stock is proved by all that is known of their language and art, and is accepted by almost every modern authority.
In the archaic period the Dionysiac rites and orgies spread from Thrace into Greece, in spite of opposition which has left many traces in tradition, and the worship of Demeter at Eleusis was modified by Cretan influence ultimately traceable to Asia Minor.
The same variation occurs at the neighbouring Teos and at Ephesus, while the coins of Mesembria in Thrace show regularly Meta and M ET A M B P I A N S2 N, where represents the sound which resulted from the fusion of By, and which appears in Homer as Qa in Ã¯¿½ Vvos, while in later Greek it becomes piaos.
DEMOCRITUS, probably the greatest of the Greek physical philosophers, was a native of Abdera in Thrace, or as some say - probably wrongly - of Miletus (Diog.
Is Kara Thrace a Cylon or the child of a previously unknown 13th model: Daniel?
Kara Thrace's viper is destroyed in a nebula.
Kara Thrace, commonly known as Starbuck, is played by Katee Sackhoff.
Yet those same ethics don't stop him from having an affair with Kara Thrace.
Kara Thrace, also known by her call sign "Starbuck" is one of the best pilots in the fleet.
Zak was not a gifted pilot like his brother, but he was Kara Thrace's lover.
The fact is that it is Kara Thrace's mistake that leads to his death.
Sam Anders - The Pyramid player turned resistance fighter fell in love with Kara Thrace and mourned his humanity when he discovered he was a Cylon.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.