Thomson (Lord Kelvin) at a meeting of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow in 1854, because its greater flexibility renders it less likely to damage the insulating envelope during the manipulation of the cable.
In 1859 he began, in concert with Sir William Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin), to work on problems respecting the making and use of cables, and the importance of his researches on the resistance of gutta-percha was at once recognized.
d.) Nonpareil, Sieur de Merchiston, reveue par lui-mesme, et mise en Francois par Georges Thomson, Escossois.
James Thomson (" B.V.") speaks " of the restful rapture of the inviolate grave," and sings the praises of death and of oblivion.
It was pointed out by Thomson (Lord Kelvin) and P. G.
Elihu Thomson blows on the spark balls with a powerful jet of air.
Thomson (1827), 313, quoting Stow.
Dr Thomson, in his Story of New Zealand, quotes a Maori tradition, published by Sir George Grey, that certain islands, among which it names Rarotonga, Parima and Manono, are islands near Hawaiki.
Thomson) had, in 1846, shown that a totally different assumption, based upon other analogies, led (by its own special mathematical methods) to precisely the same results.
It was first seen, from a distance, by the missionary Ludwig Krapf in 1849; approached from the west by Joseph Thomson in 1883; partially ascended by Count S.
It has the "mixed" faults which make the greater poem of his Scots successor, Thomson, a "transitional" document, but these give it an historical, if not an individual, interest.
Mr Basil Thomson (who after Baker's deportation had carried out reforms which the natives, when left alone, were incapable of maintaining) was sent in 1900 to conclude the treaty by which the king placed his kingdom under British protection.
Thomson, The Diversions of a Prime Minister (London, 1894).
" Thomson and Tait," as it is familiarly called ("T and T" was the authors' own formula), was planned soon after Lord Kelvin became acquainted with Tait, on the latter's appointment to his professorship in Edinburgh, and it was intended to be an all-comprehensive treatise on physical science, the foundations being laid in kinematics and dynamics, and the structure completed with the properties of matter, heat, light, electricity and magnetism.
David Thomson with a small company from Plymouth, England, in the spring or early summer of 1623 built and fortified a house at Little Harbor (now Odiorne's Point in the township of Rye) as a fishing and trading station.
They occupied Thomson's house and Great Island (New Castle) and built the " Great House " on what is now Water Street, Portsmouth.
Thomson's Bibliography of Ohio (Cincinnati, 1880) is an excellent guide to the study of Ohio's history.
Thomson), " New Standard and Inspectional Electrical Measuring Instruments," Proc. Soc. Telegraph Engineers, 1888, 17, p. 540; J.
In Great Britain the first public laboratory appears to have been opened in 1817 by Thomas Thomson at Glasgow.
Thomson Paton; the county and municipal buildings; handsome public baths and gymnasium, presented to the town by Mr David Thomson; the accident hospital; the fever hospital; the museum of the Natural Science and Archaeological Society; the academy, the burgh school and a secondary school with the finest technical equipment in Scotland, given by Mr A.
William Thomson, 1863-1891.
Much information is also contained in the works by Lamouche, Miller, Thomson, Joanne, Cambon, Millet, Hamard and Laveleye, cited under the heading Balkan Peninsula.
Then came Joseph Thomson, who explored some of the central parts, and made the highest ascent yet achieved, that of Mount Likimt, 13,150 ft., but broke little new ground, and failed to cross the main range (1888); and Walter B.
de Foucauld, Reconnaissance au Maroc 1883-1884 (Paris, 1888, almost the sole authority for the geography of the Atlas; his book gives the result of careful surveys, and is illustrated with a good collection of maps and sketches); Hooker, Ball and Maw, Marocco and the Great Atlas (London, 1879, a most valuable contribution, always scientific and trustworthy, especially as to botany and geology); Joseph Thomson, Travels in the Atlas and Southern Morocco (London, 1889, valuable geographical and geological data); Louis Gentil, Mission de Segonzac, &c. (Paris, 1906; the author was geologist to the 1905 expedition); Gerhard Rohlfs, Adventures in Morocco (London, 1874); Walter B.
Its library contains many important MSS., among them Burns's correspondence with George Thomson, and several cartularies including those of St Andrews and Brechin.
School treatises are those of Thomson, Mansion, Bartl, Mollame, in English, French, German and Italian respectively.-Advanced treatises are those of William Spottiswoode (1851), Francesco Brioschi (1854), Richard Baltzer (1857), George Salmon (1859), N.
Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin) in 1847, as the result of a mathematical investigation undertaken to explain Faraday's experimental observations.
Thomson's Reprint, §§ 615, 634-651.
Thomson, Electricity and Magnetism, § 205.
Thomson, Reprint, § 604; J.
Thomson), and was subsequently investigated by Ewing and Cowan.
Thomson, who, from the results of Bidwell's observations on the magnetic deformation of cobalt, was led to expect that that metal would exhibit a reversal opposite in character to the effect observed in iron.
Thomson (Applications of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry, 47) that on dynamical principles there must be a reciprocal relation between the changes of dimensions produced by magnetization and the changes of magnetization attending mechanical strain.
He considers that Hall's is the fundamental phenomenon, and that the Nernst effect is essentially identical with it, the primary electromotive force in the case of the latter being that of the Thomson effect in the unequally heated metal, while in the Hall experiment it is derived from an external source.
Thomson (Lord Kelvin), who in 1856 announced that magnetization rendered iron and steel positive to the unmagnetized metals.'
Nickel was believed by Thomson to behave oppositely to iron, becoming negative when magnetized; but though his conclusion was accepted for nearly fifty years, it has recently been shown to be an erroneous one, based, no doubt, upon the result of an experiment with an impure specimen.
Thomson and others once more brought the conception of moving electric charges into prominence.
Thomson has demonstrated the existence under many different conditions of particles more minute than anything previously known to science.
Thomson, Electricity and Magnetism, § 132.
Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin) in 1849 that while no physical evidence could be adduced in support of the hypothesis, certain discoveries, especially in electromagnetism, rendered it extremely improbable (Reprint, p. 344).
Thomson in 1897 and 1898 4 resulted in the establishment of the electron theory, which has already effected developments of an almost revolutionary character in more than one branch of science.
Thomson (Lord Kelvin), Reprint of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism (London, 1884, containing papers on magnetic theory originally published between 1844 and 1855, with additions); J.
Induction in Iron and other Metals (3rd ed., London, 2900); Thomson, Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism (Oxford, 2893); Elements of Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism 3rd ed., Cambridge, 1904); H.
Thomson's Annals of Philosophy (1813-1820), vols.
The parish church, effectively situated on an eminence by the side of the lake, was the scene of the ministration of the Rev. John Thomson (1778-1840), the landscape painter, who numbered Sir Walter Scott among his elders.
1795), the architect, nephew of the poet Thomson, and the erection of Regent Bridge in Waterloo Place (formally opened in 1819 on the occasion of the visit of Prince Leopold, afterwards king of the Belgians) gave access to Calton Hill.
Those of John Kis, the friend of Berzsenyi, cover a wide range of subjects, and comprise, besides original poetry, many translations from the Greek, Latin, French, German and English, among which last may be mentioned renderings from Blair, Pope and Thomson, and notably his translation, published at Vienna in 1791, of Lowth's " Choice of Hercules."
Analytically thus (Thomson and Tait, Nat.
WILLIAM THOMSON (1819-1890), English divine, archbishop of York, was born on the 11th of February 1819 at Whitehaven, Cumberland.
Thomson's activity was not confined to theology.
From 1796 to 1800 he was sub-editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, in succession to his elder brother, JAMES THOMSON (1768-1855), who filled that position in 1795-1796, and who in 1805 was ordained to the parish of Eccles, Berwickshire; and the chemical and mineralogical articles which he contributed to the supplement to the third edition formed the basis of his System of Chemistry, the first edition of which was published in 1802 and the seventh in 1831.
At seventeen he wrote his Vernal Walk in imitation of Thomson.
He seems to have been interested in the poetic diction of Milton and Thomson, and a few of his verses are remotely inspired by Shakespeare and Gray.
See Thomson and Tait, Treatise on Natural Philosophy, § 519.
Another comparison method much used in submarine cable work is the method of mixtures, originally due to Lord Kelvin and usually called Thomson and Gott's method.
Thomson, Elements of the Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism (Cambridge, 1895); J.
Thomson, 1892); Joubert and Mascart, Electricity and Magnetism, English translation by E.
Thomson (Lord Kelvin) from Regnault's tables of the properties of steam, assuming the gaseous laws, did not vary exactly as J/T.
Method of Joule and Thomson.
- William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), who wars the first to realize the importance of the absolute scale in thermodynamics, and the inadequacy of the test afforded by Boyle's law or by experiments on the constancy of the specific heat of gases, devised a more delicate and practical test, which he carried out successfully in conjunction with Joule.
As the result of their experiments on actual gases (air, hydrogen, and C02), Joule and Thomson (Phil.
Experiments by Natanson on CO 2 at 17° C. confirm those of Joule and Thomson, but show a slight increase of the ratio do/dp at higher pressures, which is otherwise rendered probable by the form of the isothermals as determined by Andrews and Amagat.
Of greater interest, particularly from a historical point of view, are the original papers of Joule, Thomson and Rankine, some of which have been reprinted in a collected form.
Thomson, Savage Island (London, 1902).
Bowden, to the south of the hills, was the birthplace of the poets Thomas Aird (1802-1876) and James Thomson, and its parish church contains the burial-place of the dukes of Roxburghe.
" Challenger " round the world says " of measured seas the Sardonian is the deepest with full under the scientific direction of Sir Wyville Thomson and the one thousand fathoms " (i.
The successor of Sir Wyville Thomson in the Sea, in 65° N.
The existence of the latter, which extends to the African continent, was announced by Sir Wyville Thomson in 1876 as a result of his discussion of the deep-sea temperature observations of the " Challenger " expedition, though the fact was not confirmed by soundings until many years later.
m.) with depths down to 2200 fathoms. A rise between Spitsbergen and Greenland separates the Norwegian Trough (greatest depth 2005 fathoms in 68° 21' N., 2° 5' W.) which in turn is divided from the Atlantic by the Wyville Thomson Ridge which runs between the Faeroe and Shetland islands and is covered by only 314 fathoms of water at the deepest point.
Red clay was discovered and named by Sir Wyville Thomson on the " Challenger " in 1873 when sounding in depths of 2700 fathoms on the way from the Canary Islands to St Thomas.
In exceptional cases, when a strong deep current does flow over a rise, as in the case of the Wyville Thomson Ridge, the bottom is swept clear of fine sediment.
- Sir C. Wyville Thomson, The Depths of the Sea (cruises of " Porcupine " and " Lightning ") (London, 1873); The Atlantic (cruise of " Challenger ") (London, 1877); Die Forschungsreise S.M.S.
Thomson (Lord Kelvin) to form a theory of vortex atoms in a homogeneous, incompressible and frictionless liquid."
In 1882 the Royal Geographical Society despatched Joseph Thomson to discover through Masailand the direct route to Victoria Nyanza.
The annexations of Emin on Albert Nyanza, the visit of Thomson to the closed door of Busoga, the opposition of the Europeans to the slave trade, and, lastly, the identification of the missionaries with political embassies and their letters of introduction from secular authorities, added to Mwanga's.
Scott-Elliot, A Naturalist in Mid Africa (1896); Joseph Thomson, Through Masai Land (1885); J.
Fischer was followed later in the same year by Joseph Thomson, the Scottish explorer.
The first volume of an account of Cullen's Life, Lectures and Writings was published by Dr John Thomson in 1832, and was reissued with the second volume (completing the work) by Drs W.
Thomson and D.
The chief summits are Mounts Ross (6120 ft.), Richards (4000), Crozier (3251), Wyville Thomson (3160), Hooker (2600), Moseley (2400).
Thomson's Story of New Zealand (London, 1859) is historical as well as descriptive.
Thomson, Sound (5th ed., 1909), contains a descriptive account of the chief phenomena, and an elementary mathematical treatment.
The capital, Tidore, on the east coast, is a walled town and the seat of a sultan tributary to the Dutch 2 Thomson and Tait's Nat.
Thomson, Antiquities of Cambodia, Malacca, Indo-China and China (London, 1875); P. A.
Thomson (Lord Kelvin) and P. G.
Thomson, or the correlated phenomena occurring spontaneously in radio-active bodies as discovered by H.
Dr Thomson first pointed out a process by synthesis, which has the advantage of being very simple, and at the same time rigidly accurate, resulting from his observation that when hydrochloric acid gas and ammonia gas are brought in contact with each other, they always combine in equal volumes.
Foreseeing the extent to which the demand would grow in America for iron and steel, he started the Keystone Bridge works, built the Edgar Thomson steel-rail mill, bought out the rival Homestead steel works, and by 1888 had under his control an extensive plant served by tributary coal and iron fields, a railway 4 25 m.
inland, under the name of the Province of Maine; to David Thomson and associates, in 1622, a grant of six thousand acres near the mouth of the Piscataqua; to Sir Henry Roswell and associates, on the 19th of March 1628, a grant of the region from 3 m.
The first settlement of which there is indisputable evidence was established in 1623 by David Thomson at Little Harbor, now in the town of Rye.
Thomson was the head of a company which was organized for fishing and trading and whose entire stock was to be held jointly for five years.
Although Lake Champlain could not be reached by;boat up the Piscataqua, and although the enterprise was ulti mately a failure, the company sent over colonists who occupied the house left standing by Thomson, and, not far away, built " Mason Hall " or the " Great House " in what is now Portsmouth, a name (for the entire settlement) that replaced " Strawberry Banke " in 1653.
Edward Hilton with a few associates appears to have established a settlement on Dover Point about the time of Thomson's arrival at Little Harbor, and in the Hilton grant of 1630 it is stated that he had already built houses and planted there; as early as 1639 this settlement was named Dover.
Antoine Thomson d'Abbadie and Arnaud Michel d'Abbadie >>
Thomson might with advantage be more frequently employed.
Thomson 6 places spherical bulbs inside thick spiral conductors through which the oscillating discharge of a powerful battery is led.
- Thomson's (Lord Kelvin's) (Frame and Needles).
- Section of Thomson's Compass Bowl.
4 shows the mounting of a Thomson card on its pivot, which in common with the pivots of most other compasses is made of brass, tipped with osmium-iridium, which although very hard can be sharply pointed and does not corrode.
Until 1876, when Sir William Thomson introduced his patent compass, this compass was not only the regulation compass of the British navy, but was largely used in other countries in the same or a modified form.
The introduction of powerful engines causing serious vibration to compass cards of the admiralty type, coupled with the prevailing desire for larger cards, the deviation of which could also be more conveniently compensated, led to the gradual introduction of the Thomson compass.
Several kinds of deflector have been invented, that of Lord Kelvin (Sir William Thomson) being the simplest, but Dr Waghorn's is also very effective.
He introduced a pattern having four or five parallel straight strips of magnetized steel fixed under a card, a form which remained the standard admiralty type until the introduction of the modern Thomson (Kelvin) compass in 1876.
"SIR JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON (1856-), British physicist, was born near Manchester Dec. 18 1856 and was educated at Owens College, Manchester, and subsequently at Trinity College, Cambridge, where in 1880 he graduated as second wrangler.
Forbes and James Thomson.
All agreed that ice flowed as if it were a viscous fluid; and of this apparent viscosity James Thomson offered an independent explanation by the application of pure thermodynamical theory, which Tyndall considered inefficient to account for the facts he observed.
It is unnecessary here to rake among the ashes of this prolonged dispute, but it may be noted that Helmholtz, who, in his lecture on "Ice and Glaciers," adopted Thomson's theory, afterwards added in an appendix that he had come to the conclusion that Tyndall had "assigned the essential and principal cause of glacier motion in referring it to fracture and regelation" (1865).
It has been supposed that this theory was suggested to him either by researches on olefiant gas and carburetted hydrogen or by analysis of "protoxide and deutoxide of azote," both views resting on the authority of Dr Thomas Thomson (1773-1852), professor of chemistry in Glasgow university.
Dalton communicated his atomic theory to Dr Thomson, who by consent included an outline of it in the third edition of his System of Chemistry (1807), and Dalton gave a further account of it in the first part of the first volume of his New System of Chemical Philosophy (1808).
Thomson, The Grape Vine; Thos.
Joseph Thomson, in his journey through the Masai country in 1883, was the first white man to see the lake and to correct the exaggerated notions as to its size.
Thomson, M.D., A Narrative of the Expedition.
Thomson's estimate of the mass, must be upwards of forty times that of the hydrogen molecule.
The last term, representing the Thomson effect, is eliminated in the case.
Acad., June 1898) on the temperature distribution in the case of long bars with a view to measuring the Thomson effect.
was established, and whose works were popular - such an author as Thomson, whose Seasons was in every library, such an author as Fielding, whose Pasquin had had a greater run than any drama since The Beggar's Opera - was sometimes glad to obtain, by pawning his best coat, the means of dining on tripe at a cookshop underground, where he could wipe his hands, after his greasy meal, on the back of a Newfoundland dog.
Tullin, a Norwegian by birth, represents the first accession of a study of external nature in Danish poetry; he was an ardent disciple of the English poet Thomson.
C. Thomson, The Outgoing Turk (London, 1897); T.
He assisted Sir Wyville Thomson in the examination and classification of the collections of the "Challenger" exploring expedition, and wrote the Review of the Echini (2 vols., 1872-1874) in the reports.
The story of his triumphs belongs to the story of English literature: to it we leave James Thomson, Adam Smith, David Hume, James Boswell and Sir Walter Scott.
Thomson, The Land and the Book (1881-1883); W.
The ideal method of determining by direct experiment the relation between the total heat and the specific heat of a vapour is that of Joule and Thomson, which is more commonly known in connexion with steam as the method of the throttling calorimeter.
Assuming dH/do = 0.305 for saturated steam, he found that S was nearly independent of the pressure at constant temperature, but that it varied with the temperature from o 387 at 100° C. to o 665 at 160° C. Writing Q for the Joule-Thomson " cooling effect," dO/dp, or the slope BC/AC of the line of constant total heat, he found that Q was nearly independent of the pressure at constant temperature, a result which agrees with that of Joule and Thomson for air and COs; but that it varied with the temperature as (1/0) 3.8 instead of (i/0) 2.
The deviations from the ideal volume may also be deduced by the method of Joule and Thomson.
i.); Thomson's in 1815 and 1824; G.
Dr George Thomson, a chemist and a disciple of Van Helmont, followed the example, and nearly lost his life by an attack which immediately followed.4 The plague of 1665 was widely spread over England, and was 4 On the plague of 1665 see Nath.
Hodges, Loimologia sive pestis nuperae apud populum londinensem narratio (London, 1672) 8vo - in English by Quincy (London, 1720), (the chief authority); Aommoypa41a or an Experimental Relation of the last Plague in the City of London, by William Boghurst, apothecary in St Giles's-in-the-Fields (London, 1666), - a MS. in British Museum (Sloane 349), containing important details; George Thomson, Aoimotomia, or the Pest Anatomized, 8vo (London, 1666); Sydenham, " Febris pestilentialis et pestis annorum 1665-1666," Opera, ed.
- Anaspides tasmaniae, Thomson.
In 1810 the Christian Instructor began to appear under the editorship of Dr Andrew Thomson, a churchman of vigorous intellect and noble character.
Thomson), by the use of his then newly-invented electrometer, was able to confirm Volta's observations on contact electricity by irrefutable evidence, but the contact theory of the voltaic pile was then placed on a basis consistent with the principle of the conservation of energy.
- About 1842 Lord Kelvin (then William Thomson) began that long career of theoretical and practical discovery and invention in electrical science which revolutionized every department of pure and applied electricity.
Thomson in 1891.
Thomson) with the aid of King and M'Kichan, or those of Clerk Maxwell, W.
Crompton, Elihu Thomson, Rudolf Eickemeyer, Thomas Parker and others, and the theory of the action of the dynamo had been closely studied by J.
Thomson, Proc. Roy.
Thomson,' John Trowbridge, Max Abraham, and many others, contributed to its elucidation.
The subject was pursued by Thomson and the Cambridge physicists with great mathematical and experimental ability, and finally the conclusion was reached that in a high vacuum tube the electric charge is carried by particles which have a mass only a fraction, as above mentioned, of that of the hydrogen atom, but which carry a charge equal to the unit electric charge of the hydrogen ion as found by electrochemical researches.
Thomson, Sir William Crookes, Sir William Ramsay and others in England.
The final outcome of these investigations was the hypothesis that Thomson's corpuscles or particles composing the cathode discharge in a high vacuum tube must be looked upon as the ultimate constituent of what we call negative electricity; in other words, they are atoms of negative electricity, possessing, however, inertia, and these negative electrons are components at any rate of the chemical atom.
Thomson also developed this hypothesis in a profoundly interesting manner, and we may therefore summarize very briefly the views held on the nature of electricity and matter at the beginning of the 10th century by saying that the term electricity had come to be regarded, in part at least, as a collective name for electrons, which in turn must be considered as constituents of the chemical atom, furthermore as centres of certain lines of self-locked and permanent strain existing in the universal aether or electromagnetic medium.
Thomson, Electricity and Matter (London, 1904).
Thomson's " Report on Electrical Theories " (Brit.
Thomson, Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism (Oxford, 1893); id., Conduction of Electricity through Gases (Cambridge, 1903); id., Electricity and Matter (London, 1904); O.
Burbury, The Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism (2 vols., 1885); Lord Kelvin (Sir William Thomson), Mathematical and Physical Papers (3 vols., Cambridge, 1882); Lord Rayleigh, Scientific Papers (q.
C. Thomson, The Barbizon School (1891); Richard Muther, J.
SALE, a town of Tanjil county, Victoria, Australia, the principal centre in the agricultural Gippsland district, on the river Thomson, 1272 m.
Thomson (Lord Kelvin), he may be regarded as one of the founders of the now universally received law of the conservation of energy.
Sir Ronald Thomson, the British representative in Persia, having at the same time induced the shah to consider the advantages to Persia of opening the Karun River and connecting it with Teheran by a carriageable road, a small river steamer for controlling the shipping on the Karun was ordered as well, and the construction of the road was decided upon.
Frequent interruptions occurred on the telegraph line between Teheran and Meshed in 1885, at the time of the Panjdeh incident, when the Russians were advancing towards Afghanistan and Sir Peter Lumsden was on the Afghan frontier; and Sir Ronald Thomson concluded an agreement with the Persian government for the line to be kept in working order by an English inspector, the Indian government paying a share not exceeding 20,000 rupees per annum of the cost of maintenance, and an English signaller being stationed at Meshed.
Shortly afterwards Sir Ronald Thomson left Persia (he died on the 15th of November 1888), and Arthur (afterwards Sir Arthur) Nicolson was appointed charg daffaires.
Thomson, Edin., 1844-1848), which shares the merits and defects of the Christologie; Die Offenbarung Johannis erldutert (1849-1851; 2nd ed., 1861-1862; Eng.
Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin) investigated the effect of the curvature of the surface of a liquid on the thermal equilibrium between the liquid and the vapour in contact with it.
Drawings of the different forms of the curve may be found in Thomson and Tait's Natural Philosophy, vol.
This phenomenon was first described and explained by James Thomson, who also explained a phenomenon, the converse of this, called the " tears of strong wine."
Sir Joseph John Thomson >>
In the neighbourhood of the Mall, bordering the river, are the house where Thomson wrote his poem "The Seasons," and Kelmscott House, the residence of William Morris.
Thomson) and H.
Hypophosphorous acid, HP(OH) 2, discovered by Dulong in 1816, and obtained crystalline by Thomson in 1874 (Ber., 7, P. 994), is prepared in the form of its barium salt by warming phosphorus with baryta water, removing the excess of baryta by carbon dioxide, and crystallizing the filtrate.
Croal Thomson, The Barbizon School (1891), with a full list of the French authorities to be consulted; Jules Breton, Nos peintres du siecle, Paris, igoo.
Thomson, "Osteology of Veddahs," in Journ.
The lines in which James Thomson describes their simple life The reindeer form their riches: these their tents, Their robes, their beds, and all their homely wealth Supply; their wholesome fare and cheerful cups are still applicable in the main to the mountain Lapps; but even they have learned to use coffee as an ordinary beverage and to wear stout Norwegian cloth (vadmal).
Thomson, The Fijians (London, 1908).
That ice can be melted by increase of pressure was first pointed out by James Thomson in 1849.
This result was verified by his brother, Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), in 1850.
A number of interesting effects of this nature have been investigated by Thomson, F.
Fleming select lead on account of the smallness of the Thomson effect in it, as observed by Le Roux.
- Thomson (Lord Kelvin) had already pointed out (Proc. R.S.
- Diagram of Apparatus for there must be a reversible Demonstrating the Thomson Effect.
The Thomson effect may be readily demonstrated as a lecture experiment by the following method (fig.
If the current flows from A to B there will be heat absorbed in AC and evolved in CB by the Thomson effect, if the specific heat of electricity in AB is positive as in copper.
It was applied with elaborate modifications by the writer in 1886 to determine the value of the Thomson effect in platinum in absolute measure, and has recently been applied with further improvements by R.
- Taking account of the Thomson effect, the thermodynamical theory of the couple was satisfactorily completed by Thomson (Trans.
If the quantity of heat absorbed and converted into electrical energy, when unit quantity of electricity (one ampere-second) flows from cold to hot through a difference of temperature, dt, be represented by sdt, the coefficient s is called the specific heat of electricity in the metal, or simply the coefficient of the Thomson effect.
(9)' From these relations we observe that the Peltier effect P, and the difference of the Thomson effects (s' - s"), for any two metals.
The signs of the Peltier and Thomson effects will be the same as the signs of the coefficients given in Table I., if we suppose the metal s to be lead, and assume that the value of s may be taken as zero at all temperatures.
Experimental Verification of Thomson's Theory.
- In order to justify the assumption involved in the application of the second law of thermodynamics to the theory of the thermocouple in the manner above specified, it would be necessary and sufficient, as Thomson pointed out (Phil.
Absolute Measurement of Thomson Effect.
- Another method of verifying Tait's hypothesis, of greater difficulty but of considerable interest, is to measure the absolute value of the heat absorbed by the Thomson effect, and to observe whether or not it varies with the temperature.
The value of the Thomson (Li f FIG.
- Thomson Effect.
Although the effect in copper is so small, he succeeded in obtaining changes of temperature due to the Thomson effect of the order of I° C., which could be measured with satisfactory accuracy.
It is necessary to take all these conditions carefully into account in calculating the balance due to the Thomson effect.
These measurements, though subject to some uncertainty on account of the great experimental difficulties, are a very valuable confirmation of the accuracy of Thomson's theory, because they show that the magnitude of the effect is of the required order, but they cannot be said to be strongly in support of Tait's hypothesis.
4, which is given as an illustration, the cold junctions are supposed to be at o° C. and the hot junctions at 100° C. Noll's values (Table I.) are taken for the E.M.F., and it is supposed that the coefficient of the Thomson effect is zero in lead, i.e.
due to the Thomson effect of about 10 microvolts per degree tending to drive positive electricity from hot to cold, and raising the cold end of the iron 989 microvolts in potential above the hot end on open circuit.
The idea of convection of heat by an electric current, and the phrase "specific heat of electricity" were introduced by Thomson as a convenient mode of expressing the phenomena of the Thomson effect.
The potential diagrams already given have been drawn on this assumption, that the Thomson effect is not really due to convection of heat by the current, but is the measure of an E.M.F.
It is not, however, necessarily implied in the reasoning or in the equations given by Thomson, which are not founded on any assumptions with regard to the seat of the E.M.F., but only on the balance of heat absorbed and evolved in all the different parts of the circuit.
Since d(p"T) = p"dT+ Tdp", it is clear that the balance of heat liberated in the element is only Tdp" = s"d T, namely, the Thomson effect, and is not the equivalent of the E.1VI.F.
If p is constant there is no Thomson effect, but it does not follow that there is no E.M.F.
in the metal-lead with change of temperature, but that the value of p in this metal is nearly constant, as the Thomson effect is very small.
In Thomson's theory it is expressly assumed that the reversible thermal effects may be considered separately without reference to conduction.
is due to the conduction of heat in the metal, which is contrary to Thomson's theor y.
The " thermoelectric constant," 0, of Kohlrausch, is evidently the same as the thermoelectric power, p, in Thomson's theory.
By applying the first law of thermodynamics, Kohlrausch deduces that a quantity of heat, CBdT, is absorbed in the element dT per second by the current C. He wrongly identifies this with the Thomson effect, by omitting to allow for the heat carried.
If we apply Thomson's condition P = TdEIdT = Tp, we have A = T.
Neglecting" conduction, all the expressions which he gives are equivalent to the equations of Thomson.
s = Specific Heat, or Coefficient of Thomson Effect.
But under the influence of Thomas Thomson (1773-1852), the professor of chemistry, he developed a taste for experimental science and especially for molecular physics, a subject which formed his main preoccupation throughout his life.
The bathymetric range of sessile as well as pedunculate forms down to such depths as twelve or eighteen thousand feet - Verruca quadrangularis, Hoek, 1900 fathoms; Sealpellum regium, Wyville Thomson, 2850 FIG.
Vaughan Thomson (1830).
WILLIAM THOMSON KELVIN, Baron (1824-1907), British physicist, the second son of James Thomson, I.L.D., professor of mathematics in the university of Glasgow, was born at Belfast, Ireland, on the 26th of June 1824, his father being then teacher of mathematics in the Royal Academical Institution.
In 1832 James Thomson accepted the chair of mathematics at Glasgow, and migrated thither with his two sons, James and William, who in 1834 matriculated in that university, William being then little more than ten years of age, and having acquired all his early education through his father's instruction.
In 1841 William Thomson entered Peterhouse, Cambridge, and in 1845 took his degree as second wrangler, to which honour he added that of the first Smith's Prize.
In the same year Thomson was elected fellow of Peterhouse.
Thomson therefore had recourse to Paris, and for a year worked in the laboratory of Regnault, who was then engaged in his classical researches on the thermal properties of steam.
The Glasgow chair was a source of inspiration to scientific men for more than half a century, and many of the most advanced researches of other physicists grew out of the suggestions which Thomson scattered as sparks from his anvil.
Thomson's calculations on the conduction of heat showed that at some time between twenty millions and four hundred millions, probably about one hundred millions, of years ago, the physical conditions of the earth must have been entirely different from those which now obtain.
In 1847 Thomson first met James Prescott Joule at the Oxford meeting of the British Association.
Joule's views of the nature of heat strongly influenced Thomson's mind, with the result that in 1848 Thomson proposed his absolute scale of temperature, which is independent of the properties of any particular thermometric substance, and in 1851 he presented to the Royal Society of Edinburgh a paper on the dynamical theory of heat, which reconciled the work of N.
Some held that if this were true ocean telegraphy would be impossible, and sought in consequence to disprove Thomson's conclusion.
Thomson, on the other hand, set to work to overcome the difficulty by improvement in the manufacture of cables, and first of all in the production of copper of high conductivity and the construction of apparatus which would readily respond to the slightest variation of the current in the cable.
A mind like that of Thomson could not be content to deal with any physical quantity, however successfully from a practical point of view, without subjecting it to measurement.
Thomson's work in connexion with telegraphy led to the production in rapid succession of instruments adapted to the requirements of the time for the measurement of every electrical quantity, and when electric lighting came to the front a new set of instruments was produced to meet the needs of the electrical engineer.
Some account of Thomson's electrometer is given in the article on that subject, while every modern work of importance on electric lighting describes the instruments which he has specially designed for central station work; and it may be said that there is no quantity which the electrical engineer is ordinarily called upon to measure for which Lord Kelvin did not construct the suitable instrument.
Gauss's system of absolute units to electromagnetism, Thomson took up the question, and, applying the principles of energy, calculated the absolute electromotive force of a Daniell cell, and determined the absolute measure of the resistance of a wire from the heat produced in it by a known current.
In 1861 it was Thomson who induced the British Association to appoint its first famous committee for the determination of electrical standards, and it was he who suggested much of the work carried out by J.
Second only to the compass in its value to the sailor is Thomson's sounding apparatus, whereby soundings can be taken in 100 fathoms by a ship steaming at 16 knots; and by the employment of piano-wire of a breaking strength of 140 tons per square inch and an iron sinker weighing only 34 lb, with a selfregistering pressure gauge, soundings can be rapidly taken in deep ocean.
Thomson's tide gauge, tidal harmonic analyser and tide predicter are famous, and among his work in the interest of navigation must be mentioned his tables for the simplification of Sumner's method for determining the position of a ship at sea.
In 1852 Thomson married Margaret, daughter of Walter Crum of Thornliebank, who died in 1870; and in 1874 he married Frances Anna, daughter of Charles R.
In 1866, perhaps chiefly in acknowledgment of his services to transAtlantic telegraphy, Thomson received the honour of knighthood, and in 1892 he was raised to the peerage with the title of Baron Kelvin of Largs.
Langen, Hilgenfeld, Wieseler, Stahelin, Renan, Hausrath, Drummond, Dillmann, Rosenthal, Gunkel, have maintained on various grounds the priority of 4 Ezra; and Scharer, Bissell, Thomson, Deane, Kabisch, De Faye, Wellhausen, and Ryssel the priority of Baruch on grounds no less convincing.
Under Thomson and Rutherford, it became the birthplace of nuclear physics.
It is strange that the Thomson arms of the second and third quarters do not follow the blazon.
Keith & Pearl Thomson - Boat hire & dive boat charters of Scapa Flow.
creed project is a collaboration between Jenni Thomson and Peter Edwards.
electronics manufacturers, such as Thomson, Hitachi, Samsung, Toshiba and Zenith support DVI.
Every component of the Thomson stem, including the fasteners, is 100 percent American made.
Thomson NETg puts the information that drives performance literally at your people's fingertips.
The pig by Thomson is lying on its side, the sheep appears to be knitting a garment from its own wool.
Alexander Thomson Glasgow A newly refurbished hotel situated in central Glasgow.
Douglas Lindsay is the creator of Barney Thomson; the world's funniest ex barber serial killer.
A beaming Thomson appears behind a clothes line upon which a pair of red knickers are pegged.
Research shows avid with a speed automatic there will be Thomson the liquefaction.
lithographed four plates for Edward Pelt Thomson's book " Life in Russia " .
And consumer electronics manufacturers, such as Thomson, Hitachi, Samsung, Toshiba and Zenith support DVI.
Long's position was generally confirmed by Leslie Thomson's description of the Folger's Two merry milkmaids (1620 ).
mutant offspring of Hunter S Thomson and John Pilger.
nee Thomson) came from a fishing family.
Spider comes across as the mutant offspring of Hunter S Thomson and John Pilger.
engineer peter thomson cope with the of the terms itthe second group.
Under Thomson's command, Colibri captured seven privateers during the first two years of the war.
Yoga & Personality Workshop There is also a day workshop on Yoga & Personality with Dr., Brian Thomson an eminent Australian consultant psychiatrist.
Athlete Nigel Thomson did not compete in the men's 100m - presumably due to his injured shoulder.
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If you are expecting twins or more, Thomson flights allows you to travel only up to the 30th week.
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On the Death of the Rev. Dr. Andrew Thomson, Heb. xi.
In partnership with Thomson, he made a large income as a consulting telegraph engineer.
The work was translated into French by George Thomson, a naturalized Scotsman residing in La Rochelle, and published by him at that town in 1602, under the title Ouverture de tous les secrets de l'Apocalypse..
P. Thomson, The Physical Geography of Australia (Smithsonian Report, Washington, 1898); J.
Thomson (Lord Kelvin) Mathematical and Physical Papers, vol.
For nearly a week futile attempts were made to send messages by his methods, and then a return was made to the weak currents and the mirror galvanometers of Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) which had been employed for testing purposes while the cable was being laid.
Parker Snow, Two Years' Cruise off the Tierra del Fuego, the Falkland Islands, &c. (1857); Sir C. Wyville Thomson, Voyage of the " Challenger " (1877); C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography of the British Colonies, vol.
This paper of Thomson's, whose ideas Maxwell afterwards developed in an extraordinary manner, seems to have given the first hint that there are at least two perfectly distinct methods of arriving at the known formulae of statical electricity.
high, raised to the memory of Surgeon James Thomson, a native of Cromarty, who at the cost of his life tended the Russian wounded on the field of the Alma.
Thomson's theory of corpuscles, has been proposed by J.
Among those who denounced it - besides some whose names are now little known, but are recorded in the pages of Clarkson - were Baxter, Sir Richard Steele (in Inkle and Yarico), the poets Southern (in Oroonoko), Pope, Thomson, Shenstone, Dyer, Savage and above all Cowper (see his Charity, and Task, bk.
Thomson has shown (see CONDUCTION, ELECTRIC, § III.) that the negative ions in certain cases of gaseous conduction are much more mobile than the corresponding positive ions, and possess a mass of about the one-thousandth part of that of a hydrogen atom.
Moreau (C. R., 1900, 130, pp. 122, 412, 562) that if K is the coefficient of the Hall effect (I) and K' the analogous coefficient of the Nernst effect (i.) (which is constant for small values of H), then K' = Ka/p, v being the coefficient of the Thomson effect for the metal and p its specific resistance.
The application of this term to Thomson's corpuscle implies, rightly or wrongly, that notwithstanding its apparent mass, the corpuscle is in fact nothing more than an atom of electricity.
THOMAS THOMSON (1773-1852), Scottish chemist, was born at Crieff, Perthshire, on the 12th of April 1773.
Experiments by Natanson on CO 2 at 17Ã‚° C. confirm those of Joule and Thomson, but show a slight increase of the ratio do/dp at higher pressures, which is otherwise rendered probable by the form of the isothermals as determined by Andrews and Amagat.
This assumption represents qualitatively the theoretical isothermal of James Thomson (see Vaporization) and the phenomena of the critical state (see Condensation Of Gases); but the numerical results to which it leads differ so widely from experiment that it is necessary to suppose the constant, a, to be a function of the temperature.
The successor of Sir Wyville Thomson in the Sea, in 65Ã‚° N.
m.) with depths down to 2200 fathoms. A rise between Spitsbergen and Greenland separates the Norwegian Trough (greatest depth 2005 fathoms in 68Ã‚° 21' N., 2Ã‚° 5' W.) which in turn is divided from the Atlantic by the Wyville Thomson Ridge which runs between the Faeroe and Shetland islands and is covered by only 314 fathoms of water at the deepest point.
3 shows a band-brake invented by Professor James Thomson, suitable for testing motors exerting a constant torque (see Engineering, 22nd October 1880).
Thomson succeeded (he also discovered Lake Baringo and Mt Elgon), but turned back from the frontier of Busoga in order not to provoke Mutesa to hostilities.
Another form of motor meter which is much used is that of Elihu Thomson.
John Thomson of Greenock (1782-1855) made an independent calculation of logarithms of numbers up to 120,000 to 12 places of decimals, and his table has been used to verify the errata already found in Vlacq and Briggs by Lefort (see Monthly Not.
Thomson, Plagues of Egypt), but the description of the relations of Moses and Aaron to the court raises many difficult questions (H.
Davies, "that the different manner of constructing the needle amongst the Chinese and European navigators shows the independence of the Chinese of us, as theirs is the worse method, and had they copied from us, they would have used the better one" (Thomson's British Annual, 1837, p. 291).
The heat generated by the current C at a point x where the temperature-excess is 0 is equal per unit length and time (t) to that lost by conduction -d(gkdo/dx)/dx, and by radiation hpo (emissivity h, perimeter p), together with that employed in raising the temperature gcdo/dt, and absorbed by the Thomson effect sCdo/dx.
Assuming dH/do = 0.305 for saturated steam, he found that S was nearly independent of the pressure at constant temperature, but that it varied with the temperature from o 387 at 100Ã‚° C. to o 665 at 160Ã‚° C. Writing Q for the Joule-Thomson " cooling effect," dO/dp, or the slope BC/AC of the line of constant total heat, he found that Q was nearly independent of the pressure at constant temperature, a result which agrees with that of Joule and Thomson for air and COs; but that it varied with the temperature as (1/0) 3.8 instead of (i/0) 2.
An objection to the construction of hedges of hazel is the injury not infrequently done to them by the nut gatherer, who "with active vigour crushes down the tree" (Thomson's Seasons, " Autumn"), and otherwise damages it.
Thomson on Mount Wellington, in Tasmania, the gills are not arborescent, and there are seven segments of the trunk free of the carapace (fig.
Thomson, the successor of Maxwell and Lord Rayleigh in the Cavendish chair of physics in the university of Cambridge, began about the year 1899 a remarkable series of investigations on the cathode discharge, which finally enabled him to make a measurement of the ratio of the electric charge to the mass of the particles of matter projected from the cathode, and to show that this electric charge was identical with the atomic electric charge carried by a hydrogen ion in the act of electrolysis, but that the mass of the cathode particles, or " corpuscles " as he called them, was far less, viz.
It is supposed that the aisle, with Decorated window and groined roof, south of the chancel, formed the grammar school (removed from the abbey in 1751) in which Samuel Rutherford (1600-1661), principal of St Mary's College, St Andrews, and James Thomson, author of The Seasons, were educated.
He observed with a thermocouple the difference of temperature (about 01Ã‚° C.) produced by the Thomson effect in twenty minutes between two mercury calorimeters, B1 and B2, surrounding the central portions of a pair of rods arranged as in Le Roux's method (see fig.
Although the effect in copper is so small, he succeeded in obtaining changes of temperature due to the Thomson effect of the order of IÃ‚° C., which could be measured with satisfactory accuracy.
4, which is given as an illustration, the cold junctions are supposed to be at oÃ‚° C. and the hot junctions at 100Ã‚° C. Noll's values (Table I.) are taken for the E.M.F., and it is supposed that the coefficient of the Thomson effect is zero in lead, i.e.
The potential difference, due to the Volta effect in air, has been shown by Thomson (Lord Kelvin) and his pupils to be of the same order of magnitude, if not absolutely the same, as that produced in a dilute electrolyte in which two metallically connected plates (e.g.
- The idea of convection of heat by an electric current, and the phrase " specific heat of electricity " were introduced by Thomson as a convenient mode of expressing the phenomena of the Thomson effect.
Athlete Nigel Thomson did not compete in the men 's 100m - presumably due to his injured shoulder.
And Bob Mills and Jeff Pope have written a comedy drama starring John Thomson about a hopeless spiv called Stan The Man.
Luckily, Thomson Peterson's website offers a number of tools to help you on your journey.
Currently no cruise lines in the US offer cruises for adults only; however in the UK the Thomson Cruise Fleet offers one adult ship (The Calypso), which requires passengers be at least sixteen years of age.
Thomson Cruise Fleet's Calypso is also billed as adult only.
San Diego, CA: Singular Thomson Learning, 2001.
For example, if you are unsure whether your ancestor will be listed as Thompson or Thomson, you can search "Thom*son" using the asterisk as a wildcard.
This will yield results for both the Thompson and Thomson surnames.
Kim Thomson (Faye Lamb): When her parents split up, she was raised initially by her grandparents, then sent to boarding school for several years, leading to her opinion that such schools should be abolished.
George Thomson's The Illuminated Lettering Kit: Materials, Techniques, & Projects for Decorative Calligraphy includes a good instruction book and the materials you'll need to create your own calligraphy.
Additionally, he holds a Physical Therapy Aide Certificate through Thomson Education Direct, and is American Red Cross trained in CPR.
Norm Thomson carries comfortable men's pajamas that are both stylish and plush.
Thomson (Lord Kelvin) observed in 1863 3 that when a condenser is charged or discharged, a sharp click is heard, and a similar observation was made by Cromwell F.
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