Borings show that the thickness of this group varies from 35 o ft.
The thickness varies from five to sixteen feet.
As the wire is pulled through, a coating of gutta-percha, the thickness of which is regulated by the die D, is pressed out of the cylinder by applying the requisite pressure
in thickness, of very varied composition.
17 and a thickness of insulating material which formerly would have been considered quite insufficient is now very generally adopted with complete success.
in thickness, and brownish clays.
In many Laminariaceae the thallus also grows regularly in thickness by division of its surface layer, adding to the subjacent permanent tissue and thus forming a secondary meristem.
The minimum thickness of the formation is 240 ft.
in thickness near the ground.
in thickness, they probably at one time covered the whole island except the summits of the Sierra Maestra, where they have been observed, resting upon the older rocks, up to a height of 2300 ft.
At a later date other experimentalists found, however, that an equal thickness of sea-water interposed between a primary and secondary circuit completely prevented similar inductive intercommunication.
It is evident that accurate knowledge of the character and structure of the rock-formations in petroliferous territories is of the greatest importance in enabling the expert to select favourable sites for drilling operations; hence on well-conducted petroleumproperties it is now customary to note the character and thickness of the strata perforated by the drill, so that a complete section may be prepared from the recorded data.
The small letters are about three-sixteenths of an inch high, and are raised from the page the thickness of the thumbnail.
This consists typically of close-fitting layers of cells with completely suberized walls, intended to replace the epidermis as the external protective layer of the plant when the latter, incapable as it is of further growth after its original formation, is broken and cast off by the increase in thickness of the stem through the activity of the cambium.
in thickness containing "coprolites"; these consist of phosphatized wood, bones, casts of shells, and shapeless lumps.
thick, with beds of calcium phosphate, and a shale of half that thickness, were discovered by Hope Jones in the neighbourhood of Cwmgynen, about 16 m.
The Carboniferous or "Mountain" Limestone is the oldest formation in the county; its thickness is not known, but it is certainly over 2000 ft.; it is well exposed in the numerous narrow gorges cut by the Derwent and its tributaries and by the Dove on the Staffordshire border.
(6) Stalagmite with a few bones and antlers of reindeer, the thickness varying from one to fifteen inches.
The first accurate description of the plant is given by Theophrastus, from whom we learn that it grew in shallows of 2 cubits (about 3 ft.) or less, its main root being of the thickness of a man's wrist and 10 cubits in length.
The motion of the outwardscreeping inland ice will naturally be more independent of the configurations of the underlying land in the interior, where its thickness is so enormous, than near the margin where it is thinner.
in thickness, occupying undulating hollows in the underlying gneiss, and dip towards the Noursoak Peninsula at 20°, when the overlying Atanakerdluk strata come in.
The formation and gradually increasing thickness of its bark are explained by the continually increasing need of adequate protection to the living cortex, under the strain of the increasing framework which the enormous multiplication of its living protoplasts demands, and the development of which leads to continual rupture of the exterior.
Theoretically for a given outside diameter of core the greatest speed of signalling through a cable is obtained when the diameter of the conductor is 606 (1/,/e) the diameter of the core, but this ratio makes the thickness of the guttapercha covering insufficient for mechanical strength.
He assumes that in what is considered a good producing district the amount of petroleum which can be obtained from a cubic foot of rock would not be more than a gallon, and that the average thickness of the oil-bearing rock would not exceed 5 ft.
Towards the Black Sea coast its thickness diminishes, and it disappears in the valleys.
3, the true bulrush, occurs in lakes, ditches and marshes; it has a spongy, green, cylindrical stem, reaching nearly an inch in thickness and 1 to 8 ft.
A steel cylinder (about the thickness of a goose-quill), which forms the micrometer screw, has two threads cut upon it, one-half being cut with a thread double the pitch of the other.
Their absolute freedom from diffraction, the perfect control of the illumination and thickness of the lines, and the accuracy with which it will be possible to construct scales for zone observations will be important features of the new method.
One of the richest has been found at Greta in the Hunter river district; it contains an average thickness of 41 ft.
Where surface water is banked up against the land, as by the equatorial and Gulf Stream drift currents, it appears to penetrate to very considerable depths; the escaping stream currents are at first of great vertical thickness and part of the water at their sources has a downward movement.
These tubes are lined by flattened epithelium and often contain blood capillaries; they communicate with the coelom and are to be regarded as prolongation of it into the thickness of the body wall.
The architrave is flat, and there is a space over it, serving both to admit light and to relieve the pressure on it from above, and the size decreases slightly from the bottom to the top. Within the doorway is, as a rule, a niche on the right, and a staircase ascending in the thickness of the wall to the left; in front is another similar doorway leading to the chamber in the interior, which is circular, and about 15 ft.
This mode has some disadvantages attending it; such sheets are difficult to handle; the crustaceous species are liable to have their surfaces rubbed; the foliaceous species become so compressed as to lose their characteristic appearance; and the spaces between the sheets caused by the thickness of the specimen permit the entrance of dust.
mesogloea of the medusa is largely developed and of great thickness in the umbrella.
(4) Black peaty soil varying in thickness, the maximum being about a foot.
in thickness and upwards of 60 ft.
Jamaica quassia is imported into England in logs several feet in length and often nearly one foot in thickness, consisting of pieces of the trunk and larger branches.
The rail-failures mentioned above also drew renewed attention to the importance of the thermal treatment of the steel from the time of melting to the last passage through the rolling mill and to the necessity of the finishing temperature being sufficiently low if the product is to be fine grained, homogeneous and tough; and to permit of this requirement being met there was a tendency to increase the thickness of the metal in the web and flanges of the rails.
The beds are to be spawned when the heat moderates, and the surface is then covered with a sprinkling of warmed loam, which after a few days is made up to a thickness of 2 in., and well beaten down.
When the limit of extensibility is reached the cell wall increases in thickness from the continuation of the latter of the two processes.
These layers arc secreted by the protoplasm by the direct apposition of substances on those already in existence; and they may go on increasing in thickness, both by apposition and by the intussusception of particles probably carried in through the protoplasmic fibres, which penetrate the cell-wall as long as the cell lives.
in thickness, representing a long and gradual course of Neolithic or Later Stone-Age development.
A complex network, however, does occur in Lybiodrilus and certain other Eudrilidae, where the paired nephridia possess ducts leading to the exterior which ramify and anastomose on the thickness of the body wall.
considerable thickness, suspended in the centre ' of the circular vault of the heavens, an idea perhaps borrowed from the Babylonians, for Job (xxvi.
Even if the slide itself is mechanically perfect, the irregularity in the thickness of the lubricating oil between the bearing surfaces of the slide is apt to produce a variable error.
There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.
They secrete a cuticle which never approaches in thickness the often calcified cuticle of Arthropods.
Instead of shading lines following the greatest slopes, lines following the contours and varying in their thickness and in their intervals apart, according to the slope of the ground to be represented, may be employed' This method affords a ready and expeditious means of sketching the ground, if the draughtsman limits himself to characteristically indicating its features by what have been called " form lines."
You get used to knowing the different types of hardness and thickness.
wide, but is very erratic in outline and variable in thickness.
The seams vary in thickness.
The plant has a well-developed main root (tap-root) and a single or branched leafy stem which is provided with a means of secondary increase in thickness.
The fibrous bands are generally formed towards the end of the years growth in thickness.
PS, Cavity of proboscidian sheath (the sheath itself of varying thickness).
(5) Angular debris fallen from above varying in thickness from one to ten feet.
Potatoes give fair results when they are taken good care of, carrots grow to a thickness of IIin., while cabbage does poorly.
The bottom should slope towards the outer edge, where a drain should be cut, with an outlet, and on this sloping bottom should be laid a thickness of from 9 in.
In 1865 Kowalevsky discovered that the organs of respiration consist of numerous pairs of gill-slits leading from the digestive canal through the thickness of the body-wall to the exterior.
The vascular system itself is quite peculiar, consisting of lacunae and channels destitute of endothelium, situated within the thickness of the basementmembrane of the body-wall, of the gut-wall and of the mesenteries.
The required thickness of the spread sheet is very often secured by the rubber-faced surfaces of two cloths being united before curing.
Very irregular surfaces may require the use of specially shaped anodes in order that the distance between the electrodes may be fairly uniform, otherwise the portion of the cathode lying nearest to the anode may receive an undue share of the current, and therefore a greater thickness of coat.
In dressing mica the "books" are split along the cleavage into sheets of the required thickness, and the sheets trimmed into rectangles with a sharp knife, shears or guillotine, stained and damaged portions being rejected.
The valves are also in some species very unequal in their respective thickness, as may be seen in Productus (Daviesiella) 1 llangollensis, Davidsonia verneuilii, &c., and while the space allotted to the animal is very great in many species, as in Terebratula sphaeroidalis, it is very small in others belonging to Stro phomena, Leptaena, Chonetes, &c. The ventral valve is usually the thickest, and in some forms is six or seven times as great as the opposite one.
It forms gigantic deposits of almost constant thickness, embedded between a floor of limestone and a roof of porphyry.
A thin sheet of magnetic matter magnetized normally to its surface in such a manner that the magnetization at any place is inversely proportional to the thickness h of the sheet at that place is called a magnetic shell; the constant product hI is the strength of the shell and is generally denoted by 4, or 4.
If the field is uniform, H=O/wd, where 0 is the rotation, d the thickness of the substance arranged as a plate at right angles to the direction of the field, and w Verdet's constant for the substance.
in thickness is said to be adapted for measuring fields of the order of moo units.
The difference of the ballastic throws taken with the two coils measured the intensity of the field in the space around the iron, and it also enabled a correction to be made for the nonferrous space between the iron neck and the centre of the thickness of'the inner coil.
in thickness, which occurred on the outside of the specimen, and the exceptional magnetic quality which has been claimed for aluminium-iron cannot yet be regarded as established.
The tranverse electromotive force is equal to KCH/D, where C is the current, H the strength of the field, D the thickness of the metal, and K a constant which has been termed the rotatory power, or rotational coefficient.
This telson may enlarge, it may possibly even become internally and sternally developed as partially separate somites, and the tergum may remain without trace of somite formation, or, as appears to be the case in Limulus, the telson gives rise to a few well-marked somites (mesosoma and two others) and then enlarges without further trace of segmentation, whilst the chitinous integument which develops in increasing thickness on the terga as growth advances welds together the unsegmented telson and the somites in front of it, which were previ ously marked by separate tergal thickenings.
The Silurian scorpion Palaeophonus, differs, so far as obvious points are concerned, from a modern scorpion only in the thickness of its legs and in their terminating in strong spike-like joints, instead of being slight and provided with a pair of terminal claws.
5), Dracaena and Cordyline include arborescent species in which the stem increases in thickness continually by a centrifugal formation of new tissue; an extreme case is afforded by Dracaena Draco, the dragon-tree of Teneriffe.
The maximum thickness of 2000 ft.
The Dwyka conglomerate rarely attains any great thickness though forming wide outcrops.
The function of a lens in forming an image is to compensate by its variable thickness the differences of phase which would otherwise exist between secondary waves arriving at the focal point from various parts of the aperture.
If, as in common flint-glass spectroscopes, there is only one dispersing substance, f Sy ds = Sµ.s, where s is simply the thickness traversed by the ray.
the distance from the centre of one wire or line to the centre of the next, and not otherwise upon the thickness of the wire and the magnitude of the interspace.
The former measures the thickness of the primary focal line, and the latter measures its curvature.
Even in the contrary case, the thickness of the plate must not exceed a certain limit, dependent upon the purity of the spectrum.
The formation of bands thus requires that the retarding plate be held upon the side already specified, so that zs be positive; and that the thickness of the plate (to which z is proportional) do not exceed a certain limit, which we may call 2T 0.
At the best thickness To the bands are black, and not otherwise.
If it be desired to see a given number of bands in the whole or in any part of the spectrum, the thickness of the retarding plate is thereby determined, independently of all other considerations.
a disturbance limited to an infinitely thin slice of the medium, is supposed to fall upon a parallel grating, which again may With the best thickness so that in this case w=0 w = (2 w w= 0 be regarded as formed of infinitely thin wires, or infinitely narrow lines traced upon glass.
The thickness varies from 2300 to over 11,000 ft.
The individual beds, seldom more than a few feet in thickness and sometimes only a few inches, are interstratified with an immense thickness of quartzites.
Near Reitzburg the coarse conglomerates reach a thickness of 400 ft.
It varies in thickness from 500 ft.
The thickness varies from 2600 ft.
in thickness, but in this case layers of shaly coal are included.
The thickness of the salt is unknown; the mines yield about 11,000 tons annually.
deep. The thickness of the wall averages to ft., but varies 3 or 4 ft.
- Before opening and working a mine it is necessary to have as full and accurate information as possible as to the following: The probable extent and area of the deposit, its average thickness, and the probable amount and value of the mineral; 2.
in thickness and the extent and distribution of the rich and barren areas by outcrop measurements.
If the deposit shows great variations in thickness in its outcrop along the surface it is probable that a drift or a slope would show the same thing in depth.
With a number of holes the average thickness and probable extent of the deposit may be determined, at least approximately.
In the case of metalliferous deposits of varying thickness or irregular distribution the information from bore-holes is less satisfactory.
A large number of holes must be bored to obtain, even approximately, the average thickness and value of the ore and the shape and size of the ore bodies.
The method to be adopted will vary with the thickness and character of the deposit, with its inclination, and to some extent with the character of the enclosing rocks, the depth below the surface, and other conditions.
While it is always desirable to provide large working-places, the size of the working-place is limited by the thickness and Size of strength of the overlying beds forming the roof Working- or hanging wall of the mine.
There is considerable thickness of old timber left from the working of the upper levels.
The working out of each floor is conducted much as if it were a bed of corresponding thickness.
io, differs from the top-slice system mainly in the greater thickness given to the working floors, which may be from 12 to 40 ft.
in thickness, whereas in the top-slide system the height of the floor is limited by the length of the timbers used in the working-rooms, rarely over S or Io ft.
In such cases preliminary surveys should be made to determine the thickness of rock over the proposed workings.
When the presence of underground bodies of water is known or suspected, advance bore-holes should radiate from the end of the advancing working place so as to give warning of the position of the body of water, these holes being of such length as to ensure a safe, thickness of solid rock.
- These qualities can be readily judged by inspection of the glass in pieces of considerable thickness, and they may be quantitatively measured by means of the spectro-photometer.
Plate glass of the usual quality, which appears to be perfectly homogeneous when looked at in the ordinary way, is seen to be a mass of fine striae, when a considerable thickness is examined in parallel light.
For the purpose of rendering this minute examination possible, opposite plane surfaces of the glass are ground approximately flat and polished, the faces to be polished being so chosen as to allow of a view through the greatest possible thickness of glass; thus in slabs the narrow edges are polished.
The latter kind is known as " flashed," and is universally employed in the case of colouring matters whose effect is so intense that in any usual thickness of glass they would cause almost entire opacity.
in diameter, and vary in thickness from a to $ in.
in diameter, and vary in thickness from a to z in., the centre being the thickest.
with great care so as to secure a product as free from colour as possible, since the relatively great thickness of the sheets FIG.
The width of the sheet or plate is regulated by moving guides which are placed in front of the roller and are pushed along by it, while its thickness is regulated by raising or lowering the roller relatively to the surface of the table.
To give an idea of what can be done in this way, it may be stated that gold can be beaten out to leaf of the thickness of - j g - mm.; and that platinum, by judicious work, can be drawn into wire 2?o o mm.
square, with a thickness of nearly 4 in.
The amount of deposit laid over the land reaches a thickness of two or three feet in one season of warping, which is usually practised between March and October, advantage being taken of the spring tides during these months.
The nitrate forms beds, varying in thickness from 6 in.
The material is supplied to the twisting machinery by an attendant, and formed into a cord of uniform thickness, twisted and wound on a drum by mechanism analogous to that used in rope-spinning.
Cheroots differ from ordinary cigars only in shape, being either in the form of a truncated cone, or of uniform thickness throughout, but always having both ends open and sharply cut across.
There are several varieties in cultivation, varying in the degree of hardihood, time of ripening, thickness of shell, size and other particulars.
Although of no great thickness it covers six-sevenths of the island, rising in a series of steps or platforms to a height of nearly 1 10o ft.
According to native report, the gorillas sleep on these beds, which are of sufficient thickness to raise them a foot or two above the ground, in a sitting posture, with the head inclined forwards on the breast.
The whole range is highly auriferous, and the thickness of the strata is not less than 10,000 ft.
in thickness), covered with bar-iron 4 in.
Accordingly, the vessel was built so low in the water that the waves glided easily over its deck except at the middle, where was constructed a revolving turret 1 for the guns, and though the vessel's iron armour had a thickness of 1 in.
8 A, 9 A), but in many Cheilostomes the frontal surface is protected by a calcareous shield, which grows from near the free edges of the vertical walls and commonly increases in thickness as the zooecium grows older by the activity of the "epitheca," a layer of living tissue outside it.
With regard to incised chiselling, the commonest form is kebori (hair-carving), which may be called engraving, the lines being of uniform thickness and depth.
in width, and less than one-tenth of that amount in thickness.
Thus if Q is the surface density, S the thickness of the shell at any point, and p the assumed volume density of the matter of the shell, we have v =Abp. Then the quantity of electricity on any element of surface dS is A times the mass of the corresponding element of the shell; and if Q is the whole quantity of electricity on the ellipsoid, Q =A times the whole mass of the shell.
p. 112) has given a full expression for the capacity C of two circular plates of thickness t and radius r placed at any distance d apart in air from which the edge effect can be calculated.
Except in the larger nuggets, which may be more or less angular, or at times even masses of crystals, with or without associated quartz or other rock, gold is generally found bean-shaped or in some other flattened form, the smallest particles being scales of scarcely appreciable thickness, which, from their small bulk as compared with their surface, subside very slowly when suspended in water, and are therefore readily carried away by a rapid current.
The formation is noted for its regularity as regards both the thickness and the gold-tenor of the ore-bearing reefs, in which respect it is unparalleled in the geology of the auriferous formations.
It is deposited from water, which bubbles up from a number of springs in the form of horizontal layers, which at first are thin crusts and can easily be broken, but gradually solidify and harden into blocks with a thickness of 7 to 8 in.
Besides these variations in the number of ridges or plates of which each tooth is composed, the thickness of the enamel varies so much as to have given rise to a distinction between a " thick-plated " and a " thin-plated " variety - the latter being most prevalent among specimens from the Arctic regions.
The habitats which they affect are the hot, dry regions of tropical America, the aridity of which they are enabled to withstand in consequence of the thickness of their skin and the paucity of evaporating pores or stomata with which they are furnished, - these conditions not permitting the moisture they contain to be carried off too rapidly; the thick fleshy stems and branches contain a store of water.
Warburg in 1875 on the viscosity of gases; its effects would be corrected for, in general, by a slight effective addition to the thickness of the gaseous layer.
ft., which should give a thickness of o 000563 in.
The amount of separation is very small, and depends on the thickness of the glass, the index of refraction and the focal length of the telescope.
Ice is a very poor conductor of heat and accordingly protects the surface of the water beneath from rapid cooling; hence new-formed pancake ice does not increase excessively in thickness in one winter, and even in the centre of the Arctic Basin the ice-covering only amounts to 6 or at most 9 ft.
in the course of a year, while in the Antarctic regions the season's growth is only half as great; in the latter also the accumulated snow is an important factor in the thickness of the ice, and snow is an even worse conductor of heat.
Underneath is the true floor of the cave, a mass of homogeneous yellow clay, one metre in thickness.
The commencement of the Carboniferous period is marked by a mass of limestones known as the Carboniferous or Sequences Mountain Limestone,which contains a large assemblage of carbon- of marine fossils, and has a maximum thickness in iferous S.W.
These are also called the Upper Limestone Shale, a similar group being found in places below the limestone, and called the Lower Limestone Shale, or, in the north of England, the Tuedian group. Going northward the beds of limestone diminish in thickness, with a proportional increase in the intercalated sandstones and shales, until in Scotland they are entirely subordinate to a mass of coal-bearing strata, which forms the most productive members of the Scotch coalfields.
The Coal Measures, forming the third great member of the Carboniferous series, consist of alternations of shales and sandstones, with beds of coal and nodular ironstones, which together make up a thickness of many thousands of feet - from 12,000 to 14,000 ft.
The thickness of coal seams varies in Great Britain from a mere film to 35 or 40 ft.; but in the south of France and in India masses of coal are known up to 200 ft.
thick in one connected mass in the neighbourhood of Dudley, but splits up into eight seams, which, with the intermediate shales and sandstones, are of a total thickness of 400 ft.
Seams of a medium thickness of 3 to 7 ft.
as the minimum workable thickness, and after making all necessary deductions, estimated the available quantity of coal in the proved coalfields of the United Kingdom as 100,914,668,167 tons.
3, where the seam B, according to the same system of arrangement, should have been found at or near the surface, another seam C is proved at a considerable depth, differing in character and thickness from either of the preceding.
The thickness varies according to the pressure expected, but may be taken at from 4 to i 2 in.
With increase in depth, however, the thickness and weight of the cast iron tubbing in a large shaft become almost unmanageable; in one instance, at a depth of 1215 f t., the bottom rings in a shaft 142 ft.
The laying out of a colliery, after the coal has been won, by sinkings or levels, may be accomplished in various ways, according to the nature of the coal, its thickness and dip, and the extent of ground to be worked.
In the South Wales system of working, cross headings are driven from the main roads obliquely across the rise to get a sufficiently easy gradient for horse roads, and from these the stalls are opened out with a narrow entrance, in order to leave support on either side of the road, but afterwards widening to as great a breadth as the seam will allow, leaving pillars of a minimum thickness.
or more in thickness.
With careful packing it is estimated that the surface subsidence will not exceed 40% of the thickness of the seam removed, and will usually be considerably less.
in thickness, to be worked at a profit, which had formerly been abandoned as too hard to be worked by hand-labour.
in thickness, weighed 14.3 tons, and another at Anzin, intended to lift a gross load of 15 tons from 750 metres, is 221 in.
"At Chai-tang," wrote Baron von Richthofen, "I was surprised to walk over a regular succession of coal-bearing strata, the thickness of which, estimating it step by step as I proceeded gradually from the lowest to the highest strata, exceeds 7000 ft."
lating the water are connected to the casing, so that any tilting automatically regulates the flow, and therefore the thickness of the film in the vortex.
" In modern times Descartes held that, as it is of the essence of matter to be extended in length, breadth and thickness, so it is of the essence of extension to be occupied by matter, for extension cannot be an extension of nothing.
in thickness, the width of the circlet being 4 in.
in thickness, and of "blocks" made up of these tears agglomerated by a clear reddish-brown resin.
Until the 9th century the only means for sighting cannon was by the " line of metal " - a line scored_ along the top of the gun, which, owing to the greater thickness of metal at the breech than at the muzzle, was not parallel to the axis.
area should be treated not only as length multiplied by length, but also as volume divided by thickness.
This method is unconsciously adopted by the teacher who illustrates the equality of area of two geometrical figures by cutting them out of cardboard of uniform thickness and weighing them.
If the planes of one set divide it into m slabs of thickness h, and those of the other into n slabs of thickness k, so that H =mh, K = nk, then the values of x and of y for any ordinate may be denoted by xo+Oh and yo+Ok, and the length of the ordinate by uo, 0.
Allowance must of course be made for the thickness of the wood.
The cast bars are reduced to the thickness of the coin by repeated passages between rolls.
The reduction in thickness of the bars is accompanied by a slight increase in their width and a very great increase in their length, so that it is generally necessary to cut partly rolled bars into two parts to keep them of convenient dimensions.
in thickness to 14 mm.
In some mints the drag-bench or draw-bench is used after the rolls to equalize the thickness of the fillets.
The thickness of the FIG.
When they have been reduced to the correct thickness they are examined by the " tryer," who cuts out one or two blanks from each fillet with a hand machine and weighs them on a delicate balance.
As the mean thickness of a sovereign is 0.0466 in., the remedy for weight corresponds to a difference of less than in.
in the thickness of the fillet.
The Columbia plateau consists of horizontal beds of lava having a total thickness of several thousand feet, and its surface has a general elevation of tow to 2000 ft.
The layer of air originally of thickness dx now has thickness dx+dy, since N is displaced forwards dy more than M.
of the cylinder is formed of a plate perforated near its edge by holes distributed uniformly in a circle concentric with the plate, and which are cut obliquely through the thickness of the plate.
The law that, caeteris paribus, n varies inversely as the thickness may be tested by forming a string of four lengths of the single thread used before, and consequently of double the thickness of the latter, when, for the same length and tension, the compound thread will exhibit double the number of ventral segments presented by the single thread.
The thickness of the arch is 4 ft.
In the case of the plate web there must be a considerable excess of material, partly to stiffen it against buckling and partly because an excess of thickness must be provided to reduce the effect of corrosion.
in total thickness, and showing traces of reconstruction at different periods.
The thickness of the formation near London is about 400 ft., and at Sheppey it reaches 480 ft.
in thickness; (2) of a thin and local bed composed of alternations of brown clay and loam; (3) of a bed of fine light buff sand, which in west Kent attains a thickness of more than 60 ft.; (4) of bluish grey sandy marl containing fossils, and almost entirely confined to east Kent, the thickness of the formation being more than 60 ft.; and (5) of fine light grey sand of an equal thickness, also fossiliferous.
The thickness of the formation varies from 15 to 80 ft., but most commonly it is from 25 to 40 ft.
They consist chiefly of flint pebbles or of lightcoloured quartzose sand, the thickness being from 20 to 30 ft, and.
in height; beneath these is a mass of coarse black amygdaloid, of the same thickness, underlain by a second range of basaltic pillars, from 40 to 50 ft.
There is also a postern gate on the north side of the wall, and at its eastern extremity are two apertures in the thickness of the wall.
On electrolysis a layer of metallic calcium is formed at the lower end of this rod on the surface of the electrolyte; the rod is gradually raised, the thickness of the layer increases, and ultimately a rod of metallic calcium, forming, as it were, a continuation of the iron cathode, is obtained.
above sea level, and the average thickness of the peat of which it consists is 25 ft.
Frequently in districts where slates are much crumpled they are traversed by numerous quartz veins, which have a thickness varying from several inches up to many feet, and may occasionally be auriferous.
The splitter places a block on end between his knees, and with chisel and mallet splits it into as many plates as possible of the usual thickness for roofing purposes - namely, a quarter of an inch more or less according to the size and strength required.
Such veins often attain a thickness of several feet, and sometimes possess a columnar structure perpendicular to the enclosing walls; they are met with in the crystalline limestones and other Laurentian rocks of New York and Canada, in the gneisses of the Austrian Alps and the granulites of Ceylon.
and the thickness of a man's thigh, and frequents the marshes of Brazil and the Guianas, where it is regarded with terror, owing to the formidable electrical apparatus with which it is provided.
in thickness, 21 in.
A sheet of silver of a finer quality than standard, ranging in thickness from-+ 6 - in.
This was passed again and again between gradually approximated rollers, with occasional annealing, until the desired thickness had been attained.
The next event is a great growth in thickness of the gelatinous mesogloea, especially on the exumbral side; as a result the flattened coelenteron is still further compressed so that in certain spots its cavity is obliterated, and its exumbral and subumbral layers of endoderm come into contact and undergo concrescence.
Thickness of skin, masking the muscles, has been thought the cause of a peculiar heaviness in the outlines of body and face; the complexion varies from yellow-brown to chocolate (about 40 to 43 in the anthropological scale); eyes black; straight coarse glossy black hair; beard and moustache scanty.
Region of tile Great LakesThe Palaeozoic strata, already mentioned as lapping on the southern slope of the Superior Olclland and around the western side of the Adirondacks- are but parts of a great area of similar strata, hundreds of feet in thickness, which dec]ine gently southward from the great oldland of the Laurentian highlands of eastern Canada.
It attains a thickness of 20 ft.
The Plateau province, next west of the southern Rocky Mountains, is characterized for the most part by large-textured forms, developed on a great thickness of nearly horizontal Palaeozoic, The Plateau Mesozoic and Tertiary formations, and by a dry climate.
The aggregate thickness of the Proterozoic systems in the Lake Superior region is several miles, as usually computed, but there are obvious difficulties in determining the thickness of such great systems, especially when they are mtich metamorphosed.
The thickness of the system has been estimated at 10,009 to 12,000 ft.
in eastern New York, and almost as much in the southern Appalachian Mountains (Georgia and Alabama); but its average thickness is much less.
In Wisconsin, where the Upper Cambrian only is present, the thickness is about Iooo ft.
The greater thickness in the east appears to be due in part to the fact that an extensive area of land, Appalachia.
The greatness of the thickness, as it has been measured, is also due in part to the oblique position in which the beds of sediment were originally deposited.
The thickness of the system varies from point to point, being greatest in the Appalachian Mountains, and much less in the interior.
In the interior the thickness of the system is less than 1000 ft.
in many places, but in and near the Appalachian Mountains its thickness is much greatermore than five times as great if the maximum thicknesses of all formations be made the basis of calculation.
Like the earlier Palaeozoic systems, the Devonian attains its greatest known thickness in the Appalachian Mountains, where sediments from the lands of pre-Cambrian rock to the east accumulated in quantity.
Here clastic rocks predominate, while limestone is more abundant in the interior, If the maximum thicknesses of all Devonian formations be added together, the total for the system is as much as 15,000 ft.; but such a thickness is not found in any one pluce.
The system ranges in thickness from nearly 5000 ft.
uc un Unlike the older systems of the Palaeozoic, the enbrier Pennsylvanian system has not its maximum thickness - in the Appalachian Mountains, but in Arkansas, in a region which was probably adjacent to high lands at that time.
The system has its maximum known thickness in Texas, where it is said to be 7000 ft.
in maximum thickness.
Triassic SystemThis system has but limited representation in the eastern part of the United States, being known only east of the Appalachian Mountains in an area which was land throughout most of the Palaeozoic era, hut which was deformed when the eastern mountains were developed at the close of the Palaeozoic. In the troughs formed in its surface during this time of deformation, sediments of great thickness accumulated during the Triassic period.
In the United States, marine Shastan beds are restricted to the area west of the Sierras, but they here have great thickness.
If maximum thicknesses of its several parts in different localities, as usually measured, are added together, the total would approach or reach 25,000 ft.; but the strata of any one region have scarcely more than half this thickness, and the average is much less.
The system has been reported to have a thickness of more than 7000 ft.
The system is wanting in northern California and southern Oregon, but appears again farther north, and has great development in Oregon, where its thickness has been estimated at more than 10,000 ft.
As in other comparable cases, this figure does not make allowance for the oblique attitude in which the sediments were deposited, and should not be construed to mean the vertical thickness of the system.
In \Vashington the Eocene is represented by the Puget series of brackish water beds, with an estimated thickness exceeding that of the marine formations of Oregon.
The thickness of the system in the west is great, the formations of each of the several stages mentioned above running into thousands of feet, as thicknesses are commonly measured.
The Miocene of the Atlantic and Gulf regions nowhere attains great thickness.
The marine Pliocene of the continent has its greatest development in California (the Merced series, peninsula of San Francisco), where it is assigned a maximum thickness of nearly 6000 ft., and possibly as much as 13,000 ft.
6) possesses the advantage that the panels or laths can be diminished in thickness towards the top in proportion to the reduced water-pressure; whereas the needles, being of uniform cross-section, have to be made stout enough to sustain the maximum bottom pressure.
It is entered from the east by a passage, on each side of which there is a small chamber constructed within the thickness of the wall.
The last is secreted by the whole surface of the mantle except the border, and additions to its thickness continue to be made through life.
These two layers, therefore, when once formed cannot increase in thickness; as the mantle grows in extent its border passes beyond the formed parts of the two outer layers, and the latter are covered internally by a deposit of nacreous matter.
The filaments take on a secondary grouping, the surface of the lamella being thrown into a series of halfcylindrical ridges, each consisting of ten or twenty filaments; a filament of much greater strength and thickness than the others may be placed between each pair of groups.
and it is remarkable for the great thickness of its muscular walls, which gives it the feeling of a piece of whipcord when rolled between the finger and thumb.
Thus the growth of the shell in extent is due to additions to the prismatic layer at the edge, its growth in thickness to new layers of nacre deposited on its inner surface.
In the cold regions of the northern lowlands peat occurs in beds of immense thickness.
As the outer flossy threads and the inner vests are not reelable, it is difficult to estimate the total length of thread produced by the silkworm, but the portion reeled varies in length and thickness, according to the condition and robustness of the cocoon, in some breeds giving a result as low as Soo metres, and in others 900 to 1200 metres.
As the reeling proceeds the reeler has to give the most careful attention to the thickness of the strand being produced, and to introduce new cocoons in place of any from which the reelable silk has become exhausted.
In the case of prisms the resolving power ist (dµ/dX), where t is the effective thickness of the medium traversed by the ray.
If 1 2 and t l are thicknesses traversed by the extreme rays, t = t 2 - t,, and if, as is usually the case, the prism is filled right up to its refraction cap, = o, and t becomes equal to the greatest thickness of the medium which is made use of.
The same author proved that a sufficient thickness of layer raised the radiation to that of a black body in agreement with Kirchhoff's law.
with a stem an inch or two in thickness.
in thickness and averaging when complete about 50 ft.
C, Chambers in the thickness of the wall opening out of the gallery.
On the south is a gallery built in the thickness of the wall, and roofed by projecting courses of stone; and chambers or storehouses open out of this gallery.
The needle is peculiarly poised, with its point of suspension a little below its centre of gravity, and is exceedingly sensitive; it is seldom more than an inch in length, and is less than a line in thickness.
In order to reduce the thickness of the walls and floor he conceived the idea of strengthening them by building in a network of iron rods.
In the Matrai system thin wires are used instead of rods, and are securely fastened to rolled steel joists, which form the beams on which the slabs rest; moreover, the wires instead of being stretched tight from side to side of the slab are allowed to sag as much as the thickness of the concrete will allow.
The resemblance also extends to the general form of the body and to the length and thickness of the wings and antennae.
(c) The crustaceous thallus, which is the most common of all, forms a mere crust on the substratum, varying in thickness, and may be squamose (in Squamaria), radiate (in Placodium), areolate, granulose or pulverulent (in various Lecanorae and Lecideae).
This genus is especially abundant in Eocene Limestones, which attain great thickness around the Mediterranean basin; the Pyramids of Egypt are built of it.
The mooruk, or Bennett's cassowary (Casuarius Bennettii), is a shorter and more robust bird, approaching in the thickness of its legs to the moas.
in thickness, and wires 0.004 in.
surface, and is gradually converted into glacier-ice, which descends by a slow secular motion into the deeper valleys, where it goes to swell perennial streams. As on a mountain the snow does not lie in beds of uniform thickness, and some parts are more exposed to the sun and warm winds than others, we commonly find beds of snow alternating with exposed slopes covered with brilliant vegetation; and to the observer near at hand there is no appearance in the least corresponding to the term limit of perpetual snow, though the case is otherwise when a high mountain-chain is viewed from a distance.
As dryness is favourable to an increase of heat, such walls should be either built hollow or packed behind to the thickness of 3 or 4 ft.
16) is the most usual mode of performing the operation when there is no great difference in thickness between the stock and scion.
The method in the latter case is to select roots averaging the thickness of the little finger, to cut these into lengths of about 3 or 4 in., and to plant them FIG.
Many of the free-growing soft-wooded plants may also be grown from cuttings of single joints of the young wood, where rapid increase is desired; and in the case of opposite-leaved plants two cuttings may often be made from one joint by splitting the stem longitudinally, each cutting consisting of a leaf and a perfect bud attached to half the thickness of the stem.
Fruit trees and shrubs may be set out; but, if planting is deferred to the last of the month, the ground around the roots should be mulched to the thickness of 3 or 4 in.
In this case the carbonaceous beds-coal-seams-naturally appealed most strongly to the imagination, and the name is a good one, notwithstanding the fact that coal-seams occupy but a small fraction of the total thickness of the Carboniferous system; and although subsequent investigations have demonstrated the existence of coal in other geological formations, in none of these does it play so prominent a part.
The great variety of conditions under which the sediments and limestones were formed naturally produced corresponding inequalities in the thickness.
In the Eurasian land area the greatest thickness of Carboniferous rocks is in the west; in North America it is in the east.
thick; in the Ural mountains it is over 4500 ft.; the Culm in Moravia is credited with the enormous thickness of over 42,000 ft.
In western Germany this portion attains a thickness of 10,000 ft.
or more in thickness; (2) Puys, where the ejections were often confined to the discharge of a small amount of fragmentary materials from a single independent vent."
Except in Limburg, where, in the neighbourhood of Maastricht, the upper layers of the chalk are exposed and followed by Oligocene and Miocene beds, the whole of Holland is covered by recent deposits of considerable thickness, beneath which deep borings have revealed the existence of Pliocene beds similar to the " Crags " of East Anglia.
In the south of Holland the total thickness of the Pliocene series is only about 200 ft., and they are covered by about 100 ft.
of Quaternary deposits; but towards the north the beds sink down and at the same time increase considerably in thickness, so that at Utrecht a deep boring reached the top of the Pliocene at a depth of 513 ft.
Eastward and westward of Amsterdam, as well as southward, the Pliocene beds rise slowly to the surface, and gradually decrease in thickness.
After the piece has been reduced in thickness by its first passage or " pass " between the rolls, it may be given a second reduction and then a third and so on, either by bringing the two rolls nearer together, as in case of the plain rolls BB at the left in fig.
Moreover, a single pair of rolls suffices for armour plates of any width or thickness, whereas if shafts of different diameters were to be rolled, a special final groove would be needed for each different diameter, and, as there is room for only a few large grooves in a single set of rolls, this would imply not only providing but installing a separate .set of rolls for almost every diameter of shaft.
In the second period volcanic activity occurred at the bottom of the Pliocene sea, and the tufa, which extends over the whole Campagna to a thickness of 300 ft.
After being purchased at the auction sales they are washed, then stretched upon a hoop, when all blubber and unnecessary flesh is removed, and the pelt is reduced to an equal thickness, but not so thin as it is finally rendered.
Subsequently the hard top hairs are taken out as in the case of otters and beavers and the whole thoroughly cleaned in the revolving drums. The close underwool, which is of a slightly wavy nature and mostly of a pale drab colour, is then dyed by repeated applications of a rich dark brown colour, one coat after another, each being allowed to thoroughly dry before the next is put on, till the effect is almost a lustrous black on the top. The whole is again put through the cleaning process and evenly reduced in thickness by revolving emery wheels, and eventually finished off in the palest buff colour.
Sulphur is wrought in the district of Pinczow; the deposits, which contain 25% of sulphur, reach a thickness of 7 to 70 ft.
No other tool is so endurable, or gives such uniform thickness of wire.
in thickness, and contain pebbles of quartzite, jasper, sandstone, slate, &c. The mines fall into five groups situated on the eastern side of the Deccan plateau about the following places (beginning from the south), the first three being in Madras.
These deposits attain their maximum thickness of 90 ft.
To take the simple case of the " wall " or flat plate considered by Fourier for the definition of thermal conductivity, suppose that a quantity of heat Q passes in the time T through an area A of a plate of conductivity k and thickness x, the sides of which are constantly maintained at temperatures B' and 8".
If the plate is thin, it is necessary to measure the thickness with great care, and it is necessary to assume that the temperatures of the surfaces are the same as those of the media with which they are in contact, since there is no room to insert thermometers in the plate itself.
The disks were 10 cms. in diam., and nearly 2 cms. thick, plated with copper to a thickness of 2 mm.
If the thickness of the glass is small compared with the diameter of the tube, say one-tenth, equation (1) may be applied with sufficient approximation, the area A being taken as the mean between the internal and external surfaces.
It is necessary that the thickness x should be approximately uniform.
The emissivity was reduced to one-quarter by lagging the bar like a steam-pipe to a thickness of i in.
deep. The whole of this superincumbent mass, attaining to an average thickness of from 18 to 20 ft., was the product of one eruption, though the materials may be divided generally into two distinct strata, the one consisting principally of cinders and small volcanic stones (called in Italian lapilli), and the other and uppermost layer of fine white ash, often consolidated by the action of water from above so as to take the moulds of objects contained in it (such as dead bodies, woodwork, &c.), like clay or plaster of Paris.
in thickness during one spring of ten or twelve tides.
It consists of a bridge of i i 1 arches, each 5 metres span, with piers of 2 metres thickness.
Here there are more, than 6o beds, of a total thickness of 150 to 200 ft.
The thickness of 80 beds amounts to 250 ft., and the total mass of coal is estimated at 45,400 million tons.
This deposit varies in thickness, as a rule, from 55 to 70 ft., at which depth it is underlain by a series of coarse and fine yellow quartz sands, with occasional pebbles, or even banks of gravel, while here and there thin beds of clay occur.
These sand-beds are sharply distinguished by their color from the overlying Nile deposit, and are of considerable thickness.
In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue, known as cambium; by the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles (interfascicular cambium) a complete ring is formed, and a regular periodical increase in thickness results from it by the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside.
The mineral occurs generally in lenticular deposits, which may reach a thickness of more than loo ft.; but it is mined only to a limited extent, most of the salt being obtained from brine springs and wells which derive their saline character from deposits of salts.
The Antrim salt was discovered in 1850 during a search for coal: one of the beds at Duncrue mine has a thickness of 80 ft.
in thickness of carnallite, MgC1 2 KC1.6H 2 O, mixed with a little salt; this is followed by a thicker deposit of kieserite, MgSO 4 H 2 O, containing rather more salt than the upper bed.
A bed of rock-salt in the Zechstein at Sperenberg near Berlin has been proved by boring to have a thickness of upwards of 4000 ft.
in thickness (Marston 23-26 yds.); it has above it, apparently lying in the recesses of its surface, a layer of saturated brine.
The workings in Great Britain represent the annual abstraction of rather more than a mass of rock equal to a foot in thickness spread over a square mile.
Secondary growth in thickness is effected by the tangential division of superficial cells.
The total thickness of both these groups of rock cannot be less than 30,000 ft., and, as most of them bear evidence of having been deposited in shallow water, they could only have been accumulated during a prolonged period of depression.
In descending order they embrace the following subdivisions, whose thickness in the district of Durness is estimated at about 2000 ft.: (e) limestones, dolomites and cherts, with numerous organic remains; (d) grit and quartzite, with Saltarella and Olenellus (Serpulite Grit); (c) calcareous shales and dolomites, with many annelid casts and sometimes Olenellus (Fucoid Beds); (b) Upper Quartzite, often crowded with annelid pipes (Pipe Rock Quartzite); (a) Lower Quartzite - their original upper limit can nowhere be seen, for they have been overridden by the Eastern Schists in those gigantic underground disturbances already referred to, by which these rocks, the Archean gneiss and Torridonian sandstone, were crumpled, inverted, dislocated and thrust over each other.
They have in some places a thickness of 7000 ft.
Red sandstones and conglomerates, probably of the same age, attain a thickness of several hundred feet at Gruinard Bay on the west coast of the county of Ross and Cromarty.
in thickness, has been worked at Brora.
These plateaus are composed of nearly horizontal sheets of basalt - columnar, amorphous or amygdaloidal - which, in Ben More, in Mull, attain a thickness of more than 3000 ft.
Above the Boulder Clay are found sands and gravels, along with perched boulders which, by their source and position, indicate the direction and thickness of the ice that carried them.
Their features are generally fairly regular and often beautiful; eyes invariably black, and in some persons oblique; jaws not projecting, except in a few instances; lips of medium thickness; the noses are naturally long, well shaped and arched, but many are artificially flattened at the bridge in infancy.
Planks are allowed from a half to two-thirds of the above time, according to their thickness.
with a thickness of trunk at 5 ft.
in thickness; while that of the smaller is decorated with three phalli in relief.
Soft clay was then carefully laid on to strengthen the mould, in considerable thickness, till the whole statue appeared like a shapeless mass of clay, round which iron hoops were bound to hold it all together.
Plates range in thickness from 4 in.
Armour plates which are several inches in thickness do not come in this group, being a special article of manufacture.
This distinction of thickness is of importance in its bearing on workshop practice.
Not only is more powerful machinery required for the latter, but in bending it allowance has to be made for the difference in radius of outer and inner layers, which increases with increase of thickness.
sheets of iron or steel coated with tin) and copper of the same thickness.
A thin sheet has for all practical purposes no thickness - that is, the geometrical pattern marked on it will develop the object required after it is bent.
But in any case the thickness must enter into the calculations, whereas in thin sheets no account is taken of thickness.
Only common geometrical problems are involved in the case of sheets of sensible thickness, and allowances are made for thickness.
But in those forms where curving must take place in different directions the layers or fibres of metal are made to glide over one another, extension taking place in some layers but not in others, and this goes on without producing much reduction in the thickness.
The result is that the object assumes a smooth concave and convex shape, without the thickness of the metal becoming reduced.
They consist of marine beds alternating with freshwater and littoral deposits, together with plant beds and coal-seams of considerable thickness.
The thickness of the delta deposit is unknown; 481 ft.
Ferguson has shown that the sediment is carried away from this area by the set of the currents; probably then it has remained free from sediment whilst the neighbouring sea bottom has gradually been filled up. If so, the thickness of the alluvium is at least 1800 ft., and may be much more.
The lower, with an estimated thickness of only 2000 ft., or slightly more, cover a large area - extending, with but little change of character, from the Sone valley in one direction to Cuddapah, and in a diverging line to near Bijapur - in each case a distance of over loo m.
The upper Vindhyans cover a much smaller area, but attain a thickness of about 12,000 ft.
thick) contains eleven seams, having a total thickness of 120 ft., in the eastern district, and thirteen seams, 100 ft.
The average thickness of the seams worked is from 12 to 18 ft., but occasionally a seam attains a great thickness - 20 to 80 ft.
thick) contains four seams, of a total thickness of 69 ft.
Consequently, for a certain focal length, much deeper curves must be resorted to if the new glasses are to be employed; this means not only greater difficulties in workmanship, but also greater thickness of glass, which militates against the chance of obtaining large disks quite free from striae and perfect in their state of annealing.
This ratio will become more equal for larger sizes on account of the additional thickness of larger object-glasses and the consequent additional absorption of light in transmission.
By making the mirrors of silvered glass, one-fourth of their diameter in thickness, the Henrys have not only `.
Barnard's photographs of its structure leave little doubt on the matter; the numerous rifts and dark openings show that its thickness cannot be very great.
In its modern form the Leyden jar consists of a widemouthed bottle of thin English flint glass of uniform thickness p. 512.
in thickness; this corresponds with an electric spark of about 7 millimetres in length.
Igneous rocks are not extensively developed; in Wales they form an important feature and occur in considerable thickness; they are represented by lavas of olivine-diabase and by contemporaneous tuffs which are traversed by later granite and quartz felsite.
Considerable variations occur in the thickness of Cambrian deposits, which may generally be explained by the greater rapidity of deposition in some areas than in others.
58) has two vertical asymptotes x = ~ 3/4irx; this shows that however the thickness of a cable be adjusted there is a limit irA to the horizontal span, where A depends on the tensile strength of the material.
The spare between two teeth, measured on the pitch-circle, is made about ~th part wider than the thickness of the tooth on the pitch-circle-that is to say, Thickness of tooth =~ pitch; Width of space =Iis pitch.
The pitch-line of a pulley or drum is a curve to which the line of connection is always a tangentthat :s to say, it is a curve parallel to the acting surface of the pulley or drum, and distant from it by half the thickness of the wrapping con nector.
The effective radius, or radius of the pitch-circle of a circular pulley or drum, is equal to the real radius added to half the thickness of the connector.
Cavendish measured the capacity of disks and condensers of various forms, and proved that the capacity of a Leyden pane is proportional to the surface of the tinfoil and inversely as the thickness of the glass.
The cathodes are frequently of electro-deposited copper, deposited to a thickness of about 3 1 in.
The fibre is decidedly inferior to flax and hemp in strength and tenacity; and, owing to a peculiarity in its microscopic structure, by which the walls of the separate cells composing the fibre vary much in thickness at different points, the single strands of fibre are of unequal strength.
thickness of material passing through the machine.
The doublings play a very important part in the appearance of the ultimate rove and yarn, for the chief reason for doubling threads or slivers is to minimize irregularities of thickness and of colour in the material.
Compared with the Gondwana coal of the peninsula of India the Tertiary coal seams of Assam are remarkable for their purity and their extraordinary thickness.
In the western and northern alpine part of Sweden, near the boundaries of Norway, the Silurian strata are covered by crystalline rocks, mica schists, quartzites, &c., of an enormous thickness, which have been brought into their present positions upon a thrust-plane.
They are generally of insignificant thickness.
The deposits are generally in pockets, and the thickness of the beds ranges from 100 to nearly 500 ft.
at Gellivara, and in the midland fields generally from 40 to 100 ft., although at the great field of Grangesberg, in Kopparberg and Orebro Lan, a thickness of nearly 300 ft.
For a single lens of very small thickness and given power, the aberration depends upon the ratio of the radii r: r', and is a minimum (but never zero) for a certain value of this ratio; it varies inversely with the refractive index (the power of the lens remaining constant).
Besides these garments there are others: the long jubba, or cloth cloak, worn by mirzas (secretaries), government employs of high rank, as ministers, farmers of taxes, courtiers, physicians, priests; the abba, or camel-hair cloak of the Arab, worn by travellers, priests and horsemen; the pustin, or Afghan skincloak, used by travellers and the sick or aged; the nimtan, or common sheepskin jacket, with short sleeves, used by shopkeepers and the lower class of servants, grooms, &c., in winter; the yapanjah, or woollen Kurdish cloak, a kind of felt, having a shaggy side, of immense thickness, worn generally by shepherds, who use it as greatcoat, bed and bedding.
thickness of hot dung, soil is put on to the depth of 8 in., and the frames set over all.
Between the folded marine beds of the Himalaya and the nearly horizontal strata of the peninsula lies the Indo-Gangetic plain, covered by an enormous thickness of alluvial and wind-blown deposits of recent date.
He also experimented on the effects of the thickness of the film, and came to the conclusion that the thinner a film is, the greater is its tension.
This result, however, was tested by Van der Mensbrugghe, who found that the tension is the same for the same liquid whatever be the thickness, as long as the film does not burst.
Since e is a line of insensible magnitude compared with the dimensions of the mass of liquid and the principal radii of curvature of its surface, the volume of the shell whose surface is S and thickness will be and that of the interior space will be V - SE.
If we suppose a normal v less than E to be drawn from the surface S into the liquid, we may divide the shell into elementary shells whose thickness is dv, in each of which the density and other properties of the liquid will be constant.
If we take the axis of z normal to either surface of the film, the radius of curvature of which we suppose to be very great compared with its thickness c, and if p is the density, and x the energy of unit of mass at depth z, then o- = f o dz, (16) and e = f a xpdz,.
If the thickness of the film is greater than 2E, there will be a stratum of thickness c-2E in the middle of the film, within which the values of p and x will be pc and In the two strata on either side of this the law, according to which p and x depend on the depth, will be the same as in a liquid mass of large dimensions.
On the hypothesis of uniform density we shall find that this is true for films whose thickness exceeds The symbol x is defined as the energy of unit of mass of the substance.
If the liquid forms a stratum of thickness c, then x = x' - 47rpo(o) +27rpo(z) +27rpo(Z - c).
Hence if il.(c) is positive, the tension and the thickness will increase together.
Now 2 7rmpi,t(c) represents the attraction between a particle m and the plane surface of an infinite mass of the liquid, when the distance of the particle outside the surface is c. Now, the force between the particle and the liquid is certainly, on the whole, attractive; but if between any two small values of c it should be repulsive, then for films whose thickness lies between these values the tension will increase as the thickness diminishes, but for all other cases the tension will diminish as the thickness diminishes.
If the density be a, the attraction between the whole of one side and a layer upon the other distant z from the plane and of thickness dz is 27r6 2 P(z)dz, reckoned per unit of area.
These rapidly descend in Newton's scale and at last disappear, showing that the thickness of the film is less than the tenth part of the length of a wave of light.
Suppose that the transition from o to s is made in two equal steps, the thickness of the intermediate layer of density la being large compared to the range of the molecular forces, but small in comparison with the radius of curvature.
When the liquid is in equilibrium it forms a thin film, the outer edge of which is all of the same thickness.
The thickness of the film of oil adequate to check the camphor movements can be determined with fair accuracy by depositing a weighed amount of oil (such as 8 mg.) upon the surface of water in a large bath.
Calculated as if the density were the same as in a normal state, the thickness of the film is found to be about two millionths of a millimetre.
In the earlier stages of approximation the obstacle thus arising may not be important; but when the thickness of the layer of air is reduced to the point at which the colours of thin plates are visible, the approximation must be sensibly resisted by the viscosity of the air which still remains to be got rid of.
001 mm.) in diameter, others have cells measur ing 4µ or 5µ or even 7 1 2 or 8µ in thickness, while the length may vary from that of the diameter to many times that measurement.
The endoderm is generally also an epithelium one cell in thickness, the cells being digestive, secretory and sometimes muscular.
in thickness, of clay, faced with brick, in the reception rooms wainscoted with stone slabs or tiles, elsewhere plastered, or, in the harem, adorned with fresco paintings and arabesques.
As the juice exudes, more petals are pressed on to them with a cloth until a layer of sufficient thickness is obtained.
It is the most malleable and ductile of all metals with the exception of gold: one gramme can be drawn out into a wire 180 metres long, and the leaf can be beaten out to a thickness of 0.0002 5 mm.; traces of arsenic, antimony, bismuth and lead, however, make it brittle.
In the Branchiopoda the maxillary gland is lodged in the thickness of the shell-fold (when this is present), and, from this circumstance, it often receives the somewhat misleading name of " shell-gland."
The thickness of the ice does not exceed 3 or 4 ft.; but during the alternations of cold and warm weather, with strong gales, in winter, stacks of ice, 70 and 80 ft.
In the region of Adigrat the metamorphic rocks are invariably overlain by white and brown sandstones, unfossiliferous, and attaining a maximum thickness of moo feet.
The upper (Magdala group) contains much trachytic rock of considerable thickness, lying perfectly horizontally, and giving rise to a series of terraced ridges characteristic of central Abyssinia.
In order to obtain the cultivated bark as economically as possible, experiments were made which resulted in the discovery that, if the bark were removed from the trunks in alternate strips so as not to injure the cambium, or actively growing zone, a new layer of bark was formed in one year which was richer in quinine than the original bark and equal in thickness to that of two or three years' ordinary growth.
long, is of nearly the same thickness throughout.
4), but in England the requirements of the building acts as to the thickness of walls prevents the general use of this form of construction.
" If buildings are made fire-proof entirely, and have skeleton construction so designed that their enclosing walls do not carry the weight of the floors or roof, then their walls shall be not less than twelve inches in thickness; and provided, also, that such walls shall be thoroughly anchored to the iron skeleton, and provided, also, that, whether the weight of such walls rests upon beams or pillars, such beams or pillars must be made strong enough in each storey to carry the weight of wall resting upon them without reliance upon the walls below them.
If the rust so covered up has not begun to pit the iron the chances are that it will do no harm; but, if it is already well developed and of some thickness, it will have enough oxidizing agents in its pores to develop more oxide, and to swell up and crack the paint.
Some architects depend solely upon partitions, and a building with a well-constructed iron frame should be safe if provided with brick partitions or if the exterior of the iron framework is covered with well-built masonry of sufficient thickness.
of length, and that a piece of the material may be bent cold 180 over a mandril equal to the thickness of the piece tested without fracture of the fibres on the outside of the bend.
The great thickness of the Gangetic alluvium is shown by a borehole at Calcutta which was carried to a depth of about 460 f t.
We have then 11=Io(1 j) I =I 1(1j) =Io(1 j)2 1 3 =1 2 (1 - j) =Io(11)3 and so on, so that if I is the intensity after passing through a thickness t in centimetres I = Io(1 We might call j, which is the proportion absorbed in one centimetre, the "coefficient of absorption" of the medium.
The method consists in comparing the intensity after transmission through a layer of known thickness of the absorbent with the intensity of light from the same source which has not passed through the medium, k being thus obtained for various thicknesses and found to be constant.
In the case of solutions, if the absorption of the solvent is negligible, the effect of increasing the concentration of the absorbing solute is the same as that of increasing the thickness in the same ratio.
In a similar way the absorption of light in the coloured gas chlorine is found to be unaltered if the thickness is reduced by compression, because the density is increased in the same ratio that the thickness is reduced.
If white light is allowed to fall on some coloured solutions, the transmitted light is of one colour when the thickness of the solution is small, and of quite another colour if the thickness is great.
deep, but in some localities it reaches a thickness of 200 ft., or even more.
The seams are generally from one to five feet in thickness.
within the free surface, whereas the chromosphere is of an average thickness of 5000 m., and attains that temperature only at its base.
The corresponding intensity at the sun's surface is 4.62 X Io 4 as great, or 6.79 X Io 4 kilowatts per square metre = 7.88 X Io 4 horse-power per square yard - enough to melt a thickness of 13.3 metres (=39.6 ft.) of ice, or to vaporize 1.81 metres (=5.92 ft.) of water per minute.
Between ectoderm and endoderm is a supporting layer of structureless gelatinous substance termed mesogloea, secreted by the cell-layers of the body-wall; the mesogloea may be a very thin layer, or may reach a fair thickness, and then sometimes contains skeletal elements formed by cells which have migrated into it from the ectoderm.
Their total thickness amounts to several thousand feet.
These are overlain, perhaps unconformably, by a great thickness of lavas and volcanic breccias (Pniel volcanic series, Beer Vley and Zeekoe Baard amygdaloids), and these in turn by the quartzites, grits and shales of the Black Reef series.
The thickness of the rocks of the Cape System exceeds 5000 ft.
The greater part of the volcanic series is formed by lava streams of great thickness.
into the Lower Greensand formation, the outcrop of which, emerging on the south-eastern shore of the Wash, passes south-westwards, and in Bedfordshire attains a thickness exceeding 250 ft.
As the process continued the salt-saturated layer, incapable of further effective filtration, grew in thickness downwards, until in the process of time it filled the whole mass of sandstone.
A thickness of only 12 in.
Dams Any well-made earthen embankment of moderate height, and of such thickness and uniformity of construction as to ensure freedom from excessive percolation at any point, will in the course of time become almost impermeable to surface water standing against it; and when permeable rocks are covered with many feet of soil, the leakage through such soil from standing water newly placed above it generally diminishes rapidly, and in process of time often ceases entirely.
Thus the permeable vein grows vertically rather than horizontally, and ultimately assumes the form of a thin vertical sheet traversing the puddle wall, often diagonally in plan, and having a thickness which has varied in different cases from a few inches to a couple of feet or more, of almost clean sand rising to an observed height of 30 or 40 ft., and only arrested in its upward growth by the necessary lowering of the reservoir water to avoid serious danger.
Riveted sheets of steel have been occasionally used, and, where bedded in a sufficient thickness of concrete, with success.
above the stream, the trench below ground was filled with concrete much in the usual way, while above ground the water-tight diaphragm consists of a riveted steel plate varying in thickness from in.
A minimum thickness must safety be adopted to give substance to the upper part; and where the dam is not used as a weir it must necessarily rise several feet above the water, and may in either event have to carry a roadway.
The cost of this thickness being regarded as too great, it was abruptly reduced to 8 ft.
The thickness of sand is 3 ft.
thickness of bricks laid close together, and consti BRIeKS.
This process may be repeated many times until the thickness of the fine sand is reduced to about 18 in., when the filter bed should be restored to its full thickness.
(2) Below this is a stalagmite floor, varying in thickness from 1 to 3 ft., and covering (3) the red earth which contained bones of the hyaena, lion, mammoth, rhinoceros and other animals, in association with flint implements and an engraved antler, which proved man to have been an inhabitant of the cavern during its deposition.
In the south-west salt is found in beds and dry incrustations, varying in thickness from a few inches to 2 ft.
The holder is made of sheet iron riveted together, the thickness depending upon the size of the holder.
At this time the Gulf of Bothnia must have suffered greater depression than the Baltic proper, for the deposits of that epoch show a thickness of 100 metres (328 ft.) near Hernosand, but of only 25 metres (82 ft.) in the neighbourhood of Gotland.
In the great basins and hollows from Rugen to the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland the upper layers of water, from 30 to 70 metres (16 to 38 fathoms) in thickness, have almost the same salinity throughout.
Contorted stems, sometimes of considerable thickness, very hard, and covered with a grey cracked bark, rise out of the sand, bearing green plumes with small greyish leaves and pink fruit.
The black coral (Antipathes abies), formerly abundant in the Persian Gulf, and for which India is the chief market, has a wide distribution and grows to a considerable height and thickness in the tropical waters of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia.
From the relation of the thickness of the stem to its length it may be inferred that the shoots of Sphenophyllum derived support from adjoining plants.
These plants, a fuller description of which must be sought in the article Palaeobotany: Palaeozoic, underwent secondary increase in thickness and attained the size of large trees; the aerial stem was more or less branched dichotomously.
length, breadth and thickness; thus a line has only length and is said to be of one dimension, a surface has length and breadth, and has two dimensions, a solid has length, breadth and thickness, and has three dimensions.
They consist of slightly rounded domes or billowy snowfields of vast thickness.
These fossiliferous strata are developed in greatest thickness in the north-west peninsula.
This ice-cap had on the tableland a thickness of 2300 to 2600 ft.
and a thickness of about io ft., and with its iron gates and numerous watch-towers formed a valuable defence of the Persian frontier.
Probably its original thickness Lough Neagh Tertiary Clays Eocene Basalt and Dolerite Cretaceous Trias, sometimes surmounted by Lower Jurassic Upper Carboniferous Carboniferous was not more than 150 ft., while now only from 40 to loo ft.
Towards the north-west, also, the Palaeozoic foundation falls beneath an increasing thickness of Cretaceous beds and lies buried far below the surface.
Almost the whole of this region is covered by a red soil, often of great thickness, which resembles and is often described as " clay," but is really decomposed rock, chiefly gneiss, reddened with oxidized magnetite.
True coal has also been obtained in the same district, the deposits varying from a third to half a metre in thickness.
The interior of the African portion of Gondwana Land was occupied by several large lakes in which an immense thickness - amounting to over 18,000 ft.
in thickness, and crops out at Scunthorpe and Frodingham, where the workings are open and shallow.
thick, and is very variable both in thickness and mineralogical character; the iron ores of Denton and Caythorpe belong to this horizon.
In order to isolate a polarized pencil of rays with a rhomb of Iceland spar, it is necessary to have a crystal of such a thickness that the emergent streams are separated, so that one may be stopped by a screen.