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thickness

thickness

thickness Sentence Examples

  • Borings show that the thickness of this group varies from 35 o ft.

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  • The thickness varies from five to sixteen feet.

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  • As the wire is pulled through, a coating of gutta-percha, the thickness of which is regulated by the die D, is pressed out of the cylinder by applying the requisite pressure

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  • in thickness, of very varied composition.

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  • in thickness, of very varied composition.

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  • 17 and a thickness of insulating material which formerly would have been considered quite insufficient is now very generally adopted with complete success.

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  • in thickness, and brownish clays.

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  • In many Laminariaceae the thallus also grows regularly in thickness by division of its surface layer, adding to the subjacent permanent tissue and thus forming a secondary meristem.

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  • The minimum thickness of the formation is 240 ft.

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  • in thickness near the ground.

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  • in thickness, they probably at one time covered the whole island except the summits of the Sierra Maestra, where they have been observed, resting upon the older rocks, up to a height of 2300 ft.

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  • At a later date other experimentalists found, however, that an equal thickness of sea-water interposed between a primary and secondary circuit completely prevented similar inductive intercommunication.

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  • It is evident that accurate knowledge of the character and structure of the rock-formations in petroliferous territories is of the greatest importance in enabling the expert to select favourable sites for drilling operations; hence on well-conducted petroleumproperties it is now customary to note the character and thickness of the strata perforated by the drill, so that a complete section may be prepared from the recorded data.

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  • The small letters are about three-sixteenths of an inch high, and are raised from the page the thickness of the thumbnail.

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  • This consists typically of close-fitting layers of cells with completely suberized walls, intended to replace the epidermis as the external protective layer of the plant when the latter, incapable as it is of further growth after its original formation, is broken and cast off by the increase in thickness of the stem through the activity of the cambium.

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  • in thickness containing "coprolites"; these consist of phosphatized wood, bones, casts of shells, and shapeless lumps.

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  • thick, with beds of calcium phosphate, and a shale of half that thickness, were discovered by Hope Jones in the neighbourhood of Cwmgynen, about 16 m.

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  • The Carboniferous or "Mountain" Limestone is the oldest formation in the county; its thickness is not known, but it is certainly over 2000 ft.; it is well exposed in the numerous narrow gorges cut by the Derwent and its tributaries and by the Dove on the Staffordshire border.

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  • (6) Stalagmite with a few bones and antlers of reindeer, the thickness varying from one to fifteen inches.

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  • The first accurate description of the plant is given by Theophrastus, from whom we learn that it grew in shallows of 2 cubits (about 3 ft.) or less, its main root being of the thickness of a man's wrist and 10 cubits in length.

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  • The motion of the outwardscreeping inland ice will naturally be more independent of the configurations of the underlying land in the interior, where its thickness is so enormous, than near the margin where it is thinner.

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  • in thickness, occupying undulating hollows in the underlying gneiss, and dip towards the Noursoak Peninsula at 20°, when the overlying Atanakerdluk strata come in.

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  • The formation and gradually increasing thickness of its bark are explained by the continually increasing need of adequate protection to the living cortex, under the strain of the increasing framework which the enormous multiplication of its living protoplasts demands, and the development of which leads to continual rupture of the exterior.

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  • Theoretically for a given outside diameter of core the greatest speed of signalling through a cable is obtained when the diameter of the conductor is 606 (1/,/e) the diameter of the core, but this ratio makes the thickness of the guttapercha covering insufficient for mechanical strength.

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  • He assumes that in what is considered a good producing district the amount of petroleum which can be obtained from a cubic foot of rock would not be more than a gallon, and that the average thickness of the oil-bearing rock would not exceed 5 ft.

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  • Towards the Black Sea coast its thickness diminishes, and it disappears in the valleys.

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  • 3, the true bulrush, occurs in lakes, ditches and marshes; it has a spongy, green, cylindrical stem, reaching nearly an inch in thickness and 1 to 8 ft.

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  • A steel cylinder (about the thickness of a goose-quill), which forms the micrometer screw, has two threads cut upon it, one-half being cut with a thread double the pitch of the other.

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  • Their absolute freedom from diffraction, the perfect control of the illumination and thickness of the lines, and the accuracy with which it will be possible to construct scales for zone observations will be important features of the new method.

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  • One of the richest has been found at Greta in the Hunter river district; it contains an average thickness of 41 ft.

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  • Where surface water is banked up against the land, as by the equatorial and Gulf Stream drift currents, it appears to penetrate to very considerable depths; the escaping stream currents are at first of great vertical thickness and part of the water at their sources has a downward movement.

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  • These tubes are lined by flattened epithelium and often contain blood capillaries; they communicate with the coelom and are to be regarded as prolongation of it into the thickness of the body wall.

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  • The architrave is flat, and there is a space over it, serving both to admit light and to relieve the pressure on it from above, and the size decreases slightly from the bottom to the top. Within the doorway is, as a rule, a niche on the right, and a staircase ascending in the thickness of the wall to the left; in front is another similar doorway leading to the chamber in the interior, which is circular, and about 15 ft.

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  • This mode has some disadvantages attending it; such sheets are difficult to handle; the crustaceous species are liable to have their surfaces rubbed; the foliaceous species become so compressed as to lose their characteristic appearance; and the spaces between the sheets caused by the thickness of the specimen permit the entrance of dust.

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  • mesogloea of the medusa is largely developed and of great thickness in the umbrella.

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  • (4) Black peaty soil varying in thickness, the maximum being about a foot.

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  • in thickness and upwards of 60 ft.

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  • The rail-failures mentioned above also drew renewed attention to the importance of the thermal treatment of the steel from the time of melting to the last passage through the rolling mill and to the necessity of the finishing temperature being sufficiently low if the product is to be fine grained, homogeneous and tough; and to permit of this requirement being met there was a tendency to increase the thickness of the metal in the web and flanges of the rails.

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  • The beds are to be spawned when the heat moderates, and the surface is then covered with a sprinkling of warmed loam, which after a few days is made up to a thickness of 2 in., and well beaten down.

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  • When the limit of extensibility is reached the cell wall increases in thickness from the continuation of the latter of the two processes.

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  • These layers arc secreted by the protoplasm by the direct apposition of substances on those already in existence; and they may go on increasing in thickness, both by apposition and by the intussusception of particles probably carried in through the protoplasmic fibres, which penetrate the cell-wall as long as the cell lives.

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  • in thickness, representing a long and gradual course of Neolithic or Later Stone-Age development.

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  • A complex network, however, does occur in Lybiodrilus and certain other Eudrilidae, where the paired nephridia possess ducts leading to the exterior which ramify and anastomose on the thickness of the body wall.

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  • considerable thickness, suspended in the centre ' of the circular vault of the heavens, an idea perhaps borrowed from the Babylonians, for Job (xxvi.

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  • A complex network, however, does occur in Lybiodrilus and certain other Eudrilidae, where the paired nephridia possess ducts leading to the exterior which ramify and anastomose on the thickness of the body wall.

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  • Even if the slide itself is mechanically perfect, the irregularity in the thickness of the lubricating oil between the bearing surfaces of the slide is apt to produce a variable error.

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  • There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.

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  • They secrete a cuticle which never approaches in thickness the often calcified cuticle of Arthropods.

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  • Instead of shading lines following the greatest slopes, lines following the contours and varying in their thickness and in their intervals apart, according to the slope of the ground to be represented, may be employed' This method affords a ready and expeditious means of sketching the ground, if the draughtsman limits himself to characteristically indicating its features by what have been called " form lines."

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  • Instead of shading lines following the greatest slopes, lines following the contours and varying in their thickness and in their intervals apart, according to the slope of the ground to be represented, may be employed' This method affords a ready and expeditious means of sketching the ground, if the draughtsman limits himself to characteristically indicating its features by what have been called " form lines."

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  • You get used to knowing the different types of hardness and thickness.

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  • wide, but is very erratic in outline and variable in thickness.

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  • The seams vary in thickness.

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  • The plant has a well-developed main root (tap-root) and a single or branched leafy stem which is provided with a means of secondary increase in thickness.

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  • The fibrous bands are generally formed towards the end of the years growth in thickness.

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  • in thickness.

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  • PS, Cavity of proboscidian sheath (the sheath itself of varying thickness).

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  • (5) Angular debris fallen from above varying in thickness from one to ten feet.

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  • Potatoes give fair results when they are taken good care of, carrots grow to a thickness of IIin., while cabbage does poorly.

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  • The bottom should slope towards the outer edge, where a drain should be cut, with an outlet, and on this sloping bottom should be laid a thickness of from 9 in.

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  • In 1865 Kowalevsky discovered that the organs of respiration consist of numerous pairs of gill-slits leading from the digestive canal through the thickness of the body-wall to the exterior.

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  • The vascular system itself is quite peculiar, consisting of lacunae and channels destitute of endothelium, situated within the thickness of the basementmembrane of the body-wall, of the gut-wall and of the mesenteries.

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  • The required thickness of the spread sheet is very often secured by the rubber-faced surfaces of two cloths being united before curing.

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  • Very irregular surfaces may require the use of specially shaped anodes in order that the distance between the electrodes may be fairly uniform, otherwise the portion of the cathode lying nearest to the anode may receive an undue share of the current, and therefore a greater thickness of coat.

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  • In dressing mica the "books" are split along the cleavage into sheets of the required thickness, and the sheets trimmed into rectangles with a sharp knife, shears or guillotine, stained and damaged portions being rejected.

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  • The valves are also in some species very unequal in their respective thickness, as may be seen in Productus (Daviesiella) 1 llangollensis, Davidsonia verneuilii, &c., and while the space allotted to the animal is very great in many species, as in Terebratula sphaeroidalis, it is very small in others belonging to Stro phomena, Leptaena, Chonetes, &c. The ventral valve is usually the thickest, and in some forms is six or seven times as great as the opposite one.

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  • It forms gigantic deposits of almost constant thickness, embedded between a floor of limestone and a roof of porphyry.

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  • A thin sheet of magnetic matter magnetized normally to its surface in such a manner that the magnetization at any place is inversely proportional to the thickness h of the sheet at that place is called a magnetic shell; the constant product hI is the strength of the shell and is generally denoted by 4, or 4.

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  • If the field is uniform, H=O/wd, where 0 is the rotation, d the thickness of the substance arranged as a plate at right angles to the direction of the field, and w Verdet's constant for the substance.

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  • in thickness is said to be adapted for measuring fields of the order of moo units.

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  • The difference of the ballastic throws taken with the two coils measured the intensity of the field in the space around the iron, and it also enabled a correction to be made for the nonferrous space between the iron neck and the centre of the thickness of'the inner coil.

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  • in thickness, which occurred on the outside of the specimen, and the exceptional magnetic quality which has been claimed for aluminium-iron cannot yet be regarded as established.

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  • The tranverse electromotive force is equal to KCH/D, where C is the current, H the strength of the field, D the thickness of the metal, and K a constant which has been termed the rotatory power, or rotational coefficient.

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  • This telson may enlarge, it may possibly even become internally and sternally developed as partially separate somites, and the tergum may remain without trace of somite formation, or, as appears to be the case in Limulus, the telson gives rise to a few well-marked somites (mesosoma and two others) and then enlarges without further trace of segmentation, whilst the chitinous integument which develops in increasing thickness on the terga as growth advances welds together the unsegmented telson and the somites in front of it, which were previ ously marked by separate tergal thickenings.

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  • The Silurian scorpion Palaeophonus, differs, so far as obvious points are concerned, from a modern scorpion only in the thickness of its legs and in their terminating in strong spike-like joints, instead of being slight and provided with a pair of terminal claws.

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  • 5), Dracaena and Cordyline include arborescent species in which the stem increases in thickness continually by a centrifugal formation of new tissue; an extreme case is afforded by Dracaena Draco, the dragon-tree of Teneriffe.

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  • The maximum thickness of 2000 ft.

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  • The Dwyka conglomerate rarely attains any great thickness though forming wide outcrops.

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  • The function of a lens in forming an image is to compensate by its variable thickness the differences of phase which would otherwise exist between secondary waves arriving at the focal point from various parts of the aperture.

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  • If, as in common flint-glass spectroscopes, there is only one dispersing substance, f Sy ds = Sµ.s, where s is simply the thickness traversed by the ray.

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  • the distance from the centre of one wire or line to the centre of the next, and not otherwise upon the thickness of the wire and the magnitude of the interspace.

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  • The former measures the thickness of the primary focal line, and the latter measures its curvature.

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  • Even in the contrary case, the thickness of the plate must not exceed a certain limit, dependent upon the purity of the spectrum.

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  • The formation of bands thus requires that the retarding plate be held upon the side already specified, so that zs be positive; and that the thickness of the plate (to which z is proportional) do not exceed a certain limit, which we may call 2T 0.

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  • At the best thickness To the bands are black, and not otherwise.

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  • If it be desired to see a given number of bands in the whole or in any part of the spectrum, the thickness of the retarding plate is thereby determined, independently of all other considerations.

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  • a disturbance limited to an infinitely thin slice of the medium, is supposed to fall upon a parallel grating, which again may With the best thickness so that in this case w=0 w = (2 w w= 0 be regarded as formed of infinitely thin wires, or infinitely narrow lines traced upon glass.

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  • The thickness varies from 2300 to over 11,000 ft.

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  • The individual beds, seldom more than a few feet in thickness and sometimes only a few inches, are interstratified with an immense thickness of quartzites.

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  • Near Reitzburg the coarse conglomerates reach a thickness of 400 ft.

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  • It varies in thickness from 500 ft.

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  • The thickness varies from 2600 ft.

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  • in thickness, but in this case layers of shaly coal are included.

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  • The thickness of the salt is unknown; the mines yield about 11,000 tons annually.

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  • deep. The thickness of the wall averages to ft., but varies 3 or 4 ft.

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  • - Before opening and working a mine it is necessary to have as full and accurate information as possible as to the following: The probable extent and area of the deposit, its average thickness, and the probable amount and value of the mineral; 2.

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  • in thickness and the extent and distribution of the rich and barren areas by outcrop measurements.

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  • If the deposit shows great variations in thickness in its outcrop along the surface it is probable that a drift or a slope would show the same thing in depth.

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  • With a number of holes the average thickness and probable extent of the deposit may be determined, at least approximately.

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  • In the case of metalliferous deposits of varying thickness or irregular distribution the information from bore-holes is less satisfactory.

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  • A large number of holes must be bored to obtain, even approximately, the average thickness and value of the ore and the shape and size of the ore bodies.

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  • The method to be adopted will vary with the thickness and character of the deposit, with its inclination, and to some extent with the character of the enclosing rocks, the depth below the surface, and other conditions.

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  • While it is always desirable to provide large working-places, the size of the working-place is limited by the thickness and Size of strength of the overlying beds forming the roof Working- or hanging wall of the mine.

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  • There is considerable thickness of old timber left from the working of the upper levels.

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  • The working out of each floor is conducted much as if it were a bed of corresponding thickness.

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  • io, differs from the top-slice system mainly in the greater thickness given to the working floors, which may be from 12 to 40 ft.

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  • in thickness, whereas in the top-slide system the height of the floor is limited by the length of the timbers used in the working-rooms, rarely over S or Io ft.

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  • In such cases preliminary surveys should be made to determine the thickness of rock over the proposed workings.

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  • When the presence of underground bodies of water is known or suspected, advance bore-holes should radiate from the end of the advancing working place so as to give warning of the position of the body of water, these holes being of such length as to ensure a safe, thickness of solid rock.

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  • - These qualities can be readily judged by inspection of the glass in pieces of considerable thickness, and they may be quantitatively measured by means of the spectro-photometer.

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  • Plate glass of the usual quality, which appears to be perfectly homogeneous when looked at in the ordinary way, is seen to be a mass of fine striae, when a considerable thickness is examined in parallel light.

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  • For the purpose of rendering this minute examination possible, opposite plane surfaces of the glass are ground approximately flat and polished, the faces to be polished being so chosen as to allow of a view through the greatest possible thickness of glass; thus in slabs the narrow edges are polished.

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  • The latter kind is known as " flashed," and is universally employed in the case of colouring matters whose effect is so intense that in any usual thickness of glass they would cause almost entire opacity.

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  • in diameter, and vary in thickness from a to $ in.

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  • in diameter, and vary in thickness from a to z in., the centre being the thickest.

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  • with great care so as to secure a product as free from colour as possible, since the relatively great thickness of the sheets FIG.

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  • The width of the sheet or plate is regulated by moving guides which are placed in front of the roller and are pushed along by it, while its thickness is regulated by raising or lowering the roller relatively to the surface of the table.

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  • To give an idea of what can be done in this way, it may be stated that gold can be beaten out to leaf of the thickness of - j g - mm.; and that platinum, by judicious work, can be drawn into wire 2?o o mm.

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  • Jamaica quassia is imported into England in logs several feet in length and often nearly one foot in thickness, consisting of pieces of the trunk and larger branches.

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  • square, with a thickness of nearly 4 in.

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  • The amount of deposit laid over the land reaches a thickness of two or three feet in one season of warping, which is usually practised between March and October, advantage being taken of the spring tides during these months.

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  • The nitrate forms beds, varying in thickness from 6 in.

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  • The material is supplied to the twisting machinery by an attendant, and formed into a cord of uniform thickness, twisted and wound on a drum by mechanism analogous to that used in rope-spinning.

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  • Cheroots differ from ordinary cigars only in shape, being either in the form of a truncated cone, or of uniform thickness throughout, but always having both ends open and sharply cut across.

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  • There are several varieties in cultivation, varying in the degree of hardihood, time of ripening, thickness of shell, size and other particulars.

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  • Although of no great thickness it covers six-sevenths of the island, rising in a series of steps or platforms to a height of nearly 1 10o ft.

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  • According to native report, the gorillas sleep on these beds, which are of sufficient thickness to raise them a foot or two above the ground, in a sitting posture, with the head inclined forwards on the breast.

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  • The whole range is highly auriferous, and the thickness of the strata is not less than 10,000 ft.

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  • in thickness), covered with bar-iron 4 in.

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  • Accordingly, the vessel was built so low in the water that the waves glided easily over its deck except at the middle, where was constructed a revolving turret 1 for the guns, and though the vessel's iron armour had a thickness of 1 in.

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  • 8 A, 9 A), but in many Cheilostomes the frontal surface is protected by a calcareous shield, which grows from near the free edges of the vertical walls and commonly increases in thickness as the zooecium grows older by the activity of the "epitheca," a layer of living tissue outside it.

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  • With regard to incised chiselling, the commonest form is kebori (hair-carving), which may be called engraving, the lines being of uniform thickness and depth.

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  • in width, and less than one-tenth of that amount in thickness.

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  • Thus if Q is the surface density, S the thickness of the shell at any point, and p the assumed volume density of the matter of the shell, we have v =Abp. Then the quantity of electricity on any element of surface dS is A times the mass of the corresponding element of the shell; and if Q is the whole quantity of electricity on the ellipsoid, Q =A times the whole mass of the shell.

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  • p. 112) has given a full expression for the capacity C of two circular plates of thickness t and radius r placed at any distance d apart in air from which the edge effect can be calculated.

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  • Except in the larger nuggets, which may be more or less angular, or at times even masses of crystals, with or without associated quartz or other rock, gold is generally found bean-shaped or in some other flattened form, the smallest particles being scales of scarcely appreciable thickness, which, from their small bulk as compared with their surface, subside very slowly when suspended in water, and are therefore readily carried away by a rapid current.

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  • The formation is noted for its regularity as regards both the thickness and the gold-tenor of the ore-bearing reefs, in which respect it is unparalleled in the geology of the auriferous formations.

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  • It is deposited from water, which bubbles up from a number of springs in the form of horizontal layers, which at first are thin crusts and can easily be broken, but gradually solidify and harden into blocks with a thickness of 7 to 8 in.

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  • Besides these variations in the number of ridges or plates of which each tooth is composed, the thickness of the enamel varies so much as to have given rise to a distinction between a " thick-plated " and a " thin-plated " variety - the latter being most prevalent among specimens from the Arctic regions.

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  • The habitats which they affect are the hot, dry regions of tropical America, the aridity of which they are enabled to withstand in consequence of the thickness of their skin and the paucity of evaporating pores or stomata with which they are furnished, - these conditions not permitting the moisture they contain to be carried off too rapidly; the thick fleshy stems and branches contain a store of water.

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  • Warburg in 1875 on the viscosity of gases; its effects would be corrected for, in general, by a slight effective addition to the thickness of the gaseous layer.

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  • ft., which should give a thickness of o 000563 in.

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  • The amount of separation is very small, and depends on the thickness of the glass, the index of refraction and the focal length of the telescope.

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  • Ice is a very poor conductor of heat and accordingly protects the surface of the water beneath from rapid cooling; hence new-formed pancake ice does not increase excessively in thickness in one winter, and even in the centre of the Arctic Basin the ice-covering only amounts to 6 or at most 9 ft.

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  • in the course of a year, while in the Antarctic regions the season's growth is only half as great; in the latter also the accumulated snow is an important factor in the thickness of the ice, and snow is an even worse conductor of heat.

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  • Underneath is the true floor of the cave, a mass of homogeneous yellow clay, one metre in thickness.

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  • The commencement of the Carboniferous period is marked by a mass of limestones known as the Carboniferous or Sequences Mountain Limestone,which contains a large assemblage of carbon- of marine fossils, and has a maximum thickness in iferous S.W.

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  • These are also called the Upper Limestone Shale, a similar group being found in places below the limestone, and called the Lower Limestone Shale, or, in the north of England, the Tuedian group. Going northward the beds of limestone diminish in thickness, with a proportional increase in the intercalated sandstones and shales, until in Scotland they are entirely subordinate to a mass of coal-bearing strata, which forms the most productive members of the Scotch coalfields.

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  • The Coal Measures, forming the third great member of the Carboniferous series, consist of alternations of shales and sandstones, with beds of coal and nodular ironstones, which together make up a thickness of many thousands of feet - from 12,000 to 14,000 ft.

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  • The thickness of coal seams varies in Great Britain from a mere film to 35 or 40 ft.; but in the south of France and in India masses of coal are known up to 200 ft.

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  • thick in one connected mass in the neighbourhood of Dudley, but splits up into eight seams, which, with the intermediate shales and sandstones, are of a total thickness of 400 ft.

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  • Seams of a medium thickness of 3 to 7 ft.

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  • as the minimum workable thickness, and after making all necessary deductions, estimated the available quantity of coal in the proved coalfields of the United Kingdom as 100,914,668,167 tons.

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  • 3, where the seam B, according to the same system of arrangement, should have been found at or near the surface, another seam C is proved at a considerable depth, differing in character and thickness from either of the preceding.

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  • The thickness varies according to the pressure expected, but may be taken at from 4 to i 2 in.

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  • With increase in depth, however, the thickness and weight of the cast iron tubbing in a large shaft become almost unmanageable; in one instance, at a depth of 1215 f t., the bottom rings in a shaft 142 ft.

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  • The laying out of a colliery, after the coal has been won, by sinkings or levels, may be accomplished in various ways, according to the nature of the coal, its thickness and dip, and the extent of ground to be worked.

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  • In the South Wales system of working, cross headings are driven from the main roads obliquely across the rise to get a sufficiently easy gradient for horse roads, and from these the stalls are opened out with a narrow entrance, in order to leave support on either side of the road, but afterwards widening to as great a breadth as the seam will allow, leaving pillars of a minimum thickness.

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  • or more in thickness.

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  • With careful packing it is estimated that the surface subsidence will not exceed 40% of the thickness of the seam removed, and will usually be considerably less.

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  • in thickness, to be worked at a profit, which had formerly been abandoned as too hard to be worked by hand-labour.

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  • in thickness, weighed 14.3 tons, and another at Anzin, intended to lift a gross load of 15 tons from 750 metres, is 221 in.

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  • "At Chai-tang," wrote Baron von Richthofen, "I was surprised to walk over a regular succession of coal-bearing strata, the thickness of which, estimating it step by step as I proceeded gradually from the lowest to the highest strata, exceeds 7000 ft."

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  • lating the water are connected to the casing, so that any tilting automatically regulates the flow, and therefore the thickness of the film in the vortex.

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  • " In modern times Descartes held that, as it is of the essence of matter to be extended in length, breadth and thickness, so it is of the essence of extension to be occupied by matter, for extension cannot be an extension of nothing.

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  • in thickness, the width of the circlet being 4 in.

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  • in thickness, and of "blocks" made up of these tears agglomerated by a clear reddish-brown resin.

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  • Until the 9th century the only means for sighting cannon was by the " line of metal " - a line scored_ along the top of the gun, which, owing to the greater thickness of metal at the breech than at the muzzle, was not parallel to the axis.

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  • area should be treated not only as length multiplied by length, but also as volume divided by thickness.

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  • This method is unconsciously adopted by the teacher who illustrates the equality of area of two geometrical figures by cutting them out of cardboard of uniform thickness and weighing them.

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  • If the planes of one set divide it into m slabs of thickness h, and those of the other into n slabs of thickness k, so that H =mh, K = nk, then the values of x and of y for any ordinate may be denoted by xo+Oh and yo+Ok, and the length of the ordinate by uo, 0.

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  • Allowance must of course be made for the thickness of the wood.

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  • The cast bars are reduced to the thickness of the coin by repeated passages between rolls.

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  • The reduction in thickness of the bars is accompanied by a slight increase in their width and a very great increase in their length, so that it is generally necessary to cut partly rolled bars into two parts to keep them of convenient dimensions.

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  • in thickness to 14 mm.

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  • In some mints the drag-bench or draw-bench is used after the rolls to equalize the thickness of the fillets.

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  • The thickness of the FIG.

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  • When they have been reduced to the correct thickness they are examined by the " tryer," who cuts out one or two blanks from each fillet with a hand machine and weighs them on a delicate balance.

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  • As the mean thickness of a sovereign is 0.0466 in., the remedy for weight corresponds to a difference of less than in.

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  • in the thickness of the fillet.

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  • The Columbia plateau consists of horizontal beds of lava having a total thickness of several thousand feet, and its surface has a general elevation of tow to 2000 ft.

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  • The layer of air originally of thickness dx now has thickness dx+dy, since N is displaced forwards dy more than M.

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  • of the cylinder is formed of a plate perforated near its edge by holes distributed uniformly in a circle concentric with the plate, and which are cut obliquely through the thickness of the plate.

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  • The law that, caeteris paribus, n varies inversely as the thickness may be tested by forming a string of four lengths of the single thread used before, and consequently of double the thickness of the latter, when, for the same length and tension, the compound thread will exhibit double the number of ventral segments presented by the single thread.

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  • The thickness of the arch is 4 ft.

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  • In the case of the plate web there must be a considerable excess of material, partly to stiffen it against buckling and partly because an excess of thickness must be provided to reduce the effect of corrosion.

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  • in total thickness, and showing traces of reconstruction at different periods.

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  • The thickness of the formation near London is about 400 ft., and at Sheppey it reaches 480 ft.

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  • in thickness; (2) of a thin and local bed composed of alternations of brown clay and loam; (3) of a bed of fine light buff sand, which in west Kent attains a thickness of more than 60 ft.; (4) of bluish grey sandy marl containing fossils, and almost entirely confined to east Kent, the thickness of the formation being more than 60 ft.; and (5) of fine light grey sand of an equal thickness, also fossiliferous.

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  • The thickness of the formation varies from 15 to 80 ft., but most commonly it is from 25 to 40 ft.

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  • They consist chiefly of flint pebbles or of lightcoloured quartzose sand, the thickness being from 20 to 30 ft, and.

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  • in height; beneath these is a mass of coarse black amygdaloid, of the same thickness, underlain by a second range of basaltic pillars, from 40 to 50 ft.

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  • There is also a postern gate on the north side of the wall, and at its eastern extremity are two apertures in the thickness of the wall.

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  • On electrolysis a layer of metallic calcium is formed at the lower end of this rod on the surface of the electrolyte; the rod is gradually raised, the thickness of the layer increases, and ultimately a rod of metallic calcium, forming, as it were, a continuation of the iron cathode, is obtained.

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  • above sea level, and the average thickness of the peat of which it consists is 25 ft.

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  • Frequently in districts where slates are much crumpled they are traversed by numerous quartz veins, which have a thickness varying from several inches up to many feet, and may occasionally be auriferous.

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  • The splitter places a block on end between his knees, and with chisel and mallet splits it into as many plates as possible of the usual thickness for roofing purposes - namely, a quarter of an inch more or less according to the size and strength required.

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  • Such veins often attain a thickness of several feet, and sometimes possess a columnar structure perpendicular to the enclosing walls; they are met with in the crystalline limestones and other Laurentian rocks of New York and Canada, in the gneisses of the Austrian Alps and the granulites of Ceylon.

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  • and the thickness of a man's thigh, and frequents the marshes of Brazil and the Guianas, where it is regarded with terror, owing to the formidable electrical apparatus with which it is provided.

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  • in thickness, 21 in.

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  • A sheet of silver of a finer quality than standard, ranging in thickness from-+ 6 - in.

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  • This was passed again and again between gradually approximated rollers, with occasional annealing, until the desired thickness had been attained.

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  • The next event is a great growth in thickness of the gelatinous mesogloea, especially on the exumbral side; as a result the flattened coelenteron is still further compressed so that in certain spots its cavity is obliterated, and its exumbral and subumbral layers of endoderm come into contact and undergo concrescence.

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  • Thickness of skin, masking the muscles, has been thought the cause of a peculiar heaviness in the outlines of body and face; the complexion varies from yellow-brown to chocolate (about 40 to 43 in the anthropological scale); eyes black; straight coarse glossy black hair; beard and moustache scanty.

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  • Region of tile Great LakesThe Palaeozoic strata, already mentioned as lapping on the southern slope of the Superior Olclland and around the western side of the Adirondacks- are but parts of a great area of similar strata, hundreds of feet in thickness, which dec]ine gently southward from the great oldland of the Laurentian highlands of eastern Canada.

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  • It attains a thickness of 20 ft.

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  • The Plateau province, next west of the southern Rocky Mountains, is characterized for the most part by large-textured forms, developed on a great thickness of nearly horizontal Palaeozoic, The Plateau Mesozoic and Tertiary formations, and by a dry climate.

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  • The aggregate thickness of the Proterozoic systems in the Lake Superior region is several miles, as usually computed, but there are obvious difficulties in determining the thickness of such great systems, especially when they are mtich metamorphosed.

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  • The thickness of the system has been estimated at 10,009 to 12,000 ft.

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  • in eastern New York, and almost as much in the southern Appalachian Mountains (Georgia and Alabama); but its average thickness is much less.

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  • In Wisconsin, where the Upper Cambrian only is present, the thickness is about Iooo ft.

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  • The greater thickness in the east appears to be due in part to the fact that an extensive area of land, Appalachia.

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  • The greatness of the thickness, as it has been measured, is also due in part to the oblique position in which the beds of sediment were originally deposited.

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  • The thickness of the system varies from point to point, being greatest in the Appalachian Mountains, and much less in the interior.

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  • In the interior the thickness of the system is less than 1000 ft.

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  • in many places, but in and near the Appalachian Mountains its thickness is much greatermore than five times as great if the maximum thicknesses of all formations be made the basis of calculation.

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  • Like the earlier Palaeozoic systems, the Devonian attains its greatest known thickness in the Appalachian Mountains, where sediments from the lands of pre-Cambrian rock to the east accumulated in quantity.

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  • Here clastic rocks predominate, while limestone is more abundant in the interior, If the maximum thicknesses of all Devonian formations be added together, the total for the system is as much as 15,000 ft.; but such a thickness is not found in any one pluce.

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  • The system ranges in thickness from nearly 5000 ft.

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  • uc un Unlike the older systems of the Palaeozoic, the enbrier Pennsylvanian system has not its maximum thickness - in the Appalachian Mountains, but in Arkansas, in a region which was probably adjacent to high lands at that time.

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  • The system has its maximum known thickness in Texas, where it is said to be 7000 ft.

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  • in maximum thickness.

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  • Triassic SystemThis system has but limited representation in the eastern part of the United States, being known only east of the Appalachian Mountains in an area which was land throughout most of the Palaeozoic era, hut which was deformed when the eastern mountains were developed at the close of the Palaeozoic. In the troughs formed in its surface during this time of deformation, sediments of great thickness accumulated during the Triassic period.

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  • In the United States, marine Shastan beds are restricted to the area west of the Sierras, but they here have great thickness.

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  • If maximum thicknesses of its several parts in different localities, as usually measured, are added together, the total would approach or reach 25,000 ft.; but the strata of any one region have scarcely more than half this thickness, and the average is much less.

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  • The system has been reported to have a thickness of more than 7000 ft.

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  • The system is wanting in northern California and southern Oregon, but appears again farther north, and has great development in Oregon, where its thickness has been estimated at more than 10,000 ft.

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  • As in other comparable cases, this figure does not make allowance for the oblique attitude in which the sediments were deposited, and should not be construed to mean the vertical thickness of the system.

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  • In \Vashington the Eocene is represented by the Puget series of brackish water beds, with an estimated thickness exceeding that of the marine formations of Oregon.

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  • The thickness of the system in the west is great, the formations of each of the several stages mentioned above running into thousands of feet, as thicknesses are commonly measured.

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  • The Miocene of the Atlantic and Gulf regions nowhere attains great thickness.

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  • The marine Pliocene of the continent has its greatest development in California (the Merced series, peninsula of San Francisco), where it is assigned a maximum thickness of nearly 6000 ft., and possibly as much as 13,000 ft.

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  • 6) possesses the advantage that the panels or laths can be diminished in thickness towards the top in proportion to the reduced water-pressure; whereas the needles, being of uniform cross-section, have to be made stout enough to sustain the maximum bottom pressure.

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  • It is entered from the east by a passage, on each side of which there is a small chamber constructed within the thickness of the wall.

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  • The last is secreted by the whole surface of the mantle except the border, and additions to its thickness continue to be made through life.

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  • These two layers, therefore, when once formed cannot increase in thickness; as the mantle grows in extent its border passes beyond the formed parts of the two outer layers, and the latter are covered internally by a deposit of nacreous matter.

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  • The filaments take on a secondary grouping, the surface of the lamella being thrown into a series of halfcylindrical ridges, each consisting of ten or twenty filaments; a filament of much greater strength and thickness than the others may be placed between each pair of groups.

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  • and it is remarkable for the great thickness of its muscular walls, which gives it the feeling of a piece of whipcord when rolled between the finger and thumb.

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  • Thus the growth of the shell in extent is due to additions to the prismatic layer at the edge, its growth in thickness to new layers of nacre deposited on its inner surface.

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  • In the cold regions of the northern lowlands peat occurs in beds of immense thickness.

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  • As the outer flossy threads and the inner vests are not reelable, it is difficult to estimate the total length of thread produced by the silkworm, but the portion reeled varies in length and thickness, according to the condition and robustness of the cocoon, in some breeds giving a result as low as Soo metres, and in others 900 to 1200 metres.

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  • As the reeling proceeds the reeler has to give the most careful attention to the thickness of the strand being produced, and to introduce new cocoons in place of any from which the reelable silk has become exhausted.

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  • In the case of prisms the resolving power ist (dµ/dX), where t is the effective thickness of the medium traversed by the ray.

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  • If 1 2 and t l are thicknesses traversed by the extreme rays, t = t 2 - t,, and if, as is usually the case, the prism is filled right up to its refraction cap, = o, and t becomes equal to the greatest thickness of the medium which is made use of.

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  • The same author proved that a sufficient thickness of layer raised the radiation to that of a black body in agreement with Kirchhoff's law.

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  • with a stem an inch or two in thickness.

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  • in thickness and averaging when complete about 50 ft.

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  • C, Chambers in the thickness of the wall opening out of the gallery.

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  • On the south is a gallery built in the thickness of the wall, and roofed by projecting courses of stone; and chambers or storehouses open out of this gallery.

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  • The needle is peculiarly poised, with its point of suspension a little below its centre of gravity, and is exceedingly sensitive; it is seldom more than an inch in length, and is less than a line in thickness.

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