Thermodynamics sentence example

thermodynamics
  • An historical account of the development of thermodynamics is given in the article Heat.
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  • "Carnot's principle" is fundamental in the theory of thermodynamics.
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  • In addition to his work on quantum theory, other areas of study included thermodynamics.
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  • As soon as this reversibility is introduced, general laws related to thermodynamics are applicable (see Chemical Action; Energetics).
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  • (See Thermodynamics and Steam-Engine.) In Carnot's cycle the substance takes in heat at its highest temperature, then passes by adiabatic expansion from the top to the bottom of its temperature range, then rejects heat at the bottom of the range, and is finally brought back by adiabatic compression to the highest temperature at which it again takes in heat, and so on.
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  • For greater simplicity and generality it is desirable to define the total heat of a substance as the function (E+pv), where E is the intrinsic energy and v the volume of unit mass (see Thermodynamics).
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  • He showed that, since water expands on freezing, the laws of thermodynamics require that its freezing-point must be lowered by increase of pressure; and he calculated that for every additional atmosphere of pressure the freezingpoint of water was lowered by 0.0075°.
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  • The topics include: gas laws, thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibria, redox chemistry and nuclear chemistry.
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  • This suggests an alternative model of protein folding based on the thermodynamics of phase transitions in hydrogen-bonded networks.
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  • Instrument development needs to be coupled to recent advances in thermodynamics applied to geological systems.
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  • Prof Passerini briefly discussed the major theoretical aspects of thermodynamics involved in energy conversion.
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  • The first law of thermodynamics states that the amount of energy in a closed system cannot change.
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  • De Donder, of course, had precursors, especially in the French thermodynamics school of Pierre Duhem.
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  • This field involves the use of a number of applied and pure sciences, including bioinformatics, biocatalysts, kinetics, mass and heat transfer, thermodynamics and fluid mechanics.
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  • Experts posit that the body is a machine acting on the properties of thermodynamics, and that it has certain energy requirements.
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  • Thermodynamics >>
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  • In 1901 the Copley medal of the Royal Society of London was awarded him as being "the first to apply the second law of thermodynamics to the exhaustive discussion of the relation between chemical, electrical and thermal energy and capacity for external work."
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  • The object of the present article is to illustrate the practical application of the two general principles - (I) Joule's law of the equivalence of heat and work, and (2) Carnot's principle, that the efficiency of a reversible engine depends only on the temperatures between which it works; these principles are commonly known as the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
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  • This merely thermal energy - which is gradually but very slowly being restricted in amount as new subsidiary organized types become recognized in it - though transmutable in equivalent quantities with the other kinds, yet is so only to a limited extent; the tracing out of the laws of this limitation belongs to the science of thermodynamics.
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  • Such attempts as have been made to design air-engines on a large scale have been practical failures, and are now interesting only as steps in the historical development of applied thermodynamics.
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  • Thisconstant, now designated as Joules equivalent, is the principal experimental datum of the science of thermodynamics.
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  • Such a result must be regarded as impossible of attainment, as it would imply the possibility of heat passing from one body to another at a higher temperature, contrary to the second law of thermodynamics.
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  • Peltier (1834) that heat is absorbed at the junction of two metals by passing a current through it in the same direction as the current produced by heating it, was recognized by Joule as affording a clue to the source of the energy of the current by the application of the principles of thermodynamics.
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  • It was in this paper that the principle of the dissipation of energy, briefly summarized in the second law of thermodynamics, was first stated.
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  • The thermodynamics of this can be explained by pressure composition isotherms.
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  • I have been developing new methods for studying the thermodynamics of systems with long-range interaction.
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  • We develop a novel model using the thermodynamics of the processes involved.
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  • The coverage includes an introduction to electrodes and cells, to the electrochemical series and to the associated thermodynamics.
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  • A common example is the concept of temperature from classical equilibrium thermodynamics.
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  • This is important in the statistical thermodynamics of solids.
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  • The basic thermodynamics related to these phase diagrams is explained.
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  • The most popular site since January, receiving 179 clickthroughs in February was a tutorial on advanced thermodynamics from Brown University.
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  • A voyage of discovery through many areas of contemporary physics FROM non-equilibrium thermodynamics to quantum optics in ORDER to understand the problem of life.
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  • Topics include: chemical thermodynamics, kinetic molecular theory, chemical kinetics, and statistical thermodynamics.
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  • He was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1977 for his contributions to nonequilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures.
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  • The three roads are black hole thermodynamics, loop quantum gravity, and string theory.
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  • The majority of thermodynamical problems may be treated without any reference to entropy, but it affords a convenient method of expression in abstract thermodynamics, especially in the consideration of irreversible processes and in reference to the conditions of equilibrium of heterogeneous systems.
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  • It will at once be apparent that the kinetic theory of matter enables us to place the second law of thermodynamics upon a purely dynamical basis.
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  • (see Thermodynamics), dp/dt = X/t(v2 - v i), where p and t denote the pressure and temperature, X the heat required to change unit mass of the systems from one phase to the other, and v2 - v1 the resulting change in volume.
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  • Such an arrangement may be put through a cycle of operations as in Carnot's engine (see Thermodynamics) and all the laws of reversible engines applied to it.
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  • (See Thermodynamics, § 7.) I I.
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  • The " advanced physics " package covers electromagnetism, quantum and nuclear physics and thermodynamics in twenty simulations.
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  • Although the value of G in any case cannot be found without that of 0, and although the consideration of the properties of the thermodynamic potential cannot in any case lead to results which are not directly deducible from the two fundamental laws, it affords a convenient method of formal expression in abstract thermodynamics for the condition of equilibrium between different phases, or the criterion of the possibility of a transformation.
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  • He claims recognition as an independent a priori propounder of the "First Law of Thermodynamics," but more especially as having early and ably applied that law to the explanation of many remarkable phenomena, both cosmical and terrestrial.
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  • If steam or vapour is " wire-drawn " or expanded through a porous plug or throttling aperture without external loss or gain of heat, the total heat (E+pv) remains constant (Thermodynamics, § I I), provided that the experiment is arranged so that the kinetic energy of flow is the same on either side of the throttle.
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  • Another discussed conduction in curved sheets; a third the distribution of electricity in two influencing spheres; a fourth the deter mination of the constant on which depends the intensity of induced currents; while others were devoted to Ohm's law, the motion of electricity in submarine cables, induced magnetism, &c. In other papers, again, various miscellaneous topics were treated - the thermal conductivity of iron, crystalline reflection and refraction, certain propositions in the thermodynamics of solution and vaporization, &c. An important part of his work was contained in his Vorlesungen fiber mathematische Physik (1876), in which the principles of dynamics, as well as various special problems, were treated in a somewhat novel and original manner.
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  • He showed that, since water expands on freezing, the laws of thermodynamics require that its freezing-point must be lowered by increase of pressure; and he calculated that for every additional atmosphere of pressure the freezingpoint of water was lowered by 0.0075°.
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  • Consider an elementary couple of two metals A and B for which s has the values s and s" respectively, with junctions at the temperature T and T+dT (absolute), at which the coefficients of the Peltier effect are P and P+dP. Equating the quantity of heat absorbed to the quantity of electrical energy generated, we have by the first law of thermodynamics the relation dE/dT =dP/dT+(s' - s").
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  • By applying the first law of thermodynamics, Kohlrausch deduces that a quantity of heat, CBdT, is absorbed in the element dT per second by the current C. He wrongly identifies this with the Thomson effect, by omitting to allow for the heat carried.
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  • Taking conduction into account in the application of the second law of thermodynamics, he proposes to substitute the inequality, Td/dET - P
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  • Of the former, the first, published in 1896, was on the dynamics of a particle; and afterwards there followed a number of concise treatises on thermodynamics, heat, light, properties of matter and dynamics, together with an admirably lucid volume of popular lectures on Recent Advances in Physical Science.
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  • The name thermodynamics is given to that branch of the general science of Energetics which deals with the relations between thermal and mechanical energy, and the transformations of heat into work, and vice versa.
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  • - William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), who wars the first to realize the importance of the absolute scale in thermodynamics, and the inadequacy of the test afforded by Boyle's law or by experiments on the constancy of the specific heat of gases, devised a more delicate and practical test, which he carried out successfully in conjunction with Joule.
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  • For fuller details and explanations of the elements of the subject, the reader must be referred to general treatises such as Baynes's Thermodynamics (Oxford), Tait's Thermodynamics (Edinburgh), Maxwell's Theory of Heat (London), Parker's Thermodynamics (Cambridge), Clausius's Mechanical Theory of Heat (translated by Browne, London), and Preston's Theory of Heat (London).
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  • This not only verifies that the second law of thermodynamics is obeyed, but enables us to identify T with the absolute thermodynamical temperature.
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  • The laws of thermodynamics, including the fundamental principle that a physical property, called temperature, can be defined, which tends towards uniformity, are thus relations between the properties of types of material bodies that can exist permanently in presence of each other; why they so maintain themselves remains unknown, but the fact gives the point d'appui.
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  • The conception of a semi-permeable membrane, permeable to the solvent only, was used by van't Hoff as a means of applying the principles of thermodynamics to the theory of solution.
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  • Artificial membranes are seldom or never perfectly semi-permeable - some leakage of solute nearly always occurs, but the imperfections of actual membranes need no more prevent our use of the ideal conception than the faults of real engines invalidate the theory of ideal thermodynamics founded on the conception of a perfect, reversible, frictionless, heat engine.
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  • Rankine's equation follows directly from the first law of thermodynamics, and may be proved as follows: The heat absorbed in any transformation is the change of intrinsic energy plus the external work done.
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  • In order to correct this equation for the deviations of the vapour from the ideal state at higher temperatures and pressures, the simplest method is to assume a modified equation of the Joule-Thomson type (Thermodynamics, equation (17)), which has been shown to represent satisfactorily the behaviour of other gases and vapours at moderate pressures.
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  • (21) in which v and w are the volumes of unit mass of the vapour and liquid respectively at the saturation-point (Thermodynamics, § 4).
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  • The amount and effect of the variations of pressure and temperature undergone by the air depend on the principles of the mechanical action of heat, or THERMODYNAMIcS, and are foreign to the subject of pure mechaifisni.
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  • We shall therefore endeavour to apply to this subject the methods used in Thermodynamics, and where these fail us we shall have recourse to the hypotheses of molecular physics.
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  • - What is commonly understood by thermochemistry is based entirely on the first law of thermodynamics, but of recent years great progress has been made in the study of chemical equilibrium by the application of the second law.
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  • Among his articles may be mentioned those which he wrote for the ninth edition of this Encyclopaedia on Light, Mechanics, Quaternions, Radiation and Thermodynamics, besides the biographical notices of Hamilton and Clerk Maxwell.
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  • His first contributions to mathematical physics were two papers published in 1873 in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy on "Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids," and "Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by means of Surfaces."
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  • In the article Thermodynamics it is shown that the amount of heat required to raise a given weight of a gas through a certain range of temperature is different according as the gas is maintained at constant pressure, the volume in creasing, or at constant volume, the pressure increasing.
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  • A dissolved in B and B dissolved in A, since both of these solutions emit vapours of the same composition (this follows since the same vapour must be in equilibrium with both solutions, for if it were not so a cyclic system contradicting the second law of thermodynamics would be realizable).
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  • The empirical formulae above quoted must be compared and tested in the light of the theoretical relation between the latent heat and the rate of increase of the vapour-pressure (dp/d0), which is given by the second law of thermodynamics, viz.
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  • Although his contributions to thermodynamics may properly be regarded as his most important scientific work, it is in the field of electricity, especially in its application to submarine telegraphy, that Lord Kelvin is best known to the world at large.
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  • In 1864 he published a short paper on thermodynamics, and from that time his contributions to that and kindred departments of science became frequent and important.
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  • Lord Kelvin has applied the principles of Thermodynamics to determine the thermal effects of increasing or diminishing the area of the free surface of a liquid, and has shown that in order to keep the temperature constant while the area of the surface increases by unity, an amount of heat must be supplied 275 to the liquid which is dynamically equivalent to the product of the absolute temperature into the decrement of the surface-tension per degree of temperature.
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  • As it would be impossible within the limits of this article to illustrate or explain adequately the applications which have been made of the principles of thermodynamics, it has been necessary to select such illustrations only as are required for other reasons, or could not be found elsewhere.
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