There are important mineral and thermal springs in various parts of the island.
We assume that each carbon atom and each hydrogen atom contributes equally to the thermal effect.
At the receiving station the differences in these systems depend chiefly upon variations in the actual form of the oscillation detector used, whether it be a loose contact or a thermal, electrolytic or magnetic detector.
"These cancel out your thermal signature," he said, holding them out.
It follows that the thermal effects stated above must be equal, i.e.
Electric-radiative circuits like thermal radiators are divided into two broad classes, good radiators and bad radiators.
The thermal G G detectors are especially useful for the purpose of quantitative measurements, because they indicate the true effective or square root of mean square value of the current or train of oscillations passing through the hot wire.
when thermal units are employed.
Klemencig devised a form of thermal receiver depending on thermoelectricity.
The total thermal effect, too, which is associated with the transformation, must be the same, whether the transformation is conducted directly or indirectly (Hess's Law of Constant Heat Sums), since the thermal effect depends only on the intrinsic energies of the initial and final systems.
Hess now observed that in the process of mixing such neutral solutions no thermal effect was produced - that is, neutral salts in aqueous solution could apparently interchange their radicals without evolution or absorption of heat.
The way the thermal efficiency of the ideal engine increases with the pressure is exhibited in fig.
The thermal efficiency is therefore 185/1013 =0.183.
A fourth class of electric wave detector comprises the thermal detectors which operate in virtue of the fact that electric oscillations create heat in a fine wire through which they pass.
The good electric radiators may be compared with good thermal radiators, such as a vessel coated with lamp black on the outside, and the bad electric radiators to poor thermal radiators, such as a silver vessel highly polished on its exterior.
22 represents the thermal efficiency actually obtained in one of Adams and Pettigrew's experiments, namely, 0-I I, the pressure in the steam-pipe being 167 lb per square inch.
This affords an example of a principle which had been stated by Hess in a very general form under the name of the Law of Constant Heat Sums - namely, that the thermal effect of a given chemical action is the same, independently of the character and number of the stages in which it takes place.
The thermal effects increase as one passes from primary to tertiary alcohols, the values deduced from propyl and isopropyl alcohols and trimethyl carbinol being: - primary =45 08, secondary = 50.39, tertiary = 60.98.
only contain single carbon linkages, then the number of such linkages is 2n - m, and if the thermal effect of such a linkage be X, then the termAisobviously equal to (2n - m)X.
Whilst this principle is undoubtedly applicable to the great majority of chemical actions under ordinary conditions, it is subject to numerous exceptions, and cannot therefore be taken (as its authors originally intended) as a secure basis for theoretical reasoning on the connexion between thermal effect and chemical affinity.
By experiment it is found that the thermal effect of a double bond is much less than the effect of two single bonds, while a triple bond has a much smaller effect than three single bonds.
(5) The influence of temperature on the thermal effect of a chemical action is sometimes considerable, but.
- One pound of good Welsh coal properly burned in the fire-box of a locomotive yields about 15,000 British thermal units of heat at a temperature high enough to enable from 50 to 80% to flow across the boiler-heating surface to the water, the rest escaping up the chimney with the furnace gases.
The thermal effect of the " alcohol " group C. OH may be determined by finding the heat of formation of the alcohol and subtracting the thermal effects of the remaining linkages in the molecule.
Here we have a different final system with a different amount of intrinsic energy, so that the thermal effect of the action is altogether different.
The chemical characters of the well-waters, the irregular distribution of the water-pressure, the distribution of the underground thermal gradients, and the occurrence in some of the wells of a tidal rise and fall of a varying period, are facts which are not explained on the simple hydrostatic theory.
In the first case the thermal effect of 58.58 calories actually observed must be increased by 2d to allow for the heat absorbed in splitting off two gramme-atoms of carbon; in the second case the thermal effect of 96.96 must be increased by d as above.
For further information regarding the standard engine of comparison see the article Steam Engine and also the " Report of the Committee on the Thermal Efficiency of Steam Engines," Proc. Inst.
The thermal effect of the aldehyde group has the average value 64.88 calories, i.e.
zinc with solutions of copper salts), the thermal effect is practically independent of the nature of the acid radical in the salt employed.
THERMOCHEMISTRY, a branch of Energetics, treating of the thermal phenomena which are associated with chemical change.
When the initial pressure is 100 lb per square inch by the gauge the thermal efficiency drops to about nearly 15% with the same back pressure.
When the solutions employed are dilute, no water is placed in the calorimeter, the temperature-change of the solutions themselves being used to estimate the thermal effect brought about by mixing them.
Wilson, Elements of Thermal Chemistry (London, 1885); P. Duhem, Traite de Mecanique Chimique (Paris, 18 97-99); J.
For example, the physicist determines the density, elasticity, hardness, electrical and thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, &c.; the chemist, on the other hand, investigates changes in composition, such as may be effected by an electric current, by heat, or when two or more substances are mixed.
The rail-failures mentioned above also drew renewed attention to the importance of the thermal treatment of the steel from the time of melting to the last passage through the rolling mill and to the necessity of the finishing temperature being sufficiently low if the product is to be fine grained, homogeneous and tough; and to permit of this requirement being met there was a tendency to increase the thickness of the metal in the web and flanges of the rails.
With knowledge then of the heats of formation of the substances involved in any chemical action, we can at once calculate the thermal effect of the action, by placing for each compound in the energy-equation its heat of formation with the sign reversed, i.e.
since the initial and final temperatures, which alone determine the variation in the thermal effect, are in almost all cases within the ordinary laboratory range of a few degrees, this influence may in general be neglected without serious error.
- Telluriumbismuth Vacuum Thermal Detector for Electric Oscillations.
Thus if we wish to ascertain the thermal effect of the action Mg+CaO =MgO+Ca, we may write, knowing the heats of formation of CaO and Mg0 to be 131000 and 146000 respectively, 0-131000 = 0-146000+x x =15000 cal.
Water has the highest thermal conductivity of any liquid.
However, thermal discomfort has been shown to affect the general well-being of people.
The thermal effect of the ether group has an average value of 34.3 1 calories.
above the sea; and round and beyond the great lake the region of the thermal springs covers 5000 sq.
Near the town are some thermal baths.
They have a blaster rifle, rocket launcher and thermal detonator.
Thermal Properties.-The specific heats of most metals have been determined.
In 1901 the Copley medal of the Royal Society of London was awarded him as being "the first to apply the second law of thermodynamics to the exhaustive discussion of the relation between chemical, electrical and thermal energy and capacity for external work."
considerably greater than the alcohol group. The ketone group corresponds to a thermal effect of 53.52 calories.
it is equal to the sum of the thermal effects of the aldehyde and carbonyl groups.
The thermal effects of the halogens are: chlorine =15.13 calories, bromine = 7.68; iodine = - 4.25 calories.
Thomsen deduced that a single bond between a carbon and a nitrogen gramme-atom corresponds to a thermal effect of 2.77 calories, a double bond to 5.44, and a treble bond to 8.31.
Since the salts, both before and after mixture, exist mainly as dissociated ions, it is obvious that large thermal effects can only appear when the state of dissociation of the products is very different from that of the reagents.
When one gramme of zinc is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, 1670 thermal units or calories are evolved.
The following table gives the electric conductivities of a number of metals as determined by Matthiesen, and the relative internal thermal conductivities of (nominally) the same metals as determined by Wiedemann and Franz, with rods about 5 mm.
With uniform temperature, taking h constant in the gas-equation, dp / dz= =p / k, p=poet/ k, (9) so that in ascending in the atmosphere of thermal equilibrium the pressure and density diminish at compound discount, and for pressures p 1 and 1, 2 at heights z 1 and z2 (z1-z2)11?
In 1846 he began experiments on the temperature of the earth at different depths and in different soils near Edinburgh, which yielded determinations of the thermal conductivity of trap-tufa, sandstone and pure loose sand.
Towards the end of his life he was occupied with experimental inquiries into the laws of the conduction of heat in bars, and his last piece of work was to show that the thermal conductivity of iron diminishes with increase of temperature.
Forbes was also interested in geology, and published memoirs on the thermal springs of the Pyrenees, on the extinct volcanoes of the Vivarais (Ardeche), on the geology of the Cuchullin and Eildon hills, &c. In addition to about 150 scientific papers, he wrote Travels through the Alps of Savoy and Other Parts of the Pennine Chain, with Observations on the Phenomena of Glaciers (1843); Norway and its Glaciers (1853); Occasional Papers on the Theory of Glaciers (1859); A Tour of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa (1855).
In 1836 he communicated to the Association a report on the subject of mineral and thermal waters.
In 1837 he visited the United States, and acquired there the materials for papers on the thermal springs and the geology of North America, read in 1838 before the Ashmolean Society and the British Association.
On these chains are the volcanoes and many thermal springs.
Remains of a Roman thermal establishment exist near the principal spring, the so-called Lago della Regina (which is continually diminishing in size owing to the deposit left by the water), and dedicatory inscriptions in honour of the waters have been found.
At the base is a thermal spring, where baths have existed since the 7th century.
In the vicinity of many of these mountain lakes thermal springs, with remarkable curative properties, are to be found.
Since many of these thermal springs possess great medicinal value, Japan may become one of the worlds favorite health-resorts, There are more than a hundred spas, some hot, some cold, which, being easily accessible and highly efficacious, are largely visited by the Japanese.
The best known mineral springs are the alkaline springs of Rohitsch and Gleichenberg, the brine springs of Aussee, and the thermal springs of Tiiffer, Neuhaus and Tobelbad.
The graphical representation of the properties of alloys can be extended so as to record all the changes, thermal and chemical, which the alloy undergoes after, as well as before, solidification, including the formation and breaking up of solid solutions and compounds.
Its high coefficient of thermal expansion, coupled with its low freezing point, renders it a valuable thermometric fluid, especially when the temperatures to be measured are below - 39° C., for which the mercury thermometer cannot be used.
The name thermodynamics is given to that branch of the general science of Energetics which deals with the relations between thermal and mechanical energy, and the transformations of heat into work, and vice versa.
But owing to the large thermal capacity of his calorimeter, the test, though sufficient for his immediate purpose, was not delicate enough to detect and measure the small deviations which actually exist.
The value of B is determined by observing the latent heat, Lo = F"o - F'0, which gives B =B" - B' =L0+(s' - So)00+(n+r)copo - bpo+dho (45) This constant may be called the absolute latent heat, as it expresses the thermal value of the change of state in a manner independent of temperature.
A great number of mineral springs and thermal waters are found in the Carpathians, many of which have become frequented watering-places.
Its thermal conductivity is the lowest of all metals, being 18 as compared with silver as 1000; its coefficient of expansion between o° and too° is 0.001341.
As far as the order to which he carried the approximations - which, however, were based on a simplifying hypothesis that the molecules influenced each other through mutual repulsions inversely as the fifth power of their distance apart--the result was that the equations of motion of the gas, considered as subject to viscous and thermal stresses, could be satisfied by a state of equilibrium under a modified internal pressure equal in all directions.
In later memoirs Reynolds followed up this subject by proceeding to establish definitions of the velocity and the momentum and the energy at an element of volume of the molecular medium, with the precision necessary in order that the dynamical equations of the medium in bulk, based in the usual manner on these quantities alone, without directly considering thermal stresses, shall be strictly valid - a discussion in which the relation of ordinary molar mechanics to the more complete molecular theory is involved.
Sorensen, carried out a careful investigation of the relation between the amount of chlorine, the total salinity and the specific gravity of sea-water of different strengths including an entirely new determination of the thermal expansion of sea-water.
The thermal conductivity also diminishes as salinity increases, the conductivity for heat of sea-water of 35 per mille salinity being 4.2% less than that of pure water.
Conduction has practically no effect, for the coefficient of thermal conductivity in sea-water is so small that if a mass of sea-water were cooled to 0° C. and the surface kept at a temperature of 30° C., 6 months would elapse before a temperature of 15° C. was reached at the depth of 1 3 metres, 1 year at 1 85 metres, and io years at 5.8 metres.
In autumn the enclosed seas of high latitudes frequently present a thermal stratification in which a warm middle layer is sandwiched between a cold upper layer and a cold mass below, the arrangement being termed mesothermic (thaos, middle).
The point of view which has now been gained enables us to interpret most of the thermal properties of solids in terms of molecular theory.
There are two bathing establishments, one of which preserves remains of Roman baths, and a large military thermal hospital.
The striking discovery was, in 1903, made by the same investigators that the spontaneous luminosity of radium gives a spectrum of a kind never before obtained without the aid of powerful excitation, electrical or thermal.
The thermal coefficient of expansion of steel and concrete is nearly the same, otherwise changes of temperature would cause shearing stress at the junction of the two materials.
In fact, small differences of composition or variations in thermal treatment during manufacture involve relatively large differences of quality.
A good many years later he was entrusted by the committee of the British Association on standards of electric resist ance with the task of deducing the mechanical equivalent of heat from the thermal effects of electric currents.
The evidence for this view, that all these agencies are at bottom connected together and parts of the same scheme, was enormously strengthened during the latter half of the 19th century by the development of a relation of simple quantitative equivalence between them; it has been found that we can define quantities relating to them, under the names of mechanical energy, electric energy, thermal energy, and so on, so that when one of them disappears, it is replaced by the others to exactly equal amount.
Thus, if we are treating of energy, we can separate out mechanical and electric and other constituents in it; and there will be a residue of which we know nothing except its quantity, and which we call thermal.
This merely thermal energy - which is gradually but very slowly being restricted in amount as new subsidiary organized types become recognized in it - though transmutable in equivalent quantities with the other kinds, yet is so only to a limited extent; the tracing out of the laws of this limitation belongs to the science of thermodynamics.
It is the business of that science to find out what is the greatest amount of thermal energy that can possibly be recoverable into organized kinds under given circumstances.
If we rest on the synthesis here described, the energy of the matter, even the thermal part, appears largely as potential energy of strain in the aether which interacts with the kinetic energy associated with disturbances involving finite velocity of matter.
Aix has thermal springs, remarkable for their heat and containing lime and carbonic acid.
of Miliana, noted from the time of the Romans for its thermal springs, occupies a picturesque position 1800 ft.
The thermal springs are fabled to have been discovered as early as 762, but the first authentic mention of the baths occurs in the 16th century.
There are two thermal springs in the vicinity, and undeveloped mines of sulphur and silver.
Electromagnetic voltmeters may therefore be thermal, electromagnetic or electrodynamic. As a rule, electromagnetic voltmeters are only suitable for the measurement of relatively small potentials - o to 200 or 300 volts.
Numerous forms of hot-wire or thermal voltmeter have been devised.
For our immediate purpose these considerations are of importance inasmuch as they bear on the question how far the spectra emitted by gases are thermal effects only.
When, for instance, we observe the relation of the gas contained in a Plucker tube through which an electric discharge is passing, there can be little doubt that the partition of energy is very different from what it would be in thermal equilibrium.
As there is undoubtedly a connexion between thermal motion and radiation, the energy of these electrons within the atom must be supposed to increase with temperature.
Hence a part of what must be included in thermal energy is not simply proportional to temperature as is commonly assumed.
On the whole it seems probable that the system of moving electrons, which according to a modern theory constitute the atom, is not directly concerned in thermal radiation which would rather be due to a few more loosely connected electrons hanging on to the atom.
The fact that the gases with which we are most familiar are not rendered luminous by being heated in a tube to a temperature well above a white heat has often been a stumbling block and raised the not unreasonable doubt whether approximately homogeneous oscillations could ever be obtained by a mere thermal process.
The spectra experimented on by Paschen were band spectra, but as these split up into fine lines the possibility of homogeneous radiation in pure thermal oscillation may be considered as established.
S., near the Breede river are thermal springs with a temperature of 145 0 F.
From the known coefficients of compressibility and thermal expansion we find that V may be represented by the linear equation V=1.000+0.0008 A, where A is the lowering of the freezing point below o°.
Argon is contained in the gases liberated by many thermal springs, but not in special quantity.
Although there have been some changes in the thermal energy in the park since 1871, there has been no appreciable diminution.
It is cut in the volcanic plateau, and its ragged broken walls, which are inclined at very steep angles, are of a richness of colouring that almost defies description, a colouring that is produced by the action of the thermal springs, at the base of the canyon, upon the mineral pigments in the lava.
The alkaline thermal springs contain a% of common salt, and smaller quantities of other chlorides; and a great deal of their efficacy is due to their high temperature, which varies from 156° to 104° Fahr.
These variations in the properties of iron are brought about in part by corresponding variations in mechanical and thermal treatment, by which it is influenced profoundly, and in part by variations in the proportions of certain foreign elements which it contains; for, unlike most of the other metals, it is never used in the pure state.
Osmond showed that the wonderful changes which thermal treatment andthe presence of certain foreign elements cause were due to allotropy, and from these and like teachings have come a rapid growth of the use of the so-called " alloy steels " in which, thanks to special composition and treatment, the iron exists in one or more of its remarkable allotropic states.
by taking advantage of this lagging that thermal treatment causes such wonderful changes in the properties of the cold metal.
Thermal Treatment.-The hardening, tempering and annealing of steel, the chilling and annealing of cast iron, and the annealing of malleable cast iron are explained readily by the facts just set forth.
But in addition there is another very important principle underlying many of our thermal processes, viz.
r, each with its own set of constitutents, and remember that by different rates of cooling from different temperatures we can retain in the cold metal these different sets of constituents in widely varying proportions; and when we further reflect that not only the proportion of each constituent present but also its state of aggregation can be controlled by thermal treatment, we see how vast a field is here opened, how great a variety of different properties can be induced in any individual piece of steel, how enormous the variety of properties thus attainable in the different varieties collectively, especially since for each percentage of carbon an incalculable number of varieties of steel may be made by alloying it with different proportions of such elements as nickel, chromium, &c. As yet there has been only the roughest survey of certain limited areas in this great field, the further exploration of which will enormously increase the usefulness of this wonderful metal.
that to which the metal, in which by suitable thermal treatment the iron molecules have been brought to the allotropic -y or 1 3 state or a mixture of both, can be heated without losing its hardness through the escape of that iron into the a state.
The thermal conductivity of the substance is the constant ratio of the rate of transmission to the temperature gradient.
To take the simple case of the " wall " or flat plate considered by Fourier for the definition of thermal conductivity, suppose that a quantity of heat Q passes in the time T through an area A of a plate of conductivity k and thickness x, the sides of which are constantly maintained at temperatures B' and 8".
In this case it is generally more convenient to consider as unit of heat the thermal capacity c of unit volume, or that quantity which would produce a rise of one degree of temperature in unit volume of the soil or substance considered.
- Measurements of thermal conductivity present peculiar difficulties on account of the variety of quantities to be observed, the slowness of the process of conduction, the impossibility of isolating a quantity of heat, and the difficulty of exactly realizing the theoretical conditions of the problem.
- Thermal getically stirred.
No calorimetric observations are required, but the results are obtained in terms of the thermal capacity of unit volume c, and the measurements give the diffusivity klc, instead of the calorimetric conductivity k.
He thus found nearly the same rate of variation for the thermal as for the electric conductivity.
The thermal conductivity was determined in the neighbourhood of 20° C. with a water jacket, and near I Io° C. by the use of a steam jacket.
The thermal capacity and electrical conductivity were measured at various temperatures on the same specimens of metal.
One important result, which might be regarded as established by this work, was that the ratio k/k of the thermal to the electrical conductivity, though nearly constant for the good conductors at any one temperature such as 0° C., increased with rise of temperature nearly in proportion to the absolute temperature.
Neglecting the external heat-loss, and the variation of the thermal and electric conductivities k and k', we obtain, as before, for the difference of temperature between the centre and ends, the equation O, Tho z Go = C 2 R1/8qk = ECl/8qk = E 2 k'/8k, (11) where E is the difference of electric potential between the ends.
Moreover, the variation of thermal conductivity with temperature is small and uncertain, whereas the variation of electrical conductivity is large and can be accurately determined, and may therefore be legitimately utilized for eliminating the external heat-loss.
By similar reasoning the thermal conductivity of a gas should be independent of the density.
Near Valencia on the Puerto Cabello railway are the Las Trincheras thermal springs.
The fertile cultivated valley of Banos, with its thermal springs, lies at the base of Tunguragua, which F.
Among the many thermal springs throughout the Andean districts, the best known are at Belermos and San Pedro del Tingo, north-east of Quito; at Cachillacta, in the district of Nanegal; at Timbugpoyo, near Latacunga; at Banos (5906 ft.
The thermal capacity of a body is measured by the quantity of heat required to raise its temperature one degree, and is necessarily proportional to the mass of the body for bodies of the same substance under similar conditions.
The specific heat of a substance is sometimes defined as the thermal capacity of unit mass, but more often as the ratio of the thermal capacity of unit mass of the substance to that of unit mass of water at some standard temperature.
The two definitions are identical, provided that the thermal capacity of unit mass of water, at a standard temperature, is taken as the unit of heat.
The Method of Mixture consists in imparting the quantity of heat to be measured to a known mass of water, or some other standard substance, contained in a vessel or calorimeter of known thermal capacity, and in observing the rise of temperature produced, from which data the quantity of heat may be found as explained in all elementary text-books.
Among minor difficulties of the method may be mentioned the uncertainty of the thermal capacity of the calorimeter and stirrer, and of the immersed portion of the thermometer.
The ratio of the times of cooling is equal to the ratio of the thermal capacities of the calorimeter and its contents in the two cases.
The methods depending on change of state are theoretically the simplest, since they do not necessarily involve any reference to thermometry, and the corrections for external loss of heat and for the thermal capacity of the containing vessels can be completely eliminated.
The thermal capacity of the scale-pan, &c., can be determined by a separate experiment., or, still better, eliminated by the differential method of counterpoising with an exactly similar arrangement on the other arm of the balance.
The Question Of The Variation Of The Specific Heat Of Water Has A Peculiar Interest And Importance In Connexion With The Choice Of A Thermal Unit.
We May Probably Take The Tabulated Values As Showing Correctly The Rate Of Variation Between 110° And 190° C., But The Values In Terms Of Any Particular Thermal Unit Must Remain Uncertain To At Least 0.5% Owing To The Uncertainties Of The Thermometry.
On The Choice Of The Thermal Unit.
There Are Three Possible Kinds Of Unit, Depending On The Three Fundamental Methods Already Given: (I) The Thermometric Unit, Or The Thermal Capacity Of Unit Mass Of A Standard Substance Under Given Conditions Of Temperature And Pressure On The Scale Of A Standard Thermometer.
For This Reason The Definition Of The Thermal Unit Will In The End Probably Be Referred To A Scale Of Temperature Defined In Terms Of A Standard Platinum Thermometer.
There Can Be No Doubt That The Range To° To 20° Is Too Low For The Accurate Thermal Regulation Of The Conditions Of The Experiment.
In Consequence Of The Small Thermal Capacity Of Gases And Vapours Per Unit Volume At Ordinary Pressures, The Difficulties Of Direct Measurement Are Almost Insuperable Except In Case (2).
The Well Known Experiments Of Regnault And Wiedemann On The Specific Heat Of Gases At Constant Pressure Agree In Showing That The Molecular Specific Heat, Or The Thermal Capacity Of The Molecular Weight In Grammes, Is Approximately Independent Of The Temperature And Pressure In Case Of The More Stable Diatomic Gases, Such As 112,02, N2, Co, &C., And Has Nearly The Same Value For Each Gas.
The Ideal Atomic Heat Is The Thermal Capacity Of A Gramme Atom In The Ideal State Of Monatomic Gas At Constant Volume.
Nickel is used for the manufacture of domestic utensils, for crucibles, coinage, plating, and for the preparation of various alloys, such as German silver, nickel steels such as invar (nickel, 35.7%; steel, 64.3%), which has a negligible coefficient of thermal expansion, and constantan (nickel, 45%; copper, 55%), which has a negligible thermal coefficient of its electrical resistance.
Asia Minor is remarkable for the number of its thermal and mineral springs.
White Sulphur Springs, in Greenbrier county, impregnated with sulphur, with therapeutic application in jaundice, dyspepsia, &c.; Alleghany Springs, in Montgomery (disambiguation)|Montgomery county, calcareous and earthy, purgative and diuretic; Rawley Springs in Rockingham county, Sweet Chalybeate Springs in Alleghany county, and Rockbridge Alum Springs in Rockbridge county, classed as iron springs and reputed of value as tonics, and the thermal springs, Healing Springs (88° F.) and Hot Springs (Iio F.), both in Bath (disambiguation)|Bath county are noted medicinal springs.
The 3rd series (1833) he devoted to discussion of the identity of electricity derived from various sources, frictional, voltaic, animal and thermal, and he proved by rigorous experiments the identity and similarity in properties of the electricity generated by these various methods.
Of other papers in which he dealt with this and kindred branches of physics may be mentioned "Observations with a Rigid Spectroscope," "Heating of a Disc by Rapid Motion in Vacuo," "Thermal Equilibrium in an Enclosure Containing Matter in Visible Motion," and "Internal Radiation in Uniaxal Crystals."
The watering-places divide themselves, according to the temperature of the waters, into cold and thermal, and according to the composition of the waters, into purgative saline, indifferent saline, sulphur and iron.
Simple thermal waters are those which contain only a very small quantity of solids, and owe their efficacy chiefly to their temperature.
Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin) investigated the effect of the curvature of the surface of a liquid on the thermal equilibrium between the liquid and the vapour in contact with it.
The conditions under which the thermal and mechanical equilibrium of two fluids, two mixtures,.
When a liquid is in thermal and dynamical equilibrium with its vapour, then if p' and x' are the values of p and x for the vapour, and po and Xo those for the liquid, x' - xo=JL - p(I/p' - I/pc),.
Lord Kelvin has applied the principles of Thermodynamics to determine the thermal effects of increasing or diminishing the area of the free surface of a liquid, and has shown that in order to keep the temperature constant while the area of the surface increases by unity, an amount of heat must be supplied 275 to the liquid which is dynamically equivalent to the product of the absolute temperature into the decrement of the surface-tension per degree of temperature.
The observations Bacteria g 5' of Downes and Blunt in 1877 left it uncertain whether the bactericidal effects in broth cultures exposed to solar rays were due to thermal action or not.
Its thermal conductivity is, according to Wiedemann and Franz, superior to that of other metals, being in the ratio of ioo: 74 as compared with copper and loo: J4 with gold; it is the most perfect conductor of electricity, standing to copper in the ratio ioo: 75, and to gold I oo: 73.
Another discussed conduction in curved sheets; a third the distribution of electricity in two influencing spheres; a fourth the deter mination of the constant on which depends the intensity of induced currents; while others were devoted to Ohm's law, the motion of electricity in submarine cables, induced magnetism, &c. In other papers, again, various miscellaneous topics were treated - the thermal conductivity of iron, crystalline reflection and refraction, certain propositions in the thermodynamics of solution and vaporization, &c. An important part of his work was contained in his Vorlesungen fiber mathematische Physik (1876), in which the principles of dynamics, as well as various special problems, were treated in a somewhat novel and original manner.
Besides the ordinary springs, mineral and thermal springs are found in several places.
It has some importance as a thermal station, and the springs were used by the Romans.
In the city there are medicinal and thermal springs, and water at a temperature of 98104° F.
The former investigates essentially general properties, such as the weight and density, the relation between pressure, volume and temperature (piezometric and thermometric properties), calorimetric properties, diffusion, viscosity, electrical and thermal conductivity, &c., and generally properties independent of composition.
The heating as well as the illuminating value of the gas per unit volume is lowered by over-baking, and Dr Bueb gives the following figures as to the heating value of gas obtained from the same coal but by different methods of carbonization: Vertical Retorts, 604 British thermal units per cub.
Beneath these layers are masses of salter water, through which a thermal wave of small amplitude is slowly propagated to the bottom by conduction.
The range produces no minerals, but there are a considerable number of good mineral springs, some of which are thermal (such as Bagni di Lucca, Monte Catini, Monsummano, Porretta, Telese, &c.), while others are cool (such as Nocera, Sangemini, Cinciano, &c.), the water of which is both drunk on the spot and sold as table water elsewhere.
On the east the broad valley of Jezreel is full of magnificent springs, many of which are thermal.
But his name will always be associated with the thermal effects at junctions in a voltaic circuit.
The most important are, the alkaline springs of Carlsbad, Marienbad, Franzensbad and Bilin; the alkaline acidulated waters of Giesshiibel, largely used as table waters; the iron springs of Marienbad, Franzensbad and of Pyrawarth in Lower Austria; the bitter waters of Piillna, Saidschitz and Sedlitz; the saline waters of Ischl and of Aussee in Styria; the iodine waters of Hall in Upper Austria; the different waters of Gastein; and lastly the thermal waters of Teplitz-SchOnau, Johannisbad, and of Rcmerbad in Styria.
Mineral and thermal springs are numerous, but none is of more than local fame.
This succession of melting and freezing, with their accompanying thermal effects, goes on until the two blocks are cemented into one.
of the couple, and if the flow of the current does not produce any other thermal effects in the circuit besides the Joule and Peltier effects, we should find by applying the principle of the conservation of energy, i.e.
(2) If the Peltier effect was proportional to the thermoelectric power and changed sign with it, as all experiments appeared to indicate, there would A B be no absorption of heat C in the circuit due to the Peltier effect, and therefore no thermal source to account for the energy of the current, in the case in which the hot junction was at or above the neutral temperature.
Edin., 1867-68), Tait was led to the conclusion that " the thermal and electric conductivities of metals varied inversely as the absolute temperature, and that the specific heat of electricity was directly proportional to the same."
effect was calculated by multiplying this difference of temperature by the thermal capacity of either calorimeter, and dividing by the current, by the number of seconds in twenty minutes, and by twice the difference of temperature (about 20°) between the ends a and b of either calorimeter.
The method appears to be open to the objection that the difference of temperature reached in so long an interval would be more or less independent of the thermal 0 0 .20 h ?1 capacities of the calorimeters, and would also be difficult to measure accurately with a thermocouple under the conditions described.
This would necessitate chemical action at the junction when a current passed through it, as in an electrolytic cell, whereas the action appears to be purely thermal, and leads to a consistent theory on that hypothesis.
In Thomson's theory it is expressly assumed that the reversible thermal effects may be considered separately without reference to conduction.
dE= - akr dT = - OdT, in each element, where k is the thermal conductivity and ?
Thomson therefore had recourse to Paris, and for a year worked in the laboratory of Regnault, who was then engaged in his classical researches on the thermal properties of steam.
This involves the expenditure of a quantity of work W, the amount in any particular case being found by the equation W = Q2 - Q I, where W is the work, expressed by its equivalent in British thermal units; Q2 the quantity of heat, also in B.Ther.U., given out at the higher temperature T2; and Q i the heat taken in at the lower temperature T1.
It is evident that the discharged heat Qz is equal to the abstracted heat Q ', plus the work expended, seeing that the work W, which causes the rise in temperature from T 1 to Tz, is the thermal equivalent of the energy actually expended in raising the temperature to the level at which it is rejected.
The thermal equivalent of the power exerted on the piston is taken from the air, which, with cooling water at 60° F.
A form of thermal oscillograph has been devised by J.
Radar and thermal image coverage was decent, indicating the vamps were mainly gathered in one spot.
She grabbed a pair of thermal underwear from her drawer and pulled them on with shaking hands.
absolute zero of temperature are dominated by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations.
The dissociated molecules can undergo thermal reactions with neighboring surface atoms or with other adsorbates.
Ascent occurs ahead of a surface warm anomaly warm advection (Laplacian of the thermal advection ).
Curie Temperature The temperature above which thermal agitation is sufficient to randomize the orientation of magnetic grains & destroy any previous common alignment.
This includes a wide range of thermal and laser anemometry and gas chromatography.
Thermal instability of the compounds with large anions is a function of the polarizing power of the cation.
anisotropic thermal conductivity of quartz.
Daily variable demands on electricity and cooling can be balanced to achieve a relatively constant demand for power and thermal output around-the-clock.
Some CPU cooling fans can cost as much at 7.00 is they have ball bearings and thermal sensors.
thermal biofeedback is often used to teach relaxation to people with IBS.
biscuitDeveloping Food Structure Through Thermal Processing How do I bake a better cookie or make smoother ice cream?
breeder reactor is more than four times higher than that in a thermal reactor.
The power density at the core of a fast breeder reactor is more than four times higher than that in a thermal reactor.
buckles, D.J., Calladine, C.R. Lateral thermal buckling of pipelines on the sea bed.
Now, by teaming up with AEA to add a protective coating, the thermal resistance of these parts can be enhanced still further.
Developed new technique for the determination of the thermal heat transfer coefficients  .
To better understand why air temperature alone is not a valid indicator of thermal comfort, see the six basic factors.
compressive forces due to restrained thermal expansion.
The use of silicon allows precise micromachining of components with well defined thermal conductance.
thermal conduction from the body is 25 times greater in water than dry, still air.
The measurement of thermal diffusivity by laser flash is an alternative way of determining the thermal conductivity of liquid alloys.
We will now revisit the anisotropic thermal conductivity of quartz.
The low conductivity of char will cause a steep thermal gradient across the char layer.
conflation controller ' C which controls how CFD is used by the thermal domain.
Project 26: From convection to chaos The early investigations into chaos are intimately tied into the numerical study of problems in thermal convection.
copier paper can be used in these printers unlike thermal paper used for fax machines.
I doubt that decapod crustaceans do not have thermal receptors.
There are thermal overload cutouts fitted to many machines.
decapod crustaceans do not have thermal receptors.
desorb water vapor without compromising its thermal efficiency.
Furthermore, high quality thermal fuses safeguard against costly equipment failure caused by potentially destructive power surges.
Evaluation of the magnitude of such losses is important for determining thermal noise levels in bonded suspensions for gravitational wave detectors.
Bounty hunters also have thermal detonators, which are useful for blowing up objects.
This must be of a material which is opaque to thermal infra-red; the approximate dimensions are 13mm length by 5mm diameter.
Draw up an action list How can you reduce the risk of thermal discomfort?
The Virkon S thermal fog system consists of: Virkon S the supreme broad spectrum virucidal disinfectant plus Virkon S fog enhancer.
Both of these new features are designed to improve thermal dissipation.
Attachment is with self tapping screws to avoid thermal distortions of the type induced in the present surface by spot welding.
Thermal electric drills are more standard for warmer ice.
All properties have gas fired central heating, cavity wall insulation and uPVC windows to give a high level of thermal efficiency.
The scheme utilizes passive and active principles, ranging from thermal walls and glazed southerly elevations, to solar panel technology.
The principal axes of the thermal ellipsoid can be obtained from the U values via a principal axes transformation.
elongation rate (expressed per unit thermal time) in the absence of water deficit.
energetics of the reaction directly influences the thermal balance of the interstellar medium.
D S itself can be separated into 2 components: Thermal entropy, Configurational entropy.
It is shown that thermal entropy can be given by: (3) where D S v is the molar thermal entropy.
The staggered heating cycle was designed to ensure thermal equilibrium was achieved.
This material has excellent thermal properties and is virtually everlasting.
Even after taking into account thermal expansion, they wondered where the extra water was coming from.
Lower bound solutions are obtained for the maximum thermal shock that the plate can sustain without catastrophic failure according to two distinct criteria.
fast reactordensity at the core of a fast breeder reactor is more than four times higher than that in a thermal reactor.
This warm, stylish bed cat bed is made from thermal Sherpa fleece fabric with the Danish Design paw print motif.
fluorocarbon plastics yields more toxic products than does controlled thermal decomposition.
flux pinning which may be enhanced further by irradiation with thermal neutrons.
This work attempts to uncover the thermal transport processes in metallic foams.
There is also a thermal fuse on the heating element chamber.
The thermal and electrical field distribution in the waveguide of any electrode geometry can be determined.
Then, of course, there is the thermal imaging goggles used in some of the darker sections of the gameplay.
The thermal neutron fluence rate can be measured at the customer?s premises using gold foils as the transfer standard.
I reckon I may even be able to lower this as I only used low grade thermal grease!
There is also a Thermal Suite comprising herb sauna, crystal steam room and salt grotto.
heat capacitythat the thermal heat capacities, or any characteristics of the fluid like that will effectively cancel each other out.
High Massh thermal mass means it stores heat from the sun.
The bunker diesel exhaust was positioned beside a chalet chimney to deceive thermal imaging!
For example, poor thermal inertia could be due to a poorly packed frost layer.
After we introduced thermal inkjet, we began experimenting with the imaging capabilities of the device.
The use of asbestos for thermal insulation was banned in 1986.
The panels have high thermal performance, with cellulose insulation (recycled newspaper) well exceeding Building Regulations.
Ask children for their ideas as to how we could investigate which materials would make the best thermal insulators.
The air gap creates a thermal insulator with the third layer enabling all the moisture to escape at its own rate.
insulator material made of 95% aluminum oxide - good thermal conductivity and stronger.
invigorateTired Feet Yo Bubble Feet Treat Give your feet a treat after a hard week with these massaging and invigorating thermal wraps.
isotropic thermal parameters.
kiln shelf capable of withstanding thermal shock.
The Technical Service can calculate U-values for external roofs and walls to assist in selecting Knauf insulating laminates to meet thermal insulation targets.
laryngeal edema develops from direct thermal injury leading to early loss of the airway.
These thermal waters dissolving limestone well had extended the narrow fissures into cave passages through thousands of years.
liquefaction process and the thermal insulation of the storage vessel to limit boil off.
With high-density PCM thermal storage technology, it may be possible for a condensing fireless steam locomotive to be developed for extended operating range.
thermal long underwear: Quick drying top and long johns such as Helly Hansen, not cotton.
People as well as thermal manikins can detect heat loss changes on local body parts.
Its high thermal mass means it stores heat from the sun.
measurements of the thermal conductivity.
merit indices for thermal fatigue are derived.
passive microwave sensing is similar in concept to thermal remote sensing.
Read Stress caused by thermal mismatch, to see the benefits of using compliant joints where possible.
The main problems which affect growth of GaN on Si are those of thermal expansion mismatch, and of lattice mismatch.
mock-up testing can be used to predict environmental or thermal comfort in buildings.
molar thermal entropy.
In the space of only a few nanoseconds, a great deal of magnetic energy is converted into the thermal energy of the plasma.
Once thermal neutrons have been produced, then nuclear fission may begin to occur.
Consider wearing bed socks and a nightcap, as well as thermal underwear and a warm nightdress or pjamas.
oedemangeal edema develops from direct thermal injury leading to early loss of the airway.
thermal overloads in your integrated management logs are not pleasant.
Replace thermal paste with one supplied, attach new wire, screw new cooler in place.
permeable underlay to improve the thermal performance of the roof will inevitably change the roof ventilation requirements.
At higher temperatures the increased thermal vibrations cause the permittivity to drop again.
perpend joints speeds construction, saves mortar and enhances thermal insulation.
Cameron discussed the various project ideas with us such as thermal photovoltaics.
Series of EPIC MOS model spectra of a Mekal thermal plasma with a temperature of 0.1 keV.
These enhanced doors use polyamide thermal break technology and are designed to accept glass units up to 32mm thick.
This warm, stylish bed cat bed is made from thermal sherpa fleece fabric with the Danish Design paw print motif.
Our range covers virtually every thermal transfer printer available from every manufacturer - too numerous to list.
protective coating, the thermal resistance of these parts can be enhanced still further.
Preventing RSI The thermal wrist protector is a great way to combat RSI.
high accuracy filter radiometers are used in thermal and optical metrology, for temperature measurements, photometry, and derivation of spectral emission.
The new cellulose insulation can both absorb and release water vapor without significant loss of thermal resistivity.
There are the spa resorts of Banya with its open air pool and Hisar which offer thermal treatments.
Breathable thermal underwear, a fleece jacket and a wind and waterproof shell jacket and overtrousers suit most walkers.
Thermal comfort is represented by a graph showing, for ranges of temperature, the number of days each range is exceeded.
Axial internal stresses due to thermal expansion mismatch and cure shrinkage were taken into account, but radial stresses were ignored.
The Blue Lagoon is a thermal spa, not far from Reykjavik.
There is a state-of-the-art spa fed by thermal waters from springs.
In addition, careful choice of critical components ensures high thermal stability.
Statistical quantification of the effect of thermal stratification on patterns of dispersion in a freshwater zooplankton community.
Thanks to features like image subtraction, two thermal images can have the temperature of each pixel subtracted from each other.
After adjusting for thermal and mechanical energy transfer, if an efficient centrifugal supercharger is generating 7.5 psi (approx.
tapping screws to avoid thermal distortions of the type induced in the present surface by spot welding.
The high thermal conductivity of the pan acts to rapidly thaw most items.
However, as we have seen in our first example of the sandcastle, it has much wider implications than the purely thermal case.
Thermal efficiency overall thermal efficiency overall thermal efficiency is around 30% .
At low temperatures, there is not enough thermal energy available to allow torsion angle changes, so the conformation becomes frozen in.
thermal conductivity, hot water does not hold its temperatures for very long.
thermal insulation was banned in 1986.
thermal underwear for officers who are feeling the cold.
thermal comfort in the workplace.
thermal expansion in the combustion chamber.
thermal equilibrium, the small deviations from which produce the weather.
The process must be carefully controlled to maintain complete oxidation but to minimize thermal NOx formation, which is itself, a pollutant.
Thermafleece should overlap the wall insulation to avoid thermal bridging at the eaves.
Yo Bubble Feet Treat Give your feet a treat after a hard week with these massaging and invigorating thermal wraps.
Calculation 1: Original calculation: mean thermal Jeans mass 1 solar mass, minimum object mass ~3 Jupiter masses.
Use to close cavities at openings, to prevent thermal bridging.
Tests have shown that the CoolEffect provides very effective thermal barriers on refrigerated doorways.
togged up in our thermal gear.
We impose an artificial change in the thermal forcing and inject a tracer into the NW Atlantic.
It's quite easy to set the tester up to show thermal runaway in germanium transistors.
Ideally PVC frames should be used in order to reduce thermal transmittance.
At such low stiffness the bead held in the optical tweezers necessarily exhibits large amounts of thermal motion.
Non thermal effects by category These may be divided into at least twelve major categories of effect.
Board sailors - a Winter steamer or Dry Suit with appropriate thermal undergarments.
The use of vapor permeable underlay to improve the thermal performance of the roof will inevitably change the roof ventilation requirements.
I couldn't find my thermal underwear, I was in a hurry!
You can forget about Global Warming and start digging out those thermal undies for year-round wear, and ice-fishing may become the new craze.
thermal updrafts lifted them quickly, but the fast rises were followed by equally fast falls.
The same applies for thermal insulation materials which use urea and formaldehyde.
This can be done by hard facing, thermal spraying or chemical vapor deposition.
thermal underwater vents create thousands of bubbles which rise to the surface at popular Champagne.
Locate problems quickly and accurately View thermal images in the high-resolution viewfinder.
Therefore our results show that the fossil record indicates that the impact of Chixculub did not generate sufficient thermal power to ignite extensive wildfires.
For very accurate work it is desirable that the base-plate, the slide and the scale should be of nickel steel, having the same thermal coefficient of expansion as glass.
Helium is contained almost universally in the gases which bubble up with the water of thermal springs.
His data for the thermal conductivity of various metals were for long the most trustworthy at the disposal of physicists, and his determination of the ohm in terms of the specific resistance of mercury showed remarkable skill in quantitative research.
Discussions have taken place as to the theory of the operations in them, in which some have advocated a thermal explanation and others a chemical explanation (see V.
Hence the coherer type of detectors are called potential detectors whilst the thermal are called integral current detectors, the current detectors depending entirely or to some extent upon the damping of the train of oscillations, that is to say, upon the number of oscillations forming a train.
Engine efficiency depends upon many variable factors, such as the cut-off, the piston speed, the initial temperature of the steam, the final temperature of the steam, the quality of the steam, the sizes of the steam-pipes, ports and passages, the arrangement of the cylinders and its effect on condensation, the mechanical perfection of the steam-distributing gear, the tightness of the piston, &c. A few values of the thermal efficiency obtained from experiments are given in Table XXI.
The curve was drawn by calculating the thermal efficiency from the above expression for various values of the initial temperature, keeping the final temperature constant at 673Ã‚°, and then plotting these efficiencies against the corresponding values of the gauge pressures.
The actual thermal efficiencies observed in some of the cases cited in Table XXI.
The thermal efficiency of a steam-engine is in general increased by carrying out the expansion of the steam in two, three or even more stages in separate cylinders, notwithstanding the inevitable drop of pressure which must occur when the steam is transferred from one cylinder to the other during the process of expansion.
(i) Generally speaking, there is a considerable thermal effect when a substance is dissolved in water, and this effect varies in magnitude according to the amount of water employed.
carbon, phosphorus, sulphur - exists in allotropic forms, the particular variety employed should always be stated, as the conversion of one modification into another is frequently attended by a considerable thermal effect.
- In order to estimate the thermal effect of any chemical process, use is made of the ordinary methods of calorimetry, the particular method being selected according to the nature of the chemical action involved.
The notation which Julius Thomsen employed to express his thermochemical measurements is still extensively used, and is as follows: - The chemical symbols of the reacting substances are written in juxtaposition and separated by commas; the whole is then enclosed in brackets and connected by the sign of equality to the number expressing the thermal effect of the action.
Berthelot's notation defines both initial and final systems by giving the chemical equation for the reaction considered, the thermal effect being appended, and the state of the various substances being affixed to their formulae after brackets.
To the right-hand member of the equation he then adds the number expressing the thermal effect of the reaction, heat-evolution being as before counted positive, and heat-absorption negative.
As has already been stated, the heat of formation of a compound is the amount (expressed in thermal units) by which its intrinsic energy exceeds or falls short of that of the elements which enter into its composition.
Hence we may classify ammeters into (1) Thermal; (2) Electromagnetic, and (3) Electrodynamic instruments.
Thermal ammeters recommend themselves for the following reasons: (I) the same instrument can be used for continuous currents and for alternating currents of low frequency; (2) there is no temperature correction; (3) if used with alternating currents no correction is necessary for frequency, unless that frequency is very high.
If twelve grammes of amorphous carbon be burnt to carbon dioxide under constant volume, the heat evolved (96.96 cal.) does not measure the entire thermal effect, but the difference between this and the heat required to break down the carbon molecule into atoms. If the number of atoms in the carbon molecule be denoted by n, and the heat required to split off each atom from the molecule by d, then the total heat required to break down a carbon molecule completely into atoms is nd.
If a be the heat evolved by each carbon atom, and # that by each hydrogen atom, the thermal effect may be expressed as H =na+2m/ - A, where A is the heat required to break the molecule into itsconstituent atoms. If the hydrocarbon be saturated, i.e.
The thermal effects of the common organic substituents have also been investigated.
If we regard the thermal effect at each junction as a measure of the potential-difference there, as the total thermal effect in the cell undoubtedly is of the sum of its potentialdifferences, in cases where the temperature coefficient is negligible, the heat evolved on solution of a metal should give the electrical potential-difference at its surface.
From 1861 onwards he devoted much attention to the question of diathermancy in gases and vapours, especially to the behaviour in this respect of dry and moist air, and to the thermal effects produced by the condensation of moisture on solid surfaces.
Its coefficient of linear expansion between 0Ã‚° and 100Ã‚° is 0.002717; its specific heat 0.0562; its thermal and electrical conductivities are 145 to 152 and '14.5 to 140.
Its high coefficient of thermal expansion, coupled with its low freezing point, renders it a valuable thermometric fluid, especially when the temperatures to be measured are below - 39Ã‚° C., for which the mercury thermometer cannot be used.
Its thermal conductivity is the lowest of all metals, being 18 as compared with silver as 1000; its coefficient of expansion between oÃ‚° and tooÃ‚° is 0.001341.
According to Maxwell, priority in showing the necessity for slipping over the boundary rests with Reynolds, who also discovered the cognate fact of thermal transpiration, meaning thereby that gas travels up the gradient of temperature in a capillary tube, owing to surface-actions, until it establishes such a gradient of pressure (extremely minute) as will prevent further flow.
Conduction has practically no effect, for the coefficient of thermal conductivity in sea-water is so small that if a mass of sea-water were cooled to 0Ã‚° C. and the surface kept at a temperature of 30Ã‚° C., 6 months would elapse before a temperature of 15Ã‚° C. was reached at the depth of 1 3 metres, 1 year at 1 85 metres, and io years at 5.8 metres.
The accumulator, which is similar in principle to the thermal storage system of Druitt Halpin, is a closed vessel completely filled with water, which condenses the excess of steam during the winding period, and becoming superheated maintains the supply to the turbine when the main engine is standing.
It has been denied by some that pure thermal motion can ever give rise to line spectra, but that either chemical action or impact of electrons is necessary to excite the regular oscillations which give rise to line spectra.
While we have seen that the radiation of sodium vapour has an intensity corresponding to that of the pure thermal radiation at the temperature of the flame, other flames not containing oxygen (e.g.
From the known coefficients of compressibility and thermal expansion we find that V may be represented by the linear equation V=1.000+0.0008 A, where A is the lowering of the freezing point below oÃ‚°.
The alkaline thermal springs contain a% of common salt, and smaller quantities of other chlorides; and a great deal of their efficacy is due to their high temperature, which varies from 156Ã‚° to 104Ã‚° Fahr.
This is equal to the product of the thermal capacity of the element, cgdx,, by the rate of rise of temperature dO/dt, together with the heat lost per second at the external surface, which may be written hpodx, if p is the perimeter of the bar, and h the heat loss per second per degree excess of temperature 0 above the surrounding medium.
The thermal conductivity was determined in the neighbourhood of 20Ã‚° C. with a water jacket, and near I IoÃ‚° C. by the use of a steam jacket.
One important result, which might be regarded as established by this work, was that the ratio k/k of the thermal to the electrical conductivity, though nearly constant for the good conductors at any one temperature such as 0Ã‚° C., increased with rise of temperature nearly in proportion to the absolute temperature.
Trans.,1897, P. 381) Determined The Mechanical Equivalent Of The Mean Thermal Unit Between OÃ‚° And IooÃ‚° C., On A Very Large Scale, With A Froude Reynolds Hydraulic Brake And A Steam Engine Of Ioo H.P. This Brake Is Practically A Joule Calorimeter, Ingeniously Designed To Churn The Water In Such A Manner As To Develop The Greatest Possible Resistance.
We May Probably Take The Tabulated Values As Showing Correctly The Rate Of Variation Between 110Ã‚° And 190Ã‚° C., But The Values In Terms Of Any Particular Thermal Unit Must Remain Uncertain To At Least 0.5% Owing To The Uncertainties Of The Thermometry.
There Can Be No Doubt That The Range ToÃ‚° To 20Ã‚° Is Too Low For The Accurate Thermal Regulation Of The Conditions Of The Experiment.
Joule'S Scientific Papers (London, 1890); Ames And Griffiths, Reports To The International Congress (Paris, 1900), " On The Mechanical Equivalent Of Heat," And " On The Specific Heat Of Water"; Griffiths, Thermal Measurement Of Energy (Cambridge, 1901); Callendar And Barnes, Phil.
White Sulphur Springs, in Greenbrier county, impregnated with sulphur, with therapeutic application in jaundice, dyspepsia, &c.; Alleghany Springs, in Montgomery (disambiguation)|Montgomery county, calcareous and earthy, purgative and diuretic; Rawley Springs in Rockingham county, Sweet Chalybeate Springs in Alleghany county, and Rockbridge Alum Springs in Rockbridge county, classed as iron springs and reputed of value as tonics, and the thermal springs, Healing Springs (88Ã‚° F.) and Hot Springs (Iio F.), both in Bath (disambiguation)|Bath county are noted medicinal springs.
In the city there are medicinal and thermal springs, and water at a temperature of 98104Ã‚° F.
effect was calculated by multiplying this difference of temperature by the thermal capacity of either calorimeter, and dividing by the current, by the number of seconds in twenty minutes, and by twice the difference of temperature (about 20Ã‚°) between the ends a and b of either calorimeter.
The thermal equivalent of the power exerted on the piston is taken from the air, which, with cooling water at 60Ã‚° F.
High accuracy filter radiometers are used in thermal and optical metrology, for temperature measurements, photometry, and derivation of spectral emission.
There are the Spa resorts of Banya with its open air pool and Hisar which offer thermal treatments.
Keywords: earth energy systems, thermal efficiency, rethinking construction.
The talk also focused on selected topics of current interest, including the effect of thermal noise on bifurcation to convection and spatiotemporal chaos.
Live webcams, thermal satellite images, and animated snap-shots capture scenes of spewing ash and red-hot lava flow.
Thermal efficiency Overall thermal efficiency is around 30 %.
In addition, due to cast iron 's high degree of thermal conductivity, hot water does not hold its temperatures for very long.
Police chiefs have now ordered a consignment of thermal underwear for officers who are feeling the cold.
It does not address issues of thermal comfort in the workplace.
Usually caused by abnormal thermal expansion in the combustion chamber.
These are all approximately in thermal equilibrium, the small deviations from which produce the weather.
Calculation 1: Original calculation: Mean thermal Jeans mass 1 solar mass, minimum object mass ~3 Jupiter masses.
We then headed back to the hotel to get togged up in our thermal gear.
Thermal Hydraulics & Nuclear Engineering (25 lectures) Heat transfer by conduction, application to fuel elements.
I could n't find my thermal underwear, I was in a hurry !
Thermal updrafts lifted them quickly, but the fast rises were followed by equally fast falls.
Thermal underwater vents create thousands of bubbles which rise to the surface at popular Champagne.
Nylon and thermal synthetics work well in colder climates since they tend to keep body heat in.
Quality leather has the following features: good elasticity, thermal insulation, water resistance/permeability, and shape retention.
Include a thermal blanket in case temperatures drop unexpectedly.
Check out Reusable Bags thermal bags for keeping cold foods cold.
Solar water heaters need to be fitted by a thermal engineer who can also give advice as to the best system to use, taking into account local climatic conditions.
This thermal expansion is increasing due to warmer global temperatures, and accounts for approximately half of sea level rise.
Thermal mass: the material that rests behind the absorbing surface that retains the heat.
These tubes are named thermal collectors.
These thermal collectors circulate water through a space, which in turn, heats the air in that specific area.
Direct gain is best achieved with thermal mass such as stone, rock or concrete flooring.