Thereby Sentence Examples
The settlement which he thereby imposed was in many ways excellent; but it was dearly purchased by the complete ascendancy of Bonaparte in all important affairs, and by the claim for the services of a considerable contingent of Swiss troops which he thereafter rigorously enforced.
The Belgian government endeavoured by reducing rates and increasing facilities to stimulate inland telegraphy in the hope of thereby increasing the profits of the department.
When both lamps glow, the operator, who thereby knows that both subscribers have restored their instruments, discontinues the connexion.
The crop is modified into a large and very rugose triturating apparatus, while the gizzard, thereby relieved of its function, is reduced to the utmost.
It is very rapidly absorbed from raw surfaces and may thereby cause fatal consequences.Advertisement
In 1069 he succeeded in placing Izaslaus on the throne of Kiev, thereby confirming Poland's overlordship over Russia and enabling Boleslaus to chastise his other enemies, Bohemia among them, with the co-operation of his Russian auxiliaries.
Its objects were to relieve agricultural land from half the local rates, and to provide the means of making good out of imperial funds the deficiency in local taxation caused thereby.
Railway connexion with Worcester, Lowell and Providence was opened in 1835; with Albany, N.Y., and thereby with various lines of interior communication, in 1841 (double track, 1868); with Fitchburg, in 1845; and in 1851 connexion was completed with the Great Lakes and Canada.
It has been suggested that the diminutive size of the male is of great advantage to him during courtship, because he is enabled to move easily thereby to escape from her clutches should she turn upon him with hostile intent.
Further, the skin is stated to be much less rough, with fewer cracks, while a more important difference occurs in the trunk, which lacks the transverse ridges so distinctive of the ordinary African elephant, and thereby approximates to the Asiatic species.Advertisement
If he profess, however, to create a tenancy for a period longer than that to which his own interest extends, he does not thereby give to his tenant an interest available against the reversioner or remainder man.
Sandy soils are made thereby too dry and leachy, and it is a questionable proceeding to turn the heavy clays upon the top. Planters are, as a result, divided in opinion as to the wisdom of subsoiling.
In 1818 he became a master in a school at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, thereby entering the service of the Prussian government.
In certain cases, however, the walls of the oesophagus appear to be very closely applied to the muscular body-wall and this vascular space thereby considerably reduced.
Attica being one of the chief seats of the worship of Artemis, this explains why Iphigeneia is sometimes called a daughter of Theseus and Helen, and thereby connected with the national hero.Advertisement
There is no separation of underlyes in potash soap, consequently the product contains the whole constituents of the oils used, as the operation of salting out is quite impracticable owing to the double decomposition which results from the action of salt, producing thereby a hard principally soda soap with formation of potassium chloride.
Further, Italians were to be admitted to these colonies, and as they were to be burgess colonies, the right of the Italians to equality with the Romans was thereby partially recognized.
Gerhardt found that reactions could be best followed if one assumed the molecular weight of an element or compound to be that weight which occupied the same volume as two unit weights of hydrogen, and this assumption led him to double the equivalents accepted by Gmelin, making H= 1, 0 =16, and C = 12, thereby agreeing with Berzelius, and also to halve the values given by Berzelius to many metals.
Hydrochloric acid was carefully investigated at about this time by Davy, Faraday and Gay Lussac, its composition and the elementary nature of chlorine being thereby established.
It matters little that Parsifal requires two nameless attendant characters in a long opening scene, for the sole purpose of telling the antecedents of the story, when a situation is thereby revealed which for subtlety and power has hardly a parallel since Greek tragedy.Advertisement
The light causes the pupils to contract thereby making the feint stars impossible to see.
Thereby fulfilling the great aim of every literary genius.
Iron and quinine citrate is used as a bitter stomachic and tonic. In the blood citrates are oxidized into carbonates; they therefore act as remote alkalis, increasing the alkalinity of the blood and thereby the general rate of chemical change within the body.
Consequently in 395, after a successful campaign against the Germans on the Rhine, Stilicho marched to the east, nominally to expel the Goths and Huns from Thrace, but really with the design of displacing Rufinus, and by connivance with these same barbarians he procured the assassination of Rufinus at the close of the year, and thereby became virtual master of the empire.
The clerics preached and instructed the people, working chiefly among the poor; they also devoted themselves to the copying of manuscripts, in order thereby to earn something for the common fund; and some of them taught in the schools.Advertisement
In any case, he is the founder of the Latin kingdom of Cyprus (for he afterwards sold his new acquisition to Guy de Lusignan, who established a dynasty in the island); and thereby he made possible the survival of the institutions and assizes of Jerusalem, which were continued in Cyprus until it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks.
They were normally drawn up in more open order than the heavy Greek phalanx, and possessed thereby a mobility and elasticity in which the latter was fatally deficient.
But as a matter of fact no small part of the interest and value of investigations in this field of inquiry lies in the relationships which may thereby be established between biological and psychological interpretations.
The situation was however materially altered by the end of August 1826; for the Greeks, driven to desperation, had formally invited the mediation of England, thereby removing Canning's objection to an unasked intervention.
The enemy, having everything to gain and nothing to lose thereby, agreed finally to a six weeks' suspension of arms. This was perhaps the gravest military error of Napoleon's whole career, and his excuse for it, " want of adequate cavalry," is the strongest testimony as to the value of that arm.
He negotiated with Rufus to obtain the possession of their mother's inheritance, but only incurred thereby the suspicions of the duke, who threw him into prison.
It secured uniformity in the confessional, and thereby protected the penitent from the caprices of individual priests; and by depriving these of responsibility, it forced the penitent back on himself.
Even a permanent magnet is susceptible of induction, its polarity becoming thereby strengthened, weakened, or possibly reversed.
To continue the process, the key K is turned over to the right-hand side, and then, while S is open, is turned back, thereby not only reversing the direction of the current, but diminishing its strength by an amount depending upon the previous adjustment of R2.
A question thereupon arose as to the manner in which the privileges thereby purported to be conferred affected the jurisdiction of the sultan over such dhows, the masters of which, as was alleged, used their immunity from search for thepurpose of carrying on contraband trade in slaves, arms and ammunition.
Princess Isabella was charitable in many ways, always ready to take her full share of the duties falling upon her as the future empress, and thoroughly realizing the responsibilities of her position; but she was greatly influenced by the clerical party and the priesthood, and she thereby incurred the hostility of the Progressives.
The device known as the method of least squares, for reducing numerous equations of condition to the number of unknown quantities to be determined, had been adopted as a practically convenient rule by Gauss and Legendre; but Laplace first treated it as a problem in probabilities, and proved by an intricate and difficult course of reasoning that it was also the most advantageous, the mean of the probabilities of error in the determination of the elements being thereby reduced to a minimum.
These claims were regarded by the Peace Conference as excessive, and under the Treaty of Neuilly only the two first were allowed, though in place of the third the town and district of Tsaribrod were assigned to Yugoslavia, and thereby the main strategic key to Sofia.
He issued an important constitution on the 18th of July 1289, which granted to the cardinals one-half of all income accruing to the Roman see and a share in the financial management, and thereby paved the way for that independence of the college of cardinals which, in the following century, was to be of detriment to the papacy.
If it be desired to see a given number of bands in the whole or in any part of the spectrum, the thickness of the retarding plate is thereby determined, independently of all other considerations.
When, in order to apply Huygens's principle, the wave is supposed to be broken up, the phase is the same at every element of the surface of resolution which lies upon a line perpendicular to the plane of reference, and thus the effect of the whole line, or rather infinitesimal strip, is related in a constant manner to that of the element which lies O in the plane of reference, and may be considered to be represented thereby.
The idea is that any traces of acid not washed away by the washing process or produced later by a slow decomposition of the substance will be thereby neutralized and rendered harmless.
It is much more likely, as Verworn alleges, that the nerves which influence the characteristic function of any tissue regulate thereby the metabolism of the cells in question - in other words, that every nerve serves as a trophic nerve for the tissues it supplies.
The descendants of such cells will become more and more undifferentiated, thereby developing an increased vegetative activity.
On April 11, 1582, the lords of the council wrote to the lord mayor to the effect that, as " her Majesty sometimes took delight in those pastimes, it had been thought not unfit, having regard to the season of the year and the clearance of the city from infection, to allow of certain companies of players in London, partly that they might thereby xvi.
Even when the outcrop is oxidized, and Surface the mineral character and richness of the deposit is Explora- altered thereby, it is possible to determine variations tion.
A mine should always be opened by drift or entry if practicable, as thereby the expense of hoisting and pumping is avoided.
Siphons are sometimes used to carry the water over an undulating grade and thereby save the expense of a deep rock cutting.
Yet tons of caustic soda are fused daily in chemical works in iron pots without thereby suffering contamination, which seems to show that (clean) iron, like gold and silver, is attacked only by the joint action of fused alkali and air, the influence of the latter being of course minimized in large-scale operations.
With the revolution which speedily followed this impolitic trial, new troubles encountered Ken; for, having sworn allegiance to James, he thought himself thereby precluded from taking the oath to William of Orange.
His son Tukulti-In-aristi conquered Babylon, putting its king Bitilyasu to death, and thereby made Assyria the mistress of the oriental world.
The Assyrian forces became a standing army, which, by successive improvements and careful discipline, was moulded into an irresistible fighting machine, and Assyrian policy was directed towards the definite object of reducing the whole civilized world into a single empire and thereby throwing its trade and wealth into Assyrian hands.
The catasto was largely the work of Giovanni de' Medici, who greatly increased his popularity thereby.
On other estates the second sugars, or sugars produced from boiling molasses alone, are not purged to dryness, but when sufficiently separated from their mother-liquor are mixed with the defecated juice, thereby increasing its saccharine richness, and after being converted into syrup in the usual manner are treated in the vacuum pan as first sugars, which in fact they really are.
A cell when filled with fresh slices becomes the head of the battery, and where skilled scientific control can be relied upon to regulate the process, the best and most economical way of heating the slices, previous to admitting the hot liquor from the next cell, is by direct steam; but as the slightest inattention or carelessness in the admission of direct steam might have the effect of inverting sugar and thereby causing the loss of some portion of saccharine in the slices, water heaters are generally used, through which water is passed and heated up previous to admission to the freshly-filled cell.
The firstmentioned process consists of charging and feeding the vacuum pan with the richest syrup, and then as the crystals form and this syrup becomes thereby less rich the'pan is fed with syrup of lower richness, but still of a richness equal to that of the mother-liquor to which it is added, and so on until but little mother-liquor is left, and that of the poorest quality.
Zinc is largely used for "galvanizing" iron, sheets of clean iron being immersed in a bath of the molten metal and then removed, so that a coat of zinc remains on the iron, which is thereby protected from atmospheric corrosion.
In virtue of this property they are also mild haemostatics, tending to coagulate the albumens of the blood and thereby to arrest haemorrhage.
He forced them to become his dependants in return under a great variety of forms, but especially developing thereby the precarium land tenure and the patrocinium personal service, and organizing a private jurisdiction over his tenants, and a private army for defence.
The rupture between Great Britain and the United States in 1812 caused privateering to be resumed, the trade of the colony being thereby almost destroyed.
The simple distillation of sea-water, and the production thereby of a certain proportion of chemically fresh water, is a very simple problem; but it is found that water which is merely evaporated and recondensed has a very disagreeable flat taste, and it is only after long exposure to pure atmospheric air, with continued agitation, or repeated pouring from one vessel to another, that it becomes sufficiently aerated to lose its unpleasant taste and smell and become drinkable.
The French not only held their ground, but steadily advanced and eventually forced back the allies on Austerlitz, thereby barring their retreat on Olmiitz.
It is joined to the rigid body-wall by numerous muscle-fibres, the contraction of which must exert a pressure on the fluid of the body-cavity, thereby protruding the polypide.
On the 10th of November 1834 Lord Althorp succeeded to his father's peerage, and thereby vacated the leadership of the House of Commons.
When a part of the body has found some projection of the ground which affords it a point of support, the ribs are drawn more closely together, on alternate sides, thereby producing alternate bends of the body.
But he did not thereby denationalize the Roman drama.
In a 50% solution or stronger - as when neat whisky is taken - alcohol precipitates the pepsin which is an essential of gastric digestion, E.nd thereby arrests this process.
Its advantages over the zinc process are that the deposited gold is purer and more readily extracted, and that weaker solutions can be employed, thereby effecting an economy in cyanide.
It thereby loses the cost of rearing that number of people to adult age, and is left with a disproportionate number of children and old people.
Thereby the cities are becoming less dependent upon immigration for increase of population than formerly, but the migration still goes on.
A young Oxford priest, Richard Symonds by name, conceived the project of putting forward the boy Simnel to impersonate one of these princes as a claimant for the crown, with the idea of thereby procuring for himself the archbishopric of Canterbury.
The problem of the stresses in rarefied gaseous media arising from inequalities of temperature, which is thereby opened out, involves some of the most delicate considerations in molecular physics.
Of the 750 steamships which cleared the port in 1904, three out of every seven were German, two were Norwegian and one was British, but in 1905 two new companies, one British and the other Japanese, arranged for regular services to Bangkok, thereby altering these proportions.
After finishing the Principe, Machiavelli thought of dedicating it to one of the Medicean princes, with the avowed hope that he might thereby regain their favour and find public employment.
But this was not the original significance of the fourth beast, for the author of Daniel referred thereby to the Greek empire; but, since the prophecy was not realized, it was subsequently reinterpreted, and applied, as we have observed, to Rome.
He showed that at a certain depth the direction of the current becomes exactly the opposite of that which has been imposed by deflection on the surface current, and the strength is reduced thereby to only one-twentieth of that at the surface.
On the coins of the later Roman emperors she is frequently represented holding a cornucopia, from which she shakes her gifts, thereby at the same time in dicating the liberality of the emperor or empress.
Poncelet (1788-1867) invented a form of Prony brake which automatically adjusted its grip as µ changed, thereby maintaining F constant.
The ratio W/p increases very rapidly as 0 is increased,, and therefore, by making 0 sufficiently large, p may conveniently be made a small fraction of W, thereby rendering errors of observation of the spring balance negligible.
The band turns with the fast pulley if µ increase, thereby slightly turning the loose pulley, otherwise at rest, until 0 is adjusted to the new value of µ.
Another important undertaking is the deepening of the Trinity river to Dallas, a distance of 511 m., thereby affording a navigable waterway almost to the northern boundary of the state.
Some of the emperors wore crowns on occasion, as Caligula and Domitian, at the games, and stellate or spike crowns are depicted on the heads of several of the emperors on their coins, but no idea of imperial sovereignty was indicated thereby.
The last of these provides that 25% of the voters choosing a municipal officer may, by signing a petition for his recall, force a new election during his term of office and thereby remove him if another candidate receives a greater number of votes.
They may exclude one another, exist so to speak in a condition of armed neutrality to one another, without being positively thereby related to one another or altered by any change taking place in any of them.
The most important innovation, however, was the transfer of the responsibility for filling up the schedule from the overseers to the householders, thereby rendering possible a synchronous record.
The Western Inland Lock Navigation Company, chartered by the state in 1792, completed three canals within about four years and thereby permitted the continuous passage from Schenectady to Lake Ontario of boats of about 17 tons.
Pursuing the same wise policy he established a trading post at Oswego in 1722 and fortified it in 1727, and thereby placed the Iroquois in the desirable position of middlemen in a profitable fur trade with the " Far Indians."
Following the increase of population north of the Columbia, the territory was divided, and Washington Territory was established on the 2nd of March 1853, with the river as the southern boundary to the point where it is intersected by the forty-sixth parallel, and thence along that parallel to the summit of the Rocky Mountains, thereby including portions of the present states of Idaho and Montana.
Oku had to start at the earliest possible moment, even though operations against Port Arthur were thereby delayed for a week or two.
Any error of this kind will merely affect the form of the frame; if, however, another member be introduced between A and D, then if BC be shortened AD will be strained so as to extend it, and the four other members will be compressed; if G CB is lengthened AD will thereby be compressed, and the four other members extended; if the workman does not make CB and AD of exactly the right length they and all the members will be permanently strained.
The Germans were thereby deprived of their weapon of obstruction, and the Czechs lost the power of misusing their majority to oppress the Germans.
The polar or white bear (Ursus maritimus), common to the Arctic regions of both hemispheres, is distinguished from the other species by having the soles of the feet covered with close-set hairs, - in adaptation to the wants of the creature, the bear being thereby enabled to walk securely on slippery ice.
Lord Kelvin was thereby induced to identify magnetic force with rotation, involving, therefore, angular momentum in the aether.
If the surrounding aether is thereby disturbed, the waves of light arriving from the stars will partake of its movement; the ascertained phenomena of the astronomical aberration of light show that the rays travel to the observer, across this disturbed aether near the earth, in straight lines.
It is true that the theory of vortex rings in hydrodynamics is of a simpler type; but electric currents cannot be likened to permanent vortex rings, because their circuits can be broken and the element of cyclic steadiness on which the simplicity depends is thereby destroyed.
Since the time when the church of eastern Syria had decided, in opposition to the church of the Empire, to cling to the ancient views of Syrian theologians - therefore also to the teaching and person of Nestorius - her relations were broken off with the church in western Syria and in Greek and Latin countries; but the power of Nestorian, or, as it was termed, Chaldaic Christianity, was not thereby diminished.
The Arab conquest (after 635) freed the Jacobite church entirely from the oppression of the Orthodox, and thereby assured its continuance.
It has been pointed out how Charlemagne pressed the monks into the service of his civilizing aims. We admire this; but it is certain that he thereby alienated monasticism from its original ideals.
His prominent use of Roman law and the wide range of his observation have made his works as intelligible abroad as at home, and thereby much valuable information - for example, concerning the nature of British supremacy in India, and the position of native institutions there - has been made the property of the world of letters instead of the peculiar and obscure possession of a limited class of British public servants.
His speech against peace with Pyrrhus was the first that was transmitted to writing, and thereby laid the foundation of prose composition.
He must have died before 246, in which year his sister Claudia was fined for publicly expressing a wish that her brother Publius could rise from the grave to lose a second fleet and thereby diminish the number of the people.
He further induced the government to print his observations annually, thereby securing the prompt dissemination of a large mass of data inestimable from their continuity and accuracy.
As a preliminary step to the determination of the pressure in the bore of a gun, it is desirable to measure the pressure obtained by exploding a charge of powder in a closed vessel, varying the weight of the charge and thereby the density of the powder-gas.
The experimental determination of the time of burning under the influence of the varying pressure and density, and the size of the grain, is thus of great practical importance, as thereby it is possible to estimate close limits to the maximum pressure that will be reached in the bore of a gun, and to design the chamber so that the G.D.
He thereby gave the signal for the age-long conflict between Nominalism and Realism, which exercised the keenest intellects among the Schoolmen, while the crowning work of his life, the Consolatio Philosophiae (524), was repeatedly expounded and imitated, and reproduced in renderings that were among the earliest literary products of the vernacular languages of modern Europe.
The Confederates, not dismayed thereby, effected their junction and moved on Corinth, which was defended by Rosecrans and 23,000 Federal troops.
The first legs, meaning thereby the sixth pair of appendages, are generally pediform and locomotive, but sometimes unjointed, acting as a kind of brushes to cleanse the furca, while in the Polycopidae they are entirely wanting.
Jeremiah was keenly conscious of his people's sin; and the aim of most of his earlier prophecies is to bring his countrymen, if possible, to a better mind, in the hope that thereby the doom which he sees impending may be averted - an end which eventually he saw clearly to be unattainable.
The results obtained under the different heads serve mutually to test, and thereby to correct or confirm, one another.
Sir C. Warren has derived a primitive unit from a proportion of the human body, by ascertaining the probable mean height of the ancient people in Egypt, and so thereby has derived a standard from the stature of man.
By the contraction of the subumbral circular muscles the concavity of the subumbrella is increased, and as water is thereby forced out of the subumbral cavity the animal is jerked upwards.
This appearance puzzled the older observers, who were led thereby to give the name" wheel-bearers "to the group, until the true character of ciliary motion was recognized; for a wheel cannot be i i organic continuity with the support on which it rotates..
This early hostility to Alexius had a great influence in determining the course of his future career, and thereby helped to determine the history of the First Crusade, of which Bohemund may be regarded as the leader.
Another often successful method of preventing the onset of symptoms of poisoning is to administer small doses of ammonium carbonate with the drug, thereby neutralizing the iodic acid which is liberated in the stomach.
When the horse is in motion the hands should not be held rigid, as the horse's mouth would thereby become dead, and the horse would lean unpleasantly on the hand; but the rider should give and take, without, however, entirely relaxing the hold.
They prayed for the auditores, they blessed them and interceded for them, thereby shortening the process of purification the latter had to pass through after death.
Michigan, however, in the election of 1892 reverted to the district system, thereby dividing its electoral vote.
The seed branch of the department of agriculture was established in 1900 for the purpose of encouraging the production and use of seeds of superior quality, thereby improving all kinds of field and garden crops grown in Canada.
The reason is that the sum of the solar and lunar inequalities, which are compensated in the whole period, may amount in certain cases to io, and thereby cause the new moon to arrive on the second day before or after its mean time.
Nevertheless the Seljukian dominion was petty and unimportant and did not rise to significance till his son and successor, Kilij Arslan II., had subdued the Danishmands and appropriated their possessions, though he thereby risked the wrath of the powerful atabeg of Syria, Nureddin, and afterwards that of Saladin.
The amount of solid matter borne by large streams is enormous; many rivers derive their names from the colour thereby imparted to the water, e.g.
But it is clear that if we increase A, the sectional area of the stem, we shall diminish 1, the length of a scale-division corresponding to a given variation of density, and thereby proportionately diminish the sensibility of the instrument, while diminishing the section A will increase land proportionately increase the sensibility, but will diminish the range over which the instrument can be employed.
Robins also made a number of important experiments on the resistance of the air to the motion of projectiles, and on the force of gunpowder, with computation of the velocities thereby communicated to projectiles.
At the same time he was anxious to obtain for the Christians of Turkey some amelioration of their condition, and to give thereby some satisfaction to his own subjects.
Like his father, a pro-Austrian by conviction, he contrived even in this respect to carry the Polish nation, always so distrustful of the Germans, entirely along with him, thereby avoiding all serious complications with the ever dangerous Turk.
From two to three weeks after the completion of the cocoon the enclosed insect is ready to escape; it moistens one end of its self-made prison, thereby enabling itself to push aside the fibres and make an opening by which the perfect moth comes forth.
Pieces of paper punctured with small holes are placed over the trays in which the hatching goes on; and the worms, immediately they burst their shell, creep through these openings to the light, and thereby scrape off any fragments of shell which, adhering to the skin, would kill them by constriction.
It is only floss, injured and unreelable cocoons, the husks of reeled cocoons, and other waste from reeling, with certain wild silks, which are treated by the spun silk process, and the silk thereby produced loses much of the beauty, strength and brilliance which are characteristic of the manufactures from reeled silk.
In this water the cocoons are kept stirring by small brushes rotated by mechanical means, and as the silk softens the brushes gradually rise out of the water, bringing entangled with them the loose floss, and thereby revealing the main filament of each cocoon.
Considering the great variety of spectra, which one and the same body may possess, the idea lies near that free electrons may temporarily attach themselves to a molecule or detach 'themselves from it, thereby altering the constitution of the vibrating system.
Some disturbances were caused thereby, but the insurgents were defeated.
He gave away everything, money, villages, domains, whole counties, to the utter impoverishment of the treasury, thereby rendering the crown, for the first time in Hungarian history, dependent upon the great feudatories, who, in Hungary as elsewhere, took all they could get and gave as little as possible in return.
He forgot that he had also limited all logical use of reason, and therefore of practical reason, to phenomena, and thereby undermined the rationality not only of knowledge, but also of faith.
If things different but similar have the same attributes, and are thereby the same, then in the first place the Kantian categories, though thoughts of mental origin and therefore confined to mind, are nevertheless applicable to things, because things, though different from, are the same as, thoughts, and have the categories of thoughts; in the second place, the Fichtian Ego of mankind is not the Absolute Reason of God, and yet is the same Absolute Reason; in the third place, the Schellingian Nature is the "other " of Spirit, and yet, being a mere reflex of the Idea of Nature, is identical with Spirit; and as this Spirit is everywhere the same in God and men, Nature is also identical with our Spirit, or rather with the Infinite Spirit, or Absolute Reason, which alone exists.
It is, according to him, something more than sensation, but less than perception; it is common to us with lower animals such as dogs; its operation consists in co-ordinating sensations into an aggregate which the subject throws back into space, and thereby has a consciousness of a total object outside itself, e.g.
The peace of Luneville (1801) established the French boundary at the Rhine; and the German princes who thereby lost lands west of the river were indemnified by the secularization of ecclesiastical territories to the east.
His reputation for sacrilege, increased five years later by the abolition of many monasteries, became notorious when the formation of the kingdom of Italy (1861) took away all the dominions of the pope except the patrimony of Peter, thereby reducing the papal provinces from twenty to five, and their population from over 3,000,000 to about 685,000.
Arianism, which had lifted up its head again under the emperor Valens, was thereby thrust out of the state church.
A month later a papal legate arrived in Hungary to inquire into the conduct of the king, who was accused by his neighbours, and many of his own subjects, of adopting the ways of his Kumanian kinsfolk and thereby undermining Christianity.
First a small quantity of one of the pure components begins to crystallize out, and the rate of cooling is thereby diminished owing to the latent heat liberated by the change of state.
We learn both from Iamblichus6 and Porphyry' that Pythagoras practised the diagnosis of the characters of candidates for pupilage before admitting them, although he seems to have discredited the current physiognomy of the schools, as he rejected Cylo, the Crotonian, on account of his professing these doctrines, and thereby was brought into some trouble.
Of much greater importance was the importation of Basilian monachism into Russia, for it thereby became the norm of monachism for all the Slavonic lands.
In Scotland, even as late as the reign of James VI., lords of parliament were always created bannerets as well as barons at their investiture, " part of the ceremony consisting in the display of a banner, and such ` barones majores ' were thereby entitled to the privilege of having one borne by a retainer before them to the field of a quadrilateral form."
Ashmole cites authorities for the contention that knighthood ennobles, insomuch that whosoever is a knight it necessarily follows that he is also a gentleman; " for, when a king gives the dignity to an ignoble person whose merit he would thereby recompense, he is understood to have conferred whatsoever is requisite for the completing of that which he bestows."
By the common law, if a villein were made a knight he was thereby enfranchised and accounted a gentleman, and if a person under age and in wardship were knighted both his minority and wardship terminated.
At the diet of 1590 Zamoyski successfully thwarted all the efforts of the Austrian party; whereupon the king, taking advantage of sudden vacancies among the chief offices of state, brought into power the Radziwills and other great Lithuanian dignitaries, thereby for a time considerably curtailing the authority of the chancellor.
The French government, anticlerical as it is at home, is the watchful and strenuous protector of the missions abroad; and it is evident that not a little political influence in foreign countries is gained thereby.
In these circumstances " syringing " and " damping down " are of value in cooling the temperature of the air in hothouses and greenhouses and increasing its humidity, thereby checking excessive transpiration.
In a soil, for example, naturally moist, it is proper to graft pears on the quince, because this plant not only thrives in such a soil, but serves to check the luxuriance thereby produced.
Keep a sharp look-out for cold snaps, as they come very unexpectedly in November, and many plants are lost thereby.
Criminal and correctional procedure were formerly divided between the courts of justice and the arrondissement tribunals; but this distinction was suppressed by the penal code of 1886, thereby increasing the importance of the arrondissement courts, which also act as court of appeal of the cantonal courts.
If the pig iron is to follow path 2, the purification which converts it into wrought iron or steel consists chiefly in oxidizing and thereby removing its carbon, phosphorus and other impurities, while it is molten, either by means of the oxygen of atmospheric air blown through it as in the Bessemer process, or by the oxygen of iron ore stirred into it as in the puddling and Bell-Krupp processes, or by both together as in the open hearth process.
The reason for this is that in it the slag, by means of which all the purification must needs be done, is not heated effectively; that hence it is not readily made thoroughly liquid; that hence the removal of the phosphoric slag made in the early dephosphorizing stage of the process is liable to be incomplete; and that hence, finally, the phosphorus of any of this slag which is left in the furnace becomes deoxidized during the second or deoxidizing stage, and is thereby returned to befoul the underlying steel.
Next let us imagine that, in a series of cast irons all containing 4% of carbon, the graphite of the initial skeleton changes gradually into cementite and thereby becomes part of the matrix, a change which of course has two aspects, first, a gradual thinning of the graphite skeleton and a decrease of its continuity, and second, a gradual introduction of cementite into the originally pure ferrite matrix.
As, in succeeding members of this same series of cast irons, more of the graphite of the initial skeleton changes into cementite and thereby becomes part of the metallic matrix, so the graphite skeleton becomes progressively thinner and more discontinuous, and the matrix richer in cementite and hence in carbon and hence equivalent first to higher and higher carbon steel, such as tool steel of I carbon, file steel of 1.50%, wire-die steel of 2% carbon and then to white cast iron, which consists essentially of much cementite with little ferrite.
But this excess of their contraction is resisted by the almost incompressible inner layers so that the outer layers are prevented from contracting as much as they naturally would if unopposed, and they are thereby virtually stretched.
There is little doubt that it would have been exterminated but for its stock being supplied in autumn by immigration, and for its shy and wary behaviour, especially at the breeding-season, when it becomes almost wholly mute, and thereby often escapes detection.
It is found that in densely wooded districts furs are darker in colour than in exposed regions, and that the quality of wool and hair is softer and more silky than those from bare tracts of country, where nature exacts from its creatures greater efforts to secure food, thereby developing stronger limbs and a consequently coarser body covering.
The chambers argued that Belgium had been induced to agree to the twenty-four articles in 1832 in the hope of thereby at once terminating all harassing disputes, but as Holland refused then to accept them, the conditions were no longer binding and the circumstances were now quite changed.
This native process is exceedingly wasteful, not more than one-fourth of the leaf-fibre being thereby utilized.
It is probable for this reason that the average conductivity of the earth's crust, as deduced from surface observations, is too large; and that estimates of the age of the earth based on such measurements are too low, and require to be raised; they would thereby be brought into better agreement with the conclusions of geologists derived from other lines of argument.
Raymund Rhupen died in 1221; and after the event Bohemund reigned in Antioch and Tripoli till his death, proving himself a determined enemy of the Hospitallers, and thereby incurring excommunication in 1230.
It should also be noticed that on the higher strip bordering the river it is the custom to take advantage of its nearness to raise water by pumps, or other machinery, and thereby to grow valuable crops of sugar-cane, maize or vegetables.
Mr Roosevelt brought the whole subject before Congress in his message of the 3rd of December 1901, and thereby started what seemed likely to be a new sphere of Federal initiative and control.
Packs stories, which concerned the existence of a powerful league for the purpose of making war upon the reformers, were proved to be false, but the soreness occasioned thereby remained.
It is therefore not surprising that, having so little freedom in the exercise of their command, all the princes and free cities (with the exception of the three kings) arranged separate treaties with the king of Prussia, transferring to him (except for certain formal rights) the administration of their contingents, which are thereby definitely incorporated in the Prussian army.
The whole organization of newspapers, societies and trades unions was at once broken up. Almost every political newspaper supported by the party was suppressed; almost all the pamphlets and books issued by them were forbidden; they were thereby at once deprived of the only legitimate means which they had for spreading their opinions.
They did so reluctantly, because they would thereby condemn themselves to assume that attitude of purely negative criticism which, during the great days of their prosperity, they had looked down upon with contempt, and were putting themselves under the leadership of Eugen Richter, whom they had long opposed.
The minister sent in his resignation, which was accepted, and this practice, which had been deliberately revived during the last ten years, was thereby publicly disavowed.
They refused to accept all the compromises which Miquel, who was very sympathetic towards them, suggested, and thereby brought about his retirement in May 1901.
By a letter to Beust of the 14th of November 1868 the emperor ordered that he should henceforward be styled, not as before " Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia, &c.," but " Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, &c., and Apostolic King of Hungary," thereby signifying the separation of the two districts over which he rules.
The bank by its charter had the sole right of issuing notes, but during the war of 1866 the government, in order to raise money, had;itself issued notes (Staatsnoten) to the value of 312 million gulden, thereby violating the charter of the bank.
This important reform has thereby been brought to a satisfactory conclusion, and at a time when the political difficulties had reached a most acute stage.
As the existence of the empire would thereby be endangered, Beust interfered; Belcredi was dismissed, Beust himself became minister-president on the 7th of February 1867, and a new edict was issued from Vienna ordering the diets to elect a Reichsrath, according to the constitution, which was now said to be completely valid.
It was rejected on a motion of Prince Karl Schwarzenberg without discussion, and on this all the Germans rose and left the diet, thereby imitating the action of the Czechs in old days when they had the majority.
Shortly after his arrival there he issued a document known to history as his Judicatum (548), in which he condemned indeed the three chapters, but expressly disavowed any intentions thereby to disparage the council of Chalcedon.
But where Greek gave place to Syriac, Hellenism was not thereby effaced.
Ultimately the Greek East was absorbed by Islam; the popular mistake lies in supposing that the Hellenistic tradition thereby came to an end.
Every slave could thereby assert his freedom if he desired to do so, but it was not made illegal for a native to own a slave, and no penalty attached to mere possession in such a case.
The 9,000,000 was sufficient to pay the Alexandria indemnities, to wipe out the deficits of the preceding years, to give the Egyptian treasury a working balance of LE 500,000 and thereby avoid the creation of a fresh floating debt, and to provide a million for new irrigation works.
During the two years that followed the signing of the London Convention, the financial policy of the Egyptian government was The race directed to placing the country in a position to resume against full payment of the interest on the debt in 1887, and bank- thereby to avoid the appointment of an international IuDY.
The security which he thereby gained gave him the opportunity to indulge his taste for costly buildings, parks and other luxuries, of which the chroniclers give accounts bordering on the fabulous.
In August 977 Aziz met the united forces of Aftakin and his Carmathian ally outside Ramleh in Palestine and inflicted a crushing defeat on them, which was followed by the capture of Aftakin; this able officer was taken to Egypt, and honorably treated by the caliph, thereby incurring the jealousy of Jacob b.
The beginning of this reign coincided with the beginning of the Crusades, and al-Aflal made the fatal mistake of helping the Franks by rescuing Jerusalem from the Ortokids, thereby, facilitating its conquest by the Franks in 1099.
He appears to have done his utmost to protect his Christian subjects, incurring thereby the reproaches of the more fanatical Moslems, especially in the year 1320 when owing to incendiarism in Cairo there was danger of a general massacre of the Christian population.
After a brief sojourn in Cairo he speedily returned thither, thereby forfeiting his throne, which was conferred by the amirs on his brother Ismail al-Malik alSalili (June 27th, 1342).
He thereby excited the suspicions of the Sheik al-Balad Khalil Bey, who organized an attack upon him in the streets of Cairo, in consequence of which he fled to Upper Egypt.
The fishery along the coasts of Denmark is of some importance both on account of the supply of food obtained thereby for the population of the country, and on account of the export; but the good fishing grounds, not far from the Danish coast, particularly in the North Sea, are mostly worked by the fishing vessels of other nations, which are so numerous that the Danish government is obliged to keep gun-boats stationed there in order to prevent encroachments on territorial waters.
His next move was to attempt to detach Sweden from France; but, Sweden showing not the slightest inclination for a rapprochement, Denmark was compelled to accede to the anti-French league, which she did by the treaty of Copenhagen, of January 1674, thereby engaging to place an army of 20,000 in the field when required; but here again Griffenfeldt safeguarded himself to some extent by stipulating that this provision was not to be operative till the allies were attacked by a fresh enemy.
But whilst the characteristic action of atropine is to dilate the blood-vessels, its first action is to stimulate the vaso-motor centre - thereby causing temporary contraction of the vessels - and to increase the rapidity of the heart's action, so that the blood-pressure rapidly rises.
Relief is thereby constantly obtained.
Christian's finances were certainly readjusted thereby, but the ultimate gainers by the confiscation were the nobles, and both education and morality suffered grievously in consequence.
Again, the cheek-teeth have the tall crowns characteristic of a large number of representatives of the first group and of the prongbuck, thereby showing that Merycodus can scarcely be regarded as a primitive type.
At a given moment one of these compartments is burning and at its full temperature; the air for combustion is drawn in through one or more compartments behind it which have just finished burning, and is thereby strongly heated; the products of combustion pass away through one or more compartments in front of it and heat their contents before they are subjected to actual combustion.
In 1091 William Rufus renewed the treaty of Abernethy with Malcolm and fortified Carlisle, thereby cutting Malcolm off from Cumberland; Malcolm was summoned to meet Rufus at Gloucester; he went, but declined to accept the jurisdiction of the Anglo-Norman peers, or to " do right" to Rufus, except on the frontier of the two realms, wherever he may have supposed that frontier to be.
The Naturalization Act 1870, which now governs the matter for England, does not say that the person naturalized becomes thereby a British subject, to which, if it had been said, a proviso might have been added saving the above-mentioned policy of the foreign office as to not protecting him in his old country, although even without such a proviso the foreign office would have been free to follow that policy.
Jesus pointed to His acts of healing the sick, raising the dead and proclaiming good news for the poor; thereby suggesting to those who could understand that He fulfilled the ancient prophecy of the Messiah.
Clay, who was speaker of the House of Representatives, and had for years assumed a censorious attitude toward Jackson, cast his influence for Adams and thereby secured his election on the first ballot.
Modern smelters carefully extract this silver from the lead ore, thereby greatly impairing the durability and beauty of the metal.
Both the air and the water in their neighbourhood were contaminated thereby.
He noticed that at the summit the candle gave a very poor light, and was thereby led to investigate the effect produced on luminous flames by varying the pressure of the atmosphere in which they are burning.
Here the younger boys are collected and instructed in the rudiments of reading, writing and religious creed by the village mullah, or priest, who thereby acquires an early influence over the Afghan mind.
The sophist seemed to his youthful hearers to open a new field of intellectual activity and thereby to add a fresh zest to existence.
These figures when compared with those in years before the beet and bounty-fed sugar had entered into severe competition with cane sugar, show how greatly the island had thereby suffered.
To satisfy the anti-colonial party he ceded Kassala to Great Britain, provoking thereby much indignation in Italy.
Livy's practice is exactly opposite to that of Cicero, since he has a marked preference for the S forms, "thereby exemplifying Cicero's saying that long syllables are more appropriate to history than to oratory.'
After the battle of Pharsalus he joined his father in abusing his uncle as responsible for the condition of affairs, hoping thereby to obtain pardon from Caesar.
By its stipulations the yearly stipendium or tribute payable to Attila by the Romans was doubled; the fugitives were to be surrendered, or a fine of £8 to be paid for each of those who should be missing; free markets, open to Hun and Roman alike, were to be instituted; and any tribe with which Attila might be at any time at war was thereby to be held as excluded from alliance with Rome.
It was led by what may be called the spiritual noblesse of Islam, which, as distinguished from the hereditary nobility of Mecca, might also be designated as the nobility of merit, consisting of the "Defenders" (Ansar), and especially of the Emigrants who had lent themselves to the elevation of the Koreish, but by no means with the intention of allowing themselves thereby to be effaced.
Fortunately for him he was murdered (end of January 661), thereby posthumously attaining an importance in the eyes of a large part of the Mahommedan world (Shi`a) which he had never possessed during his life.
Having made himself master of Algeciras and thereby secured his communication with Africa, Tariq set out at once in the direction of Cordova.
The heavy expenses entailed thereby were largely met by the booty which he won.
The discontent roused thereby became one of the principal causes of the fall of the Omayyads.
The great revenues obtained thereby naturally caused much jealousy.
In the month of Dhu`l-ga`da 131 (June 749) Nehawend (Nehavend) surrendered, and thereby the way to Irak lay open to Qahtaba.
The unfortunate fanatics were hunted down and massacred to the last man, and thereby the ties that bound the Abbasids to the ultra-Shiites were severed.
The revolt was suppressed with great difficulty, and it came out that it was due to the secret instigation of Afshin, who hoped thereby to cause the fall of the Tahirids, and to take their place, with the ulterior object of founding an independent kingdom in the East.
The highest faculty of man, reason, intellectus, intellectualis visio, is that which is not content with the individual or partial, but grasps the whole and thereby comprehends the parts.
It were better called exclusiva or elimination of the alternative, which Bacon proposes to achieve, and thereby guarantee his conclusion against the possibility of instance to the contrary.
The apostles of inductive method had preached recourse to experience, but had meant thereby nature as a constituted order.
The air passes down through its regenerator, picking up the heat deposited there, and thereby having its temperature restored and its pressure raised.
Without preheating the expanding air becomes so cold as to be liable to deposit snow from the moisture held in suspension, and thereby to clog the valves.
When Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France appeared, in 1790, Paine at once wrote his answer, The Rights of Man first part appeared on the r3th of March 1791, and had an enormous circulation before the government took alarm and endeavoured to suppress it, thereby exciting intense curiosity to see it, even at the risk of heavy penalties.
At Magersfontein, early in December 1899, he completely repulsed a general attack made upon his position, and thereby checked for two months the northward advance of the British column.
This perception combines, as understanding, with the primal yearning, which becomes thereby free creative will, and works formatively in the originally lawless nature or ground.
He even became one of the securities for Jefferson Davis, thereby incurring the resentment of Northern radical leaders.
It is not implied that in the formation of the " natural " religions individuals were not of great importance, nor, on the other hand, that in individual religions the founder formed his faith independently of the community of which he was a part; but only that as undoubted historic facts certain religions, in tracing their lines to individuals, thereby acquired a distinctive character, and retain the impress of their founder.
His fortunes, however, were not thereby seriously affected, for by this time his business capacity and organizing skill had enabled him to consolidate his position, in spite of the difficulties he had encountered not only from rival manufacturers but also from the working classes, who in 1779 displayed their antipathy to labour-saving appliances by destroying a large Trill he had erected near Chorley.
Rule Vi I I.-Expenses Of Lightening A Ship When Ashore, And Consequent Damage When a ship is ashore, and, in order to float her, cargo, bunker coals and ship's stores, or any of them, are discharged, the extra cost of lightening, lighter hire, and reshipping (if incurred), and the loss or damage sustained thereby, shall be admitted as G.A.
The true conclusion seems to be that either the whole operation should be treated as one for the common safety, and the whole expense be contributed to by all the interests saved, or else the several parts of the operation should be kept distinct, debiting the cost of each to the interests thereby saved.
Thereby their money and influence would be lost to the Church, and their souls robbed of the priceless benefit of priestly absolution.
Immediately after the accession of Louis Philippe they started their famous newspaper, L' Avenir, hoping thereby to reconcile the Church with democracy, and make the pope the leader of the party of progress.
This dwarf system of culture gives the Medoc vineyards at a distance the appearance of a sea of small bushes, thereby producing an effect entirely different from, for instance, that seen on the Rhine with its high basket-shaped plants.
This done, the home government set to work to organize the royal domain which should be known as New England, or the Dominion of New England, and its plan for this provided for the annulment of the charters of Rhode Island and Connecticut, and the inclusion in the Dominion of these colonies, and New Hampshire, Maine, New York and the Jerseys, thereby restoring to New England all the territory, with the exception of Pennsylvania, that was included in the grant to the New England Council in 1620.
He was praetor in 74 B.C., and received an extraordinary command (similar to that bestowed upon Pompey by the Gabinian law) to clear the sea of pirates, and thereby assist the operations against Mithradates VI.
The same fear of imbibing the irrational soul of animals, and thereby reinforcing the lower appetites and instincts of the human being, inspired the vegetarianism of Apollonius of Tyana and of the Jewish Therapeutae, who in their sacred meals were careful to have a table free from blood-containing meats; and the fear of absorbing the animal's psychic qualities equally motived the Jewish and early Christian rule against eating things strangled.
Faraday's copper disk rotated between the poles of a magnet, and producing thereby an electric current, became the parent of 1 See also his Submarine Telegraphs (London, 1898).
The general dissatisfaction received a somewhat unguarded and intemperate expression in a letter sent to the justices of Marlborough by a gentleman of the neighbourhood, named Oliver St John, 6 in which he denounced the attempt to raise funds in this way as contrary to law, reason and religion, as constituting in the king personally an act of perjury, involving in the same crime those who contributed, and thereby subjecting all parties to the curses levelled by the church at such offences.
His justification has been set aside by modern critics, not on the ground that the evidence demonstrates its falsity, 6 but because it is inconceivable or unnatural that any man should receive a present from another, and not suffer his judgment to be swayed thereby.
Shall he not be able thereby to produce worthy effects, and to endow the life of man with infinite commodities ?
It is the flux of matter and the inconstanc y of the physical body which requires induction, that thereby it may be fixed as it were, and allow the formation of notions well defined.
It is usually inexpedient to apply manure directly to the flax crop, as the tendency of this is to produce over-luxuriance, and thereby to mar the quality of the fibre, on which its value chiefly depends.
In 1188 Archbishop Baldwin with a distinguished train, whilst preaching the Third Crusade, made an itinerary of the Welsh sees and visited the four cathedral churches, thereby formally asserting the supremacy of Canterbury throughout all Wales.
On the other hand, if those in authority perpetrate in the name of what their society holds sacred, and therefore with its full approval, acts that to the modern mind are cruel, silly or revolting, it is bad science and bad ethics to speak of vice and degradation, unless it can be shown that the community in which these things occur is thereby brought nearer to elimination in the struggle for existence.
This last, the Anabaptist doctrine of the Lord's Supper, was to the effect that brothers and sisters in Christ should partake in remembrance of the death of Christ, and that they should thereby renew the bond of brotherly love as the basis of neighbourly life.
Long after the Act of Toleration (1689) was in full forcein England, the Boston Baptists pleaded in vain for the privileges to which they were thereby entitled, and it required the most earnest efforts of English Baptists and other dissenters to gain for them a recognition of the right to exist.
Henry Wilde, in 1875, in depositing copper on iron printing-rollers, recognized this principle and rotated the rollers during electrolysis, thereby renewing the surfaces of metal and liquid in mutual contact, and imparting sufficient motion to the solution to prevent stratification; as an alternative he imparted motion to the electrolyte by means of propeller blades.
He would say sometimes to the people of the house that he was like the serpent which forms a circle with its tail in its mouth, meaning thereby that he had nothing left at the year's end.
The Orebro Riksdag (April - August 1812), remarkable besides for its partial repudiation of Sweden's national debt and its reactionary press laws, introduced general conscription into Sweden, and thereby enabled the crown prince to carry out his ambitious policy.
Consequently, it is at once a product of, and a main factor in civilization; and is thereby sharply differentiated from the Israelite religion, with whose moral precepts it otherwise coincides so frequently.
Peace was concluded between the two sovereigns in 1590; but the terms were unfavourable to Persia, who lost thereby Tabriz and one or more of the Caspian ports.
The Imperial Bank of Persia, which had already advanced a large sum of money, and thereby greatly facilitated the shahs early departure from Tabriz and enabled the grand vizier at Teheran to carry on the government, started buying up the copper coinage at all its branches and agencies.
The reason of this appears to he that the diplococcus is frequently present in the mouth or air-passages without giving rise to any symptoms; but when the patient is exposed to chill, and the tissues of the respiratory passages are thereby weakened, the diplococcus grows, multiplies and gives rise to inflammation of the lungs.
On the other hand, when the ulceration is old and the circulation through it poor, the aim of the therapeutist is to reawaken the normal reparative process, to bring about increased circulation and increased tissue change, and thereby insure healing.
From time immemorial thera- savages have been accustomed to eat the hearts of lions and other wild animals, under the belief that they will thereby obtain courage and strength like that of the animal from which the heart had been taken, but in 1889 BrownSequard proposed to use testicular juice as a general tonic and stimulant.
The peace of Varala saved Sweden from any such humiliating concession, and in October 1791 Gustavus took the bold but by no means imprudent step of concluding an eight years' defensive alliance with the empress, who thereby bound herself to pay her new ally annual subsidies amounting to 300,000 roubles.
Their number was thereby reduced to twenty and their name altered to Vigintiviri ("the twenty").
Perjury is to be punished by the wardens and society with such correction as that other men of the fellowship may be warned thereby.
Fenelon is on firmer ground when he leads a reaction against the "mercantile system" of Colbert, with its crushing restrictions on trade; or when he sings the praises of agriculture, in the hope of bringing back labour to the land, and thereby ensuring the physical efficiency of the race.
Not that it altogether lost thereby.
In 1851 the river was diverted eastward into a new channel (called the New Cut) and its old channel was locked and floated, thereby forming the North Dock with an area of 112 acres and a half-tide basin 500 yards long covering 22 acres.
This, as already pointed out, depends upon the increase of opsonins, though it is also to be noted that in many infective conditions there is another factor present, namely a leucocytosis, that is, an increase of the leucocytes in the blood, and the defensive powers of the body are thereby increased.
The striking wing of the allied army - that which, directed upon Shtip, would have come in upon the rear of the Turkish positions on the Ovche Polye - was thereby deprived of a force of about 80,000 men.
The larger (and heavier), falling with greater velocity, overtook and collided with the smaller (and lighter), which were thereby forced upwards.
Seven years afterwards he took the cross, thereby giving St Louis a valuable follower, and supplying himself with the occasion of an eternal memory.
In 1835 he combined the short circuit of his monster magnet (of 1834) with the small "intensity" magnet of an experimental telegraph wire, thereby establishing the fact that very powerful mechanical effects could be produced at a great distance by the agency of a very feeble magnet used as a circuit maker and breaker, or as a "trigger" - the precursor of later forms of relay and receiving magnets.
The revolving band forms the cathode, and at one end makes a rubbing contact with a travelling belt placed at an angle so that the crystals of silver detached thereby from the cathode are conveyed by it from the solution and deposited outside.
In the Danish code of Valdemar II., which was in force from 1280 to 1683, it was provided that a concubine kept openly for three years shall thereby become a legal wife; this was the custom of hand vesten, the "handfasting" of the English and Scottish borders, which appears in Scott's Monastery.
Neither did the giraffe acquire its long neck by desiring to reach the foliage of more lofty shrubs, and constantly stretching its neck for the purpose, but because any varieties which occurred among its antitypes with a longer neck than usual at once secured a fresh range of pasture over the same ground as their shorter-necked companions, and on the first scarcity of food were thereby enabled to outlive them."
The state maintains a Forest Commission whose chief concern' is to control the fires and thereby give value to private holdings.
But the new system was to apply only to those who, in return for the greater privileges which it was alleged to ensure, would agree to a resurvey of their lands, arrange to pay quit-rents and provide for the permanent support of the government, and as Governor Lawrie found the colonists generally unwilling to make the exchange on the proposed terms, he discreetly refrained from any attempt to put the Fundamental Constitutions in operation and thereby avoided the confusion which must have resulted from two sets of laws.
Recognizing the necessity of some one in the province with full power " to do all things that may contribute to the good and advancement of the same," they directed the appointment of the American Board of Proprietors - a body of men identified with the province, who with the deputy-governor were to look after the proprietary interests in such matters as the approval of legislation and the granting of lands, and thereby prevent the delay caused by the transmission of such matters to England for approval.
The chief motive for his journey was love of travel and antiquarian study, and it seems never to have occurred to him, till he was warned by Tiberius, that he was thereby transgressing an unwritten law which forbade any Roman of rank to set foot in Egypt without express permission.
Apperception is thus a general term for all mental processes in which a presentation is brought into connexion with an already existent and systematized mental conception, and thereby is classified, explained or, in a word, understood; e.g.
On the 27th of October 1906 he flew a distance of nearly half a mile at Issy-lesMolineaux, and on the 13th of January 1908 he made a circular flight of one kilometre, thereby winning the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize of X2000.
The chief paths of depressions are from southwest to north-east across England; one track runs across the south-east and eastern counties, and is that followed by a large proportion of the summer and autumn storms, thereby perhaps helping to explain the peculiar liability of the east of England to damage from hail accompanying thunderstorms. A second track crosses central England, entering by the Severn estuary and leaving by the Humber or the Wash; while a third crosses the north of England from the neighbourhood of Morecambe Bay to the Tyne.
The duties of a coroner are limited to the holding of inquiries into cases of death from causes suspected to be other than natural, and to a few miscellaneous duties of comparatively rare occurrence, such as the holding of inquiries relating to treasure trove, and acting instead of the sheriff on inquiries under the Lands Clauses Act, &c., when that officer is interested and thereby disabled from holding such inquiries.
It is important to observe, however, that an action does not lie against a district council in respect of the failure to repair a highway even at the suit of a person who has thereby been injured.
He had by his will divided his private wealth between his two daughters and Nero, trusting thereby to win imperial favour for his family.
Cramer, that, when a certain number of the intersections of two algebraical curves are given, the rest are thereby determined.
Him Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, craftily seized; and thereby in 1433 the Duchess Jacqueline was compelled to cede her rights over the counties of Holland and Hainaut.
Meanwhile his efforts were directed to soothe Miss Vanhomrigh, to whom he addressed Cadenus [Decanus] and' Vanessa, the history of their attachment and the best example of his serious poetry, and for whom he sought to provide honourably in marriage, without either succeeding in his immediate aim or in thereby opening her eyes to the hopelessness of her passion.
He thereby at once became liable to the military training and duties, which, at least in the earliest times, were the main object of the Ephebia.
It is urged that in time industries are set up that would not otherwise have existed, and population thereby attracted, this being especially the argument for protective duties in new countries; but even so, there is loss to set against the final gain, if any, and we have not yet had an account in which a balance of loss and gain is attempted..
The community thereby suffers, but the land and fixed capital remain, and when the high government expenditure ceases individuals at once have the benefit, subject to possible disturbance at the moment of transition, when many persons employed by the state return to private employment.
Light from an arc lamp was so directed that only that part reached the spectroscope which fell upon the flame of the burner at grazing incidence, and was thereby refracted.
He had several interviews with the Italian patriot, and persuaded him of the impracticable nature of his plan, thereby obtaining for the government leisure to devise a more reasonable scheme.
In a speech in the Senate defending Van Buren against an attack by Henry Clay, Marcy made the unfortunate remark that " to the victors belong the spoils of the enemy," and thereby became widely known as a champion of the proscription of political opponents.
Some historians also speak of a later or modern Pietism, characterizing thereby a party in the German Church which was probably at first influenced by some remains of Spener's Pietism in Westphalia, on the Rhine, in Wurttemberg, and at Halle and Berlin.
So that if, for example, a fishmonger uses such a machine to ascertain the weight of a piece of fish which he places in the goods - pan, and thereby depresses it down upon its stop, and then places weights in the weights-pan till the goods-pan rises, the customer is charged for more than the real weight of the fish.
The size of the Glover towers, and more especially that of the Gay-Lussac towers, has been progressively increased, and thereby the cube of the lead chambers themselves has been diminished to a much greater extent.
Motion in either direction is thereby obtained, and a considerable variation in the speed of rotation can be obtained by providing a cone pulley on the countershaft, which drives the cone pulley secured to the lathe E FIG.
An objection to this form of block is the great length of the endless chain, which may drag on the ground and pick up dirt and grit, and thereby interfere with the smooth working of the mechanism.
It is reported that in his examination for a scholarship at Trinity, to which he was elected on the 28th of April 1664, he was examined in Euclid by Dr Isaac Barrow, who formed a poor opinion of his knowledge, and that in consequence Newton was led to read the Elements again with care, and thereby to form a more favourable estimate of Euclid's merits.
It appears that Newton made the mistake of supposing that all prisms would give a spectrum of exactly the same length; the objections of his opponents led him to measure carefully the lengths of spectra formed by prisms of different angles and of different refractive indices; and it seems strange that he was not led thereby to the discovery of the different dispersive powers of different refractive substances.
Halley only communicated to Newton the fact " that Hooke had some pretensions to the invention of the rule for the decrease of gravity being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the centre," acknowledging at the same time that, though Newton had the notion from him, " yet the demonstration of the curves generated thereby belonged wholly to Newton."
On the 10th of December 1701 Newton resigned his professorship, thereby at the same time resigning his fellowship at Trinity, which he had held with the Lucasian professorship since 1675 by virtue of the royal mandate.
It might be possible to prove the origin of all classes from Pelmatozoa, without thereby explaining the origin of such fundamental features as radial symmetry, the developmental metamorphosis, and the torsion that affects both gut and body-cavities during that process; but the acceptance of a Dipleurula as the common ancestor necessitates an explanation of these features.
But the church was thereby involved in a double conflict; for while on the one hand the Novatianist schism represents the puritan outcry against such laxity, on the other the martyrs (not indeed for the first time) claimed a position above church law, and gave trouble by issuing libelli pacis, i.e.
But when Buddhism, whose widely open doors had absorbed the mass of the community, became thereby corrupted from its pristine purity and gradually died away, the smaller school of the Jains, less diametrically opposed to the victorious orthodox creed of the Brahmans, survived, and in some degree took its place.
But it was possible for patriotic Scots to contend that they had done so only in their capacity as English baronsfor they held much land south of Tweedand topoint to the similarity of their position to that of the English king when he did homage for his duchy of Guienne at Paris, without; thereby admitting any suzerainty of the French crown Over England or Ireland.
After some delay, and with manifest reluctance, the Scots complied; their hand was forced by the fact that most of the claimants to the crown had hastened to make the acknowledgment, each hoping thereby to prejudice the English king in his own favor.
For more than three years Lancaster practically reigned in his cousins name; it was soon found that the realm got no profit thereby, for Earl Thomas, though neither so apathetic nor so frivolous as Edward, was not a whit more competent to conduct either war or domestic administration.
But he failed to win any decisive advantage thereby over King Philip. It was not till 1346, when he adopted the new policy of trusting nothing to allies, and striking at the heart of France with a purely English army, that Edward found the fortune of war turning in his favor.
Between 1461 and 1465 he only asked for 37,000 from the nationand won no small popularity thereby.
Apparently he hoped thereby to gain vantage ground for an interference in Spanish politics, which would have been most offensive to Ferdinand.
But the inherent difficulties of the kings position were not thereby overcome.
He thereby created a difficulty for himself which he had not foreseen.
The most simple case is when three double points come into coincidence, thereby giving rise to a triple point; and a somewhat more complicated one is when we have a cusp of the second kind, or node-cusp arising from the coincidence of a node, a cusp, an inflection, and a double tangent, as shown in the annexed figure, which represents the singularities as on the point of coalescing.
We may consider in relation to a curve, not only the line infinity, but also the circular points at infinity; assuming the curve to be real, these present themselves always conjointly; thus a circle is a conic passing through the two circular points, and is thereby distinguished from other conics.
In using the apparatus a measured mile or other known distance is walked and the indication thereby made on the dial-plate observed.
However, nothing was done in fulfilment of this duty in the first two years from 1874, and early in the third the famous Andrassy atrocities, and the accumulative excitement thereby created in England, reopened the Eastern question with a vengeance.
At the end of this patient search among our ideas, he supposes the reader apt to complain that he has been " all this while only building a castle in the air," and to ask what the purpose of all this stir is, if we are not thereby carried beyond mere ideas.
In the heating operation the surface is charred, and thereby the pores are closed up, and what is termed "nerve" is given to the material.
Extensive quays afford accommodation for vessels of deep draught, and the trade with the Dutch cities and with London has been thereby greatly enhanced.
At nineteen he became a working compositor; afterwards he rose to be a corrector for the press, reading proofs of ecclesiastical works, and thereby acquiring a very competent knowledge of theology.
The exercise of wisdom was now viewed as the pure life of that particle of divine substance which was in very truth the " god within him "; the reason whose supremacy he maintained was the reason of Zeus, and of all gods and reasonable men, no less than his own; its realization in any one individual was thus the common good of all rational beings as such; " the sage could not stretch out a finger rightly without thereby benefiting all other sages," - nay, it might even be said that he was " as useful to Zeus as Zeus to him."
On the other hand, he does not seem to think that moral sentiment or " taste " can " become a motive to action," except as it " gives pleasure or pain, and thereby constitutes happiness or misery."
Lazar's widow Helena Palaeologina gave Servia to the pope, hoping thereby to secure the assistalice of Roman Catholic Europe against the Turks.
The claim to supremacy in Asia, however real in fact, was not admitted de jure until the claimant had "taken the hands" of BelMerodach at Babylon, and thereby been accepted as his adopted son and the inheritor of the old Babylonian empire.
In addition to the distribution of colour thereby produced, there is a marked difference in the form of the figure, according to the nature of the electricity originally communicated to the plate.
These, however, since they share the general lengthening or shortening of wave-length through motion, are thereby shifted, to a certain definite extent, into visibility, and so produce accurate chromatic compensation.
These Calvin regarded as matters of indifference, provided the magistrates did not make them of importance, by seeking to enforce them; and he was the more willing to concede them, because he hoped thereby to meet the wishes of the Bernese brethren whose ritual was less simple than that established by Farel at Geneva.