In the monastic period pharmacy was to a great extent under the control of the religious orders, particularly the Benedictines, who, from coming into contact with the Arabian physicians, devoted themselves to pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics; but, as monks were forbidden to shed blood, surgery fell largely into the hands of barbers, so that the class of barber-surgeons came into existence, and the sign of their skill in blood-letting still appears in provincial districts in England in the form of the barber's pole, representing the application of bandages.
Certainly it is due to this very much more than we commonly think, and the more it is due to this the more do moral therapeutics rise in possibility and importance " (Literature and Dogma, pp. 143-144).
The moral therapeutics consists in the influence of a powerful will over others.
Amongst these may be mentioned the neutralizing of the toxins in cases of diphtheria, tetanus and poisonous snake-bite; " serum therapeutics "; and treatment by " vaccines."
Medicina: sc. ars, art of healing, from mederi, to heal) may be used very widely, to include Pathology, the theory of the causation of disease, or, very narrowly, to mean only the drug or form of remedy prescribed by the physician - this being more properly the subject of Therapeutics (q.v.) and Pharmacology.
So prognosis became pessimistic, and the therapeutics of the abler men negative, until fresh hopes arose of stemming the tides of evil at their earliest flow.
Hope dealing elements of disease, with its first beginnings; and in the field of therapeutics, chemical and biological experiment, as in the case of digitalis, mercury and the iodides, was rapidly simplifying remedies and defining their virtues, so that these agents could be used at the bedside with more precision.
Du Bois-Reymond, Robert Remak (1815-1865), Carlo Matteucci (1811-1868), Guillaume Duchenne (1806-1875), the value of electricity in medicine, greater in diagnosis perhaps than in therapeutics, was demonstrated.
Pharmacology And Therapeutics Of Zinc Compounds Zinc chloride is a powerful caustic, and is prepared with plaster of Paris in the form of sticks for destroying warts, &c. Its use for this purpose at the present day is, however, very rare, the knife or galvanocautery being preferred in most cases.
The Royal Institute for experimental therapeutics (Konigl.Institut fiir experimentelle Therapie), moved to Frankfort in 1899, attracts numerous foreign students, and is especially concerned with the study of bacteriology and serums.
There is only one fairly reliable treatment, that by serum therapeutics, the injection of considerable quantities of serum of animals which have e?
==Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics of Alcohol== Alcohol is of great medicinal value as a solvent, being used to form solutions of alkaloids, resins, volatile oils, iodoform, &c. In strength of about 10% and upwards it is an antiseptic. If applied to the skin it rapidly evaporates, thereby cooling the skin and diminishing the amount of sweat excreted.
He did believe in the immediate use for therapeutics of the salts and other preparations which his practical skill enabled him to make.
Probably, therefore, his positive services are to be summed up in this wide application of chemical ideas to pharmacy and therapeutics; his indirect and possibly greater services are to be found in the stimulus, the revolutionary stimulus, of his ideas about method and general theory.
Digitalis is used in therapeutics exclusively for its action on the circulation.
The diseases to which the application has been hitherto confined are papillomata, lupus vulgaris, epithelial tumours, syphilitic ulcers, pigmentary naevi, angiomata, and pruritus and chronic itching of the skin; but the use of radium in therapeutics is still experimental.
Typhon: a Burlesque Poem (1704); Aesop Dress'd, or a Collection of Fables writ in Familiar Verse (1704); The Planter's Charity (1704); The Virgin Unmasked (1709, 1724, 1731, 1742), a work in which the coarser side of his nature is prominent; Treatise of the Hypochondriack and Hysterick Passions (1711, 1715, 1730) admired by Johnson (Mandeville here protests against merely speculative therapeutics, and advances fanciful theories of his own about animal spirits in connexion with "stomachic ferment": he shows a knowledge of Locke's methods, and an admiration for Sydenham); Free Thoughts on Religion (1720); A Conference about Whoring (1725); An Enquiry into the Causes of the Frequent Executions at Tyburn (1725); The Origin of Honour and the Usefulness of Christianity in War (1732).
In contradistinction to empirical we have rational therapeutics, by which we mean the application of a remedy, whose mode of action we know more or less perfectly, in diseased conditions, the nature of which we also understand more or less fully.
Thus too great a rise of temperature in fever may kill the patient; and the aim of therapeutics is to restrain the temperature within proper limits, neither allowing it to rise too high nor to fall too low.
But the object of therapeutics is not merely to cure.
The same method of serum therapeutics has been used in other infective diseases, but not with the same success.
Another therapeutic method which is historically much older than that of serum therapeutics is that of inoculation.
The last decade of the 19th century will stand out in the history of medical science as the period in which serum therapeutics and serum diagnosis had their birth.
Ergot is used in therapeutics as a haemostatic, and is very valuable in haemoptysis and sometimes in haematemesis.
It is impossible also to dissociate pharmacology from clinical therapeutics; the former investigates the agents which are used in the treatment of disease, the latter is concerned with their remedial powers and the conditions under which they are to be used.
In works such as Pareira's Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics (1842), the physiological effects of medicines are usually described, but very briefly as compared with the materia medica.
In 1873 the Archiv fiir experimentelle Pathologie and Pharmakologie first appeared, in 1895 the Archives Internationales de Pharmakodynamie, and in 1909 The Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics (published at Baltimore, U.S.A.), all of which are chiefly or entirely devoted to pharmacology.
The close alliance between pharmacology, therapeutics and clinical medicine has induced many authors to treat the subject from a clinical point of view, while its relationships to chemistry and physiology have been utilized to elaborate a chemical and physiological classification respectively as the basis for systematic description.
C. Wood, Therapeutics: its Principles and Practice (loth ed., London, 1905); A.
Cushny, A Textbook of Pharmacology and Therapeutics (1906); C. D.