There are two theories that may be put forward.
Several theories have been propounded by ethnologists.
Even at this stage the vindictive or retributive character of punishment remains, but gradually, and specially after the humanist movement under thinkers like Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, new theories begin to emerge.
Theories of Sacrifice.
The distinguished after writers, whom we have to regard as repeating in essence pre-Kantian theories, generally know Kant, and frequently show traces of him in detail.
The innumerable theories which were framed as to the precise nature of the offering and as to the precise change in the elements all implied that conception of it.
Fortunately the Cartesian method had already done its service, even where the theories were rejected.
On this point the following theories have been put forward.
In 1673 a decree of the parlement against Cartesian and other unlicensed theories was on the point of being issued, and was only checked in[time by the appearance of a burlesque mandamus against the intruder Reason, composed by Boileau and some of his brother-poets.
Many theories of the relation of human to animal sacrifice have been put forward, most of them on an insufficient basis of facts.
The limited knowledge which we possess of the original features of the ground within the area of the city makes a reconstruction of the topographical history of the latter a difficult task; and, as a natural result, many irreconcilable theories have been suggested.
The old tendency illustrated by the outcome of the revolutionary movements of 1848 was once more in evidence - the tendency of merely artificial theories of democratic liberty to succumb to the immemorial instinct of race and race ascendancy.
Apart from the weighty arguments which the development furnishes against the theories of Allman and Mechnikov, it may be pointed out that neither hypothesis gives a satisfactory explanation of a structure universally present in medusae of whatever class, namely the endoderm-lamella, discovered by the brothers O.
Inasmuch as Lamarck attempted to frame a theory of evolution in which the principle of natural selection had no part, the interpretation placed on their work by many bionomical investigators recalls the theories of Lamarck, and the name Neo-Lamarckism has been used of such a school of biologists, particularly active in America.
But when this happened, Cartesianism was no longer either interesting or dangerous; its theories, taught as ascertained and verified truths, were as worthless as the systematic verbiage which preceded them.
I do remember some theories concerning relativity suggesting some sort of motion in space might allow time travel if space-time geometrics are possible.
For some of these we have no certain information, and regarding others the tales narrated in the early records are so hard to reconcile with present knowledge that they are better fitted to be the battle-ground of scholars championing rival theories than the basis of definite history.
This gave immense vogue to wider and vaguer theories of evolutionary process, notably to H.
With Epiphanes, his son, he was the leader of a philosophic school basing its theories mainly upon Platonism, and striving to amalgamate Plato's Republic with the Christian ideal of human brotherhood.
These theories, however, contain little that bears directly on the hypothesis of a natural evolution of things.
That's what I was saying to you-- those German gentlemen won't win the battle tomorrow but will only make all the mess they can, because they have nothing in their German heads but theories not worth an empty eggshell and haven't in their hearts the one thing needed tomorrow--that which Timokhin has.
Good cytological evidence has been adduced in favor of both theories, but further investigation is necessary before any definite conclusion can be arrived at.
Useful and suggestive as they often are, teratological facts played, at one time, too large a part in the framing of morphological theories; for it was thought that the monstrous form gave a clue to the essential nature of the organ assuming it.
" If there is a reading of the new theories of evolution in nature which revives rather than darkens hope in immortality and faith in God, Tennyson gave an early sketch of that tentative modern theism.
The many theories that have been put forward as to the interpretation of the cormus and the various parts are set forth and discussed in the treatise of Y.
Passing from mythology to speculation properly so called, we find in the early systems of philosophy of India theories of emanation which approach in some respects the idea of evolution.
- Another writer of this transition period deserves a passing reference here, namely, Jacob Boehme the mystic, who by his conception of a process of inner diremption as the essential character of all mind, and so of God, prepared the way for later German theories of the origin of the world as the self-differentiation and self-externalization of the absolute spirit.
The address in reply to the speech from the throne, voted after a debate in which abstract theories had triumphed over common sense, demanded universal suffrage, the establishment of pure parliamentary government, the abolition of capital punishment, the expropriation of the landlords, a political amnesty, and the suppression of the Imperial Council.
In a world without scarcity, or that has scarcity at such a trivial level it is hardly noticeable, all the conventional theories and dogmas lose their meaning.
The purely philosophical theories of Aquinas are explained in the article Scholasticism.
In some of these we see a return to Greek theories, though the influence of physical discoveries, more especially those of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo, is distinctly traceable.
Flint has dealt with the following antitheistic theories: atheism, materialism, positivism, secularism, pessimism, pantheism and (in a separate volume) agnosticism.
Flint, Theism, Antitheistic Theories, Agnosticism - all with valuable notes and references, and J.
The general theories of Siphonophoran morphology are discussed below, but in enumerating the various types of appendages it is convenient to discuss their morphological interpretation, at the same time.
The difference between the theories of Haeckel and Chun is connected with a further divergence in the interpretation of the stem or axis of the cormus.
Almost every side of zoology has contributed to the theory of evolution, but of special importance are the facts and theories associated with the names of Gregor Mendel, A.
There are two main theories: (I) that the chromosomes which finally separate are at first paired side by side (Allen, Grgoire, Berghs, Strasburger and others), and (2) that they are joined together or paired end to end (Farmer and Moore, Gregory, Mottier and others).
In 1746 he published his treatise Les Beaux-Arts adults a un meme Principe, an attempt to find a unity among the various theories of beauty and taste, and his views were widely accepted.
Investigations of every kind which have been based on original sources of knowledge may be styled "research," and it may be said that without "research" no authoritative works have been written, no scientific discoveries or inventions made, no theories of any value propounded; but the word also has a somewhat restricted meaning attached to it in current usage.
dealing less with theories than with facts, and illustrating rather than formdating the principles of the science.
In fact, he belonged to the old Ionian school, whose doctrines he modified by the theories of his contemporary Anaxagoras, although he avoided his dualism.
These were, in fact, simply the popular theories of sacrifice put on an evidential basis by facts drawn from various stages of culture.
Let us consider some common phenomena in the light of these rival theories as to the nature of matter.
Especially he had written to Pere Mesland, one of the order, to show how the Catholic doctrine of the eucharist might be made compatible with his theories of matter.
Given so many different nutritional theories and viewpoints, most people base their own nutritional philosophies on a combination of two factors: personal experience and social/political worldview.
Miss Keller is distinctly not a singular proof of occult and mysterious theories, and any attempt to explain her in that way fails to reckon with her normality.
The points in relation to this offering which are clearly demonstrable from the Christian writers of the first two centuries, but which subsequent theories have tended to confuse, are these.
THE] were practically powerless, the more so as their political activity consisted mainly in " building theories for an imaginary world."
To understand the philosophical theory that has come to be known under this title, we may ask (I) what in general it is and how it is differentiated from other theories of knowledge and reality, (2) how it has risen in the history of philosophy, (3) what position it occupies at present in the world of speculation.
3 The issue between the two theories under this head may here be left with the remark that it is a curious comment on the logic of dualism that setting out to vindicate the reality of an objective standard of truth it should end in the most subjective of all the way a thing appears to the individual.
Kiiste (1852), and (with special reference to earlier theories) W.
If we might accept the various theories mentioned above, Balaam would appear in one source of J as an Edomite, in another as an Ammonite; in E as a native of the south of Judah or' possibly as an Aramaean; in the tradition followed by the Priestly Code probably as a Midianite.
27, 1887) Wolf, Theories cosmogoniques (1886).
Concerning the origin of the name" Siam "many theories have been advanced.
When Clerk Maxwell pointed out the way to the common origin of optical and electrical phenomena, these equations naturally came to repose on an electric basis, the connexion having been first definitely exhibited by FitzGerald in 1878; and according as the independent variable was one or other of the vectors which represent electric force, magnetic force or electric polarity, they took the form appropriate to one or other of the elastic theories above mentioned.
Although knowledge of variation has become much wider and more definite, the estimation in which natural selection is held has changed very little since Darwin and Wallace first expounded their theories.
He did not seek re-election in 1893, but devoted himself thenceforward to mathematics, helping to make known in France the theories of Giusto Bellavitis.
The first in the collection of the Dialogues of Gotama discusses, and completely, categorically, and systematically rejects, all the current theories about "souls."
And the Buddhist adaptation of it, avoiding some of the difficulties common to it and to the allied European theories of fate and predestination, tries to explain the weight of the universe in its action on the individual, the heavy hand of the immeasurable past we cannot escape, the close connexion between all forms of life, and the mysteries of inherited character.
In these three volumes, which appeared at long intervals, the author's theories are not always in complete harmony, nor are they always presented in a very luminous or coherent manner, but they are marked by originality and vigour.
He pursued the same method in his L'Origine de l'habitation et des lieux habit-es en France (1899), in which he discusses some of the theories circulated by A.
Various theories have been developed in order to account for these phenomena.
The dialectic of negative reason rudely dispels these theories.
According to Hegel the terms in which thought exhibits itself are a system of their own, with laws and relations which reappear in a less obvious shape in the theories of nature and mind.
Contrasting, in the second place, with the polyorgan theory are the various "polyperson " theories which interpret the Siphonophore cormus as a colony composed of more or fewer individuals in or a', Pneumatocyst.
(2) As to the speculation of the errorists, it is replied that it is explicable in the lifetime of Paul, that some of the elements of it may have their source in pre-Christian Jewish theories, and that recourse to the developed gnosticism of the 2nd century is unnecessary.
His theories had a deep and broad basis in English whiggism; and though he may well have found at least confirmation of his own ideas in French writers - and notably in Condorcet - he did not read sympathetically the writers commonly named, Rousseau and Montesquieu; besides, his democracy was seasoned, and he was rather a teacher than a student of revolutionary politics when he went to Paris.
To enter here into an exhaustive account of the various theories which even before, though especially after, the appearance of the Constitution of Athens have been propounded as to the chronology of the Peisistratean tyranny, is impossible.
In the United Kingdom the employment of brewery yeasts selected from a single cell has not come into general use; it may probably be accounted for in a great measure by conservatism and the wrong application of Hansen's theories.
Thereupon the power of church and state enforced by positive enactments the passive resistance of old institutions to the novel theories.
From the real or fancied rapprochements between Cartesianism and Jansenism, it became for a while impolitic, if not dangerous, to avow too loudly a preference for Cartesian theories.
Luria was an inspirer of saintly conduct rather than an innovator in theories.
Another out of many theories 1 is that the hard beds of quartzite are denuded by the disintegration of the sof ter layers.
It is impossible to discuss the other theories of the origin of this name.
From the time of Hippocrates onwards the malarial or periodical fevers have engaged the attention of innumerable observers, who have suggested various theories of causation, and have sometimes anticipated - vaguely, indeed, but with surprising accuracy - the results of modern research; but the true nature of the disease remained in doubt until the closing years of the 19th century.
But the problems are admittedly complicated, and since one is necessarily dependent upon scanty narratives arranged and rearranged by later hands in accordance with their own historical theories, it is difficult to lay stress upon internal evidence which appears to be conclusive for this or that reconstruction.
All these physical theories are blended with a mystical theosophy, of which the most remarkable example is, perhaps, the chemico-astrological speculations of Paracelsus (1493-1541).
The general results of recent inquiry into the ethnography of Afghanistan is to support the general correctness of Bellew's theories of the origin of the Afghan races.
In view of the results of this analysis, Reid's theory (and the theory of Scottish philosophy generally) has been dubbed natural realism or natural dualism, in contrast to theories like subjective idealism and materialism or to the cosmothetic idealism or hypothetical dualism of the majority of philosophers.
See James Sully, Pessimism: A History and a Criticism (1877); Caro, Le Pessimisme au xix e siecle (1878); Saltus, The Anatomy of Negation (1886); Tulloch, Modern Theories on Philosophy and Religion (1884); William James, The Will to Believe; Duhring, Der Werth des Lebens (1865); Meyer, Weltelend and Weltschmerz (1872); E.
Bold as are his opinions in his works, here he was wholly unobtrusive of theories that might not have commended the assent of all present.
The rude symmetry of the feudal system had been long ago destroyed by partial and unskilful adaptations to modern commercial life, effected at various dates and in accordance with various theories.
A contemporary of Aquinas, he opposed several of the dominant theories of the time, and united with the current Aristotelian doctrines a strong infusion of Platonism.
A similar fate has befallen Mill's economic theories.
Mill (1873), on economic theories; W.
Between 1882 and 1889 a series of papers on certain points in the electromagnetic theory of light and its relation to the various elastic solid theories appeared in the American Journal of Science, and his last work, Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics, was issued in 1902.
The earlier ethnographers, like Strabo, put forward three theories as to the original home of the race.
Modern scholarship has rejected these theories.
C. Piepers; the bearing of insect habits on theories of selection and use-inheritance by A.
Some of the theories regarding miracles which have been formulated may be mentioned.
These theories endeavour to discover the means by which the exceptional occurrence is brought about; but the explanation is merely hypothetical, and we are not helped in conceiving the mode of the divine activity in the working of miracles.
Three theories have been propounded to account for this pressure: 1.
The theories propounded may be divided into two groups, namely, those ascribing to petroleum an inorganic origin, and those which regard it as the result of the decomposition of organic matter.
Other theories of a like nature were brought forward by various chemists, Mendeleeff, for example, ascribing the formation of petroleum to the action of water at high temperatures on iron carbide in the interior of the earth.
To portions of these Aristotle has been supposed to have been indebted for his doctrine of the categories and some of his chief ethical theories.
The new essays in this volume were mostly critical, but one of them, in which perhaps his guessing talent is seen at its best, "The Divisions of the Irish Family," is an elaborate discussion of a problem which has long puzzled both Celtic scholars and jurists; and in another, "On the Classificatory System of Relationship," he propounded a new explanation of a series of facts which, he thought, might throw light upon the early history of society, at the same time putting to the test of those facts the theories he had set forth in Primitive Marriage.
The idea of transmutation, in the country of its origin, had a philosophical basis, and was linked up with the Greek theories of matter there current; thus, by supplying a central philosophical principle, it to some extent unified and focussed chemical effort, which previously, so far as it existed at all, had been expended on acquiring empirical acquaintance with a mass of disconnected technical processes.
The chemical knowledge of Egyptian metallurgists and jewellers, he holds, was early transmitted to the artisans of Rome, and was preserved throughout the dark ages in the workshops of Italy and France until about the 13th century, when it was mingled with the theories of the Greek alchemists which reached the West by way of the Arabs.
Cool and temperate, Gallatin, when following his own theories, was usually in the right, although accused by his followers of trimming.
Then came the stress of war in Europe, a wretched neutrality at home, fierce outbreaks of human passions, and the fair structure of government by a priori theories based on the goodness of unoppressed humanity came to the ground.
Many theories hitherto universally accepted have been called in question or proved to be unsound: the views of Leake, for instance, have been challenged on various points, though many of his conclusions have been justified and confirmed.
Many of his bold and novel theories have provoked strenuous opposition, while others have met with general acceptance, except among scholars of the more conservative type.
The well-known passage of Lucian (Piscator, 47) cannot be regarded as decisive for any of the theories advanced, as any portion of the old enceinte dismantled by the Persians may have retained the name in later times.
D6rpfeld's identification of the Dionysium, Ev Xt pvats cannot be regarded as proved; his view that another Pythium and another Olympieum existed in this neighbourhood is still less probable; but the inconclusiveness of these theories does not necessarily invalidate his identification of the Enneacrunus, with regard to the position of which the language of Thucydides is far from clear.
As against these theories the Eleatics maintained that the true explanation of things lies in the conception of a universal unity of being.
With James Madison and Thomas Jefferson, Mason carried through the Virginia legislature measures disestablishing the Episcopal Church and protecting all forms of worship. In politics he was a radical republican, who believed that local government should be kept strong and central government weak; his democratic theories had much influence in Virginia and other southern and western states.
Berthelot, " alchemy rested partly on the industrial processes of the ancient Egyptians, partly on the speculative theories of the Greek philosophers, and partly on the mystical reveries of the Gnostics and Alexandrians."
It is unnecessary in this place to recapitulate the many results which had accumulated by the end of the 18th century, or to discuss the labours and theories of individual workers since these receive attention under biographical headings; in this article only the salient features in the history of our science can be treated.
From a detailed study of organic compounds Gerhardt had promulgated a " theory of types " which represented a fusion of the older radical and type theories.
Here we shall only discuss the structure of these compounds in the light of the modern benzene theories; reference should be made to the articles Naphthalene, Anthracene and Phenanthrene for syntheses, decompositions, &c.
Colour and Constitution.-In this article a summary of the theories which have been promoted in order to connect the colour of organic compounds with their constitution will be given, and the reader is referred to the article Colour for the physical explanation of this property, and to Vision for the physiological and psychological bearings.
The theories of colour have also been investigated by Hantzsch, who first considered the nitro-phenols.
Researches in synthetical organic chemistry have shown that this property of fluorescenceis common to an immense number of substances, and theories have been proposed whose purpose is to connect the property with constitution.
Although the theories of Meyer and Hewitt do not explain (in their present form) the behaviour of anthranilic acid, yet Hewitt has shown that his theory goes far to explain the fluorescence of substances in which a double symmetrical tautomerism is possible.
Pattison Muir, History of Chemical Theories and Laws (1907); Ida Freund, Study of Chemical Composition (1904); E.
Wordsworth's theories of poetry - the objects best suited for poetic treatment, the characteristics of such treatment and the choice of diction suitable for the purpose - may be said to have grown out of the soil and substance of the lakes and mountains, and out of the homely lives of the people, of Cumberland and Westmoreland.
In his theories the element of mystical speculation for the first time comes to the front as all-important.
The two most important points in his, as in all mystical theories, are first, his doctrine of the divine nature, and second, his explanation of the relation between God and human thought.
But he also attacked, from the point of view of his own socialistic theories, the economic outcome of the Revolution.
After fresh trouble with the clergy, he returned to Paris and published a defence of his theories in a work entitled Ides sur la politique de Platon et d'Aristole.
His contributions to the theories of Elasticity and of Waves rank high among modern developments of mathematical physics, although they are mere units among the 150 scientific papers attached to his name in the Royal Society's Catalogue.
We have, however, sufficient Theories of evidence that they were used as places of refuge from the use of the fury of the heathen, in which the believers - the cata- especially the bishops and clergy, who would naturally combs.
In carrying out his work he met with bitter opposition, being attacked particularly by certain school-masters of Boston who strongly disapproved of his pedagogical theories and innovations, and by various religious sectaries, who contended against the exclusion of all sectarian instruction from the schools.
For the early stages of Kabbalistic theories, see K.
In fine, they eschew theories and confine themselves to visible facts.
The history of his youth reveals no special predilection for the military service - the bent of his mind was political far more than military, but unlike the politicians of his epoch he consistently applied scientific and mathematical methods to his theories, and desired above all things a knowledge of facts in their true relation to one another.
Various theories have been from time to time proposed to account for this complex of enactments.
As to their present name, signifying in its present Russian spelling "self-eaters," many ingenious theories have been advanced, but that proposed by Schrenk, who derived the name "Samo-yedes" from "Syroyadtsy," or "raw-eaters," leaves much to be desired.
When in 1326 Louis of Bavaria saw the arrival in Nuremberg of the two authors of the book dedicated to him, startled by the boldness of their political and religious theories, he was at first inclined to treat them as heretics.
This "confusion of powers," which was contrary to the philosophical theories - those of Montesquieu especially - which had inspired the Revolution at first, was one of the essential characteristics of the Convention.
In his early manhood, while employed as an engineer, he became a convert to the theories of Saint Simon; these he ardently advocated in the Globe, the organ of the Saint Simonians, which he edited until his arrest in 1832 on a charge of outraging public morality by its publication.
Before the days of the "higher criticism" and the rise of the modern scientific views as to the origin of species, there was much discussion among the learned, and many ingenious and curious theories were advanced, as to the number of the animals and the space necessary for their reception, with elaborate calculations as to the subdivisions of the ark and the quantities of food, &c., required to be stored.
They were at first often called Wycliffites, as the theological theories of Huss were largely founded on the teachings of Wycliffe.
The theories of determinants and of symmetric functions and of the algebra of differential operations have an important bearing upon this comparatively new branch of mathematics.
which is satisfied by every symmetric fraction whose partition contains no unit (called by Cayley non-unitary symmetric functions), is of particular importance in algebraic theories.
An important notion in the theory of linear operators in general is that of MacMahon's multilinear operator (" Theory of a Multilinear partial Differential Operator with Applications to the Theories of Invariants and Reciprocants," Proc. Lond.
It is thus possible to study simultaneously all the theories which depend upon operations of the group. Symbolic Representation of Symmetric Functions.-Denote the s 8 s elementar symmetric function a s by al a 2 a3 ...at pleasure; then, Y y si,, si,...
The other objections, however, remain, and have provoked a variety of theories from Old Testament scholars, of which three call for special notice.
Each of these three theories 2 encounters difficulties of detail; none can be said to have secured a dominant position.
For the less probable theories of Rothstein, Lauterburg, Happel and Peiser (amongst others), cf.
This work not only criticizes and comments on the theories of Aristotle and the Peripatetics, but also deduces from them a modern philosophical system.
But it was one thing to enunciate such magnificent theories in a lecture, and quite another to apply them in the market-place.
Thus it might be argued that there can be no logical combination of elements from Christian ethics, with its divine sanction, and purely intuitional or evolutionary ethical theories, where the sanction is essentially different in quality.
Honda, measured the changes of length of various metals shaped in the form of ovoids instead of cylindrical rods, and determined the magnetization curves for the same specimens; a higher degree of accuracy was thus attained, and satisfactory data were provided for testing theories.
Attempts have been made to explain magnetic deformation by various theories of magnetic stress,' notably that elaborated by G.
The subject, which is of importance in connexion with theories of magnetostriction, has been investigated by K.
et de phys., 1820, 1 5, 59, 170; Recueil d'observations electrodynamiques, 1822; Theories des phenomenes electrodynamiques, 1826.
In the preface to the first edition, Sigwart explains that he makes no attempt to appreciate the logical theories of his predecessors; his intention was to construct a theory of logic, complete in itself.
of the second volume is especially interesting to English thinkers as containing a profound examination of the Induction theories of Bacon, J.
He studied ancient theories of music, and is said to have invented the thirteen-syllable verse known subsequently as versi martelliani.
In the second and greater work he goes back to the theories and methods of the Ionians and the pre-Socratics generally.
The growth of sacerdotal theories, which were fully developed in Cyprian's time, fixed attention on the bishop as a sacrificing priest, and on the deacon 3 as his assistant at the altar.
The two opposing theories express at bottom, in the phraseology of their own time, the radical divergence of pantheism and individualism - the two extremes between which philosophy seems pendulum-wise to oscillate, and which may be said still to await their perfect reconciliation.
with which he formulated his position were the im mediate occasion of the contemporaneous crystallization of Realism in the theories of Anselm and William of Champeaux.
von Barenbach) espouses Neo-Kantism (Tdrsadalmi elmeletek es eszmenyek, 1887, " Social Theories and Ideals ").
Meanwhile the astronomical theories of development of the solar system from a gaseous condition to its present form, put forward by Kant and by Laplace, had impressed men's minds with the conception of a general movement of spontaneous progress or development in all nature.
But erroneous theories, when they are supported by facts, do little harm, since every one takes a healthy pleasure in proving their falsity " (Darwin).
The wave of morphological speculation, with its outcome of new systems and new theories of classification.
It is impossible to enumerate or to give due consideration to all the names in the army of anatomical and embryological students of the middle third of the 19th century whose labours bore fruit in the modification of zoological theories and in the building up of a true classification of animals.
metrice, &c., Innsbruck, 1882), whose critical services are not to be judged merely by the measure of assent which his metrical theories may command.
His object was to popularize among his countrymen the astronomical theories of Descartes; and it may well be doubted if that philosopher ever ranked a more ingenious or successful expositor among his disciples.
With a curious respect for those theories his familiarity with the secret social history of France had caused him to entertain, he hoped and attempted to retain a hold over the king through the influence of Lady Yarmouth, though the futility of such means had already been demonstrated to him by his relations with Queen Caroline's "ma bonne Howard."
Bishop Stubbs belongs to the front rank of historical scholars both as an author and a critic. Among Englishmen at least he excels all others as a master of every department of the historian's work, from the discovery of materials to the elaboration of wellfounded theories and literary production.
Thirdly, when Xenophanes himself says that theories about gods and about things are not knowledge, that his own utterances are not verities but verisimilitudes, and that, so far from learning things by revelation, man must laboriously seek a better opinion, he plainly renounces the "disinterested pursuit of truth."
Our present-day knowledge prompts the adoption of a middle course between the two theories.
Many theories have been advanced to explain these processes, and recently the subject has received considerable attention.
For long the Brahmas did not attempt any social reforms. But about 1865 the younger section, headed by Babu Keshub Chunder Sen, who joined the Samaj in 1857, tried to carry their religious theories into practice by demanding the abandonment of the external signs of caste distinction.
Galen's use of drugs was influenced largely by the same theories.
Before speaking in detail of these, we may note that by other influences quite independent of theories, important additions were made to practical medicine.
The iatro-physical school of medicine grew out of physiological theories.
But the influence of these theories on practical medicine was not great.
Mechanical theories were introduced into pathology, in explanation of the processes of fever and the like, but had little or no influence on therapeutics.
The extent to which his practice was influenced by this and other a priori conceptions prevents us from classing Sydenham as a pure empiric; but he had the rare merit of never permitting himself to be enslaved even by his own theories.
His medical theories rest upon a complete theory of the universe.
In France, however, the influence of Brown's theories is very clearly seen in the writings of Francois J.
His philological theories exercised a widespread influence.
In 1847 he was made tutor of his college, and in 1853 he delivered the Bampton lectures, his subject being "The Atoning Work of Christ viewed in Relation to some Ancient Theories."
The balance of opinion was in favour of those of the first group of writers, who avoided emendations of the figures and were content to follow the Kings' List and to ignore its apparent discrepancies with other chronological data; but it is now admitted that the general principle underlying the third group of theories was actually nearer the truth.
The former is divided into two sections: the first, of a metaphysical character, contains a sort of practical cosmography, chiefly based on Avicenna's theories, but frequently intermixed both with the freer speculations of the well-known philosophical brotherhood of Basra, the Ikhwan-es-safa'i, and purely Shiite or Isma`ilite ideas; the second, or ethical section of the poem, abounds in moral maxims and ingenious thoughts on man's good and bad qualities, on the necessity of shunning the company of fools and double-faced friends, on the deceptive allurements of the world and the secret snares of ambitious craving for rank and wealth.
Davidsohn's Geschichte der Stadt Florenz (Berlin, 1896); P. Villari's Savonarola (English ed., London, 1896) is invaluable for the period during which the friar's personality dominated Florence, and his Machiavelli (English ed., London, 1892) must be also consulted, especially for the development of political theories.
It is not possible within the limits at our command to specify the facts and arguments by which these theories are respectively supported.
Various theories have been advanced concerning the origin of gilds.
But the Terror could not be maintained at the same pitch: Robespierre began to see that he must strike at many of his own colleagues in the committees if he was to carry out his theories, and Tallien was one of the men condemned with them.
(1876), 179-254; Driver, " Recent Theories on the Origin and Nature of the Tetragrammaton," in Studia Biblica, I.
Various theories have been put forward as to the nature of these heroes.
Hence the mountain has served as a type for the general popular conception of a volcano, and its history has supplied a large part of the information on which geological theories of volcanic action have been based.
Among other central thoughts in Comte's explanation of history are these: - The displacement of theological by positive conceptions has been accompanied by a gradual rise of an industrial regime out of the military regime; - the great permanent contribution of Catholicism was the separation which it set up between the temporal and the spiritual powers,; - the progress of the race consists in the increasing preponderance of the distinctively human elements over the animal elements; - the absolute tendency of ordinary social theories will be replaced by an unfailing adherence to the relative point of view, and from this it follows that the social state, regarded as a whole, has been as perfect in each period as the co-existing condition of humanity and its environment would allow.
emanatio, from e-, out, manare, to flow), in philosophy and theology, the name of one of the three chief theories of existence, i.e.
The two theories are alike in so far as both recognize the existence of individuals as due to a necessary process of differentiation and a scale of existence.
In certain theories known as doctrines of emanation, only mental existence is referred to the absolute source, while matter is viewed as eternal and distinct from the divine nature.
In the first of these books his nomenclature is unfortunate; his division of ethical theories into the " unpsychological," " idiopsychological," and the " hetero-psychological," is incapable of historical justification; his exposition of single ethical systems is, though always interesting and suggestive, often arbitrary and inadequate, being governed by dialectical exigencies rather than historical order and perspective.
If the theories hitherto held with regard to the origin of the Japanese people be correct, close relationship should exist between the Japanese and the Korean tongues, and possibly between the Japanese and the Chinese.
Though not in name, in fact he was prime minister; in all internal affairs it was he who decided; and the fiscal and economic reforms of the new reign were the application of his theories.
" emerges as the test of all theories.
The probable battle-ground of the future between the opposing theories lies in the writings of Irenaeus.
Sweeping theories of the movement of society, and broad characterizations of particular periods of history seem to have no attraction for him.
The first of these is a methodical treatise, setting forth Machiavelli's views on military matters, digesting his theories respecting the superiority of national troops, the inefficiency of fortresses, the necessity of relying upon infantry in war, and the comparative insignificance of artillery.
Cesare Borgia had entered into the Principe as a representative figure rather than an actual personage; so now conversely the theories of the Principe assumed the outward form and semblance of Castruccio.
Thus other hands apart from the compiler of Chronicles may have helped to shape the narratives, either before their union with that book or after their separation.2 The present intricacy is also due partly to specific historical theories regarding the post-exilic period.
Sigmond, Unnoticed Theories of Servetus (1826).
Fragment Hypothesis.-The previous theories have brought to light and emphasized the fact that within the Apocalypse there are passages inconsistent with the tone and character of the whole.
Two theories have been advanced to explain the plan and order of the book.
The explanation of the phenomena of combustion was at tempted at very early times, and the early theories were generally bound up in the explanation of the nature of fire or flame.
He took Greek metaphysical theories, and, by the allegorical method, interpreted them in accordance with the Jewish Revelation.
1875); Examples of Analytical Geometry of Three Dimensions (1858, 3rd ed., 1873); Mechanics (1867), History of the Mathematical Theory of Probability from the Time of Pascal to that of Lagrange (1865); Researches in the Calculus of Variations (1871); History of the Mathematical Theories of Attraction and Figure of the Earth from Newton to Laplace (1873); Elementary Treatise on Laplace's, Lame's and Bessel's Functions (1875); Natural Philosophy for Beginners (1877).
He used the Lutheran theories as an excuse for overthrowing the ecclesiastical aristocracy, which had been insolently powerful in Sweden.
But as the result of a controversy with Montalembert, Carnot abandoned the official, or Vauban, theories of the art of fortification, and went over to the "perpendicular" school of Montalembert.
but all theories of its being a political allegory in favour of that house may be discarded.
Considering, then, his other differences from Anabaptist theories, and the absence of any hint to the contrary in his own autobiographical references, " it is safe to affirm that he had no conscious indebtedness to the Anabaptists " (Williston Walker, Creeds and Platforms of Congreg., New York, 1893, p. 16).
So was it said in 1602; and there is no good ground (see Powicke, pp. 105 ff., 126 f.) for distin guishing the theories of the two leaders as to the authority of 1 See F.
Such a right may be asserted on other theories than the congregational or even the Christian.
All theories of religion which give prominence to ancestor worship and the cult of the dead are to a certain extent Euhemeristic. But as the sole explanation of the origin of the idea of gods it is not accepted by students of comparative religion.
Recollections of their easy triumph in 1894 and perhaps thoughts of Sevastopol, German theories of the " brusque attack," the fiery ardour of the army, and above all the need of rapidly crushing or expelling the squadron in harbour, combined to suggest a bombardment and general assault.
Among the theories prevalent in the middle ages was one that mankind formed a unity, with the pope and the emperor at the head of it: the universal Church and the universal emperor ruled the world (Rehm, Geschichte der Rechtswissenschaft, p. 198.) Even to Leibnitz, writing in the 17th century, it seemed that "totam Christianitatem unam velut Rempublicam componere, in qua Caesari auctoritas aliqua competit" (Opera, 4.330).
It is the kernel of the theories of Hobbes, Rousseau, Filmer and Locke.
By many writers sovereignty is regarded as resident not in any one organ, but in the Gesammtperson of the community (Maitland, Political Theories of the Middle Ages, xliii.).
Maitland describes it (Political Theories of the Middle Ages, p. x.), have an essentially "statelike character."
The various theories which identified him with the sun, the moon or the dawn, may be dismissed, as they do not rest on evidence to which value would now be attached.
Finally, in the Vatican Council, the Jesuits saw another of their favourite theories - that of papal infallibility - elevated to the status of a dogma of the Church.
Her letter to the emperor, pervaded with he religious and almost mystic sentiments which predominate in the queen's mind, particularly since the death of Prince Albert, seems to have made a deep impression on the sovereign who, amid the struggles of politics, had never completely repudiated the philanthropic theories of his youth, and who, on the battlefield of Solferino, covered with the dead and wounded, was seized with an unspeakable horror of war."Moreover, Disraeli's two premierships (1868, 1874-80) did a good deal to give new encouragement to a right idea of the constitutional function of the crown.
He was a penniless man of letters, with theories as to state maintenance of children; and Therese was a consenting party.
Most theories of atonement would combine two or more of these, and would include repentance and amendment.
At present the belief in an objective atonement is still widely held; whether in the form of penal theories - the old forensic view that the death of Christ atones by paying the penalty of man's sin - or in the form of governmental theories; that the Passion fulfilled a necessity of divine government by expressing and vindicating God's righteousness.
But there is also a widespread inclination to minimize, ignore or deny the objective aspect of the atonement, the effect of the death of Christ on God's attitude towards men; and to follow the moral theories in emphasizing the subjective aspect of the atonement, the influence of the Passion on man.
Nok Khum is one of the theories of the genesis of mankind, the Nok Khum being the sacred goose or "Hansa" from whose eggs the first human beings were supposed to have been hatched.
From the days of Ignatius, down through Paul of Samosata and Lucian to the 'great controversies of the 5th century which began with the theories of Apollinarius, the theologians of Antioch started from the one sure fact, that 1 Coptic Life of Dioscurus (Rev. Egyptologique, 1880-1883).
Owing to the once prevalent desire of the adherents of one or another polity to find support in primitive precept or practice, the question has assumed a prominence out of proportion to its real importance, and the few and scattered references in early Christian writings have been made the basis for various elaborate theories.
(2) His doctrine of perception, which is, in brief, that "the perception of external things through the organs of sense is a direct mental act or phenomenon of consciousness not susceptible of being resolved into anything else," and the reality of which can be neither proved nor disproved, is not worked out in detail, but is supported by elaborate and sometimes subtle criticisms of all other theories.
Accordingly, we find that sceptical thought did not make its appearance till a succession of mutually inconsistent theories as to the nature of the real had suggested the possibility that they might all alike be false.
The system of Kant, or rather:that part of his system expounded in the Critique of Pure Reason, though expressly distinguished by its author from scepticism, has been included by sceptical many writers in their survey of sceptical theories.
To overlook the Cyrenaic recognition of social obligation and the hedonistic value of altruistic emotion is a very common expedient of those who are opposed to all hedonistic theories of life.
Watson, Hedonistic Theories (1895); James Seth, Ethical Principles, c. i.
iv., ad fin., 1905); Beare, Greek Theories of Elementary Cognition; G.
Yet he would not avow himself a follower of Bacon or indeed of any other teacher: on several occasions he mentions that in order to keep his judgment as unprepossessed as' might be with any of the modern theories of philosophy, till he was "provided of experiments" to help him judge of them, he refrained from any study of the Atomical and the Cartesian systems, and even of the Novum Organum itself, though he admits to "transiently consulting" them about a few particulars.
Holbach exposed the logical consequences of the theories of the Encyclopaedists.
of Aeschylus and Sophocles, and the Ravenna MS. of Aristophanes) maintain the sound traditions of the Alexandrian and Roman ages, those of the times of the Palaeologi give proof of a frequent tampering with the metres of the ancient poets in order to bring them into conformity with theories recently invented by Moschopulus and Triclinius.
The next stage brings us to the critical theories or conclusions which at first gradually and then rapidly, in spite of the keenest criticisms directed against them both by those who clung more or less completely to tradition and by the representatives of the earlier critical school, gained increasing acceptance, until to-day they dominate Old Testament study.
What has been the general effect of these new facts on traditional theories or critical conclusions?
Archaeology has not yet found the key to every unopened door; but it has already done enough to justify the surmise that if criticism had not already disintegrated the traditional theories of the Old Testament, archaeology in the latter half of the 19th century would itself have initiated the process.
These epistles took their form at once from a natural progression of thought and from a new phase of controversy, a sort of Gnosticizing theory, or theories, which perverted Christian practice and impaired the supremacy of Christ by placing other beings or entities by His side.
Of the many theories as to the address, the most plausible are perhaps those which would apply to a single congregation of Hebrew Christians in Rome, or to a local church or group of local churches in Palestine, perhaps like that of which the centre would be at Caesarea.
But the importance of these modifications is something more than the doubt which they have thrown on WH's theories: they have really shifted the centre of gravity of the textual problem.
St Paul was an emancipated Jew, but his converts were mostly Greeks, and the permanent significance of St Paul's theories of law and faith only began to be perceived after his letters had been collected together and had been received into the Church's canon.
No such theories can be counted as more than coincidences which have been adopted, unless we find a very exact connexion, or some positive statement of origination.
Again, there are many theories of the equivalence of different cubic cubits of water with various multiples of talents (2, 3, 18, 24, 33); but connexion by lesser units would be far more probable, as the primary use of weights is not to weigh large cubical vessels of liquid, but rather small portions of precious metals.
There is great uncertainty as to the exact values of all ancient standards of volume -- the only precise data being those resulting from the theories of volumes derived from the cubes of feet and cubits.
Such theories, as we have noticed, are extremely likely to be only approximations in ancient times, even if recognized then; and our data are quite inadequate for clearing the subject.
If certain equivalences between volumes in different countries are stated here, it`must be plainly understood that they are only known to be approximate results, and not to give a certain basis for any theories of derivation.
The theories of connexion give, for the value of the cotyle, metretes = Aeginetan talent --
But probably as good theories could be found for any other amount; and certainly the facts should not be set aside, as almost every author has done, in favour of some one of half a dozen theories.
Both of these theories therefore are rather working equivalents than original derivations; or at least the interrelation was allowed to become far from exact.
The 18th century witnessed the development of these suggestions and the birth of many additional theories.
Lyell marshalled all the observations he could collect in support of this principle, teaching that the present is the key to the past, and arraying all obtainable evidence against the cataclysmic theories of Cuvier.
The brilliant theories of the palaeobotanist, Oswald Heer, as to the extension of a sub-tropical climate to Europe and even to extreme northern latitudes in Tertiary time, which have appealed to the imagination and found their way so widely into literature, are now challenged by J.
Among American contributions to vertebrate palaeontology, 'the development of Cope's theories is to be found in the volumes of his collected essays, The Origin of the Fittest (New York, 1887), and The Primary Factors of Organic Evolution (Chicago, 1896).
What drew these two forces together was the energy exerted by the universal idea of salvation in both systems. Christian Gnosticism actually introduced only one new figure into the already existing Gnostic theories, namely that of the historical Saviour Jesus Christ.
As we have already intimated, Gnosticism had such a power 1 For the disciples of Valentinus, especially Marcus, after whom was named a separate sect, the Marcosians, with their Pythagorean theories of numbers and their strong tincture of the mystical, magic, and sacramental, see Valentinus And Valentinians.
GALLICANISM, the collective name for various theories maintaining that the church and king of France had ecclesiastical rights of their own, independent and exclusive of the jurisdiction of the pope.
Two animistic theories of the origin of religion have been put forward, the one, often termed the "ghost theory," mainly associated with the name of Herbert Spencer, but also maintained by Grant Allen, refers the beginning of religion to the cult of dead human beings; the other, put forward by Dr E.
7)80vij, pleasure, from 7)81us, sweet, pleasant), in ethics, a general term for all theories of conduct in which the criterion is pleasure of one kind or another.
Hedonistic theories of conduct have been held from the earliest times, though they have been by no means of the same character.
The second confusion is the tacit assumption that the pleasure of the hedonist is necessarily or characteristically of a purely physical kind; this assumption is in the case of some hedonistic theories a pure perversion of the facts.
Thus we pass from Egoistic to Universalistic hedonism, Utilitarianism, Social Ethics, more especially in relation to the still broader theories of evolution.
These theories are confronted by the problem of reconciling and adjusting the claims of the individual with those of society.
A criticism of the various hedonistic theories will be found in the article Ethics (ad fin.).
Watson, Hedonistic Theories (1895), J.
The Regrets show that he had advanced far beyond the theories of theDeffence.
It was an enlarged sketch, prepared in four months, in which more stress was laid on fundamental theories than on the facts, which are more rigidly linked together than their historical sequence warrants.
One great point in favour of such theories is that they give a natural sense to iv.
Instead of the subtle Catholic theories concerning divine predestination and human freedom, and instead of a difficult theodicaea, it offered an exceedingly simple conception of sin and goodness.
Howards Introduction to the Local Constitutional History of the United States (Baltimore, 1889) is of use, although the authors theories, are questionable.
The same conditions have made of importance general theories, such as the single tax theory of Henry George, for taxing landed values.
He seems to have regarded the soul as composed of igneous matter, and so approximates the orthodox Pythagorean doctrine of the central fire, or Hestia, to the more detailed theories of Heraclitus.
There are two main legal theories on which such appropriation of private property is justified.
Law proved distasteful, and at Cseke in Szatmar county he devoted his time to aesthetical study, poetry, criticism, and the defence of the theories of Kazinczy.
But a series of conflicts between the Federal government and the state government caused a decline of this national sentiment and the growth of States Rights theories.
In these works he attacked the existing theories of externality which to the unphilosophical mind is proved by visual evidence.
The latter view implies that the oppressed Israelites left Egypt for one of its dependencies, and both theories find only conjectural identifications in the various stations recorded in Num.
But in the most Quixotic of his schemes, and the most Laputan of his theories, his pure and chivalrous nature, his marvellous insight into the heart of things and men, and his..
His art theories have been discussed by Professor Charles Waldstein of Cambridge in The Work of John Ruskin (1894), by Robert de la Sizeranne in Ruskin et la religion de la beaute (1897), and by Professor H.
These results were unexpected, and, in fact, inexplicable by existing theories; and an examination of the telescope showed that the observed anomalies were not due to instrumental errors.
These theories are now discredited.
He saw that the theories of the origin of knowledge in idealistic epistemology are unsound.
At the same time, in spite of his sympathy with the whole development of idealism since Kant, which leads him to reject the thing in itself, to modify a priorism, and to stop at transcendent " ideals," without postulates of practical reason, he nevertheless has so much sympathy with Kant's Kritik as on its theories of sense and understanding to build up a system of phenomenalism, according to which knowledge begins and ends with ideas, and finally on its theory of pure reason to accord to reason a power of logically forming an " ideal " of God as ground of the moral " ideal " of humanity - though without any power of logically inferring any corresponding reality.
Granting then that some foreign influence was at work in Essenism, we have four theories offered to us - that this influence was Persian, Buddhist, Pythagorean, or lastly, as maintained by Lipsius, that of the surrounding Syrian heathenism.
The theory he propounds is closely allied to that of Cudworth, but is interesting mainly in comparison with the subsequent theories of Kant.
The strength of classical reminiscence and the instinct of liberty were reinforced by the support given to communal aspirations by the popular agitator and dangerous tribune, Arnold of Arnold of Brescia, whose theories arrived at an opportune Brescia.
Since whole universities and numerous scholars had pronounced in favour of the new theories, the Pisan synod dismissed all canonical scruples, and unhesitatingly laid claim to authority over both popes, one of whom was necessarily the legitimate pope.
It is the strength and weakness of thermodynamic methods that they are independent of theories of constitution.
Not only did Schelling and Schleiermacher modify their theories in deference to his scientific deductions, but the intellectual life of his contemporaries was considerably affected.
More generally, philosophic rationalism is opposed to empirical theories of knowledge, inasmuch as it regards all true knowledge as deriving deductively from fundamental elementary concepts.
(1728-1730), Golitsuin was the most prominent statesman in Russia and his high aristocratic theories had full play.
The errorists developed speculations and practical theories on the basis of the Old Testament law, which proved extremely seductive to many Christians.
Since belief in the adequacy of the two theories, above outlined, to account for the facts they profess to explain, depends ultimately upon the testimony that can be brought forward of the usefulness of warning characters, of the deception of mimicry and of the capacity for learning by experience possessed by enemies, it is necessary to give some of the evidence that has been accumulated on these points.
His lectures on political economy, which are based on strict utilitarian principles, are in marked accordance with the theories of the English school of economists.
Although the explanation here given of the origin of the Swiss Klippen is that which now is usually accepted, it should be mentioned that other theories have been proposed to account for their peculiarities.
These tribes differed so completely in language and appearance from the surrounding nations, that the ancients originated various theories to account for the phenomenon.
the summer is propagated by the mosquito (Anopheles claviger) marks a new epoch; the most diverse theories as to its origin had hitherto been propounded, but it is now possible to combat it on a definite plan, by draining the marshes, protecting the houses by fine mosquito-proof wire netting (for Anopheles is not active by day), improving the water supply, &c., while for those who have fever, quinine (now sold cheaply by the state) is a great specific. A great improvement is already apparent; and a law carried in 1903 for the Bonifica dell' Agro Romano compels the proprietors within a radius of some 6 m.
Merriam, American Political Theories (New York, 1902).
He attached no value to mere scholarship; scholastic disputations he utterly ignored and despised - and especially the discussions on medical topics, which turned more upon theories and definitions than upon actual practice.
He is compelled, therefore, to rest his medical practice upon general theories of the present state of things; his medical system - if there is such a thing - is an adaptation of his cosmogony.
It is a problem how to reconcile his ignorance, his weakness, his superstition, his crude notions, his erroneous observations, his ridiculous influences and theories, with his grasp of method, his lofty views of the true scope of medicine, his lucid statements, his incisive and epigrammatic criticisms of men and motives.
and those of a policy of compromise with the new state theories represented by France.
On the other hand the incorporation of the country for two decades in the French republic and empire had left deep traces on a considerable section of the population, the French language was commonly spoken and was exclusively used in the law courts and in all public proceedings, and French political theories had made many converts.
There are many theories as to the origin of the office of presbyter in the Christian Church.
This was nothing less than the complete revision of the planetary theories, followed by a laborious comparison of results with the most authentic observations, and the construction of tables representing the movements thus corrected.
(1874-1877), his theories and tables of the several planets.
His father shared the theories on that subject of Condorcet and Godwin; and his son combated them on the ground that the realization of a happy society will always be hindered by the miseries consequent on the tendency of population to increase faster than the means of subsistence.
It is, in fact, the confluence of the Malthusian ideas with the theories of Ricardo, especially with the corollaries which the latter deduced from the doctrine of rent (though these were not accepted by Malthus), that has led to the introduction of population as an element in the discussion of so many economic questions in modern times.
For his ethical theories see Ethics.
Watson, Hedonistic Theories (1895); W.
Watson, Hedonistic Theories (Glasgow, 1895); J.
After wandering about two months through the Celtic region, sometimes in rude boats which did not protect him from the rain, and sometimes on small shaggy ponies which could hardly bear his weight, he returned to his old haunts with a mind full of new images and new theories.
They continued to look on the whole machinery of government, emperor and army, church and police, as their natural enemies, and remained completely under the bondage of the abstract theories of the Socialists, just as much as fifty years ago the German bourgeois were controlled by the Liberal theories.
In such theories not only animals and plants but even the smallest particles of matter are regarded as having some rudimentary kind of sensation or "soul," which plays the same part in relation to their objective activities or modifications as the soul does in the case of human beings.
Such theories are the modern scientific or semi-scientific counterparts of the primitive animism of savage races, and may be compared with the hylozoism of the Greek physicists.
In modern times the chief exponents of panpsychist views are Thomas Carlyle, Fechner and Paulsen: a similar idea lay at the root of the physical theories of the Stoics.
His writings on government and his personal influence among the Liberal politicians of his time determined the change of view from the French Revolution theories of the rights of man and the absolute equality of men to the claiming of securities for good government through a wide extension of the franchise.
Theories.-A great variety of theories have been advanced to account for aurora.
The fact that at most places the morning shows a marked decay of auroral frequency and intensity as compared to the evening, the maximum preceding midnight by several hours, is certainly favourable to theories which postulate ionization of the atmosphere by some cause or other emanating from the sun.
Two questions of considerable importance for the full understanding of the Peloponnesian War may be selected for special notice: (I) how far was it a war between two antagonistic theories of government.
The practical portions, on the contrary, are evidently the result of his own professional experience, and are written with much sagacity, and in a far clearer style than the more pedantic chapters, in which he gives the somewhat fanciful theories of the Greeks.
v., on public buildings, has a preface on the theories of Pythagoras, &c. Its twelve chapters treat - (t) of fora and basilicae, with a description of his own basilica at Fanum; (2) of the adjuncts of a forum (aerarium, prison and curia); (3) of theatres, their site and construction; (4) of laws of harmonics; (5) of the arrangement of tuned bronze vases in theatres for acoustic purposes; (6) of Roman theatres; (7) of Greek theatres; (8) of the selection of sites of theatres according to acoustic principles; (9) of porticus and covered walks; (to) of baths, their floors, hypocausts, the construction and use of various parts; (ii) of palaestrae, xysti and other Greek buildings for the exercise of athletes; (12) of harbours and quays.
is on hydraulic engineering, and the preface on theories of the ancients.
It is probable that she was originally a personification of some department of nature; but the traces of her primitive significance are vague, and have been interpreted to suit various theories.
Both theories have been revived in modern times, the former notably by F.
Gruppe, we understand the air-goddess as a storm deity; some of the arguments in support of the two other theories will be examined in this article.
Later theories symbolized Re in many whc erent ways.
Successive theories interpreted him as the god of the earth, as the god of the Nile, as a god of vegetation, as a moon-god and as a sun-god; and nearly every one of these theories has been claimed to be the primitive truth by some scholar or another.
It has been suggested that the gradual cumulative result of the activity of the nerve cells during the waking day is to load the brain tissue with "fatigue-substances" Theories of which clog the action of the cells, and thus periodi cally produce that loss of consciousness, &c., which is sleep. Such a drugging of tissue by its own excreta is known in muscular fatigue, but the fact that the depth of sleep progressively increases for an hour and more after its onset prevents complete explanation of sleep on similar lines.
Two theories of a physiological nature have been proposed to account for the separation of the complex reactions of these conditions of hypnotism from volition and from memory.
Here were to be found men of ability proof against the eloquence of Hans Tausen or Peder Plad and quite capable of controverting their theories - men like Povl Helgesen, for instance, indisputably the greatest Danish theologian of his day, a scholar whose voice was drowned amidst the clash of conflicting creeds.
Some attempts were made to transplant the theories of the symbolists to Denmark, but without signal success.
But the great diversity of these abnormal cases as shown in the examples cited above suggests the use of great caution in formulating definite morphological theories upon them.
In regard to the period of the formation of the Aral there were formerly two theories.
The theologians tried to uphold the orthodox theory by declaring the sultanate to be subordinate to the imamate or sovereignty of the caliphs, and dependent on the latter especially in all religious matters; but their artificial theories have never modified facts.
In this department Schurz put in force his theories in regard to merit in the Civil Service, permitting no removals except for cause, and requiring competitive examinations for candidates for clerkships; he reformed the Indian Bureau and successfully opposed a bill transferring it to theWar Department; and he prosecuted land thieves and attracted public attention to the necessity of forest preservation.
in the sense of offspring, so that they would be three different words for "son," and there are numerous other theories as to their etymology.
He is an acute thinker and observer, misled by his systematic misanthropy and by his fantastic literary theories.
When Darwin and Wallace framed their theories it was practically assumed that acquired characters were inherited, and the continuous slow action of the environment, moulding each generation to a slight extent in the same direction, was readily accepted by a generation inspired by Sir C. Lyell's doctrine of uniformi tarianism in geological change, as a potent force.
It is equally clear that there is a broad analogy between the kind of characters on which systematists often have to rely for the separation of species and those which Mendelian workers have shown to behave in accordance with the Mendelian theories of mosaic inheritance with segregation.
Ober Anmut and Wiirde, published in 1793, was a further contribution to the elucidation and widening of Kant's theories; and in the eloquent Briefe fiber die cisthetische Erziehung des9Menschen (1795), Schiller proceeded to apply his new standpoint to the problems of social and individual life.
For long periods he was mathematically unproductive, but then sudden inspiration would come upon him and his ideas and theories poured forth far more quickly than he could record them.
But his rooted aversion to the democratic theories imported from France, which were gradually winning their way into England, only grew stronger with advancing age.
Formerly classified by the ancient Greeks with halos, rainbows, &c., under the general group of "meteors," they came to receive considerable attention at the hands of Descartes, Christiaan Huygens, and Sir Isaac Newton; but the correct explanation of coronae was reserved until the beginning of the 19th century, when Thomas Young applied the theories of the diffraction and interference of light to this phenomenon.
We find him at different periods in Seville, Cordova and Morocco, probably as physician to Yusef al-Mansur, who took pleasure in engaging him in discussions on the theories of philosophy and their bearings on the faith of Islam.
It will be seen, however, that neither Socrates nor Isocrates was philosopher in any strict sense of the word, the speculative aims of physicists and metaphysicians being foreign to the practical theories both of the one and of the other.
But the two theories lead to a very different statistical distribution of the stellar motions.
- The emphasis now laid on judgment, the recovery from Hume's confusion of beliefs with ideas and the association of ideas, and the distinction of the mental act of judging from its verbal expression in a proposition, are all healthy signs in recent logic. The most fundamental question, before proceeding to the investigation of inference, is not what we say but what we think in making the judgments which, whether we express them in propositions or not, are both the premises and the conclusion of inference; and, as this question has been diligently studied of late, but has been variously answered, it will be well to give a list of the more important theories of judgment as follows: a.
These theories are of varying value in proportion to their proximity to Aristotle's point that predication is about things, and to Mill's point that judgments and propositions are about things, not about ideas.
Neither Mill, however, nor any of the later logicians whose theories we have quoted, has been able quite to detach judgment from conception; they all suppose that an idea, or ideas, is a condition of all judgment.
that a sensible pressure is existing, is explained by none of the foregoing theories, because it requires nothing but sensation and belief.
Lastly, all the authors of the above-quoted theories err in supposing that all judgment requires conception; for even Mill thinks a combination of ideas necessary, and Brentano, who comes still nearer to the nature of sensory judgment when he says, " Every perception counts for a judgment," yet thinks that an idea is necessary at the same time in order to understand the thing judged.
This point is challenged by all the many ideal theories of judgment already quoted.
What was true in formal logic tended to be absorbed in the correlationist theories.
His general theory of knowledge deriving from Kant and Reid, and including among other things a contaminatio of their theories of perception, 3 in no way sustains or mitigates his narrow view of logic. He makes no effective use of his general formula that to think is to condition.
Hence it is customary to speak of their theories as a mixture of theosophy and physics, or theosophy and chemistry, as the case may be.
Even the acts and theories of the officials were very inconsistent.
Men thought they were witnessing the dawn of a new era in the East; Mehemet Ali was hailed as the most beneficent and enlightened of princes; and political philosophers like Jeremy Bentham, who sent him elaborate letters of good advice, thought to find in him the means for developing their theories in virgin soil.
He was not concerned with speculative questions about God, nor with abstract theories of his relationship to the soul and to the world.
Metaphysics and speculative theories were valueless for Paul; he was conscious of a mighty power transforming his own life and filling him with joy, and that this power was identical with Jesus of Nazareth he knew.
There were other theories also, indeed the germs of all later theories existed even in the second century, but this one prevailed.
These theories have to do with the being to whom the ransom is paid or the sacrifice offered.
Another group of theories deals with the effect of the death of Christ upon the sinner.
Excepting in relatively narrow circles these theories have been seriously studied only by professed theologians.
That Christ died for us, and that we are saved by him, is indeed the living truth of the Church in all ages, and a false impression of the fact is given by dwelling upon theories as if they were central.
These hopes and theories of salvation, however, do not explain the power of Christianity.
Education in general has rendered many familiar with the teachings of science, and, moreover, its practical benefits have given authority to its maxims and theories.
On the one hand there are churchmen who attempt to repeat the historical process which has naturalized Theories of the Church in alien soils by appropriating the forces meat.
Such a religion appeals for its self-verification not to its agreement with cosmological conceptions, either ancient or modern, or with theories of philosophy, however true these may be, but to the moral sense of man.
Further, it is difficult not to accept Cicero's statement that Anaximenes made air a conscious deity; we are, at all events, justified in regarding Anaximenes as a link (perhaps an unconscious link) between crude Hylozoism and definitely metaphysical theories of existence.
This examination of diametrically opposed tendencies resulted in several different theories.
His a priori theories should be compared with Maine's historical inquiries (Ancient Law, c. V.).
Typhon: a Burlesque Poem (1704); Aesop Dress'd, or a Collection of Fables writ in Familiar Verse (1704); The Planter's Charity (1704); The Virgin Unmasked (1709, 1724, 1731, 1742), a work in which the coarser side of his nature is prominent; Treatise of the Hypochondriack and Hysterick Passions (1711, 1715, 1730) admired by Johnson (Mandeville here protests against merely speculative therapeutics, and advances fanciful theories of his own about animal spirits in connexion with "stomachic ferment": he shows a knowledge of Locke's methods, and an admiration for Sydenham); Free Thoughts on Religion (1720); A Conference about Whoring (1725); An Enquiry into the Causes of the Frequent Executions at Tyburn (1725); The Origin of Honour and the Usefulness of Christianity in War (1732).
In Paris Ruge tried to act with Karl Marx as co-editor of the Deutsch-Franzosische JahrNicher, but had little sympathy with Marx's socialistic theories, and soon left him.
The very numerous theories on the subject have generally been founded on a principle which itself is in need of proof, viz.
i., 1909) is indispensable, whether his theories hold their ground or not.
Kirchhoff's Studien zur Geschichte des griechischen Alphabets (4th ed., 1887): his theories were adopted and worked out on a much larger scale in E.
Several theories have been put forward, and importation by sea from China is the theory which has met with most acceptance.
Of these two main theories are possible: (1) that which sees in them traces, of an earlier document - whether entries in a travel-diary, or a more or less consecutive narrative written later; and (2) that which would regard the "we" as due to the author's breaking instinctively into the first person plural at certain points where he felt himself specially identified with the history.
It was only later that the theories upon which he had for long insisted were understood and applied.
See Ionian School; for his ethical theories see T.
The limits of this article do not permit us to state and criticize the many elaborate theories that have been proposed respecting the origin of the poem.
For the bibliography of the earlier literature on Beowulf, and a detailed exposition of the theories therein advocated, see R.
He now again maintained all the theories which he had formerly advocated, and, after a trial that lasted only one day, he was condemned to be burnt as a heretic. The sentence was immediately carried out on the 30th of May 1416, and he met his death with fortitude.
Various theories have been based on this supposition.
It is worthy of remark, in this respect, that - in accordance with Ramanuja's and Nimbarka's philosophical theories - Jayadeva's presentation of Krishna's fickle love for Radha is usually interpreted in a mystical sense, as allegorically depicting the human soul's striving, through love, for reunion with God, and its ultimate attainment, after many backslidings, of the longed-for goal.
In 1713 he produced a reformed liturgy, and soon afterwards founded a society for promoting primitive Christianity, lecturing in support of his theories at London, Bath and Tunbridge Wells.
His quarrel with the papacy was an inherited conflict, not reflecting at all on his religious faith, but the inevitable consequence of inconsistent theories of government, which had been created and could be dissipated only by a long series of events.
These theories, however, being supported, according to the authorities of to-day, by no evidence, statistical or other, need not be here considered.
But the most effective protest against them was a movement which began when Michel de Bay, a professor at the Flemish university of Louvain, put forward certain theories on grace and free-will in the latter part of the 16th century.
Hontheim's theories could not but prove attractive to the local Churches, more especially when they were governed by bishops who were also temporal great lords.
It is not easy to harmonize these quasi-scientific theories with the theory of transmigration of souls which Empedocles seems to expound.
The ideas of universal monarchy and of indivisible Christendom, incorporated in the Holy Roman Empire and the Roman Church, had so far lost their hold that scope was offered for the introduction of new theories both of state and church which would have seemed visionary or impious to the medieval mind.
In this article the Renaissance will be considered as implying a comprehensive movement of the European intellect and will Method toward self-emancipation, toward reassertion of the natural rights of the reason and the senses, toward the conquest of this planet as a place of human occupation, and toward the formation of regulative theories both for states and individuals differing from those of medieval times.
The Renaissance closed the middle ages and opened the modern era, - not merely because the mental and moral ideas which then sprang into activity and owed their force in large measure to the revival of classical learning were opposed to medieval modes of thinking and feeling, but also because the political and international relations specific to it as an age were at variance with fundamental theories of the past.
dualis, containing two, from duo), a philosophical term applied to all theories which attempt to explain facts by reference to two coexistent principles.
The author of the sermo pointedly rejects the two theories that connected the holy virgins with the Theban band and brought them as pilgrims from the East to the West; but he adds that even in his days there still existed an inscription in the church, showing how it had been restored from its foundations by a certain "Clematius, vir consularis, ex partibus Orientis."
Anne Hutchinson and her followers were called "Antinomians," probably more as a term of reproach than with any special reference to her doctrinal theories; and the controversy in which she was involved is known as the "Antinomian Controversy."
Peirce for the theories which make chance an objective factor in the process of the Universe.
Robert Flint published The Philosophy of History in Europe, Historical Philosophy in France; his volumes on Theism and Antitheistic Theories have passed through many editions.
We shall sketch briefly the historical progress during these various stages, and also the growth of electrical theories of electricity during that time.
Kirchhoff determined experimentally in a certain case the absolute value of the current induced by one circuit in another, and in the same year Erik Edland (1819-1888) made a series of careful experiments on the induction of electric currents which further established received theories.
There is no need to dwell upon the early crude theories of the action of amber and lodestone.
The reader may be referred for an admirable summary of the theories of electricity prior to the advent of the electronic hypothesis to J.
Thomson's " Report on Electrical Theories " (Brit.
Assoc. Report, 1885), in which he divides electrical theories enunciated during the 10th century into four classes, and summarizes the opinions and theories of A.
vii.) and the inductive method which is discussed in the Novum Organum are at the root of all theories which have constructed a moral code by an inductive examination of human consciousness and the results of actions.
Among such theories utilitarianism especially is the natural result of the application to the phenomenon of conduct of the Baconian experimental method.
Though the term "autonomy" in its fullest sense implies entire freedom from causal necessity, it can also be used even in determinist theories for relative independence of particular conditions, theological or conventional.
Pughe, Grammar and Dictionary 2 (1832), vitiated by absurd etymological theories; J.
These European Leleges must be interpreted in connexion with the recurrence of place names like Pedasus, Physcus, Larymna and Abae, (a) in Caria, and (b) in the "Lelegian" parts of Greece; perhaps this is the result of some early migration; perhaps it is also the cause of these Lelegian theories.
It will be understood that Nicholson's theories were to print both from the flat and from type arranged in circular or cylinder form.
Theories of inspiration lurk behind the rich vocabulary of Greek prophecy; the seer is g v9Eos, 0€6X7prros, OEOirvcvoTOS, Oc040prtros, and Bakis and Musaeus give their names to sacred verses.
Buddhism conceived men as constantly making their own world for good and ill; it took over from Brahmanism a whole series of heavens and hells to provide an exact adjustment in the future for the virtue or vice of the present; and its eschatologic confidence was one of the potent instruments of its success in countries which, like China and Japan, had developed no theories of retribution or reward beyond the grave.
It need only be added, so far as other modern theories are concerned, that in 1873 M.
For the later years of his life his labours may be summed up under the following heads: (1) On the conservation of energy; (2) on hydro-dynamics; (3) on electro-dynamics and theories of electricity; (4) on meteorological physics; (5) on optics; and (6) on the abstract principles of dynamics.
More and.more he learned from Cabanis and Helvetius to see in the will and the passions the determinants of intellectual life, and in the character and the temper the source of theories and beliefs.
Science, he reminds us, is based on final inexplicabilities; and its attempts by theories of evolution to find an historical origin for humanity in rudimentary matter show a misconception of the problem.
He took an early interest in archaeological research, and between 1875 and 1880 was busily engaged in studying ancient British remains at Stonehenge and elsewhere; in 1880 he published his book on Stonehenge, with an account of his theories on this subject.
Hence it was that Knox as a statesman so often struck successfully at the centre of the complex motives of his time, leaving it to later critics to reconcile his theories of `action.
The theories of construction remained rudimentary until early in the 19th century, when the Gota (q.v.) canal was opened.
This connexion is only supplied by theories which treat aberrations generally and analytically by means of indefinite series.
The Roman revolution availed itself of Arnold's popularity, and of his theories, but was carried out without his aid.
The works of Marquart, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte von Eran (2 pts., I896I905), abound ir daring theories and must be used with caution.
Thus the divine kingship of Alexander derives in,direct line, not from the Oriental polities which (Egypt apart) know nothing of royal apotheosisbut from these Hellenic theories of the state.