Its discussion may be found in any work on theoretical astronomy.
Ricardo's works, in fact, do not explain a theoretical system, but contain the matured reflections, more or less closely reasoned, of a man of great mental power looking out on the world as it appeared to a business man experienced in affairs.
in 1824 by Stephen van Rensselaer as a "school of theoretical and practical science," incorporated in 1826, and reorganized in 1849 as a general polytechnic institute.
Other schools are the school of naval medicine at Bordeaux with annexes at Toulon, Brest and Rochefort; schools of torpedoes and mines and of gunnery at Toulon, &c., &c. The coles dhydro graphic established at various ports are for theoretical training for the higher grades of the merchant service.
Human philosophy, theoretical physics, poetry, Italian Masters, romance.
The later text, known as the Lex Alamannorum, dates from a period when Alamannia was independent under national dukes, but recognized the theoretical suzerainty of the Frankish kings.
Given perfect information, frictionless markets, and other theoretical impossibilities, a finite amount of utility can be achieved in that way.
only survived five years at Utrecht, and it was reserved for Heinrich Regius (van Roy) - who in 1638 had been appointed to the new chair of botany and theoretical medicine at Utrecht, and who visited Descartes at Egmond in order more thoroughly to learn his views - to throw down the gauntlet to the adherents of the old methods.
Berthollet's theoretical views regarding the composition of the metallic oxides, and he also showed Berthollet's "zoonic acid" to be impure acetic acid (1802); but Berthollet (q.v.), so far from resenting these corrections from a younger man, invited him to become a member of the Societe d'Arcueil.
There is no Uruguayan gold coin in circulation, but the theoretical monetary unit is the gold peso national, weighing 1.697 grammes, .917 fine.
The average man is pessimist or optimist not on theoretical grounds, but owing to the circumstances of his life, his material prosperity, his bodily health, his general temperament.
Theoretical speculations were revived by Lavoisier, who, having explained the nature of combustion and determined methods for analysing compounds, concluded that vegetable substances ordinarily contained carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, while animal substances generally contained, in addition to these elements, nitrogen, and sometimes phosphorus and sulphur.
For all of Quinn LeBlanc's intellectual abilities, I not sure Martha isn't the main bread winner while Quinn tinkers in the theoretical world of the intellectual elite.
The works of the ancient Greek geographers were translated into Arabic, and starting with a sound basis of theoretical knowledge, exploration once more made progress.
Here is what I think he meant: If you could see a theoretical possibility for something in physics—"something that might be true"—then given enough time, you eventually could achieve it in reality.
The theoretical limit is about i in 16; between I in 20 and 1 in 16 a steam locomotive depending on the adhesion between its wheels and the rails can only haul about its own weight.
Lunar Theory (Cambridge 1896), or the work of Watson or of Bauschinger on Theoretical Astronomy.
The first effort is theoretical or speculative; the second, practical.
of the 4th of August was but an orgy, giving the people an immense theoretical liberty while not assisting them to practical freedom, and overthrowing the old regime before a new one could be constituted.
Amongst the most important of his works not already mentioned may be named the following: - Mathematical Tracts (1826) on the Lunar Theory, Figure of the Earth, Precession and Nutation, and Calculus of Variations, to which, in the second edition of 1828, were added tracts on the Planetary Theory and the Undulatory Theory of Light; Experiments on Iron-built Ships, instituted for the purpose of discovering a correction for the deviation of the Compass produced by the Iron of the Ships (1839); On the Theoretical Explanation of an apparent new Polarity in Light (1840); Tides and Waves (1842).
It was the theoretical eastern limit of the Jewish kingdom; for a long time it separated Assyria from the Khita or Hittites; it divided the eastern from the western satrapies of Persia (Ezra iv.
It was largely a devotional aid to the realization of present union with God; and, so far as it was theoretical, it was a theory of the faculties by which such a union is attainable.
The purely theoretical character of Anu is thus still further emphasized, and in the annals and votive inscriptions as well as in the incantations and hymns, he is rarely introduced as an active force to whom a personal appeal can be made.
Theoretical considerations as to how far Kopp was justified in choosing the boiling-points under atmospheric pressure as being comparable states for different substances now claim our attention.
After completing these reductions, Airy made inquiries, before engaging in any theoretical investigation in connexion with them, whether any other mathematician was pursuing the subject, and learning that Hansen had taken it in hand under the patronage of the king of Denmark, but that, owing to the death of the king and the consequent lack of funds, there was danger of his being compelled to abandon it, he applied to the admiralty on Hansen's behalf for the necessary sum.
The charter requires "a course of military instruction, both theoretical and practical," and the discipline of the institution is military in form and principle.
Thus over a great part of Europe the Catholic Church was split up into territorial or national churches, which, whatever the theoretical ties which bound them together, were in fact separate organizations, tending ever more and more to become isolated and self-contained units with no formal intercommunion, and, as the rivalry of nationalities grew, with increasingly little even of intercommunication.
of Zadok to the proposal to share the sanctuary on equal terms with these new-comers, and the theoretical justification of the degradation of the latter L to the position of mere servants in the Temple supplied by Ezekiel soon after the captivity, need not here be dealt with.
Abandoning therefore all a priori theoretical assumption, Bashforth set to work to measure experimentally the velocity of shot and the resistance of the air by means of equidistant electric screens furnished with vertical threads or wire, and by a chronograph which measured the instants of time at which the screens were cut by a shot flying nearly horizontally.
If we take, for example, the corner-stone of the British commercial system in the 19th century, namely, the policy of "free trade ", the public do not now read the economic works which supplied the theoretical basis of that policy, and, indeed, would not be convinced by them.
Studies of particular questions, both concrete and theoretical, in foreign languages are too numerous to specify, and much of the best modern work is to be found in economic periodicals.
C. Watson's Theoretical Astronomy is the most complete in the English language.
The system culminates in a mystical act, and in the sequel, especially with Iamblichus and the Syrian Neoplatonists, mystical practice tended more and more to overshadow the theoretical groundwork.
Whilst this principle is undoubtedly applicable to the great majority of chemical actions under ordinary conditions, it is subject to numerous exceptions, and cannot therefore be taken (as its authors originally intended) as a secure basis for theoretical reasoning on the connexion between thermal effect and chemical affinity.
On the Continent, the movement was more aristocratic and theoretical; it was part of the intellectual renaissance which found its most striking expression in the principles of the French Revolution.
Experiment, however, showed that while the quotient on the left hand of this equation was fairly constant for a great number of substances, yet its value was not gR but 7 R; this means that the critical density is, as a general rule, 3.7 times the theoretical density.
Laplace is due the theoretical proof that this function is independent of temperature and pressure, and apparent experimental confirmation was provided by Biot and Arago's, and by Dulong's observations on gases and vapours.
Nernst, Theoretical Chemistry).
van't Hoff, Lectures on Theoretical and Physical Chemistry; J.
For theoretical considerations see Vaporization, and for the most important application see Steam Engine; also Water.
To these must be added his elaborate treatise on Shipbuilding, Theoretical and Practical.
This survey of the existing developments of pure mathematics confirms the conclusions arrived at from the previous survey of the theoretical principles of the subject.
The theoretical absolutism of the sultan had, indeed, always been tempered not only by traditional usage, local privilege, the juridical and spiritual precepts of the Koran and the Sunnet, and their 'Ulema interpreters, and the privy council, but for nearly a century by the direct or indirect pressure of the European powers, and during the reigns of Abd-ul-Aziz and of Abd-ul-Hamid by the growing force of public opinion.
Whatever the theoretical value of this injunction may have been, however, in practice the use of the pastoral staff was discontinued until its gradual revival in the last decades of the 19th century.
The freezing points and vapour pressures of solutions of sugar are also in conformity with the theoretical numbers.
The theoretical value for the depression of the freezing point of a dilute solution per gramme-equivalent of solute per litre is 1857° C. Completely ionized solutions of salts with two ions should give double this number or 3.714°, while electrolytes with three ions should have a value of 5.57°.
Allowing for incomplete ionization the general concordance of these numbers with the theoretical ones is very striking.
The theoretical element is the ratio of the parallactic inequality to the solar parallax.
The factor of proportionality will be I-41r, so that ' The principal theoretical investigations are summarized in Mascart and Joubert's Electricity and Magnetism, i.
Taylor Jones subsequently found a good agreement between the theoretical and the observed values of the tractive force in fields ranging up to very high intensities (Phil.
Ampere's experimental and theoretical investigation of the mutual action of electric currents, and of the equivalence of a closed circuit to a polar magnet, the latter suggesting his celebrated hypothesis that molecular currents were the cause of magnetism.
Although arbitrations proper may be thus distinguished from " mixed commissions," it must not be supposed that any hard or fast theoretical line can be drawn between them.
Within this broad division, however, have appeared from time to time political groups in bewildering variety, each adopting a party designation according to the exigencies of the moment, but each basing its programme on one or other of the theoretical foundations above mentioned.
When the series is theoretically continuous, the theoretical graph will be a continuous figure of which the lines actually drawn are ordinates.
We therefore take a third step, and obtain theoretical continuity by considering that every point on the line, if it does not represent a rational number, represents something which may be called an irrational number.
It is not likely that such a result will ever be fully attained in practice; but the case is worth stating, in order to show that there is no theoretical limit to the concentration FIG.
There is clearly no theoretical limit to the resolving power of gratings, even in spectra of given order.
According to the principle already laid down it can make but little difference in the principal direction corresponding to the first spectrum, provided each line lie within a quarter of an interval (a+d) from its theoretical position.
In theoretical investigations these problems are usually treated as of two dimensions only, everything being referred to the plane passing through the luminous point and perpendicular to the diffracting edges, supposed to be straight and parallel.
Zarlino's first theoretical work was the Istitutioni Armoniche (Venice, 1558; reprinted 1562 and 1573).
The Istitutioni and Dimostrationi Armoniche deal, like most other theoretical works of the period, with the whole science of music as it was understood in the 16th century.
Peligot's results, though called in question by Berzelius, have been amply confirmed by all subsequent investigators; only now, on theoretical grounds, first set forth by Mendeleeff, we double Peligot's atomic weight, so that U now signifies 240 parts of uranium, while UO 3 stands as the formula of the yellow oxide, and UO 2 as that of Berzelius's metal.
Snellius) to calculate the radii of the bows, and his theoretical angles were in agreement with those observed.
Since the value of µ for water is about, it follows that n must be at least unity for a rainbow to be formed; there is obviously no theoretical limit to the value of n, and hence rainbows of higher orders are possible.
Experimental confirmation of Airy's theoretical results was afforded in 1842 by William Hallows Miller (Camb.
They produced many eminent anatomists, but in the end seem to have become lost in theoretical subtleties, and to have maintained too high a standard of literary cultivation.
Unfortunately it was neither this nor his zeal for research that chiefly won him followers, but the completeness of his theoretical explanations, which fell in with the mental habits of succeeding centuries, and were such as have flattered the intellectual indolence of all ages.
His principles were welcomed as a return to nature by those who were weary of theoretical disputes.
The medicine of the i 8th century is notable, like that of the latter part of the 17th, for the striving after complete theoretical systems. The influence of the iatro-physical school was by no means exhausted; and in England, especially through the indirect influence of Sir Isaac Newton's (1642-1727) great astronomical generalizations, it took on a mathematical aspect, and is sometimes known as iatro-mathematical.
Their English contemporaries and successors, John Freind, William Cole, and Richard Mead, leaned also to mechanical explanations, but with a distrust of systematic theoretical completeness, which was perhaps partly a national characteristic, partly the result of the teaching of Sydenham and Locke.
George Ernest Stahl (1660-1734) was for more than twenty years professor of medicine at Halle, and thus a colleague of Hoffmann, whom he resembled in constructing a complete theoretical system, though their systems had little or nothing in common.
Unfortunately the lesson which his contemporaries learnt was not the importance of experiment, but only the need of contriving ether" systems "less open to objection; and thus the influence of Haller led directly to the theoretical subtleties of William Cullen and John Brown, and only indirectly and later on to the general anatomy of M.
The theoretical differences between this and the" stimulus "theory need not be expounded.
From a theoretical point of view Hahnemann's is one of the abstract systems, pretending to universality, which modern medicine neither accepts nor finds it worth while to controvert.
But these indirect benefits were quite independent of the truth or falsity of his theoretical system.
Among the most ardent of his followers was Francois Joseph Victor Broussais (1772-1838), whose theoretical views, partly founded on those of Brown and partly on the so-called vitalist school of Theophile Bordeu (1722-1776) and Paul Joseph Barthez (1734-1806), differed from these essentially in being avowedly based on anatomical observations.
Hardly any theoretical system is of English birth; Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), the grandfather of the great Charles Darwin, alone makes an exception.
Dr Hopkinson presented a rare combination of practical with theoretical ability, and his achievements in pure scientific research are not less intrinsically notable than the skill with which he applied their results to the solution of concrete engineering problems. His original work is contained in more than sixty papers, all written with a complete mastery both of style and of subject-matter.
This " barrage scheme " was discussed at considerable length, and its theoretical advantages were not universally admitted.
Referring the reader to the article Elasticity for the theoretical and to the Strength Of Materials far the practical aspects of this subject, we give here a table of the "modulus of elasticity," E (column 2), for millimetre and kilogramme.
It is important to note that in conceiving philosophic studies to be all one with historical studies and attaining to this unity in himself, he cultivated historical studies to an equal extent with purely theoretical and speculative studies, concentrating especially upon the history of thought and poetry.
For the theoretical side he read all the text-books which he could find, somewhat to the detriment of his ordinary school studies.
In the case of the motion of the moon around the earth, assuming the gravitation of the latter to be subject to the modification in question, the annual motion of the moon's perigee should be greater by I 5" than the theoretical motion.
Brown is the first investigator to determine the theoretical motions with this degree of precision; and he finds that there is no such divergence between the actual and the computed motion.
Frontinus also wrote a theoretical treatise on military science (De re militari) which is lost.
In addition he wrote (1863) on theoretical and physical chemistry for the Graham-Otto Lehrbuch der Chemie, and for many years assisted Liebig in editing the Annalen der Chemie and the Jahresbericht.
As the practical work depends on the conclusions of the theoretical, the latter must obviously come first in order of execution.
But as the claims of the church to be the guardian through its episcopate of the apostolic tradition, of the Christian faith itself, were magnified, and unity in practice as well as in doctrine came to be regarded as essential, this distinction became a theoretical rather than a practical one.
Theoretical conceptions were revived by Stahl, who held that acids were the fundamentals of all salts, and the erroneous idea that sulphuric acid was the principle of all acids.
A theoretical supremacy was accorded by the Incas to Pachacamac, whose worship, like that of Vira cocha, they appear to have already found when they conquered the land.
The theoretical aspect is discussed in Leon Guillet's Etude theorique des alliages metalliques (2904).
But this simple relation is only true of the net balances of heat and work in a complete cyclical process, which must be adopted for theoretical purposes if we wish to eliminate the unknown changes of intrinsic energy.
A cycle such as ABCD enclosed by parts of two isothermals, BC, AD, and two adiabatics, AB, CD, is the simplest form of cycle for theoretical purposes, since all the heat absorbed, H', is taken in during the process represented by one isothermal at the temperature o', and all the heat rejected, H", is given out during the process represented by the other at the temperature 0".
Taking this ideal limit as a theoretical or absolute zero, the value of H may be represented on the diagram by the whole area included between the two adiabatics BAZ, CDZ' down to the points where they intersect the isothermal of absolute zero, or the zero isopiestic OV asymptotically at infinity.
In the modified Joule-Thomson equation (17), both c and n have simple theoretical interpretations, and it is possible to express the thermodynamical properties of the substance in terms of them by means of reasonably simple formulae.
The values of the corresponding functions for the liquid or solid cannot be accurately expressed, as the theoretical variation of the specific heat is unknown, but if we take the specific heat at constant pressure s to be approximately constant, and observe the small residual variation dh of the total heat, we may write F'=s'D+dh+B'.
The important part played by the residual air in the globe had also been deduced by Osborne Reynolds from observing that on turning off the light, the vanes came to rest very much sooner than the friction of the pivot alone would account for; in fact, the rapid subsidence is an illustration of Maxwell's great theoretical discovery that viscosity in a gas (as also diffusion both of heat and of the gas itself) is sensibly independent of the density.
A general introduction to the system is given in the tractate Ober den Begriff der Wissenschaftslehre (On the Notion of the Theory of Science), 1794, and the theoretical portion is worked out in the Grundlage der gesammten Wissenschaftslehre (Foundation of the whole Theory of Science, 1794) and Grundriss des Eigenthiimlichen d.
The last is probably the most important of all Fichte's works; apart from it, his theoretical philosophy is unintelligible.
As determined the ego is theoretical, as determining it is practical; ultimately the opposed principles must be united by showing how the ego is both determining and determined.
But more important than all this, perhaps, is the thoroughly practical tone which Guido assumes in his theoretical writings, and which differs greatly from the clumsy scholasticism of his contemporaries and predecessors.
Gioja's latest work Filosofia della statistica (2 vols., 1826; p vols., 1829-1830) contains in brief compass the essence of his ideas on human life, and affords the clearest insight into his aim and method in philosophy both theoretical and practical.
The theoretical investigation given above shows that if U is the velocity in air at 1° C. then the velocity U ° at o° C. in the same air is independent of the barometric pressure and that Uo = U /(1 +o o01841), whence U 0 =332 met./sec.
54) also measured the refractive indices of various gases, using a prism containing the gas to be experimented on, and he found that the deviation by the prism agreed very closely with the theoretical values of sound in the gas and in air.
- FOr the history of experimental and theoretical acoustics see F.
von Helmholtz treats the theoretical aspects of sound in his Vorlesungen fiber die mathematischen Principien der Akustik (1898), and the physiological and psychical aspects in his Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen (1st ed., 1863; 5th ed., 1896), English translation by A.
Barton, A Text-Book on Sound (1908), aims to provide students with a text-book on sound, embracing both its experimental and theoretical aspects.
When the psalmist declares that " the fool hath said in his heart, there is no God," he probably does not refer to theoretical denial, but to a practical disbelief in God's government of human affairs, shown in disobedience to moral laws.
It must be judged not only by theoretical but by practical arguments, in its relations either to the individual or to a society.
In a three-span bridge the theoretical advantage of continuity is about 49% for a dead load and 16% for a live load.
The earliest published theoretical investigations of the stresses in bracing bars were perhaps those in the paper by W.
Professor Claxton Fidler (Treatise on Bridge Construction, 1887) has made a very careful theoretical analysis of the weights of bridges of different types, and has obtained the following values for the limiting spans.
the closest approximation of actual to theoretical dimensions of the parts.
During this period they receive regular instruction in theoretical and practical knowledge, and have to pass periodical examinations.
p. 55) by the interaction of nitrogen iodide with zinc ethyl, the products of the reaction being triethylamine and ammonia; the ammonia liberated was absorbed in hydrochloric acid, and 95% of the theoretical amount of the ammonium chloride was obtained.
This description, quoted from James Clerk Maxwell's article in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, represents the historical position of the subject up till about 1860, when Maxwell began those constructive speculations in electrical theory, based on the influence of the physical views of Faraday and Lord Kelvin, which have in their subsequent development largely transformed theoretical physics into the science of the aether.
A train of ideas which strongly impressed itself on Clerk Maxwell's mind, in the early stages of his theoretical views, was put forward by Lord Kelvin in 1858; he showed that the special characteristics of the rotation of the plane of polarization, discovered by Faraday in light propagated along a magnetic field, viz.
The greatest obstacle to such a search for the fundamental medium is the illimitable complexity of matter, as contrasted with the theoretical simplicity and uniformity of the physical agencies which connect together its different parts.
For purposes of theoretical discussions relating to moving radiators and reflectors, it is important to remember that the dynamics of all this theory of electrons involves the neglect of terms of the order (v/c) 2, not merely in the value of K but throughout.
But no formula has yet been invented, derived on theoretical principles from the physical data, which will assign by calculation a definite magnitude to 3.
After his victory over Banks at Cedar Mountain, near Culpeper, Virginia, Jackson led the daring march round the flank of General Pope's army, which against all theoretical rules ended in the great victory of second Bull Run.
The value of this intensity is equal to that of the force of gravity at the Bureau International, Paris (at the level of the Bureau), divided by 1.000332; a co-efficient which allows for theoretical reduction to the latitude 45° and to the level of the sea.
The first or theoretical part deals with the high origin of the human soul, and shows how it has departed from its first estate.
The theoretical existence of primitive or stem forms was clearly perceived by Darwin, but the steps by which the stem form might be restored were first clearly enunciated by Huxley in 1880 (" On the Application of Evolution to the Arrangement of the Vertebrata and more particularly of the Mammalia," Scient.
457) namely, by sharp separation of the primary or stem characters from the secondary or adaptive characters in all the known descendants or branches of a theoretical original form.
Reduction of orthonitrocinnamic acid gives orthoaminocinnamic acid, C 6 H 4 (NH 2)CH:CH 000H, which is of theoretical importance, as it readily gives a quinoline derivative.
There are also grave theoretical objections to Cauchy's formula.
The theoretical side of inner nature in its successive grades from sensation to the highest form of spirit, the abstracting reason which emphasizes the difference of subjective and objective, leaves an unsolved problem which receives satisfaction only in the practical, the individualizing activity.
The practical, again, taken in conjunction with the theoretical, forces on the question of the reconciliation between the free conscious organization of thought and the apparently necessitated and unconscious mechanism of the objective world.
On theoretical grounds it is probable that animatism preceded animism; but savage thought is no more consistent than that of civilized man; and it may well be that animistic and panthelistic doctrines are held simultaneously by the same person.
The theoretical powers of these comitia were extensive both in the election of magistrates and in legislation.
Whatever theoretical reasons there may be for assuming his earlier existence, they must be held as warranting no more than a presumptive conclusion, which up to the present time lacks confirmation by certain evidence.
If, however, application be made of the rate in its entirety from 1790 to 1900, the result would be a theoretical pure native stock in 1900 equal to the then actually existing native and foreign stock combined.
The college includes a school for teachers, a school of theoretical and practical agriculture and a school of household science for the training of young women.
In his earlier years he devoted himself to chemistry, both theoretical and applied, publishing papers on the preparation of gold and platinum, numerical relations between the atomic weights of analogous elements, the formation of aventurine glass, the manufacture of illuminating gas from wood, the preservation of oil-paintings, &c. The reaction known by his name for the detection of bile acids was published in 1844.
Unfortunately considerations of luminosity compel the observer often to widen the slit much beyond the range within which the theoretical value of resolving power holds in practice.
Theoretical resolving power can only be obtained when the whole collimator is filled with light and further (as pointed out by Lord Rayleigh in the course of discussion during a meeting of the " Optical Convention " in London, 1905) each portion of the collimator must be illuminated by each portion of the luminous source.
- The general recognition of spectrum analysis as a method of physical and chemical research occurred simultaneously with the theoretical foundation of the connexion between radiation and absorption.
Though the experimental and theoretical developments were not necessarily dependent on each other, and by far the larger proportion of the subject which we now term " Spectroscopy " could stand irrespective of Gustav Kirchhoff's thermodynamical investigations, there is no doubt that the latter was, historically speaking, the immediate cause of the feeling of confidence with which the new branch of science was received, for nothing impresses the scientific world more strongly than just that little touch of mystery which attaches to a mathematical investigation which can only be understood by the few, and is taken on trust by the many, provided that the author is a man who commands general confidence.
He finds a remarkable agreement between the theoretical and experimental values, which it would be important to confirm with the more suitable instruments which are now at our disposal, as we might in this way get an estimate of the energy of translatory motion of the luminous molecules.
All these forms are put into the shade by that which was introduced by Ritz, led thereto apparently by theoretical considerations.
This is done in the hope that some theoretical foundation may then be found for the equation.
Further, according to Fichte, on the one hand the Ego posits itself as determined through the non-Ego - no object, no subject; this is the principal fact about theoretical reason; on the other hand, the Ego posits itself as determining the non-Ego - no subject, no object; this is the principal fact about practical reason.
Hence he united theoretical and practical reason, which Kant had separated, and both with will, which Kant had distinguished; for he held that the Ego, in positing the non-Ego, posits both its own limit and its own means to the end, duty, by its activity of thinking which requires will.
In making the essence of mind activity and construction, in destroying the separation of theoretical and practical reason, in asserting that mind thinks things as means to ends of the will, he prepared the way for Schopenhauer and other voluntarists.
They rightly revolted against the inconsistencies of Kant's third and fourth positions about the existence of unknown but postulated things in themselves, hidden from theoretical, but revealed to practical, reason.
If he has any originality, it consists in substituting for the association of ideas the " economy of thinking," by which he means that all theoretical conceptions of physics, such as atoms, molecules, energy, &c., are mere helps to facilitate our consideration of things.
Fichte's " Wissenschaftslehre," he said, is a completely untenable system, and a metaphysics of fruitless apices, in which he disclaimed any participation; his own Kritik he refused to regard as a propaedeutic to be construed by the Fichtian or any other standpoint, declaring that it is to be understood according to the letter; and he went so far as to assert that his own critical philosophy is so satisfactory to the reason, theoretical and practical, as to be incapable of improvement, and for all future ages indispensable for the highest ends of humanity.
He was in the habit of taking his students into the workshops, that they might acquire a practical as well as a theoretical knowledge of different processes and handicrafts.
2 5, 1 555), which left princes a free choice between the rival confessions, with the right to impose either on their subjects; but much bitter internal strife was kept up by Protestants on the theoretical question of adiaphora; to appease this was one object of the Formula Concordiae, 1577.
They rejected Mr Chamberlain's food-taxes, discredited his statistics, and, while admitting the theoretical orthodoxy of retaliation, criticized Mr Balfour's attitude and repudiated his assumption that retaliation would be desirable.
Although there was no theoretical restriction to of the temporal supremacy and religious power of the papacy, certain historical facts of great importance of France.
By these decrees - which created as the supreme authority within the Church a power which had not been appointed as such by Christ 1 - the members of the council of Constance sought to give their position a theoretical basis before proceeding to independent action against the pope.
This is the earliest example of a theoretical investigation of the rotation of rigid bodies.
Love, Theoretical Mechanics (1897).
Willard Gibbs, who considered the whole problem of physical and chemical equilibrium in papers published in 1877, though the application of his principles only began to make extensive progress about twenty years after the publication of his purely theoretical investigations.
The pressure at each point should be that of the vapour, but since the solubility of a solid does not change much with pressure, measurements under the constant atmospheric pressure give a curve practically identical with the theoretical one.
The theoretical form of the freezing point diagrams when solid solutions are present depends on the relation between the available energy and the composition in the two phases.
It will be noticed that in all these theoretical curves the points of initial fusion and solidification do not in general coincide; we reach a different curve first according as we approach the diagram from below, where all is solid, or from above, where all is liquid.
The freezing and melting point curves are exactly similar to theoretical curves of fig.
But the elucidation of the complicated phenomena of solid solutions would have been impossible without the theoretical knowledge deduced from the principle of available energy.
Before considering the more complicated case of a concentrated solution, we will deal with one which is very dilute, when the theoretical relations are much simplified.
In practice the time required to reach these various conditions of equilibrium would be too great for experimental demonstration, but the theoretical consideration of vapour pressures is of fundamental importance.
When the solution ceases to be dilute in the thermodynamic sense of the word, that is, when the spheres of influence of the solute particles intersect each other, this reasoning ceases to apply, and the resulting modification of the gas laws as applied to solutions becomes a matter for further investigation, theoretical or experimental.
The experiments of Raoult on solutions of organic bodies in water and on solutions of many substances in some dozen organic solvents have confirmed this result, and therefore the theoretical value of the osmotic pressure from which it was deduced.
Although even good membranes of copper ferrocyanide are rarely perfectly semi-permeable, and in other membranes such as indiarubber, &c., which have been used, the defects from the theoretical values of the equilibrium pressure are very great, yet, in the light of the exact verification of theory given by the experiments described above, it is evident that such failures to reach the limiting value in no wise invalidate the theory of osmotic equilibrium.
They merely show that, in the conditions of the particular experiments, the thermodynamic equilibrium value of the osmotic pressure cannot be reached - the thermodynamic or theoretical osmotic pressure (which must be independent of the nature of the membrane provided it is truly semi-permeable) is a different thing from the equilibrium pressure actually reached in a given experiment, which measures the balance of ingress and egress of solvent through an imperfect semi-permeable membrane.
Dilute solutions of substances such as cane-sugar, as we have seen, give experimental values for the connected osmotic properties - pressure, freezing point and vapour pressure - in conformity with the theoretical values.
Even this correction is not sufficient in solution of sugar, where the theoretical curve II lies below the experimental observations.
The greater the number of water molecules attached to one sugar molecule, the less the residual volume, and the greater the theoretical pressure.
In practice the theoretical quantity of acid and Chile saltpetre is not used, but the charge is so regulated that the mixture of acid and neutral sodium sulphate formed in the retort remains liquid at the temperature employed, and consequently can be readily removed.
Among albino rats, for instance, the author of this article has reason to believe, upon theoretical grounds resting on an experimental basis, that probably no less than thirteen types exist.
These cases, however, have a peculiar interest and importance for they have been studied in fuller detail than any others and the discovery of a particular instance in South America first suggested to Bates the theoretical explanation of this bionomical phenomenon.
As a part of the voltage is consumed in the latter duty, only the residue can be converted into chemical work, and as the theoretical voltage of the aluminium fluoride in the cryolite is 4.0, provided the bath is kept properly supplied with alumina, the fluorides are not attacked.
Lastly, in a practical point of view: Thales furnished the first example of an application of theoretical geometry to practice,' and laid the foundation of an important branch of the same - the measurement of heights and distances.
We must observe, as regards the plants of the lower alpine region, that it is the actual presence of a forest vegetation, rather than the theoretical treelimit, which affects their vertical distribution; so that, e.g.
The most important theoretical question concerning the Amphineura is how far do they represent the original condition of the ancestral mollusc?
The length of the course as prescribed by law is two years, but it is usually extended to three or four years, and the instruction, though mainly theoretical, has regard to the special local industries; the fees, if any, may not exceed one pound sterling per annum.
The Zygomycetes, of which about 200 species are described, are especially important from a theoretical standpoint, since they furnished the series whence Brefeld derived the vast majority of the fungi.
the product of reflection upon experience, thus reducing the valiuity of the historical argument to that of the theoretical proofs.
107.) The course of Hume's work follows immediately from his fundamental principle, and the several divisions of the treatise, so far as the theoretical portions are concerned, are but its logical consequences.
The theoretical question is consequently that of the nature of the supposed relation, and of the certainty of judgments and inferences resting on it.
The results of Hume's theoretical analysis are applied by him to the problems of practical philosophy and religion.
The theoretical efficiency of the wheel would then be Ioo %.
Nevertheless, the theoretical possibility, and its realization in many cases, has brought considerations to the front which have recently become of predominant interest; consequently the possible transformations of isomers and polymers will be considered later under the denomination of reversible or dynamical isomerisms.
- Measurements of thermal conductivity present peculiar difficulties on account of the variety of quantities to be observed, the slowness of the process of conduction, the impossibility of isolating a quantity of heat, and the difficulty of exactly realizing the theoretical conditions of the problem.
During the I9th century, however, a large measure of ecclesiastical self-government (by means of general synods, &c.) was introduced, pan passu with the growth of constitutional government in the state; and in effect, though the theoretical supremacy of the sovereign survives in the church as in the state, he cannot exercise it save through the general synod, which is the state parliament for ecclesiastical purposes.
While the Reichsrath, transferred to Kremsier, was discussing " fundamental rights " and the difficult question of how to reconcile the theoretical unity with the actual dualism of the empire, the knot was being cut by the sword on the plains of Hungary.
To a great extent the theoretical and historical parts of his work are compiled from earlier Greek authors, of whom he gives a list at i.
In any case, when Mahomet died, the separate pieces of the Koran, notwithstanding their theoretical sacredness, existed only in scattered copies; they Trans= were consequently in great danger of being partially mission of or entirely destroyed.
theoretical knowledge fell short of their practical accomplishment.
The action of atropine on the eye is of high theoretical and practical importance.
Ethics alone he considered worthy of study, and in that only general and theoretical questions.
But the word "pragmatism" itself first occurs in print in 1898, in James's pamphlet on Theoretical Conceptions and Practical Results, and again in his Varieties of Religious Experience (1902, P. 444).
he had imbibed from his Swiss tutor, Frederic Cesar de Laharpe, the principles of Rousseau's gospel of humanity; from his military governor, General Soltikov, the traditions of Russian autocracy; while his father had inspired him with his own passion of military parade, and taught him to combine a theoretical love of mankind with a practical contempt for men.
It flattered his vanity to pose before the world as the dispenser of benefits; but his theoretical liberalism was mated with an autocratic will which brooked no contradiction.
The newly created council of ministers, and the senate, endowed for the first time with certain theoretical powers, became in the end but the slavish instruments of the tsar and his favourites of the moment.
The principal editions of Durer's theoretical writings are these :- Geometry and Perspective.
Ann., 1828, 12, p. 253) is of theoretical importance, since it was the first organic compound obtained from inorganic materials.
Co-operation of the two factors appears to supply a causal theory of the occurrence of evolution; the suggestion of their co-operation and the comparison of the possible results with the actual achievements of breeders in producing varieties were the features of Charles Darwin's theoretical work which made it a new beginning in the science of biology, and which reduced to insignificance all earlier work on the theory of evolution.
Weismann, however, from theoretical considerations and from analysis of supposed cases has at the least thrown doubt on the transmission of acquired characters.
It is plain that whilst the existence of variation can be demon strated and the occurrence of evolution established by induction and deduction, the part played by selection must remain largely theoretical.
It was not only in theoretical but in academical matters that his sympathies were on the liberal side.
1819-1824); Vie politique et militaire de Napoleon racontee par lui-meme (1827) and, perhaps the best known of all his publications, the theoretical Précis de l'art de la guerre (1836).
The absurdity of excluding the plebeians from all but a merely theoretical citizenship, based on the negative fact of freedom, seems to have become apparent before the close of the monarchical period.
The medieval candidate for the doctorate in medicine, although required to have attended practice before presenting himself, discussed as his thesis a purely theoretical question, often semi-theological in character, of which as an extreme example may be quoted " whether Adam had a navel."
In 1816 he was invited to Jena to fill the chair of theoretical philosophy (including mathematics and physics, and philosophy proper), and entered upon a crusade against the prevailing Romanticism.
Psychology, in the stricter sense, deals with the various forms of theoretical and practical intellect, such as attention, memory, desire and will.
The theoretical deductions which he drew from the consideration of these bodies were even more interesting and important than the bodies themselves.
Again, it is certain that the theoretical and practical morality of the sophists, regarded as a class, was " neither above nor below the standard of the age."
In a word, the present writer agrees with Grote that the sophists were not a sect or school with common doctrine or method; that their theoretical and practical morality was neither above nor below that of their age, being, in fact, determined by it; and that Plato and his followers are not to be regarded as the authorized teachers of the Greek nation, nor the sophists as the dissenters, but vice versa.
These passages certainly prove that Bacon had very nearly, if not perfectly, arrived at theoretical proof of the possibility of constructing a telescope and a microscope; but his writings give no account of the trial of an actual telescope, nor any detailed results of the application of a telescope to an examination of the heavens.
Dollond admitted the accuracy of Euler's analysis, but disputed his hypothesis on the grounds that it was purely a theoretical assumption, that the theory was opposed to the results of Newton's experiments on the refrangibility of light, and that it was impossible to determine a physical law from analytical reasoning alone (Phil.
This is such a practical drawback that the separation is generally 4ths or $ths of the theoretical, and then the primary image viewed by the eye piece may be rather outside the field-lens, which is a great practical advantage, especially when a reticule has to be mounted in the primary focal plane, although the edge of the field is not quite achromatic under these conditions.
An important factor which thus served to maintain the rites in a more or less stable condition was the predominance of what may be called the astral theology as the theoretical substratum of the Babylonian religion, and which is equally pronounced in the religious system of Assyria.
Animal sacrifice, libations, ritualistic purification, sprinkling of water, and symbolical rites of all kinds accompanied by short prayers, represent a religious practice which in the Babylonian-Assyrian religion, as in all religions, is older than any theology and survives the changes which the theoretical substratum of the religion undergoes.
These discrepancies might, no doubt, be partly explained by differences in the units employed, which are somewhat uncertain, as the specific heat of water changes rapidly in the neighbourhood of o° C; but making all due allowance for this, it remains evident that the method of ice-calorimetry, in spite of its theoretical simplicity, presents grave difficulties in its practical application.
In addition to its great theoretical interest, this method possesses the advantage of being frequently the most accurate in practical application, since energy can be more accurately measured in other forms than in that of heat.
The Theoretical Value Of The Ratio S/S In This Case Would Be The Required 7/5.
Jeans has shown that for this type of star the argument is open to theoretical objection, so that Myers's result cannot be accepted.
If the uniform distribution extends indefinitely, or as far as the telescope can penetrate, the star-ratio should have the theoretical value 3.98, 1 any decrease in density or limit to the distribution of the stars will be indicated by a continual falling off in the star-ratio for the higher magnitudes.
The new assistant scarcely came up to expectations in respect of confirming certain theoretical views of his master's by the experiments set him to that end, and appears to have stated the discrepancy without reserve; but Berthollet nevertheless quickly recognized the ability displayed, and showed his appreciation not only by desiring to be Gay-Lussac's "father in science," but also by making him in 1807 an original member of the Societe d'Arcueil.
It is the oscillation which Mill manifests between the conception of his formula as it is actually applicable to concrete problems in practice, and the conception of it as an expression of a theoretical limit to practical procedure.
Finally, it is on the whole in keeping with Mill's presuppositions to admit even in the case of the method of difference that in practice it is approximative and instructive, while the theoretical formula, to which it aims at approaching asymptotically as limit, if exact, is in some sense sterile.
its use beyond the limits of experience was denied theoretical validity - was not unnaturally regarded as obscure.
Cognition manifestly needs the help of Reason even in its theoretical use.
- Historical: No complete history of logic in the sense in which it is to be distinguished from theoretical philosophy in general has as yet been written.
The theoretical indicator diagram is made up of two isothermal lines for the taking in and rejection of heat, and two lines of constant volume for the two passages through the regenerator.
When that is done, the full value of Hamilton's grand step becomes evident, and the gain is quite as extensive from the practical as from the theoretical point of view.
- The question of the measurement of the specific heat of a vapour possesses special interest on account of this simple theoretical relation between the specific heat and the variation of the latent and total heats.
1889), who has devoted minute attention to the reduction of Regnault's observations, assuming S/s =1.400 as the theoretical ratio of specific heats of all vapours on his " aether-pressure theory," has calculated the properties of steam on the assumption S=0.384.
As a matter of fact, the two terms A+B/0 are the most important in the theoretical expression for the vapour-pressure given below.
The empirical formulae above quoted must be compared and tested in the light of the theoretical relation between the latent heat and the rate of increase of the vapour-pressure (dp/d0), which is given by the second law of thermodynamics, viz.
The subject of mechanics may be divided into two parts: (1) theoretical or abstract mechanics, and (2) applied mechanics.
Historically theoretical mechanics began with the study of practical contrivances such as the lever, and the name mechanics Gr.
The further theoretical discussion of the subject belongs to ELASTICITY.
Numerous examples of this procedure, and of the corresponding treatment of forced oscillations, present themselves in theoretical acoustics.
Love, Theoretical Mechanics (2nd ed., Cambridge, 1909); A.
Beare (Oxford, 1890), and a discussion of the subject of reciprocal figures from the special point of view of the engineering studenl is given in Vectors and Rotors by Henrici and Turner (London, 1903) See also above under Theoretical Mechanics, Part I.
In order to allow for the finite stiffness and strength of materials, the least distance of the centre of resistance inward from the nearest edge of the joint is made to bear a definite proportion to the depth of the joint measured in the same direction, which proportion is fixed, sometimes empirically, sometimes by theoretical deduction from the laws of the strength of materials.
But despite the artificial character of the Trimurti, it has retained to this day at least its theoretical validity in orthodox Hinduism, whilst it has also undoubtedly exercised considerable influence in shaping sectarian belief, in promoting feelings of toleration towards the claims of rival deities; and in a tendency towards identifying divine figures newly sprung into popular favour with one or other of the principal deities, and thus helping to bring into vogue that notion of avatars, or periodical descents or incarnations of the deity, which has become so prominent a feature of the later sectarian belief.
The theoretical interest of Amphioxus depends upon a variety of circumstances.
800 and 1004, extracted from Caussin's translation of Ibn Junis, the eclipses and occultations of Bullialdus, Gassendi, and Hevelius, of the French astronomers at Paris and St Petersburg, and of Flamsteed at Greenwich, and deduced a secular acceleration of 8.8", agreeing well with the theoretical value.
This article is devoted to a general sketch of the history of the development of electrical knowledge on both the theoretical and the practical sides.
- About 1842 Lord Kelvin (then William Thomson) began that long career of theoretical and practical discovery and invention in electrical science which revolutionized every department of pure and applied electricity.
These theoretical predictions were confirmed and others, subsequently, by the work of B.
With the advent of large magneto-electric machines the era of electrotechnics was fairly entered, and this period, which may be said to terminate about 1867 to 1869, was consummated by the theoretical work of Clerk Maxwell.
Maxwell's electric and magnetic ideas were gathered together in a great mathematical treatise on electricity and magnetism which was published in 1873.1 This book stimulated in a most remarkable degree theoretical and practical research into the phenomena of electricity and magnetism.
Natural philosophy is again divided into speculative or theoretical and operative or practical, according as the end is contemplation or works.
Speculative or theoretical natural philosophy has to deal with natural substances and qualities and is subdivided into physics and metaphysics.
and how is it that knowledge of them solves both the theoretical and the practical problem of science ?
Its aim is to acquire command over nature by knowledge, and to invent new arts, whereas the old logic strove only after dialectic victories and the 1 Thus the last step in the theoretical analysis gives the first means for the practical operation.
His investigations occupied almost the whole field of science, including physiology, physiological optics, physiological acoustics, chemistry, mathematics, electricity and magnetism, meteorology and theoretical mechanics.
The last investigations of Helmholtz related to problems in theoretical mechanics, more especially as to the relations of matter to the ether, and as to the distribution of energy in mechanical systems. In particular he explained the principle of least action, first advanced by P. L.
escape is possible from the spectre of materialism, theoretical and practical; and so, says Schopenhauer, "the just and good must all have this creed: I believe in a metaphysic."
The mere reasonings of theoretical science leave no room for art, and practical prudence usurps the place of morality.
In other words, the electrometer nearly obeyed the theoretical law.
Guided by these experiments, Ayrton, Perry and Sumpner constructed an improved unifilar quadrant electrometer which was not only more sensitive than the White pattern, but fulfilled the theoretical law of working.
Assuming the electrometer to obey the above-mentioned theoretical law, the first reading is proportional to v 1 -v 2) and the second to v, - v 2 The difference of the readings is then proportional to (0, - v2) (v, - v3).
But even here Knox was preparing for Scotland, and facing the difficulties of the future, theoretical as well as practical.
Knox's objections to the "regiment of women" were theoretical, and in the present case he hoped at first for the best, favouring rather his queen's marriage with the heir of the house of Hamilton.
an autocrat, above them and above the law, realizing the theoretical doctrines of Plato and Aristotle, as the true king, who is a god among men, bound no more than Zeus by a law, because himself he is the law.
About twenty-five years later the first theoretical handbook of SufIsm in Persian was composed by Ali b.
Amongst his economic works may be mentioned Money and the Mechanism of Exchange (1875), written in a popular style, and descriptive rather than theoretical, but wonderfully fresh and original in treatment and full of suggestiveness, a Primer on Political Economy (1878), The State in Relation to Labour (1882), and two works published after his death, namely, Methods of Social Reform and Investigations in Currency and Finance, containing papers that had appeared separately during his lifetime.
The amount of this increase and diminution is too small to be directly measured, though it has a certain theoretical importance in the explanation of the equilibrium of the superficial layer of the liquid where it is inclined to the horizon.
On the theoretical side the question is open until we introduce some limitation upon the generality of the functions.
18 93, 12, P. 433); and on the theoretical side, see papers by Josiah Willard Gibbs; R.
As, however, most of the work has been done with regard to antitoxin production we may consider here the theoretical aspect of the subject.
He has had his reward, for assuredly the portrait of St Louis, from the early collection of anecdotes to the last hearsay sketch of the woeful end at Tunis, with the famous enseignement which is still the best summary of the theoretical duties of a Christian king in medieval times, is such as to take away all charge of vulgarity or mere commerage from Joinville, a charge to which otherwise he might perhaps have been exposed.
He wrote upon nearly every subject of pure mathematics, and also upon theoretical dynamics and spherical and physical astronomy.
Among his most remarkable works may be mentioned his ten memoirs on quantics, commenced in 1854 and completed in 1878; his creation of the theory of matrices; his researches on the theory of groups; his memoir on abstract geometry, a subject which he created; his introduction into geometry of the "absolute"; his researches on the higher singularities of curves and surfaces; the classification of cubic curves; additions to the theories of rational transformation and correspondence; the theory of the twenty-seven lines that lie on a cubic surface; the theory of elliptic functions; the attraction of ellipsoids; the British Association Reports, 1857 and 1862, on recent progress in general and special theoretical dynamics, and on the secular acceleration of the moon's mean motion.
The theoretical conclusion has been confirmed by the discovery of Coal Measures, with workable coal seams, at Dover at a depth of 2000 ft.
r, Actual condition; 2, Theoretical, with the suppressed organs supplied.
study and observation in every branch of theoretical or applied science in which any beginning had been made in his age, as well as in some in which he was himself the first pioneer.
I n mechanical, scientific and theoretical studies of all kinds it was a period, as these MSS.
Rowland's Tables of Wave-Lengths, many theoretical papers, and some reproductions of important papers issued elsewhere.
In 1871 the late Professor Rankine, F.R.S., whose remarkable perception of the practical fitness or unfitness of purely theoretical deductions gives his writings exceptional value, received from Major Tulloch, R.E., on behalf of the municipality of Bombay, a request to consider the subject generally, and with special reference to very high dams, such as have since been constructed in India.
He was not specially fitted for the post, for although he had a profound acquaintance with theoretical astronomy, he had paid but little attention to the regular work of the practical astronomer.
By judiciously watching all stages of the process, by observing the draught, the strength of the acid produced, the temperature, and especially by frequent analyses of the gases, the yield of acid has been brought up to 98% of the theoretical maximum, with a loss of nitre sometimes as low as two parts to loo of sulphur burned.
As tar as is known (so much secrecy having been observed), the best results obtained in various places, save one, did not exceed 67% of the theoretical quantity, the remaining 33% of SO 2 having to be converted into sulphuric acid in the ordinary lead chambers.
The part which treats of the aim, foundation and methods of the science of history is valuable; but what is most distinctive in Buchez's theory - the division of historical development into four great epochs originated by four universal revelations, of each epoch into three periods corresponding to desire, reasoning and performance, and of each of these periods into a theoretical and practical age - is merely ingenious (see Flint's Philosophy of History in Europe, i.
Thus while the mouth of the sicula is directed downwards, that of the first serial theca is pointed upwards, making a theoretical angle of about 180° with the direction of that of the sicula.
Lastly, he showed, both from theoretical considerations and from the result of actual experiment on the living animal, that the anterior roots of the spinal nerves are motor, while the posterior are sensory.
A few unimportant tracts on questions of theoretical politics were followed in 1785 by the work which first brought Jacobi into prominence as a philosopher.
The application of the above principles, and of similar principles with regard to multiplication and division, to numerical quantities expressed in any of the diverse British denominations, presents no theoretical difficulty if the successive denominations are regarded as constituting a varying scale of notation (§17).
The interest of these series is, however, mainly theoretical.
This discount, of course, is not equal to the interest which the present value would produce at that rate of interest, but is rather greater, so that the present value as calculated in this way is less than the theoretical present value.
The orocentral was, it must be admitted, a theoretical conception due to a desire for symmetry, and was not confirmed by anything 1p _.
Constitutional Ministry historians, who treat the question as one of merely of the theoretical politics, leave out of consideration this younger essential element of the situation, and forget that, if P if.
Connecting the experimental study of the physical and chemical properties is the immense theoretical edifice termed the kinetic theory of gases.
Aepinus is best known by his researches, theoretical and experimental, in electricity and magnetism, and his principal work, Tentamen Theoriae Electricitatis et Magnetismi, published at St Petersburg in 1759, was the first systematic and successful attempt to apply mathematical reasoning to these subjects.
But inasmuch as the agreement between the acts of Leibnitz's monads is due to a divine pre-established harmony, and the theoretical contingency which in the abstract, i.e.
No doubt it was rather the practical than the theoretical side of Epicureanism which gave it so strong a hold on succeeding generations.
We find that this antithesis, as exaggerated by some of the Gnostic sects of the and and 3rd centuries A.D., led, not merely to theoretical antinomianism, but even (if the charges of their orthodox opponents are not entirely to be discredited) to gross immorality of conduct.
Augustine is fully aware of the theoretical indispensability of maintaining Free Will, from its logical connexion with human responsibility and divine justice; but he considers that these latter points are sufficiently secured if actual freedom of choice between good and evil is allowed in the single case of our progenitor Adam.
Its theoretical basis is the principle of egoism; while, for practically determining the particulars of duty it makes morality entirely dependent on positive law and institution.
In 1860 Hermann Kolbe predicted the existence of secondary and tertiary alcohols from theoretical considerations.
But even this labour may be small compared with that of the theoretical astronomer, who, in the future, is to use the result as the raw material of his work.
Theoretical Astronomy,which may be considered as an extension of geometrical astronomy and includes the determination of the positions and motions of the heavenly bodies by combining mathematical theory with observation.
Modern theoretical astronomy, taken in the most limited sense, is based upon Celestial Mechanics, the science by which, using purely deductive mechanical methods, the laws of motion of the heavenly bodies are derived by deductive methods from their mutual gravitation towards each other.
Theoretical Astronomy is that branch of the science which, making use of the results of astronomical observations as they are supplied by the practical astronomer, investigates the motions of the heavenly bodies.
In its most important features it is an offshoot of celestial mechanics, between which and theoretical astronomy no sharp dividing line can be drawn.
Among the problems of theoretical astronomy we may assign the first place to the determination of orbits, which is auxiliary to the prediction of the apparent motions of a planet, satellite or star.
In the language of theoretical mechanics, the moment of momentum of the entire system is a constant quantity.
The history of the Greenwich observatory is one of strenuous efforts for refinement, stimulated by the growing stringency of theoretical necessities.
This is only 2.4" larger than the theoretical value, and it seems difficult to suppose that the effect of the tidal retardation can be as small as this.
The following is a summary of the present state of the question: The theoretical value of the acceleration, assuming the day to be constant, is .....
As a theoretical or speculative science it is purely descriptive and not practical, being correlated on the one hand to physical science and on the other to history.
But whatever their theoretical agreement on social questions, politically they were hopelessly at odds.
The answer to this question is the second hinge-point of Herbart's theoretical philosophy.
To the theoretical perfection of the science he contributed little or nothing.
96, p. 1258) gives a theoretical discussion of all possible forms of expression for thermoelectric phenomena.
Many metallurgists were sceptical on theoretical grounds about his results, and only became convinced when they saw that his process was really able to convert melted cast iron into malleable iron in a perfectly fluid state.
The greatest sensation was caused by the arrest, on the 31st of August, of Seor Ferrer, a theoretical anarchist well known in many countries for his anti-clerical educational work and in Spain especially as the founder of the lay schools.
A theoretical discussion of the disturbances embodied in them (still familiarly known to lunar experts as the Darlegung) appeared in the Abhandlungen of the Saxon Academy of Sciences in 1862-1864.
17 µ can be resolved, while the theoretical maximum of the resolving power is o 167µ, so that the theoretical maximum has almost been reached in practice.
of Mechanical Refrigeration (Chicago); Redwood, Theoretical and Practical Ammonia Refrigeration (New York); Stephansky, Practical Running of an Ice and Refrigerating Plant (Boston); Ledoux, Ice-Making Machines (New York); Wallis-Taylor, Refrigerating and Ice-Making Machines (London) Ritchie Leask, Refrigerating Machinery (London); De Volson Wood, Thermodynamics, Heat Motors and Refrigerating Machinery (New York); Linde, Kdlteerzeugungsmaschine Lexikon der gesamten Technik; Behrend, Eis and KdlteerzeugungsMaschinen (Halle); De Marchena, Kompressions Kdltemaschinen (Halle); Theodore Koller, Die Kdlteindustrie (Vienna); Voorhees, Indicating the Refrigerating Machine (Chicago); Norman Selfe, Machinery for Refrigeration (Chicago); Hans Lorenz, Modern Refrigerating Machinery (London); Lehnert, Moderne Kdltetechnik (Leipzig); L.
The important class of the Bryophyta, which, on theoretical grounds, is commonly regarded as more primitive than the.
One of the most important derivatives of diphenyl, from the theoretical point of view, is diphenic acid or diorthodiphenyl carboxylic acid, which can be obtained from diparadiaminodiphenyldiorthocarboxylic acid, H2N NH 2, or from phenanthrene, the consti Hooc Cooh tution of which it determines.
The theoretical proof rather serves as useful aid towards the more exact determination of the nature and province of self-determination, and of its relation to the whole concrete nature of humanity.
Lemery did not concern himself much with theoretical speculations, but holding chemistry to be a demonstrative science, confined himself to the straightforward exposition of facts and experiments.
Of special importance is the work of Abbe; although, as he himself has stated, his methods accidentally led to the Wenham system, he certainly was far above his predecessors in his theoretical treatment of the problem, and in the perspicuity and clearness of his explanation.
According to the hurried phone call Quinn has spent the last three months at this water side retreat writing a paper on some obscure theoretical principal.
It will review the way evidence is treated from a variety of theoretical perspectives.
The theoretical resolution is never obtained due to lens aberrations which are difficult to fully compensate for in electron optical systems.
Proverbs 29:1 Malachi's question is not aimless or theoretical.
ally also vindicates the theoretical work undertaken in archeology and allied disciplines over the last ten to fifteen years.
The course also prepares students well for more traditional courses that may have analytical, theoretical or technology components.
Whilst exploring the practical aspects of labor law, the author also examines the theoretical issues.
Theoretical assessment - At the end of the course each student submits a written assignment which examines a relevant aspect of nursing practice.
Our aim is to provide a consistent theoretical foundation which allows for model error in variational assimilation.
There aren't a lot of opportunities for patents in theoretical astrophysics.
The effect of throat just aft of the lip is derived from theoretical calculations taking account of the velocity profile.
To develop advanced theoretical and computation models of acoustic cavitation and sonochemistry.
Theoretical and clinical studies provide a foundation for practice and focus on health and normal childbearing.
The 17th British colloquium for Theoretical Computer Science was held in early April 2001 in the Kelvin Conference Center in Glasgow.
Carl shares Banksy's interest in semiotics: a theoretical concept focused on how people glean meaning from words, sounds or pictures.
These members of staff have strengths in both theoretical criminology and in conducting empirical research projects.
In Eco's theoretical writings, overinterpretation includes deconstruction.
denouement profile is compared to a set of theoretical design principles.
A theoretical proposal is outlined for large scale solar desalination using multi effect humidification.
differentiable dynamical systems and ergodic theory (theoretical and computational aspects ).
It also vindicates the theoretical work undertaken in archeology and allied disciplines over the last ten to fifteen years.
Processing models are being developed to predict the distribution of fiber waviness and theoretical models are used to predict the effect on strength.
dominance index above the theoretical midpoint of 50.
At the LSE it's economic theory and theoretical econometrics.
His interests in theoretical plant virus epidemiology were re-awakened by links with Mike Thresh and have subsequently developed into major research initiatives.
erroneous conception lies the original sin of Menshevism, the theoretical ground for its entire future downfall.
It was built on three main theoretical traditions: intercultural communication, ethnography of communication and cultural or social anthropology.
evanescent modes are not just a theoretical concept, but occur in a number of physical devices that are collectively called photonic barriers.
Applications are encouraged equally from scientists using experimental, theoretical, modeling or remote sensing approaches.
Terrier has been used for conducting fruitful experimentation, with excellent outcome, allowing for a better understanding of theoretical Information Retrieval.
Written by one of the world's foremost rigging experts, Arena Rigging presents both the theoretical and the practical components of rigging.
Theoretical Physics hypertext faux pas These are the things not to do!
Restrictions: The theoretical formulation is specifically worked out for massless fermions, although this is not a limitation of principle.
The course will introduce the theoretical formalisms used to describe the various types of nuclear reactions.
theoretical foundations of data exchange have recently been investigated for relational data.
The students will be encouraged to place the latter material within the theoretical framework provided by the model.
This is significant because the theoretical underpinning is often geometric in nature and such systems lend themselves to representation in three dimensions.
theoretical gnosis is, in fact, an account and interpretation of this gnosis, which, naturally, has many shortcomings.
The courses are very much hands-on so that the trainees leave with precious practical knowledge as well as theoretical knowledge.
From a theoretical standpoint, it makes sense to send the bill to the party who was best situated to prevent the harm.
Original, also preliminary, theoretical ideas or experimental studies and propositions of new heuristics when they support or point toward theoretically grounded principles.
Tricomi combines first-rate theoretical debate and textual analysis to explore the practical application of his suggestions for a new direction in literary historicism.
hypothesized processes or variables (theoretical constructs) poses a challenge by itself.
inconsistencyences of these inconsistencies in definition are not purely theoretical.
However, there is no theoretical reason to believe that PLS is inherently inefficient.
The technical, or even theoretical, barriers might prove insuperable.
The study trip explored the interplay between theoretical aspects of the MA course with the operational reality of NGOs working in conflict areas.
But the collapse of the cold war has removed even the theoretical justification for our possessing strategic nuclear weapons.
lengthy exposition of a theoretical approach.
Obvious application areas include lexicography, natural language understanding (NLP) systems, and all branches of applied and theoretical linguistics.
locative case raises a number of theoretical questions.
Care should also be taken with the quantification of tsunami magnitude in whatever catalog or theoretical model is used as a basis for analysis.
In it I used both VLBA and MERLIN observations to study circumstellar masers and did theoretical modeling of both water and oh masers.
You can connect a theoretical maximum of 127 USB devices to your computer.
SIM liases between the various fields of theoretical and applied microbiology through workshops, meetings and publications.
For example, 31 out of the 39 towns have a D below the theoretical midpoint of 50.
Theoretical models of shell and tube boilers suitable for boiling two-phase mixtures are under development.
theoretical models are used to predict the effect of fiber waviness on strength.
During the calculation of structures considerations of theoretical chemistry and applied molecular modeling are also taken into account.
The theoretical frame of the research draws on theories of new regionalism, transnational networking and theories of the state in Latin America.
His work in theoretical quantum optics recently predicted the existence of the optical analog of " black holes " .
The research may have a practical or theoretical orientation.
More than not, however, reductive realists object to non-reductivists on grounds of theoretical parsimony.
The theoretical status of morphologically conditioned phonology: A case study from dominance.
Hence we also determine the composition of these bodies through multi-colour photometry, to assist theoretical models in disentangling the possibles sources of NEOs.
Agreement of the theoretical models with real systems has been demonstrated by the inclusion of 3% copper phthalocyanine in paraffin wax.
Julia Yeomans runs an active research group in theoretical condensed matter physics.
Apart from Linux I enjoy reading books on theoretical physics.
Professor Stephen Hawking British theoretical physicist noted for his research into the origin of the universe.
Before that he earned his living as a theoretical plasma physicist.
Our main content is theoretical high energy physics which is handled by five editors.
To be a fully qualified plumber you need an adequate amount of practical study to accompany the theoretical side.
avoid polemics, triviality, and weak theoretical comparisons in your discussion.
We can consequently treat rationality as a theoretical posit, much like electrons, viruses and the other theoretical posits of science.
theoretical preconceptions used in qualitative analysis often do not represent explicit propositions about empirical facts.
Quite often, these results are completely surprising and strongly deviate from theoretical predictions.
To provide a knowledge base on the theoretical and practical basis of upper and lower limb external prosthetics and orthotics.
The Center's teachers are chosen from among those developing their ideas in theoretical and clinical psychoanalysis or engaged in research.
The dissertation was published in 1991 in the Kluwer series Studies in theoretical psycholinguistics.
As a theoretical assumption, it also underpins the broad field of humanistic social psychology (HarrÃ© and Secord, 1972 ).
Objective: Students should gain some familiarity with varieties of mental disorder and the theoretical psychoanalytic models which may help us to understand psychopathology.
recursion theory helped to provide the foundations of theoretical computer science.
regain credibility in theoretical debates.
Its aim is to foster a multidisciplinary and intellectually rigorous debate on the theoretical and practical aspects of interactive media in education.
To develop the student's expertise in quaternary sedimentology by consideration of both theoretical and practical approaches.
Here as usual, Fish's rather stagey relish for the melodramatic theoretical gesture leads him astray.
Topical areas covered by this virtual journal include experimental and theoretical study of new materials, new cuprates, and organic superconductors.
The result is a tightly knit argument in which theoretical critique and anthropological observation play a mutually supporting role.
You examine recent theoretical debates on globalization, cultural syncretism and hybridity.
teacht you study The program is taught through theoretical lectures, seminars, experiential workshops and group tutorials.
theoretical in nature.
theoretical framework has been used to guide the project.
theoretical physicist noted for his research into the origin of the universe.
theoretical foundations of the Black Panther Party.
theoretical underpinnings for computer science, is now widely recognized.
The purely theoretical aspects of the module will be delivered in a small number of lectures.
This interest was not merely theoretical - he found the actual preparing and compounding of ointments and plasters very absorbing.
This symposium aims at addressing such issues from an explicitly theoretical rather than heuristic perspective.
At present, contributions to this latter field have been mainly theoretical in nature.
The model offers an explicit critique of those highly theoretical programs or courses that do not value the prior experience or knowledge of students.
My work is mostly theoretical but its results also bear directly on issues of experimental implementation.
In my view, the possibility of such a link remains theoretical.
Studying Shakespeare often seems very theoretical because students aren't usually going to put the play on themselves.
Therefore, manuscripts offering theoretical, conceptual, and practical contributions for ECRM are encouraged.
Black holes provide theoreticians with an important theoretical laboratory to test ideas.
This is achieved by theoretical investigation, with readings in cognitive neuropsychology, practice of the relevant research methods, and a research-based thesis.
Even in this peal, Taylors were not tuning the tierce to the theoretical value.