Theology Sentence Examples
He had graduated in law, and not in theology.
But the expression Natural Theology Natural itself has a history.
Theology stood on guard for the old views and accused the new of violating revelation.
Thus the essence of Ritschl's work is systematic theology.
From this vantage-ground Ritschl criticizes the use of Aristotelianism and speculative philosophy in scholastic and Protestant theology.Advertisement
He holds that such philosophy is too shallow for theology.
A few instances will illustrate Ritschl's positive systematic theology.
It deserves the name, in the modern sense, of Natural Theology.
That is a task quite beyond what is generally recognized as Natural Theology.
Raynaudus's authorities, in favour of the recognition of a natural theology and against it, do not, so far as the present writer has been able to consult them, use the expression.Advertisement
At this point we must also call to mind the wide currency given to the term theology by Abelard, and his editors or copyists.
Thus, as employed by most writers, " Natural Religion " connotes neutrality or even friendliness towards Christianity; just as is the case with theism in sense (2), or with Natural Theology.
If there is any difference between " theism " or " Natural Theology " on the one hand, and Natural Religion on the other, it is to be found in the more practical character attaching to natural " religion."
A pantheist may believe in Law of Nature and go no further; a theist who accepts Law of Nature has a large instalment of natural theology ready made to his hand; including an idealist, or else an intuitionalist, scheme of ethics.
He observes with truth that Natural Theology, if you remove from it the idea of subordination to Christianity as (claiming to be) a special revelation, tends to pass into a philosophy of religion.Advertisement
C. Fraser's Gifford Lectures, or in earlier times in the writings of Christian Wolff, whose sciences, according to the slightly different nomenclature which Kant imposed on them, were " rational psychology," " rational cosmology," and " rational theology."
In Christian theology, much labour has been spent upon vindicating man's freedom against God's intrusion, or upon blotting out human power in order to leave room for the divine.
The mention of Christian theology may remind us that, for the majority of theists in medieval and modern times, theism proper has ranked only as a secondary wisdom.
It Simplifi- is possible for Christians to work out natural theology in separate detail; but we cannot wonder if they rarely attempt the task, believing as they do that they have a fuller revelation of religious truth elsewhere.
On the contrary, even Christian theology makes at least the effort to show that the thought of God regulates the whole system of belief.Advertisement
Bruce feels this so strongly that the natural theology section of his Apologetics entirely omits the question " Does God exist?"
Lecky, 4 whether such a philosophy affords a basis for natural theology at all; but the attempt is made.
In declaring the supreme doctrines of Christianity to be mysteries above reason, he marks off a lower region where reason is to reign; the study of that lower region may well be called, as later centuries have called it, Natural Theology; and as such it presents strong intuitionalist affinities.
He was even more definitely opposed to " final causes " than Francis Bacon, who excluded them from science but admitted them to theology.
He draws no inferences to theology or religion, whether friendly or hostile, from his new positions.Advertisement
He takes the line of separating the things of God from those of Caesar, and defends the traditional Protestant theology with obvious sincerity.
Kant puts together, as belonging to " Rational Theology," three arguments - he is critic of fond of triads, though they have not the significance for him which they came to have for Hegel.
Popular scepticism - perhaps even Charles Darwin's; Huxley himself was a student of Hume - understands by agnosticism that science is certain while philosophy and theology are baseless.
The attempts of Methodius of Tyre at the beginning of the 4th century and Apollinarius of Laodicea about 360 to defend chiliasm and assail the theology of Origen had no result.
The change was brought about by two causes - first, Greek theology, which reached the West chiefly through Jerome Rufinus and Ambrose, and, second, the new idea of the church wrought out by Augustine on the basis of the altered political situation of the church.
By this doctrine of Augustine's, the old millennarianism, though not completely extirpated, was at least banished from the official theology.
In his fifteenth year he entered the order of St Augustine, was afterwards professor of theology at the university of Alcala, and published a Cursus theologiae in five volumes (1732-1738).
Weak health, consequent on over-study, prevented him from obtaining the highest academical honours, but he graduated as doctor in theology at the age of twenty-two, and then entered the Accademia dei Nobili ecclesiastici, a college in which clergy of aristocratic birth are trained for the diplomatic service of the Roman Church.
Even as its main historical importance had formerly sprung from pagan learning, so now it acquired fresh importance as a centre of Christian theology and church government.
As a philosopher, he can advance no claim to originality, his laborious treatise on Platonic theology being little better than a mass of ill-digested erudition.
From 1657 to 1669 he was professor of theology at the College of the Propaganda, enjoyed the friendship of the historian, Pallavicini, and acted as representative of Irish ecclesiastical affairs at Rome.
Thus ahura-daeva, deva-asura in Zoroastrian and in later Brahman theology are in their meanings diametrically opposed.
His only means for gratifying his eager desire for books was the small library founded in his native town by Benjamin Franklin and consisting principally of histories and treatises on theology.
From 1853 until his death, on the second of August 1859, he was president of the newly established Antioch College at Yellow Springs, Ohio, where he taught political economy, intellectual and moral philosophy, and natural theology.
In 1777 he studied theology under the evangelical John Newton at Olney.
He studied theology at Halle and GÃ¶ttingen.
In 1813 he became repetent at GÃ¶ttingen, and in 1814 he received the degree of doctor in philosophy from Halle; in 1816 he removed to Berlin, where he became licentiate in theology, and qualified as privatdocent.
In that year he helped to found the Theologische Studien and Kritiken, the chief organ of the "mediation" theology (Vermittelungstheologie).
Among its buildings are the cathedral, dating from 1553 and once noted for its wealth; the president's palace and halls of congress, which are no longer occupied as such by the national government; the cabildo, or town-hall; a mint dating from 1572; the courts of justice, and the university of San Xavier, founded in 1624, with faculties of law, medicine and theology.
He was a conservative in theology, but an enthusiastic adherent of the progressive party in politics, and sat as member for Erlangen and Furth in the Bavarian second chamber from 1863 to 1868.
In theology, as in ecclesiastical polity, Hofmann was a Lutheran of an extreme type, although the strongly marked individuality of some of his opinions laid him open to repeated accusations of heterodoxy.
He graduated at Yale in 1767, studied theology under the Rev. John Smalley (1734-1820) at Berlin, Connecticut, and was licensed to preach in 1769.
Johannes was a Calvinist, however, and the strict Lutherans of the Palatinate caused him once more to become a wanderer; in 1578 he settled at Leiden as student of theology, and finally became pastor at Dort, where he died in 1585.
Here the son received his education, until in 1595 he entered the university of Leiden, where he became the lifelong friend of Hugo Grotius, and studied classics, Hebrew, church history and theology.
In 1600 he was made rector of the high school at Dort, and devoted himself to philology and historical theology.
In the Annales he treats history in strict chronological order and keeps theology in the background.
His reputation was helped by several clever if somewhat wrong-headed publications, including a satirical pamphlet entitled The Theology and Philosophy of Cicero's Somnium Scipionis (1751), a defence of the Hutchinsonians in A Fair, Candid and Impartial State of the Case between Sir Isaac Newton and Mr Hutchinson (1753), and critiques upon William Law (1758) and Benjamin Kennicott (1760).
On reaching his sixteenth year he began his studies at the university of Berlin, paying special attention to theology and the Talmud.
Any frank recognition of the abbe's even general principles involves the abandonment of the identification of theology with scholasticism or even with specifically ancient thought in general.
In 1684 he commenced the career of professor of natural law at Leipzig, and soon attracted attention by his abilities, but particularly by his daring attack upon traditional prejudices, in theology and jurisprudence.
Though not a profound and systematic philosophical thinker, Thomasius prepared the way for great reforms in philosophy, and, above all, in law, literature, social life and theology.
He made it one of the aims of his life to free politics and jurisprudence from the control of theology, and fought bravely and consistently for freedom of thought and speech on religious matters.
In theology he was not a naturalist or a deist, but a believer in the necessity of revealed religion for salvation.
His SOn, Christoph Von Sigwart (1830-1894), after a course of philosophy and theology, became professor at Blaubeuren (1859), and eventually at Tubingen, in 1865.
In 1846 Riemann entered himself as a student of philology and theology in the university of GÃ¶ttingen.
In theology, reason, as distinguished from faith, is the human intelligence exercised upon religious truth whether by way of discovery or by way of explanation.
Cumont's interpretation of the main relief and its smaller companions involves the reconstruction of a Mithraic theology, a Mithraic legend, and a Mithraic symbolism.
After the Disruption in 1843, and the formation of the Free Church, New College was founded in connexion with it for training students in theology.
Nor do Scottish presbyterians now recognize any special class of doctors, unless we suppose that these are represented by professors of theology.
In short, the English reformers knew very well that the ordinal and communion office which they drew up could not satisfy the requirements of medieval theology.
He studied theology at Orleans, was ordained priest in 1824 and placed in charge of the parish of Puiseaux, in the diocese of Orleans.
The university provides instruction and grants degrees in arts, law, medicine, science and engineering; instruction in theology, however, is given, not by the university, but by the different affiliated colleges.
Prantl says that there is no such thing as philosophy in the middle ages; there are only logic and theology.
But the saying draws attention to the two great influences which shaped medieval thought - the tradition of ancient logic and the system of Christian theology.
Their chief works are in the shape of commentaries upon the writings of "the philosopher."' Their problems and solutions alike spring from the master's dicta - from the need of reconciling these with one another and with the conclusions of Christian theology.
In Scotus Erigena, at the beginning of the Scholastic era, there is no such subordination contemplated, because philosophy and theology in his work are in implicit unity.
But this is only to say again that Erigena is more of a Neoplatonist than a Scholastic. Hence Cousin suggested in respect of this point a threefold chronological division - at the outset the absolute subordination of philosophy to theology, then the period of their alliance, and finally the beginning of their separation.
In other words, we note philosophy gradually extending its claims. Dialectic is, to begin with, a merely secular art, and only by degrees are its terms and distinctions applied to the subject-matter of theology.
The Aristotelian form refused to fit a matter for which it was never intended; the matter of Christian theology refused to be forced into an alien form.
But now bolder spirits arose who did not shrink from applying the distinctions of their human wisdom to the mysteries of theology.
The next centuries show that peculiar combination of logic and theology which is the mark of Scholasticism, especially in the period before the r3th century.
It was simply accepted by him in a broad way as the orthodox philosophic doctrine, and the doctrine which, as a sagacious churchman, he perceived to be most in harmony with Christian theology.
Anselm's natural element was theology, and the high metaphysical questions which are as it were the obverse of theology.
Abelard's application of dialectic to theology betrayed the Nominalistic basis of his doctrine.
The application of dialectic to theology was not new.
In bringing together the conflicting opinions of the fathers on all the chief points of Christian dogmatics, it may be admitted that Abelard's aim was simply to make these contradictions the starting point of an inquiry which should determine in each case the true position and via media of Christian theology.
His De arte seu de articulis catholicae fidei is a Summa of Christian theology, but with a greater infusion than usual of philosophical reasoning.
The monotheistic influence of Aristotle and his Arabian commentators shows itself in Albert and Aquinas, at the outset, in the definitive fashion in which the " mysteries " y sof the Trinity and the Incarnation are henceforth detached from the sphere of rational or philosophical theology.
By far the greatest disciple of Aquinas is Dante Alighieri, in whose Divina Commedia the theology and philosophy of the middle ages, as fixed by Saint Thomas, have received the immortality which poetry alone can bestow.
The union of philosophy and theology is the mark of the middle ages, but in Occam their severance is complete.
Occam denied the title of a science to theology, emphasizing, like Scotus, its practical character.
There are also notices of the leading systems in Milman's History of Latin Christianity; and the same writers are considered from the theological side in many works devoted to theology, and the history of dogma.
A few names were, however, distinguished in 1711 theology, philology and poetry.
After completing his preliminary education in the little school at Lexington, Virginia, which later developed into Washington and Lee University, he came under the influence of the religious movement known as the "great revival" (1789-1790) and devoted himself to the study of theology.
In 1812 he became first professor in the newly established Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Princeton, New Jersey, where he remained until his death at Princeton on the 22nd of October 1851, filling successively the chairs of didactic and polemic theology (1812-1840), and pastoral and polemic theology (1840-1851).
Having studied theology at the university of Gottingen under Heinrich Ewald, he established himself there in 1870 as privat-docent for Old Testament history.
In 1872 he was appointed professor ordinarius of theology in Greifswald.
Besides theology he was interested in the study of grammar and natural history, but his name is chiefly associated with nautical science.
After studying theology at Konigsberg, Halle and Berlin, he became professor extraordinarius at Konigsberg in 1852, and afterwards professor ordinarius at Berlin.
He studied with great distinction at Greif swald and at Wittenberg, and having made a special study of languages, theology and history, was appointed professor of Greek and Latin at Coburg in 1692, professor of moral philosophy in the university of Halle in 1693, and in 1705 professor of theology at Jena.
As chancellor, the statutes directed him to study theology, to train others in that study and to oversee the educational work of the diocese.
The faculties are theology, arts, law, music, medicine, science, engineering and economics.
Struck with young Amyraut's ability and culture, they both urged him to change from law to theology.
He did so, and decided for theology.
The university of Saumur at the same time had fixed its eyes on him as professor of theology.
Very beautiful was the lifelong friendship of these three remarkable men, who collaborated in the Theses Salmurienses, a collection of theses propounded by candidates in theology prefaced by the inaugural addresses of the three professors.
In 1594 he began to give theological lectures at Jena, and in 1596 accepted a call as professor of theology at Wittenberg, where he died on the 23rd of October 1616.
The descendant of men learned in rabbinic lore, Abba Mari devoted himself to the study of theology and philosophy, and made himself acquainted with the writing of Moses Maimonides and Nachmanides as well as with the Talmud.
He also attended lectures in theology, but, a relative having persuaded him to change his subject, he studied medicine for two years.
His writings are numerous, alike in exegetical, polemical, dogmatic and practical theology.
He studied at Kiel University (1832), and became professor ordinarius of theology at Rostock (1850).
In 1699 he began to publish his largest work, described by Tolstoy (The Kingdom of God is within You, chap. iii.) as "remarkable, although little known," Unparteiische Kirchenand Ketzerhistorie, in which he has been thought by some to show more impartiality towards heresy than towards the Church (cp. Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, p. 277).
Soon afterwards, however, his acceptance of a pastorate marked a change, and he produced a number of noteworthy works on practical theology.
Thomson's activity was not confined to theology.
In 1879-1882 he lectured on theology at Andover Theological Seminary, and in 1883 at Harvard, where in 1895-1896 he conducted a graduate seminary in ethics.
At Copenhagen he was lektor in theology in 1838, professor extraordinarius in 1840, court preacher also in 1845, and professor ordinarius in 1850.
In his studies he had come under the influence of Schleiermacher, Hegel and Franz Baader; but he was a man of independent mind, and developed a peculiar speculative theology which showed a disposition towards mysticism and theosophy.
He was prominent among the founders of Andover Theological Seminary, and was its first professor, occupying the chair of Christian theology from 1808 to 1846, and being professor emeritus until his death in Andover on the 24th of August 1854.
His translation of Georg Christian Knapp's Christian Theology (1831-1833) was long used as a text-book in American theological seminaries.
In1834-1837he edited the newly-established Literary and Theological Review, in which he opposed the "New Haven" theology.
In 1810 he became professor extraordinarius in theology, and in 1811 ordinarius, at the university of Halle, where, in spite of many offers of high preferment elsewhere, he spent the rest of his life.
In 1892 Lord Salisbury made him Regius Professor of Pastoral Theology of Oxford; and after a long period of delicate health he died at Christ Church on the 8th of June 1903.
In February the same year (1575), the university of Leiden had been founded, and thither, by the kindness of friends, Arminius was sent to study theology.
The Reformed strengthened itself against the Roman Catholic theology by working itself, on the one hand, into vigorous logical consistency, and supporting itself, on the other, on the supreme authority of the Scriptures.
His father sent him in his sixteenth year to the gymnasium at Lubeck, where he became so much interested in ancient languages that he abandoned his idea of a legal career and resolved to devote himself to the study of theology.
During the six years that Bleek remained at Berlin, he twice declined a call to the office of professor ordinarius of theology, once to Greifswald and once to Konigsberg.
The theology of the Indian Syrian Christians is of a Nestorian type, and Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th century) puts us on the right track when he says that the Christians whom he found in Ceylon and Malabar had come from Persia (probably as refugees from persecution, like the Huguenots in England and the Pilgrim Fathers in America).
Their theological teaching is misty and perplexing; their earliest writings contain no error, and the hymns of their great St Ephrem, still sung in their services, are positively antagonistic to "Nestorianism"; their theology dating from the schism is not so satisfactory.
In 1831 he was promoted to the position of professor ordinarius in philosophy; in 1833 he became a member of the Royal Scientific Society, and in 1835, after Tychsen's death, he entered the faculty of theology, taking the chair of Oriental languages.
Early in 1838 Ewald received a call to Tubingen, and there for upwards of ten years he held a chair as professor ordinarius, first in philosophy and afterwards, from 1841, in theology.
If it is obviously the outcome of immense learning on the part of its author, it is no less manifestly the result of the speculations and researches of many laborious predecessors in all departments of history, theology and philosophy.
He studied at Leipzig and Erlangen, and in 1829 was called to Jena as professor of theology.
C. Baur, and became in 1858 pastor of the church of St Thomas, professor ordinarius of historical theology and superintendent of the Lutheran church of Leipzig.
All these have faculties of letters and law, and San Marcos has in addition faculties of theology, medicine, mathematics and science, philosophy and administrative and political economy.
In 1882 he became professor of theology at Erlangen, and in 1889 proceeded to Leipzig, where he was professor until 1898, and then for a year rector of the university.
The last book (xvii.) treats of theology or (as we should now say) mythology, and winds up with an account of the Holy Scriptures and of the Fathers, from Ignatius and Dionysius the Areopagite to Jerome and Gregory the Great, and even of later writers from 'Isidore and Bede, through Alcuin, Lanfranc and Anselm, down to Bernard of Clairvaux and the brethren of St Victor.
He studied at Yale and Princeton, graduating from the latter in 1766, studied theology for a year, then law, and began to practise at Hartford in 1771.
In Bagdad he stayed several years, studying the Koran and other works of Moslem theology, for controversial purposes, arguing with Nestorian Christians, and writing.
Adrian is the seat of Adrian College (1859; co-educational), controlled by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in 1859-1867 and since 1867 by the Methodist Protestant Church, and having departments of literature, theology, music, fine arts, commerce and pedagogy, and a preparatory school; and of St Joseph's Academy (Roman Catholic) for girls; and 1 m.
His theology was that of the Scottish Calvinistic school, but his sympathetic character combined with strong conviction gathered round him one of the largest and most intelligent congregations in the city.
Looking at the problem in this way, even a moralist who does not expect theology to be the instrument of social revival, might still ask whether the sympathetic instincts will not necessarily be already developed to their highest point, before people will be persuaded to accept the religion, which is at the bottom hardly more than sympathy under a more imposing name.
Towards the close of his life he occupied himself, like Lessing, with speculative questions in philosophy and theology.
Ochino escaped to Geneva, and Vermigli to Zurich, thence to Basel, and finally to Strassburg, where, with Bucer's support, he was appointed professor of theology and married his first wife, Catherine Dammartin of Metz.
On Mary's accession Vermigli was permitted to return to Strassburg, where, after some opposition raised on the ground that he had abandoned Lutheran doctrine, he was reappointed professor of theology.
The statues of Gutenberg, Fust and Schoffer form a group on the top; an ornamented frieze presents medallions of a number of famous printers; below these are figures representing the towns of Mainz, Strassburg, Venice and Frankfort; and on the corners of the pedestal are allegorical statues of theology, poetry, science and industry.
In 1667 he became a Dominican (as Vincentius Maria), studied theology and philosophy, was made a cardinal in 1672 and archbishop of Benevento in 1686.
In 1852 he took part in establishing the Nouvelle Revue de theologie, the first periodical of scientific theology published in France, and in the same year helped to found the "Historical Society of French Protestantism."
A useful handbook of Swedenborg's theology is the Compendium of the Theological Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg by the Rev. Samuel Warren (London, 1885).
By an agreement made in 1907 the school of theology of Ursinus College (Collegeville, Pennsylvania; the theological school since 1898 had been in Philadelphia) and the Heidelberg Theological seminary (Tiffin, Ohio) united to form the Central Theological seminary of the German Reformed Church, which was established in Dayton in 1908.
Meanwhile Ramus, as graduate of the university, had opened courses of lectures; but his audacities drew upon him the hostility of the conservative party in philosophy and theology.
It was Whig in politics and Nonconformist in theology.
Current religious quarterlies are the Chicago American Journal of Theology and the Oberlin Bibliotheca Sacra.
Of those founded in the 19th century may be mentioned the Recensent (1803), and Nieuwe Recensent; the Nederlandsch Museum (1835); the Tijdstroom (1857); the Tijdspiegel, a literary journal of Protestant tendency; the Theologisch Tijdschrift (1867), the organ of the Leiden school of theology; and the Dietsche Warande, a Roman Catholic review devoted to the national antiquities.
He was a descendant of one of the founders of the New Haven colony, worked as a boy in an uncle's blacksmith shop and on his farm, and in 1797 graduated from Yale, having studied theology under Timothy Dwight.
He preached in the Presbyterian church at East Hampton, Long Island (1798-1810, being ordained in 1 799); in the Congregational church at Litchfield, Connecticut (1810-1826), in the Hanover Street church of Boston (1826-1832), and in the Second Presbyterian church of Cincinnati, Ohio (1833-1843); was president of the newly established Lane Theological Seminary at Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, and was professor of didactic and polemic theology there (1832-1850), being professor emeritus until his death.
His son, Edward Beecher (1803-1895), was born at East Hampton, Long Island, on the 27th of August 1803, graduated at Yale in 1822, studied theology at Andover, and in 1826 became pastor of the Park Street church in Boston.
His ardour for historical studies was further stimulated by Schlozer, when Muller went (1769) to the university of Gottingen, nominally to study theology.
He studied, first theology and then philosophy and natural science, at the universities of Konigsberg and Berlin.
The first deals with mere party questions without sincerity and without depth; and the second, composed as an amusement in retirement without any serious preparation, in their attacks on metaphysics and theology and in their feeble deism present no originality and carry no conviction.
There the more liberal theology rapidly made way among a people who judged it more by its fruits than its arguments, and Macleod won many adherents by his practical schemes for the social improvement of the people.
Their theology is strongly millenarian, centering in the hope of a world-wide theocracy with its seat at Jerusalem.
Passing to the university of Gottingen he took his degree in classical philology and ancient history, but the bent of his mind was definitely towards the philosophical side of theology.
In 1819 he was nominated professor extraordinarius of theology and pastor of Altstadt in Konigsberg, and in 1820 received a superintendency in that city.
His eldest SOH, Heinrich August Hahn (1821-1861), after studying theology at Breslau and Berlin, became successively Privatdozent at Breslau (1845), professor ad interim (1846) at Konigsberg on the death of Heinrich Havernick, professor extraordinarius (1851) and professor ordinarius (1860) at Greif swald.
The archbishop also continues to grant degrees in the faculties of theology, music and law, which are known as Lambeth degrees.
In 1561 he went to teach theology in Rome, reckoning among his pupils Robert Bellarmine, afterwards cardinal; then passed into Sicily; and in 1569 he was sent to Paris, where his expositions of the writings of Thomas Aquinas attracted large audiences.
As Duke Albert sided with Osiander, Chemnitz resigned the librarianship. Returning (1553) to Wittenberg, he lectured on Melanchthon's Loci Communes, his lectures forming the basis of his own Loci Theologici (published posthumously, 1591), which constitute probably the best exposition of Lutheran theology as formulated and modified by Melanchthon.
The sermons of these men were largely scriptural, the cardinal evangelical truths being emphasized with reality and vigour, but with a tendency to abstract theology rather than concrete religion.
With the aid of its philosophy she created her new Christian theology; its polity furnished her with the most exact constitutional forms; its jurisprudence, its trade and commerce, its art and industry, were all taken into her service; and she contrived to borrow some hints even from its religious worship. With this equipment she undertook, and carried through, a world-mission on a grand scale.
In his time there was no fixed, divinely instituted congregational organization, no canon of New Testament Scriptures, no anti-Gnostic theology, and no Catholic Church.
This charge he resigned to take the Bussey professorship of theology at Harvard University, and, in 1878, became dean of the faculty of theology.
He had a wide metaphysical and philosophical knowledge which he applied to the history of theology.
He studied law, theology and science at the university of Poitiers from 1536 to 1539; then, after some travel, attended the universities of Bologna and Padua, receiving the doctorate from the latter in 1548.
The interpolation really witnessed to a deep-lying difference between Eastern and Western theology.
The special characteristic of its theology is in the first part where it owes most to the teaching of Augustine, who in his striving after self-knowledge analysed the mystery of his own triune personality and illustrated it with psychological images, " I exist and I am conscious that I exist, and I love the existence and the consciousness; and all this independently of any external influence."
There is a striking contrast between the crudeness of much and widely accepted medieval theology and the decrees of the council of Trent.
Schmalkalden, drawn up by Luther in 1536, Luther's catechisms, and the Formula of Concord which was an attempt to settle doctrinal divisions promulgated in 1580, sum up what is called " the confessional theology of Lutheranism."
These confessions teach the root idea of Calvin's theology, the immeasurable awfulness of God, His eternity, and the immutability of His decrees.
It exhibits the leading features of the Reformed theology, but " disclaims Divine authority for any fixed form of church government or worship."
It shows the influence of Arminian theology against Calvinism, which was vigorously upheld in the Quin-particular formula, put forward by the synod of Dort in 1619 to uphold the five points of Calvinism, after heated discussion, in which English delegates took part, of the problems of divine omniscience and human free-will.
This was the last great effort in constructive theology of the Reformation period.
He was a student of Western theology, a correspondent of Archbishop Laud, and had travelled in Germany and Switzerland.
In 1629 he tions of the faith such as the Athanasian Creed published a confession in which he attempted to incorporate ideas of the reformers while preserving the leading ideas of Eastern traditional theology.
The province of reverent theology is to aid accurate thinking by the use of metaphysical or psychological terms. Its definitions are no more an end in themselves than an analysis of good drinking water, which by itself leaves us thirsty but encourages us to drink.
From this principle, it follows (I) that the distinction between right and wrong is part of the constitution of human nature; (2) that morality stands apart from theology, and the moral qualities of actions are determined apart from the arbitrary will of God; (3) that the ultimate test of an action is its tendency to promote the general harmony or welfare; (4) that appetite and reason concur in the determination of action; and (5) that the moralist is not concerned to solve the problem of freewill and determinism.
The main object of the Moralists is to propound a system of natural theology, and to vindicate, so far as natural religion is concerned, the ways of God to man.
The story of Abraham is of greater value for the study of Old Testament theology than for the history of Israel.
Some time afterwards he was appointed a canon of the collegiate church, and at first contended vigorously for the scholastic theology as against the doctrines of the Reformers.
After a short residence at Lambeth he was appointed, through the influence of Cromwell, then chancellor of the university, to lecture on theology at Cambridge; but when he had delivered a few expositions of the Hebrew psalms, he was compelled by the opposition of the papal party to desist.
An order in council was enacted in 1899 providing that no Maltese (except students of theology) should thenceforth suffer any detriment through inability to pass examinations in Italian, in either the schools or university, but the fraction of the Maltese who claim to speak Italian (13.24%) still command sufficient influence to hamper the full enjoyment of this emancipation by the majority.
Thus in the period 1520-1550 we have separate chapters on ancient literature, theology, speculative philosophy and jurisprudence, the literature of taste, and scientific and miscellaneous literature; and the subdivisions of subjects is carried further of course in the later periods.
The history of institutions like universities and academies, and that of great popular movements like the Reformation, are of course 1 Technical subjects like painting or English law have been excluded by Hallam, and history and theology only partially treated.
In science and theology, mathematics and poetry, metaphysics and law, he is a competent and always a fair if not a profound critic. The bent of his own mind is manifest in his treatment of pure literature and of political speculation - which seems to be inspired with stronger personal interest and a higher sense of power than other parts of his work display.
After a short pastorate at Brandon, Vermont, he was successively professor of English literature in the University of Vermont (1845-1852), professor of sacred rhetoric in Auburn Theological Seminary (1852-1854), professor of church history in Andover Theological Seminary (1854-1862), and, after one year (1862-1863) as associate pastor of the Brick Church of New York City, of sacred literature (1863-1874) and of systematic theology (1874-1890) in Union Theological Seminary.
His great work was Dogmatic Theology (3 vols., 1888-1894).
In 1794 he entered the university of Leipzig, where he studied theology for four years.
In1804-1806Bretschneider was Privat-docent at the university of Wittenberg, where he lectured on philosophy and theology.
With a view to a change he took the degree of doctor of theology in Wittenberg in August 1812.
Recognizing a supernatural element in the Bible, he nevertheless allowed to the full the critical exercise of reason in the interpretation of its dogmas (cp. Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, pp. 89 ff.).
He was educated at Leipzig, and became professor of theology there in 1750, and principal of the university in 1773.
Crusius's later life was devoted to theology.
The general tendency of his mind ran counter to tradition, and he is remarkable as resuming in his individual history all the phases of Protestant theology from Luther to Socinus.
He entered the order of the Dominicans at the age of sixteen, and ten years later became doctor of theology at Padua, where he was subsequently professor of metaphysics.
In Basel, again, he studied theology under Simon Sulzer (1508-1585), a broadminded divine of Lutheran sympathies, whose aim was to reconcile the churches of the Helvetic and Wittenberg confessions.
Arndt here dwells upon the mystical union between the believer and Christ, and endeavours, by drawing attention to Christ's life in His people, to correct the purely forensic side of the Reformation theology, which paid almost exclusive attention to Christ's death for His people.
At the age of twenty-eight he accepted the chair of Hebrew at Saumur, and twenty years afterwards was appointed professor of theology.
He had considerable knowledge of theology, took a prominent part in the theological controversies of the time, and was responsible for the addition of the clause filioque to the Nicene Creed.
The years1843-1844he spent at Berlin studying German philosophy and theology.
In May 1876, he was appointed joint professor of systematic theology and apologetics with James Harper, principal of the United Presbyterian Theological College, whom he succeeded as principal in 1879.
On his return he wrote a long article on "Recent Scottish Theology" for the Presbyterian and Reformed Review, for which he read over every theological work of note published in Scotland during the preceding half-century.
He became professor of theology at Naples in 1740, and, entering the religious body of the Celestines, rose to be general of the order.
In theology Collier was an adherent of the High Church party, though his views were by no means orthodox.
His views on the problems of Arianism, and his attempt to reconcile it with orthodox theology, are contained in A Specimen of True Philosophy (1730, reprinted in Metaphysical Tracts, 1837) and Logology, or a Treatise on the Logos in Seven Sermons on John i.
He studied philology and theology in Berlin and Breslau.
He graduated as valedictorian in 1808 at the college of New Jersey (Princeton); studied theology under the Rev. Walter Addison of Maryland, and in Princeton; was ordained deacon in 1811 and priest in 1814; and preached both in the Stone Chapel, Millwood, and in Christ Church, Alexandria, for some time.
He became assistant bishop of Virginia in 1829; was pastor of Christ Church, Norfolk, in 1834-1836; in 1841 became bishop of Virginia; and in1842-1862was president of the Protestant Episcopal Theological Seminary in Virginia, near Alexandria, delivering an annual course of lectures on pastoral theology.
In 1780 he entered the university of Jena as a student of theology.
At, or only a very little beyond, the usual age he entered the recently (1348) founded university of Prague, where he became bachelor of arts in 1393, bachelor of theology in 1394, and master of arts in 1396.
In 1616 he returned to Louvain, to take charge of the college of St Pulcheria, a hostel for Dutch students of theology.
Still more was it the object of his Augustinus, a bulky treatise on the theology of St Augustine, barely finished at the time of his death.
He soon obtained various academical honours, and became professor of theology in 1511.
Like Andreas Carlstadt, he was at first a leading exponent of the older type of scholastic theology, but under the influence of Luther abandoned his Aristotelian positions for a theology based on the Augustinian doctrine of grace.
In 1703 Bengel left Stuttgart and entered the university of Tubingen, where, in his spare time, he devoted himself specially to the works of Aristotle and Spinoza, and in theology to those of Philipp Spener, Johann Arndt and August Franke.
After taking his degree, Bengel devoted himself to theology.
Here he remained till 1713, when he was appointed head of a seminary recently established at Denkendorf as a preparatory school of theology.
In this, a genuine work of the Renaissance, Cano endeavours to free dogmatic theology from the vain subtleties of the schools and, by clearing away the puerilities of the later scholastic theologians, to bring religion back to first principles; and, by giving rules, method, co-ordination and system, to build up a scientific treatment of theology.
After taking his licentiate in theology in March 1778, he gave little more attention to theological studies.
The contact of Jewish theology with Greek speculation became the great problem of thought.
At the same time the Jews of the Dispersion had to some extent shaken off the exclusiveness of their old political relations and were prepared to compare and contrast their old territorial theology with cosmopolitan culture.
Thus the Hellenistic doctrine of personal revelation could be combined with the Jewish tradition of a complete theology revealed to a special people.
According to the relative predominance of these two elements arose Gnosticism, the Patristic theology, and the philosophical schools of Neo-Pythagoreanism, Neo-Platonism and eclectic Platonism.
Calamy was an active member in the Westminster assembly of divines, and, refusing to advance to Congregationalism, found in Presbyterianism the middle course which best suited his views of theology and church government.
The principal educational institutions are the University of Southern California (Methodist Episcopal, 1880), the Maclay College of Theology and a preparatory school; Occidental College (Presbyterian, 1887), St Vincent's College (Roman Catholic, founded 1865; chartered 1869) and the Los Angeles State Normal School (1882).
Every one knows that one at least of these older books, The German Theology, was a great favourite of Luther's; but there are many more in Hasak's collection which breathe the same spirit of piety and spiritual emulation.
Tetzel's preaching and the exaggerated claims that he was reported to be making for the indulgences attracted the attention of an Augustinian friar, Martin Luther, who had for some years been lecturing on theology at the university of Wittenberg.
The common man, to whom the diet of Augsburg alludes, had, long been raising his voice against the " parsons " (Pfaffen); the men of letters, Brand, Erasmus, Reuchlin, and above all Ulrich von Hutten, contributed, each in their way, to discredit the Roman Curia; and lastly, a new type of theology, represented chiefly by Martin Luther, threatened to sweep away the very foundations of the papal monarchy.
A new type of theology made its appearance at the opening of the 16th century, in sharp contrast with the Aristotelian scholasticism of the Thomists and Scotists.
He had, however, already begun to look sourly upon Aristotle and the current scholastic theology, which he believed hid the simple truth of the gospel and the desperate state of mankind, who were taught a vain reliance upon outward works and ceremonies, when the only safety lay in throwing oneself on God's mercy.
His father, Romanus Teller (1703-1750), was a pastor at Leipzig, and afterwards became professor of theology in the university.
Wilhelm Abraham studied philosophy and theology in the university of his native town.
In 1761 he was appointed pastor, professor of theology and general superintendent in the university of Helmstedt.
As a technical term in theology, it has various shades of meaning according to the degree of authority which is postulated and the nature of the evidence on which it is based.
This whole period of theology, Protestant and Roman Catholic, is statical.
Again, the assertion that the church is infallible upon some questions, not belonging to the area of revelation (properly so-called in Roman Catholic theology), destroys the identification of " dogmas " with " infallible certainties " which we noted both in the Protestant schoolmen and in Chrismann.
Bruce sharply contrasts " dogmas of theology " with " doctrines of faith."
Both Loofs and Harnack contrast with " dogma " the work of individual thinkers, calling the latter " theology."
Hence they and other authorities wish to see " History of Dogma " supplemented by " Histories of Theology."
For works on the history of dogma see THEOLOGY.
The promotion was entirely the act of Lord Melbourne, an amateur in theology, who had read Thirlwall's introduction to Schleiermacher, and satisfied himself of the propriety of the appointment.
Luther never quite shook off scholasticism, whereas Zwingli had early learnt from Dr Thomas Wyttenbach that the time was at hand when scholastic theology must give place to the purer and more rational theology of the early Fathers and to a fearless study of the New Testament.
He held that the Bible was the sufficient revelation of the will of God, and he threw away the philosophy and theology of the later Roman Church, whereas he declared that the early Church Fathers were helpful, though still fallible, interpreters of the Word.
In March 1525 the latter brought out his long Commentary on the True and False Religion, in which he goes over all the topics of practical theology.
Luther was content with changes in one or two fundamental doctrines; Zwingli aimed at a reformation of government and discipline as well as of theology.
Like all the Reformers, he was strictly Augustinian in theology, but he dwelt chiefly on the positive side of predestination - the election to salvation - and he insisted upon the salvation of infants and of the pious heathen.
It was Schultens too who conquered the difficulties opposed to his graduation at the last moment by the faculty of theology on the ground that some of his theses had a materialistic ring.
Carneades also assailed Stoic theology and physics.
He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1834; studied theology at Andover, where his health failed, at Bangor, and, after a year (1836-1837) as librarian and tutor in Greek at Bowdoin, in Germany at Halle, where he became personally intimate with Tholuck and Ulrici, and in Berlin, under Neander and Hengstenberg.
In 1847-1850 he was professor of moral philosophy and metaphysics at Amherst; and in 1850-1854 was Washburn professor of Church history, and in 1854-1874 Roosevelt professor of systematic theology, at Union Theological Seminary.
Of the old school of the "New England Theology," Smith was one of the foremost leaders of the new school Presbyterians.
His theology is most strikingly contained in the Andover address, "Relations of Faith and Philosophy," which was delivered before the Porter Rhetorical Society in 1849.
Karr prepared two volumes of Dr Smith's theological writings, Introduction to Christian Theology (1883) and System of Christian Theology (1884).
Two new theological schools began to emerge from the old Calvinistic theology of the early settlers.
This system of thought, known as the "New England Theology," rapidly became predominant, and by the beginning of the 19th century was generally adopted.
A new statement of the doctrine of the Atonement, proposed by Horace Bushnell (1802-1876) about 1850, provoked great controversy, but during the later years of the 19th century was widely accepted under the title of the "New Theology."
A lifelong exponent of the mediating theology (Vermittelungs-Theologie), in 1828, with the help of Umbreit (1795-1860), he founded and edited the Theologische Studien and Kritiken in its interests.
Here his teachers in theology were Zacharius Ursinus (1534-1583), Hieronymus Zanchius (1560-1590), and Daniel Tossanus (1541-1602).
In 1594 he was appointed professor of theology at Leiden, and before going thither received from the university of Heidelberg the degree of doctor.
Bogermann (1570-1637), who afterwards became professor of theology at Franeker.
On the death of Arminius shortly after this time, Konrad Vorstius (1569-1622), who sympathized with his views, was appointed to succeed him, in spite of the keen opposition of Gomarus and his friends; and Gomarus took his defeat so ill that he resigned his post, and went to Middleburg in 1611, where he became preacher at the Reformed church, and taught theology and Hebrew in the newly founded Illustre Schule.
From this place he was called in 1614 to a chair of theology at Saumur, where he remained four years, and then accepted a call as professor of theology and Hebrew to Groningen, where he stayed till his death on the 11th of January 1641.
The answer to dogmatic atheism, that it implies infinite knowledge, has been well stated in John Foster's Essays, and restated by Chalmers in his Natural Theology, and its force is recognized in Holyoake's careful qualification of the sense in which secularism accepts atheism, " always explaining the term atheist to mean `not seeing God' visually or inferentially, never suffering it to be taken for anti-theism, that is, hating God, denying God - as hating implies personal knowledge as the ground of dislike, and denying implies infinite knowledge as the ground of disproof."
Returning to Heidelberg he became Privatdozent in theology in 1829, and in 1831 published his Begriff der Kritik am Allen Testamente praktisch erartert, a study of Old Testament criticism in which he explained the critical principles of the grammatico-historical school, and his Des Propheten Jonas Orakel uber Moab, an exposition of the 1 5th and 16th chapters of the book of Isaiah attributed by him to the prophet Jonah mentioned in 2 Kings xiv.
In 1833 he was called to the university of Zurich as professor ordinarius of theology.
After the death of Friedrich Umbreit (1795-1860), one of the founders of the well-known Studien and Kritiken, he was called in 1861 to succeed him as professor of theology at Heidelberg.
After studying theology under Bishop William White at Philadelphia, he was ordained deacon in 1798, and priest two years later.
He was one of the founders of the General Theological Seminary, became its professor of pastoral theology in 1821, and as bishop was its governor.
His lectures, in which he endeavoured to show that Catholic theology is in complete harmony with reason, were received with eager interest by the younger generation of thinkers.
The most important of his numerous works are the Wissenschaftslehre, oder Versuch einer neuen Darstellung der Logik, advocating a scientific method in the study of logic (4 vols., Sulzbach, 1837); the Lehrbuch der Religionswissenschaft (4 vols., Sulzbach, 1834), a philosophic representation of all the dogmas of Roman Catholic theology; and Athanasia, oder Gri nde fiir die Unsterblichkeit der Seele (2nd ed., Mainz, 1838).
It was probably not long before questions of theology and church discipline brought him into direct conflict with Zephyrinus, or at any rate with his successor Calixtus I.
Shortly afterwards he proceeded to the university of Paris, where he took his degree under St Bonaventure and became regent in theology.
To the curial system, so evolved, and continually fortifying its position in the domains of theology, ecclesiastical law and politics, the episcopal system stands in diametrical opposition.
He studied at Berlin and Halle, and in 1890 became professor ordinarius of theology at Jena.
Entering the Cistercian cloister Bolbonne, and graduating doctor of theology at Paris, he became in 1311 abbot of Fontfroide, in 1317 bishop of Pamiers and in 1326 of Mirepoix.
Ordained to the priesthood in 1819, he was appointed to a curacy at Riedlingen, but speedily returned as "repetent" to Tubingen, where he became privatdozent in 1822, extraordinary professor of theology in 1826 and ordinary professor in 1828.
The present position may be illustrated from a work representing the more liberal Anglican theology.
Matters were soon ripe for foreign intervention, and the notorious Cyril of Alexandria, in whom the antagonism between the Alexandrian and Antiochene schools of theology,' as well as the jealousy between the patriarchate of St Mark and that of Constantinople, found a determined and unscrupulous exponent, did not fail to make use of the opportunity.
What is technically and conventionally meant in dogmatic theology by "the Nestorian heresy" must now be noticed.
He was twice married, and his eldest son, Johann Brenz, was appointed (1562) professor of theology in Tubingen at the early age of twenty-two.
He continued to read nevertheless for a degree in theology, and at some time completed the requirements for the B.D.
Erasmus never flouted at religion nor even at theology as such, but only at blind and intemperate theologians.
In general it may be said that the traditional theology of the Church took its material fromvarious sources - Hebrew, Christian,.
Theology, therefore, now resolved itself into the collection and reproduction of the teaching of ancient authorities.
It is consistent with this circle of ideas that initiation into the profound mysteries of the liturgy was regarded, together with the preservation of dogma, as the most exalted function of theology.
This was the home of the Latin Christian literature and theology of medieval times.
Under their guidance theology flourished in the Frankish empire.
At the same time, the controversy with the Eastern Church over the adoration of images shows that the younger Western theology felt itself equal, if not superior to the Greek.
The monastic reform movement was essentially Latin in origin; and even more significant was the fact that scholasticism, the new theology, had its home in the Latin countries.
Aristotelian dialectics had always been taught in the schools; and reason as well as authority had been appealed to as the foundation of theology; but for the theologians of the 9th and 10th centuries, whose method had been merely that of restatement, ratio and auctoritas were in perfect accord.
This involved the question of the relation in theology of authority and reason, and of whether the theological method is authoritative or rational.
It was easy, therefore, to understand why Anselm's method did not become the dominant one in theology.
It was not only significant that in the Concordia discordantium canonum ecclesiastical laws, whether from authentic or forged sources, were gathered together without regard to the existing civil law; of even greater eventual importance was the fact that Gratian taught that the contradictions of the canon law were to be reconciled by the same method as that used by theology to reconcile the discrepancies of doctrinal tradition.
Like the new theology and the new science of law, the new monasticism was also rooted in Latin soil.
To this theology could not point the way.
But nominalism was powerless to inspire theology with new life; on the contrary, its intervention only increased the inextricable tangle of the hairsplitting questions with which theology busied itself, and made their solution more and more impossible.
This work, with other essays, brought him into conflict with the authorities of the church, in consequence of which he gave up theology as his professional study and chose that of philosophy.
The medieval church had spanned the centuries by supposing that Christ's death was continuous down through the age in the sacrifice of the Mass; Protestant theology had nothing equivalent.
A liberal and a corrservative theology (rationalist and orthodox) exist side by side within the churches, and while the latter clings to the theology of the 16th century, the former ventures to raise doubts about the truth of such a common and simple standard as the Apostles' Creed.
The extreme divergence in doctrinal position is fostered by the fact that the theology taught in the universities is in a great measure divorced from the practical religious life of the people, and the theological opinions uttered in the theological literature of the country cannot be held to express the thoughts of the members of the churches.
Philosophical truth, as deduced from the teaching of Aristotle, it was said, directly contradicts the teaching of the church, which determines truth in theology; but the contradiction leaves the authority of the latter unimpaired in its own sphere.
The theological application and development of Hamilton's arguments in Mansel's Bampton Lectures On the Limits of Religious Thought marked a still more determined attack, in the interests of theology, upon the competency of reason.
Besides being a busy natural philosopher, Boyle devoted much time to theology, showing a very decided leaning to the practical side and an indifference to controversial polemics.
They thus form a living, democratic body, flexible and progressive in its movements, yet with a sufficient proportion of conservatism both in religion and theology to keep it sane and safe.
In 1223 (or 1221) he became a member of the Dominican order, and studied theology under its rules at Bologna and elsewhere.
Young Dbllinger was first educated in the gymnasium at Wiirzburg, and then began to study natural philosophy at the university in that city, where his father now held a professorship. In 1817 he began the study of mental philosophy and philology, and in 1818 turned to the study of theology, which he believed to lie beneath every other science.
He then took his doctor's degree, and in 1826 became professor of theology at Munich, where he spent the rest of his life.
It was in connexion with this question that Dollinger published his Past and Present of Catholic Theology (1863) and his Universities Past and Present (Munich, 1867).
At the latter of these two conferences, when Dollinger was seventysix years of age, he delivered a series of marvellous addresses in German and English, in which he discussed the state of theology on the continent, the reunion question, and the religious condition of the various countries of Europe in which the Roman Catholic Church held sway.
This result having been attained, he passed the rest of his days in retirement, emerging sometimes from his retreat to give addresses on theological questions, and also writing, in conjunction with his friend Reusch, his last book, Geschichte der Moralstreitigkeiten in der romisch-katholischen Kirche seit dem sechzehnten Jahrhundert mit Beitragen zur Geschichte and Charakteristik des Jesuitenordens (Nordlingen, 188 9), in which he deals with the moral theology of St Alfonso de' Liguori.
Abd-elKader received the best education attainable by a Mussulman of princely rank, especially in theology and philosophy, in horsemanship and in other manly exercises.
After his surrender in 1847 he devoted himself anew to theology and philosophy, and composed a philosophical treatise, of which a French translation was published in 1858 under the title of Rappel d l'intelligent.
In 1657 he became a Remonstrant pastor at Gouda, and in 1667 he was transferred to Amsterdam, where, in the following year, the office of professor of theology in the Remonstrant seminary was added to his pastoral charge.
He studied theology, and was for some years a dissenting minister at Tonbridge, but on the death of his father he devoted himself to the congenial study of mathematics.
In his theology he laid stress on the Gospel and on no sectarian opinions - he was, however, a pre-millenarianite - and he worked with men as much more "advanced" than himself as Henry Drummond, whom he eagerly defended against orthodox attack, and George Adam Smith.
The last important work in English theology written in Latin was George Bull's Defensio Fidei Nicenae (1685).
The long Modern wars of religion in Germany, as in France and England, and were followed by a certain indifference as to disputed secular points of theology.
Pusey indeed studied under Eichhorn, and in his Historical Enquiry into the probable causes of the Rationalist Character lately predominant in German Theology (1828-1830) speaks sympathetically of the attitude of the Reformers on the question of Scripture and in condemnation of the later Protestant scholastic doctrine; but even in this book he shows no receptivity for any of the actual critical conclusions of Eichhorn and his successors, and subsequently threw the weight of his learning against critical conclusions - notably in his Commentary on Daniel (1864).
There was no idea of constructing a systematic theology; Christ was still the Jewish Messiah, and His Coming was conceived of as the Jews conceived of the coming of the Messiah, as a great supernatural event transforming the face of things and inaugurating the reign of God.
Whatever may be the ultimate decision on these intricate questions, the Fourth Gospel in any case played a very important part in the history of the Church and of Christian theology.
Herein lies the permanent importance of the work of Ferdinand Christian Baur, professor of theology at Tubingen from 1826 to 1860.
On the theology of the prophets there is a separate work by Duhm (Bonn, 1875), and Knobel's Prophetismus der Hebraer (1837), is a separate introduction to the prophetical books.
He afterwards became professor of theology.
Even as professor of Greek he had given great prominence in his lectures to the study of the Scriptures; but he found a much more congenial sphere when, in 1698, he was appointed to the chair of theology.
Yet his first courses of lectures in that department were readings and expositions of the Old and New Testament; and to this, as also to hermeneutics, he always attached special importance, believing that for theology a sound exegesis was the one indispensable requisite.
He studied theology at the university of Halle, and became tutor to the eldest son of the baron von der Horst, to whose family he attached himself for a number of years.
His sermons attracted wide attention in that community, and he gained a considerable reputation as a theologian and a controversialist by his publication in 1814 of a volume entitled Defence of Christianity, written in answer to a work, The Grounds of Christianity Examined (1813), by George Bethune English (1787-1828), an adventurer, who, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was in turn a student of law and of theology, an editor of a newspaper, and a soldier of fortune in Egypt.