For while at New College only twenty out of seventy fellows were to study law instead of arts, philosophy and theology, at All Souls College sixteen were to be " jurists " and only twenty-four " artists "; and while at New College there were ten chaplains and three clerks necessarily, at All Souls the number was not defined but left optional; so that there are now only one chaplain and four bible clerks.
From 1489 to 1491 he studied theology and canon law at Pisa under Filippo Decio and Bartolomeo Sozzini.
From 1816 to 1819 Leo studied at the universities of Breslau, Jena and GÃ¶ttingen, devoting himself more especially to history, philology and theology.
He first studied theology at Giessen, but after the campaign of 1814, in which, like his brother August, he took part as a Hessian volunteer, began the study of jurisprudence, and in 1818 established himself as Privatdocent of civil law at Giessen.
while holding the chair of Greek, was appointed extraordinary professor of theology, and gave exegetical lectures on the New Testament.
trans., Paulinism: a Contribution to the History of Primitive Christian Theology, 2 vols., 1873, &c.).
In 1890 appeared The Development of Theology since Kant, and its Progress in Great Britain since 1825, which was written for publication in England.
He knew something of six languages, and could discuss art, music, literature or theology.
Subsequently he entered Berlin University as a student of theology, but soon turned to scientific subjects.
To attach a clear and definite meaning to the Cartesian doctrine of God, to show how much of it comes from the Christian theology and how much from the logic of idealism, how far the conception of a personal being as creator and preserver mingles with the pantheistic conception of an infinite and perfect something which is all in all, would be to go beyond Descartes and to ask for a solution of difficulties of which he was 1 Ouvres, vi.
After all, the metaphysical theology of Descartes, however essential in his own eyes, serves chiefly as the ground for constructing his theory of man and of the universe.
Christoph Wittich (1625-1687), professor at Duisburg and Leiden, is a representative of the moderate followers who professed to reconcile the doctrines of their school with the faith of Christendom and to refute the theology of Spinoza.
The chief names in this advanced theology connected with Cartesian doctrines are Ludwig Meyer, the friend and editor of Spinoza, author of a work termed Philosophia scripturae interpres (1666); Balthasar Bekker, whose World Bewitched helped to discredit the superstitious fancies about the devil; and Spinoza, whose Tractatus theologico-politicus is in some respects the classical type of rational criticism up to the present day.
His superiors, seeing his great aptitude for theological study, sent him to the Dominican school in Cologne, where Albertus Magnus was lecturing on philosophy and theology.
In 1245 Albertus was called to Paris, and there Aquinas followed him, and remained with him for three years, at the end of which he graduated as bachelor of theology.
In 1257, along with his friend Bonaventura, he was created doctor of theology, and began to give courses of lectures upon this subject in Paris, and also in Rome and other towns in Italy.
The writings of Thomas are of great importance for philosophy as well as for theology, for by nature and education he is the spirit of scholasticism incarnate.
understand theology must familiarize himself with Scripture, the teachings of the fathers, and the decisions of councils, in such a way as to be able to make part of himself, as it were, those channels along which this divine knowledge flowed.
In the Summa Catholicae Fidei contra Gentiles he shows how a Christian theology is the sum and crown of all science.
He carefully establishes the necessity of revelation as a source of knowledge, not merely because it aids us in comprehending in a somewhat better way the truths already furnished by reason, as some of the Arabian philosophers and Maimonides had acknowledged, but because it is the absolute source of our knowledge of the mysteries of the Christian faith; and then he lays down the relations to be observed between reason and revelation, between philosophy and theology.
Then came his deliverances upon undecided points in theology, in his XII.
The first book, after a short introduction upon the nature of theology as understood by Aquinas, proceeds in 119 questions to discuss the nature, attributes and relations of God; and this is not done as in a modern work on theology, but the questions raised in the physics of Aristotle find a place alongside of the statements of Scripture, while all subjects in any way related to the central theme are brought into the discourse.
He graduated at Yale College in 1807, studied theology under Timothy Dwight, anfl in 1812 became pastor of the First Church of New Haven.
From 1822 until his death in New Haven on the 10th of March 1858 he was Dwight professor of didactic theology at Yale.
Taylorism, sometimes called the "New Haven" theology, was an attempt to defend Calvinism from Arminian attacks, and the defence itself was accused of Arminianism and Pelagianism by A.
He wrote Practical Sermons (1858; edited by Noah Porter); Lectures on the Moral Government of God (2 vols., 1859), and Essays and Lectures upon Select Topics in Revealed Theology (1859), all published posthumously.
His system of theology is contained in the former.
The "immediate object of theological knowledge is the faith of the community," and from this positive religious datum theology constructs a "total view of the world and human life."
Thus the essence of Ritschl's work is systematic theology.
From this vantage-ground Ritschl criticizes the use of Aristotelianism and speculative philosophy in scholastic and Protestant theology.
He holds that such philosophy is too shallow for theology.
Ritschl appears to confine Metaphysic to the category of Causality.) The theory as formulated has such grave ambiguities, that his theology, which, as we have seen, is wholly based on uncompromising religious realism, has actually been charged with individualistic subjectivism.
A few instances will illustrate Ritschl's positive systematic theology.
With God as "First Cause" or "Moral Legislator" theology has no concern; nor is it interested in the "speculative" problems indicated by the traditional doctrine of the Trinity.
"Natural theology" has no value save where it leans on faith.
Ritschl's and die evangelische Kirche der Gegenwart (1897); James Orr, The Ritschlian Theology and the Evangelical Faith (London, 1898); and A.
Garvie, The Ritschlian Theology (Edinburgh, 1899), in both of which the bibliography of the movement is given.
Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology in Germany since Kant (1890).
The leading faculty has long been that of theology, and an advanced school of theological criticism, the founder and chief light of which was F.
His brother, Siegmund Jacob Baumgarten (1706-1 7 57), was professor of theology at Halle, and applied the methods of Wolff to theology.
Scarcely any member of the Arabian circle of the sciences, including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics and music, was left untouched by the treatises of Avicenna, many of which probably varied little, except in being commissioned by a different patron and having a different form or extent.
Jowett was thus led to concentrate his attention on theology, and in the summers of 1845 and 1846, spent in Germany with Stanley, he became an eager student of German criticism and speculation.
But his interest in theology had not abated, and his thoughts found an outlet in".occasional preaching.
As has been said of another thinker, he was " one of those deeply religious men who, when crude theological notions are being revised and called in question seek to put new life into theology by wider and more humane ideas."
The general assembly reviews all the work of the Church; settles controversies; makes administrative laws; directs and stimulates missionary and other spiritual work; appoints professors of theology; admits to the ministry applicants from other churches; hears and decides complaints, references and appeals which have come up through the inferior courts; and takes cognizance of all matters connected with the Church's interests or with the general welfare of the people.
Charles Augustus Briggs, tried for heresy for his inaugural address in 1891 as professor of biblical theology at Union Seminary, was acquitted by the presbytery of New York, but was declared guilty and was suspended from its ministry by the General Assembly of 1893.
He was educated at Zurich and at Saumur (where he graduated), studied theology at Orleans under Claude Pajon, at Paris under Jean Claude and at Geneva under Louis Tronchin, and was ordained to the ministry in his native place in 1683.
There are five kinds of faculties: medicine, letters, science, law and Protestant theology.
The faculties of theology confer the degrees of bachelor, lice~itiate and doctor of theology.
There are 2 faculties of Protestant theology (Paris and Montauban); 12 faculties of law (Paris, Aix, Bordeaux, Caen, Grenoble, Lille, Lyons, Montpellier, Nancy, Poitiers, Rennes, Toulouse); 3 faculties of medicine (Paris, Montpellier and Nancy), and 4 joint faculties of medicine and pharmacy (Bordeaux, Lille, Lyons, Toulouse); 15 faculties of sciences (Paris, Besancon, Bor~ deaux, Caen, Clermont, Dijon, Grenoble, Lille, Lyons, Marseilles, Montpellier, Nancy, Poitiers, Rennes, Toulouse); 15 faculties of letters (at the same towns, substituting Aix for Marseilles).
The private faculties are at Paris (the Catholic Institute with a faculty of law); Angers (law, science and letters); Lille (law, medicine and pharmacy, science, letters); Lyons (law, science, letters); Marseilles (law); Toulouse (Catholic Institute with faculties of theology and letters).
Baumgarten of Halle (1706-1757) in disengaging the current dogmatic theology from its many scholastic and mystical excrescences, and thus paved a way for a revolution in theology.
He had graduated in law, and not in theology.
THEODORET, bishop of Cyrrhus, an important writer in the domains of exegesis, dogmatic theology, church history and ascetic theology, was born in Antioch, Syria, about 386.
"At Padua," he said to a friend, "I studied law to please my father, and theology to please myself."
And indeed, whilst in theoretic theology Brahma has retained his traditional place and function down to our own days, his practical cult has at all times remained extremely limited, the only temple dedicated to the worship of this god being found at Pushkar (Pokhar) near Ajmir in Rajputana.
But the expression Natural Theology Natural itself has a history.
Yet the natural or physical theology of the philosophers - in contrast to mere myths or mere statecraft - seems a straightforward effort to reach faith in God on grounds of scientific reason.
It deserves the name, in the modern sense, of Natural Theology.
That is a task quite beyond what is generally recognized as Natural Theology.
Raynaudus's authorities, in favour of the recognition of a natural theology and against it, do not, so far as the present writer has been able to consult them, use the expression.
modern Roman Catholic learning, which owes a great debt to Aristotle through the schoolmen, includes Natural Theology in philosophy, not in theology properly so called.
At this point we must also call to mind the wide currency given to the term theology by Abelard, and his editors or copyists.
Challenged by Natorp; see Theology.
Thus, as employed by most writers, " Natural Religion " connotes neutrality or even friendliness towards Christianity; just as is the case with theism in sense (2), or with Natural Theology.
If there is any difference between " theism " or " Natural Theology " on the one hand, and Natural Religion on the other, it is to be found in the more practical character attaching to natural " religion."
When the expression Natural Theology comes to the front once more with Archdeacon W.
conception, of great importance historically, bearing the marks of the Stoic doctrine of " nature," and helping to turn men's minds towards a " natural " theology.
A pantheist may believe in Law of Nature and go no further; a theist who accepts Law of Nature has a large instalment of natural theology ready made to his hand; including an idealist, or else an intuitionalist, scheme of ethics.
He observes with truth that Natural Theology, if you remove from it the idea of subordination to Christianity as (claiming to be) a special revelation, tends to pass into a philosophy of religion.
C. Fraser's Gifford Lectures, or in earlier times in the writings of Christian Wolff, whose sciences, according to the slightly different nomenclature which Kant imposed on them, were " rational psychology," " rational cosmology," and " rational theology."
In Christian theology, much labour has been spent upon vindicating man's freedom against God's intrusion, or upon blotting out human power in order to leave room for the divine.
The mention of Christian theology may remind us that, for the majority of theists in medieval and modern times, theism proper has ranked only as a secondary wisdom.
It Simplifi- is possible for Christians to work out natural theology in separate detail; but we cannot wonder if they rarely attempt the task, believing as they do that they have a fuller revelation of religious truth elsewhere.
On the contrary, even Christian theology makes at least the effort to show that the thought of God regulates the whole system of belief.
Bruce feels this so strongly that the natural theology section of his Apologetics entirely omits the question " Does God exist?"
Lecky, 4 whether such a philosophy affords a basis for natural theology at all; but the attempt is made.
In declaring the supreme doctrines of Christianity to be mysteries above reason, he marks off a lower region where reason is to reign; the study of that lower region may well be called, as later centuries have called it, Natural Theology; and as such it presents strong intuitionalist affinities.
He was even more definitely opposed to " final causes " than Francis Bacon, who excluded them from science but admitted them to theology.
Natural Theology, i.; Natural Theology, ii.
He draws no inferences to theology or religion, whether friendly or hostile, from his new positions.
He takes the line of separating the things of God from those of Caesar, and defends the traditional Protestant theology with obvious sincerity.
Kant puts together, as belonging to " Rational Theology," three arguments - he is critic of fond of triads, though they have not the significance for him which they came to have for Hegel.
Popular scepticism - perhaps even Charles Darwin's; Huxley himself was a student of Hume - understands by agnosticism that science is certain while philosophy and theology are baseless.
His constructive theory comes at the end, and seems to argue thus: Since (i) there is no discoverable reason why we 3 Mansel's theism (or natural theology), and the revelation he believes in, seem both of them pure matters of assertion on his part, without evidence, or even in the teeth of the evidence as he conceives it.
With what is specifically Christian we have nothing to do in the present article: but it is worth noticing that the appeal to " values, " aesthetic and still more moral, forms a substitute for that natural theology which Ritschl despised and professed to reject.
Among many lectureships, the Gifford Lectures are supposed to be strictly appropriated to Natural Theology; yet subjects and 2 Dr MacTaggart's beliefs once more present themselves as an unexpected modern type (Studies in Hegelian Cosmology, chap. iii.).
Caird (St Andrews: The Evolution of Religion; Glasgow: The Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophies) represent speculative treatment on a basis of Hegelianism.
No truths brought to light by biological investigation were better calculated to inspire distrust of the dogmas intruded upon science in the name of theology than those which relate to the distribution of animals and plants on the surface of the earth.
" Jurisdiction " is a word borrowed from the jurists which has acquired a wide extension in theology, wherein, for example, it is frequently used in contradistinction to " order," to express the right to administer sacraments as something superadded to the power to celebrate them.
He should be a doctor in theology or a licentiate in canon law (ib.
There can be no doubt that Aurelius believed in a deity, although Schultz is probably right in maintaining that all his theology amounts to this - the soul of man is most intimately united to his body, and together they make one animal which we call man; and so the deity is most intimately united to the world or the material universe, and together they form one whole.
He was the mythic founder of a religious school or sect, with a code of rules of life, a mystic eclectic theology, a system of purificatory and expiatory rites, and peculiar mysteries.
In later times Orphic theology engaged the attention of Greek philosophersEudemus the Peripatetic, Chrysippus the Stoic, and Proclus the Neoplatonist, but it was an especially favourite study of the grammarians of Alexandria, where it became so intermixed with Egyptian elements that Orpheus came to be looked upon as the founder of mysticism.
The " argument from design " had been a favourite form of reasoning amongst Christian theologians, and, as worked out by Paley in his Natural Theology, it served the useful purpose of emphasizing the fitness which exists between all the inhabitants of the earth and their physical environment.
In the convent, his modesty was so great that he refused to accept the doctor's degree in theology, which is the highest prized honour in the order.
After taking orders he went (1770) to Rome, where he obtained the degree of doctor of theology and common law, and devoted himself enthusiastically to the study of the fine arts, especially of architecture and painting.
Destined by his parents for the Roman Catholic priesthood, he studied theology at Munich, but felt an ever-growing attraction to philosophy.
But he felt that his real vocation was philosophy, and after holding for a short time an extraordinary professorship of theology, he became professor of philosophy in 1855.
Undeterred by the offence which these works gave to his ecclesiastical superiors, he published in 1858 the Einleitung in die Philosophie and Grundriss der Metaphysik, in which he assailed the doctrine of Thomas Aquinas, that philosophy was the handmaid of theology.
He was denounced by the pope himself in an apostolic brief of the rlth of December 1862, and students of theology were forbidden to attend his lectures.
Both in East and West, the 4th and 5th centuries form the golden age of dogmatic theology, of homiletic preaching, of exposition, of letter-writing, of Church history, of religious poetry.
This interval was diligently devoted to the pursuit of classical and historical studies, to preparing himself for ordination, and to searching investigations, under the stimulus of continual discussion with a band of talented and congenial associates, of the profoundest questions in theology, ecclesiastical polity and social philosophy.
Accustomed freely and fearlessly to investigate whatever came before him, and swayed by a scrupulous dread of insincerity, he was doomed to long and anxious hesitation concerning some of the fundamental points of theology before arriving at a firm conviction of the truth of Christianity.
1234), also a great Talmudist, wrote in Arabic Ma`aseh Yerushalmi, on oaths, and Kitab al-Kifayah, theology.
Lanfranc brought law and discipline; Anselm brought theology and philosophy.
Caird, Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904), ii.
Theology or Theism, (2) Christian Evidences - chiefly "miracles" and " prophecy "; or, on a more modern view, chiefly the character and personality of Christ.
On the other hand, Christians and Jews are pretty well agreed on natural theology; so the New Testament tends to take its theism for granted.
20 has had great influence on Christian theology (e.g.
One result was to bring natural theology into the forefront.
Christian theology, however, strikes out a line of its own.
A statement may be true in philosophy and false in theology, or vice versa.
Even in the nominalistic epoch we have Raymond of Sabunde's Natural Theology (according to the article in Herzog-Hauck, not the title of the oldest Paris MS., but found in later MSS.
The book is not what moderns (schooled unconsciously in post-Reformation developments of Thomist ideas) expect under the name of natural theology.
Deism is, in fact, the Thomist natural theology (more clearly distinguished from dogmatic theology than in the middle ages, alike by Protestants and by the post-Tridentine Church of Rome) now dissolving partnership with dogmatic and starting in business for itself.
Deists and orthodox in those days agreed in recognizing not merely natural theology but natural religion - " essential religion," Butler more than once styles it; the expression shows how near he stood intellectually to those he criticized.
Empiricist Natural Theology - the argument from Design.
While he thus created a new and more ethical " rationalism," Kant's many-sided influence, alike in philosophy and in theology, worked to further issues.
The mysteries of theology are its best part - not alien to reason but of its substance, the " logos."
Herrmann reject natural theology outright in favour of revelation - a striking external parallel to early Socinianism.
British and American divines, on the other hand, are slow to suspect that a new apologetic principle may mean a new system of apologetics, to say nothing of a new dogmatic. Among the evangelicals, for the most part, natural theology, far from being rejected, is not even modified, and certain doctrines continue to be described as incomprehensible mysteries.
No Protestant, of course, can agree with Roman Catholic theology that (supernatural) faith is an obedient assent to church authority and the mysteries it dictates.
Yet it seems plain that any theology, maintaining redemption as historical fact (and not merely ideal), must attach religious importance to conclusions which are technically probable rather than proven.
Ward, made vigorous contributions to natural theology.
The Christian apologist indeed may himself seek, following John Fiske, to philosophize evolution as a restatement of natural theology - " one God, one law, one element and one far-off divine event " - and as at least pointing towards personal immortality.
Positively it may be affirmed that the recovered figure of the historical Jesus is the greatest asset in the possession of modern Christian theology and apologetics.
Fairbairn [Congregationalist], in Place of Christ in Modern Theology (1893), Philosophy of the Christian Religion (1902).
Garvie's Ritschlian Theology (1899).
Macran's English Apologetic Theology (1905).
In 1730 he entered the Mazarin College under the Jansenists, who soon perceived his exceptional talent, and, prompted perhaps by a commentary on the Epistle to the Romans which he produced in the first year of his philosophical course, sought to direct it to theology.
In opposition to Aquinas, who maintained that reason and revelation were two independent sources of knowledge, Duns Scotus held that there was no true knowledge of anything knowable apart from theology as based upon revelation.
On his theology: C. Frassen, Scotus Academicus (1744, new edition, 1900); Hieronymus de Montefortino (Jerome de Fortius), Scoti summa theologica (1728-1738, new edition, 1900); L.
Its head is the tsar; but although he makes and annuls all appointments, he does not determine questions of dogmatic theology.
He studied theology at Erlangen and Berlin, and in 1856 became professor ordinarius of systematic theology and New Testament exegesis at Leipzig.
on "The Survival of Animal Sacrifices" in the American Journal of Theology (Chicago, Jan.
The Jew had passed from the narrow confines of his homeland into a wider world, and this larger vision of human life reacted on the prophet's theology.
Strongly to be recommended are Smend, Lehrbuch der alttestamentlichen Religionsgeschichte; Bennett, Theology of the Old Testament and Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets; A.
Davidson, The Theology of the Old Testament, as well as the sections devoted to " Sacralaltertumer " in the Hebraische Archaologie both of Benzinger and also of Nowack.
Weber's Jiidische Theologie is a useful compendium of the theology of later Judaism.
The schools include the lyceum for philosophy and Catholic theology (a survival of the university suppressed in 1803), a seminary, two gymnasia, a Realschule, and several technical schools, including one for porcelainpainting.
In theology he was a Broad Churchman, seeking always to emphasize the permanent elements in religion, and ignoring technicalities.
His moderation, good sense, wisdom, temper, firmness and erudition made him as successful in this position as he had been when professor of theology, and he speedily surrounded himself with a band of scholarly young men.
He was the most prominent leader of the "new school" of "New England Theology."
Dr Park's sermon, "The Theology of the Intellect and that of the Feelings," delivered in 1850 before the convention of the Congregational ministers of Massachusetts, and published in the Bibliotheca sacra of July 1850, was the cause of a long and bitter controversy, metaphysical rather than doctrinal, with Charles Hodge.
His theology took a more distinctly heterodox form, and the publication (1539) of a book in proof of his most characteristic doctrine - the deification of the humanity of Christ - led to his active persecution by the Lutherans and his expulsion from the city of Ulm.
In 1851 he was made professor of moral philosophy at St Edmund's College, Ware, and was advanced to the chair of dogmatic theology in 1852.
Influenced by the Jesuit John Ramirez he entered the Society of Jesus in 1564, and after teaching philosophy at Segovia, taught theology at Valladolid, at Alcala, at Salamanca, and at Rome successively.
principal professor of theology at Coimbra.
In theology, Suarez attached himself to the doctrine of Luis Molina, the celebrated Jesuit professor of Evora.
Notwithstanding the difference in theology, passages of this kind could not but be welcome to the admirers of the Alexandrian allegories.
Although these and other phenomena cannot yet be safely placed in a historical frame, the methodical labours of past scholars have shed much light upon the obscurities of the exilic and post-exilic ages, and one must await the more comprehensive study of the two or three centuries which are of the first importance for biblical history and theology.
Besides the distinctions already noted, English Jews have risen to note in theology (C. G.
He became a licentiate of arts in 1367, procurator of the French "nation" in 1372, bachelor of theology in 1372, and licentiate and doctor in that faculty in 1381.
At Berlin (1844-1846) and Halle (1846-1847) he studied theology, philosophy and oriental languages.
Hence " negative theology," which ascends from the creature to God by dropping one after another every determinate predicate, leads us nearest to the: truth.
The negative theology is adopted, and God is stated to be predicateless Being, above all categories, and therefore not improperly called Nothing.
Mysticism was pieced on somewhat incongruously to a scholastically accepted theology; the feelings and the intellect were not brought together.
Their mysticism represents, therefore, no widening or spiritualizing of their theology; in all matters of belief they remain the docile children of their Church.
Graduating from Harvard in 1841, he was a schoolmaster for two years, studied theology at the Harvard Divinity School, and was pastor in1847-1850of the First Religious Society (Unitarian) of Newburyport, Massachusetts, and of the Free Church at Worcester in 1852-1858.
About the same time a visit of Jerome to Aquileia led to a close friendship between the two, and shortly after Jerome's departure for the East Rufinus also was drawn thither (in 372 or 373) by his interest in its theology and monasticism.
While his patroness lived in a convent of her own in Jerusalem, Rufinus, at her expense, gathered together a number of monks in a monastery on the Mount of Olives, devoting himself at the same time to the study of Greek theology.
Finding law as distasteful as theology, he devoted himself entirely to philosophy, of which he was appointed extraordinary professor in the university of Naples.
In the astral theology of Babylonia and Assyria, Anu, Bel and Ea became the three zones of the ecliptic, the northern, middle and southern zone respectively.
His wide reading and capacious memory enabled him to carry in his mind the materials of a sound historical theology, but these materials were unsifted by criticism.
"Theology," he says, "is rather a divine life than a divine knowledge."
His great plea for toleration is based on the impossibility of erecting theology into a demonstrable science.
(fn3) Every house of the Order had two learned brethren, one learned in the law, one in theology.
In 1793 he succeeded Johann Christoph DBderlein (1745-1792) as professor of exegetical theology.
In 1803 he became professor of theology and Consistorialrat at Wiirzburg.
After obtaining the degree of doctor he returned to Ghent, and is said to have been the first to lecture there publicly on philosophy and theology.
He is the father of the church's science; he is the founder of a theology which was brought to perfection in the 4th and 5th centuries, and which still retained the stamp of his genius when in the 6th century it disowned its author.
Orthodox theology has never, in any of the confessions, ventured beyond the circle which the mind of Origen first measured out.
The writings of Origen consist of letters, and of works in textual criticism, exegesis, apologetics, dogmatic and practical theology.
He is, moreover, a judicious critic. The union of these four elements gives character to his theology, and in a certain degree to all subsequent theology.
It is this combination which has determined the peculiar and varying relations in which theology and the faith of the church have stood to each other since the time of Origen.
That relation depends on the predominance of one or other of the four factors embraced in his theology.
Consequently his theology is cosmological speculation and ethical reflection based on the sacred Scriptures.
He holds that freedom is the inalienable prerogative of the finite spirit; and this is the second point that distinguishes his theology from the heretical Gnosticism.
Although the theology of Origen exerted a considerable influence as a whole in the two following centuries, it certainly lost nothing by the circumstance that several important propositions were capable of being torn from their original setting and placed in new connexions.
The only man who tried to shake off the theological influence of Origen was Marcellus of Ancyra, who did not succeed in producing any lasting effect on theology.
An enthusiastic disciple of Descartes, he wrote several works in philosophy and theology, which by their freedom of thought aroused considerable hostility.
"Theology," he wrote to a friend, "I can bring myself to study no more.
In two works of this period, Pierre Bayle (1838) and Philosophie and Christentum (1839), which deal largely with theology, he held that he had proved "that Christianity has in fact long vanished not only from the reason but from the life of mankind, that it is nothing more than a fixed idea" in flagrant contradiction to the distinctive features of contemporary civilization.
Its aim may be described shortly as an effort to humanize theology.
The other notable event of his reign is the Council of Chalcedon (451), in which Marcian endeavoured to mediate between the rival schools of theology.
In 1540 he was studying theology at Basel.
In theology he followed Zwingli, and at the sacramentarian conferences of Heidelberg (1560) and Maulbronn (1564) he advocated by voice and pen the Zwinglian doctrine of the Lord's Supper, replying (1565) to the counter arguments of the Lutheran Johann Marbach, of Strassburg.
Its immediate occasion was the disputation at Heidelberg (1568) for the doctorate of theology by George Wither or Withers, an English Puritan (subsequently archdeacon of Colchester), silenced (1565) at Bury St Edmunds by Archbishop Parker.
He studied at Breslau, Gottingen and Berlin, first law, then theology; and in 1839 became professor ordinarius of theology at Halle (1839).
His education was undertaken by his uncle, John de Willoughby, and after leaving the grammar school of his native place he was sent to Oxford, where he is said to have distinguished himself in philosophy and theology.
found it necessary to order all masters in theology to forbid it in collegiate churches.
After teaching for about twenty years in Chartres, he lectured on dialectics and theology in Paris (from 1137), and in 1141 returned to Poitiers, being elected bishop in the following year.
Here, where he had to deal with the Judaism that believed in a Messiah, he was far better able to do justice to Christianity as a revelation; and so we find that the arguments of this work are much more completely in harmony with primitive Christian theology than those of the Apology.
degree in 1515 and removed to Cambridge, where Erasmus had helped to establish a reputation for Greek and theology.
He took the degree of doctor of theology, and seems to have received the complimentary title of doctor mirabilis.
(pp. 23-43) treats of the relation between philosophy and theology.
(313-389), from what appears to be the only MS. The work was intended to contain an abstract of the Opus Majus, an account of the principal vices of theology, and treatises on speculative and practical alchemy.
In 1816 he succeeded to the family estate of Linlathen, near Dundee, and devoted himself to theology.
At the same time questions of trade, of local politics, finally of colonial autonomy, of imperial policy, had gradually, but already long since, replaced theology in leading interest.
He became (1649) professor of philosophy and theology at Herborn, but subsequently (1651), in consequence of the jealousy of his colleagues, accepted an invitation to a similar post at Duisburg,, where he died on the 31st of January 1665.
While studying theology at the university he devoted special attention to Biblical archaeology.
Astrology, geography, physical science and natural theology were their favourite studies.
His learned wanderings ended (1486) at Rome, where he set forth for public disputation a list of nine hundred questions and conclusions in all branches of philosophy and theology.
There he continued his studies with ardour, made himself yet more master of Plato and Plutarch, and became especially advanced in theology under the venerable G.
The fresh insight into the history of the church evinced by this work at once drew attention to its author, and even before he had terminated the first year of his academical labours at Heidelberg, he was called to Berlin, where he was appointed professor of theology.
"Without it," he emphatically says, "there can be no theology; it can only thrive in the calmness of a soul consecrated to God."
His guiding principle in treating both of the history and of the present condition of the church was - that Christianity has room for the various tendencies of human nature, and aims at permeating and glorifying them all; that according to the divine plan these various tendencies are to occur successively and simultaneously and to counterbalance each other, so that the freedom and variety of the development of the spiritual life ought not to be forced into a single dogmatic form" (Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, p. 280).
Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, and P. Schaff, Germany: its Universities and Theology (1857).
He studied theology, and won his doctor's degree by an edition of thirty-four chapters of Genesis from the Arabic version of the Samaritan Pentateuch.
In 1853 he became professor extraordinarius of theology at Leiden, and in 1855 full professor.
Muurling, one of the founders of the Groningen school, which made the first pronounced breach with Calvinistic theology in the Reformed Church of Holland.
Kuenen himself soon became one of the main supports of the modern theology, of which J.
ADOLF HARNACK (1851-), German theologian, was born on the 7th of May 1851 at Dorpat, in Russia, where his father, Theodosius Harnack (1817-1889), held a professorship of pastoral theology.
Theodosius Harnack was a staunch Lutheran and a prolific writer on theological subjects; his chief field of work was practical theology, and his important book on that subject, summing up his long experience and teaching, appeared at Erlangen (1877-1878, 2 vols.).
His distinctive characteristics are his claim for absolute freedom in the study of church history and the New Testament; his distrust of speculative theology, whether orthodox or liberal; his interest in practical Christianity as a religious life and not a system of theology.
He was appointed professor of theology at Erlangen in 1836 and at Leipzig in 1845.
Appointed superintendent of the cathedral school of his native city, he taught with such success as to attract pupils from all parts of France, and powerfully contributed to diffuse an interest in the study of logic and metaphysics, and to introduce that dialectic development of theology which is designated the scholastic. The earliest of his writings of which we have any record is an Exhortatory Discourse to the hermits of his district, written at their own request and for their spiritual edification.
While still young he became a monk, and studied grammar and theology first at Exeter, then at Nutcell near Winchester, under the abbot Winberht.
He was for eight years professor of theology in the Protestant college of Nimes; but in 1661, having successfully opposed a scheme for re-uniting Catholics and Protestants, he was forbidden to preach in Lower Languedoc. In 1662 he obtained a post at Montauban similar to that which he had lost; but after four years he was removed from this also.
The favourite subjects of his lectures were logic and dogmatic theology.
PETER DENS (1690-1775), Belgian Roman Catholic theologian, was born at Boom near Antwerp. Most of his life was spent in the archiepiscopal college of Malines, where he was for twelve years reader in theology and for forty president.
What is known as the "Oberlin Theology" (no longer identified with the college) centred in the teaching of Charles Grandison Finney (1792-1875), who became professor of theology in 1835 and was Mahan's successor in the presidency (1851-1866).
1861) of the Theological Seminary, especially in President King's Reconstruction in Theology (1901); Theology and the Social Consciousness (1902); The Seeming Unreality of the Spiritual Life (1908) and The Laws of Friendship - Human and Divine (1909).
Later he spent some time in the schools of London, which enjoyed at that time a high reputation, and finally studied theology at Paris.
The pope appointed Faber to teach Holy Scripture, and Laynez scholastic theology, in the university of the Sapienza.
Bartole, the official biographer of Ignatius, says that he would not permit any innovation in the studies; and that, were he to live five hundred years, he would always repeat "no novelties" in theology, in philosophy or in logic - not even in grammar.
With Thomas Hill Green he founded in England a school of orthodox neo-Hegelianism, and through his pupils he exerted a farreaching influence on English philosophy and theology.
His publications include Philosophy of Kant (1878); Critical Philosophy of Kant (1889); Religion and Social Philosophy of Comte (1885); Essays on Literature and Philosophy (1892); Evolution of Religion (Gifford Lectures, 1891-1892); Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904); and he is represented in this encyclopaedia by the article on Cartesianism.
For a criticism of Dr Caird's theology, see A.
He studied theology at Bonn (from 1822) under K.
Dicke, held several pastorates, and eventually (1854) settled at Bonn as professor of theology in succession to Isaac A.
Caird, Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers, 1904).
After studying at Konigsberg, in 1650 he was appointed professor of theology at Wittenberg, where he afterwards became general superintendent and primarius.
But the more serious difficulties which to many minds still stand in the way of the acceptance of the epistle have come from the developed phase of Pauline theology which it shows, and from the general background and atmosphere of the underlying system of thought, in which the absence of the well-known earlier controversies is remarkable, while some things suggest the thought of John and a later age.
(b) The centre in all the theology of the epistle is the idea of redemption.
The theological ideas of Ephesians are also discussed in some of the works on Paul's theology; see especially F.
1877); and in the works on New Testament theology by B.
1), were interpreted by the Christian Fathers as referring to the passage in Isaiah; whence, in Christian theology, Lucifer came to be regarded as the name of Satan before his fill.
It was the Alexandrian theology that superseded them; that is to say, NeoPlatonic mysticism triumphed over the early Christian hope of the future, first among the "cultured," and then, when the theology of the "cultured" had taken the faith of the "uncultured" under its protection, amongst the latter also.
About the year 260 an Egyptian bishop, Nepos, in a treatise called 'XEyxos 6,XX yoptarCnv, endeavoured to overthrow the Origenistic theology and vindicate chiliasm by exegetical methods.
During this controversy Dionysius became convinced that the victory of mystical theology over "Jewish" chiliasm would never be secure so long as the book of Revelation passed for an apostolic writing and kept its place among the homologoumena of the canon.
The attempts of Methodius of Tyre at the beginning of the 4th century and Apollinarius of Laodicea about 360 to defend chiliasm and assail the theology of Origen had no result.
The change was brought about by two causes - first, Greek theology, which reached the West chiefly through Jerome Rufinus and Ambrose, and, second, the new idea of the church wrought out by Augustine on the basis of the altered political situation of the church.
By this doctrine of Augustine's, the old millennarianism, though not completely extirpated, was at least banished from the official theology.
In his fifteenth year he entered the order of St Augustine, was afterwards professor of theology at the university of Alcala, and published a Cursus theologiae in five volumes (1732-1738).
Weak health, consequent on over-study, prevented him from obtaining the highest academical honours, but he graduated as doctor in theology at the age of twenty-two, and then entered the Accademia dei Nobili ecclesiastici, a college in which clergy of aristocratic birth are trained for the diplomatic service of the Roman Church.
Even as its main historical importance had formerly sprung from pagan learning, so now it acquired fresh importance as a centre of Christian theology and church government.
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