How to use Theological in a sentence
Jowett's theological work was transitional, and yet has an element of permanence.
In the Yale Divinity School his influence was powerful, and in 1833 one of his foremost opponents, Bennet Tyler (1783-1858), founded in East Windsor a Theological Institute to offset Taylor's teaching at Yale.
The theological interest which attaches to the idea of the preAaronic king-priest in these typical applications is practically independent of the historical questions suggested by the narrative of Gen.
Wolff, in the intervals of his chequered theological career, lectured and wrote as a jurist upon the Law of Nature.
From this theological entanglement the problem of free will did not escape for long centuries.Advertisement
In 1832 her father, who had for six years been the pastor of a church in Boston, accepted the presidency of the newly founded Lane Theological Seminary at Cincinnati.
In 1852 Professor Stowe accepted a professorship in the Theological Seminary at Andover, Massachusetts, and the family made its home there till 1863, when he retired wholly from professional life and removed to Hartford.
Amongst his scientific, theological and grammatical works mention may be made of De diis, containing an examination of various cults and ceremonials; treatises on divination and the interpretation of dreams; on the sphere, the winds and animals.
Other institutions of learning are the Capital University and Evangelical Lutheran Theological Seminary (Theological Seminary opened in 1830; college opened as an academy in 1850), with buildings just east of the city limits; Starling Ohio Medical College, a law school, a dental school and an art institute.
Kampen is the seat of a Christian Reformed theological school, a gymnasium, a higher burgher school, a municipal school of design, and a large orphanage.Advertisement
Europe, Judah Hadassi composed his Eshkol ha-Kopher, a great theological compendium in the form of a commentary on the Decalogue.
But his fame rests mainly on his theological works.
The emperor Marcian approved the doctrinal decrees of the council and enjoined silence in regard to theological questions.
Probably in 1304 he went to Paris, in 1307 he received his doctor's degree from the university, and in the same year was appointed regent of the theological school.
In ethics the distinction he drew between natural and theological virtues is common to him with the rest of the schoolmen.Advertisement
The principal buildings are the beautiful church of St Mary, dating from the 13th century, the theological seminary established in 1870, the gymnasium and the hospital.
This involved an entire reconstruction of theological ideas which went beyond even the reconstructions of Amos and Isaiah.
He endeavoured to combine his habits of theological study with the practical work of administration.
On the other hand, he was famed for his engaging manners, eloquence and theological learning.
The son graduated at Brown University in 1826, was a teacher at Braintree for two years, and in 1831 graduated from Andover theological seminary.Advertisement
Some of Park's sermons were published in 1885, under the title Discourses on Some Theological Doctrines as Related to the Religious Character.
His writings were partially collected in four folio volumes, the first of which was published in the year 1564, containing his principal theological works.
Schwenkfeld's mysticism was the cause of his divergence from Protestant orthodoxy and the root of his peculiar religious and theological position.
He spent ten or twelve years in study, chiefly theological, at Palencia, and then, about 1195, he was ordained and became a canon in the cathedral chapter of Osma, his native diocese.
Thirteen churches, including the Troitskiy (Trinity) and Uspenskiy cathedrals, a bell-tower, a theological academy, various buildings for monks and pilgrims, and a hospital stand within the precincts, which are two-thirds of a mile in circuit.Advertisement
The theological seminary, founded in 1744 and transformed in 1814 into an academy, reckoned Platon and Philarete among its pupils.
Some other works by him on theological subjects remain in manuscript.
The historical traditions are to be supplemented by the great body of prophetic, legal and poetic literature which reveal contemporary conditions in various internal literary, theological or sociological features.
It raises many serious problems which concentrate upon that age which is of the greatest importance for the biblical and theological student.
At the present time orthodox Judaism is also again acquiring its due position and the Jewish theological seminary of America was founded for this purpose.Advertisement
His other works consisted of theological essays, ascetic or exegetic, questions of ecclesiastical discipline and reform, and of various polemical writings called forth for the most part by the schism.
When, in the 5th century A.D., owing to theological differences the Syriac-using Christians became divided into Nestorians or East Syrians and Jacobites (Monophysites) or West Syrians, certain differences of pronunciation, chiefly in the vowels, began to develop themselves.
The extensive Sanskrit literature, which has reached in translations China, Japan and Java, is chiefly theological and poetical, history being conspicuously absent.
Young Rainy was intended for his father's profession, but he was caught by the evangelical fervour of the Disruption movement, and after studying for the Free Church he became a minister, first in Aberdeenshire and then in Edinburgh, till in 1862 he was elected professor of Church history in the theological seminary, New College, a post he only resigned in 1900.
There is much uncertainty about the early theological history of the sect, but it is probable that Mack and his followers were influenced by both the Greek Catholics and the Waldensians.Advertisement
In the autumn of 397 Rufinus embarked for Rome, where, finding that the theological controversies of the East were exciting much interest and curiosity, he published a Latin translation of the Apology of Pamphilus for Origen, and also (398-99) a somewhat free rendering of the 7rep1 apXwv (or De Principiis) of that author himself.
The Benedictine abbey, founded in 1095, was used after the Reformation as a school, and is now an Evangelical theological seminary.
He was educated for the church, and, after some hesitation, took orders in 1736 at Salerno, where he was appointed professor of eloquence at the theological seminary.
Though he duly finished his theological course and was licensed to preach, Brewster's preference for other pursuits prevented him from engaging in the active duties of his profession.
What makes Origen's answer so instructive is that it shows how close an affinity existed between Celsus and himself in their fundamental philosophical and theological presuppositions.Advertisement
The actual sinfulness of all men Origen was able to explain by the theological hypothesis of pre-existence and the premundane fall of each individual soul.
The only man who tried to shake off the theological influence of Origen was Marcellus of Ancyra, who did not succeed in producing any lasting effect on theology.
In part 2 he discusses the "false or theological essence of religion," i.e.
The Mandaeans are strictly reticent about their theological dogmas in the presence of strangers; and the knowledge they actually possess of these is extremely small.
Thus while among his own colleagues he seemed merely a hypocritical and arrogant priest, in his relations with his brother humanists, such as Cosimo de Medici, he appeared as the student of classical antiquities and especially of Greek theological authors.Advertisement
Only two of the volumes are known to be in existence; one is a copy of John of Salisbury's works in the British Museum, and the other some theological treatises by Anselm and others in the Bodleian.
More important in the history of scholasticism are the theological consequences to which Gilbert's realism led him.
The two great orders, Franciscans and Dominicans, were in the vigour of youth, and had already begun to take the lead in theological discussion.
His theological views have a considerable similarity to those of Frederick Denison Maurice, who acknowledges having been indebted to him for his first true conception of the meaning of Christ's sacrifice.
After having been apprenticed to a linendraper, and for three years a clerk in a Dundee business house, he entered the Hoxton (Congregational) Theological College, and in 1804 was appointed to a Congregational chapel in Aberdeen.Advertisement
Theological systems were largely concerned.
The theological and philosophical developments of the second quarter of the 19th century were characterized by the transcendental movement.
His chief theological and philosophical works were Institutes of Natural and Revealed Religion (3 vols., 1772-1774); History of the Corruption of Christianity (2 vols., 1782); General History of the Christian Church to the Fall of the Western Empire, vols.
But his theological writings are forgotten, and he is chiefly remembered as a scientific investigator who contributed especially to the chemistry of gases.
After an interval of about eighteen months, however, he definitively betook himself to an academic career, "habilitating" in Heidelberg, where two vacancies had occurred in the theological faculty of the university.
He entered upon his work here as a theological teacher in 1811; and in 1812 he became a professor.
Neander's theological position can only be explained in connexion with Schleiermacher, and the manner in which while adopting he modified and carried out the principles of his master.
The theological disputes between the Remonstrants and contraRemonstrants found them on different sides; and the theological quarrel soon became a political one.
His studies, both at school and university, were classical and theological.
Theodosius Harnack was a staunch Lutheran and a prolific writer on theological subjects; his chief field of work was practical theology, and his important book on that subject, summing up his long experience and teaching, appeared at Erlangen (1877-1878, 2 vols.).
In the city itself are Hope College (co-educational; founded in 1851 and incorporated as a college in 1866), an institution of the (Dutch) Reformed Church in America; and the Western Theological Seminary (1869; suspended 1877-1884) of the same denomination.
Then came a theological and disciplinary controversy with Virgil, the Irish bishop of Salzburg, who held, among other heresies, that there were other worlds than ours.
Oberlin is primarily an educational centre, the seat of Oberlin College, named in honour of Jean Frederic Oberlin, and open to both sexes; it embraces a college of arts and sciences, an academy, a Theological Seminary (Congregational), which has a Slavic department for the training of clergy for Slavic immigrants, and a conservatory of music. In 1909 it had twenty buildings, and a Memorial Arch of Indiana buff limestone, dedicated in 1903, in honour of Congregational missionaries, many of them Oberlin graduates, killed in China in 1900.
Under the editorship of a professor emeritus is published the Bibliotheca Sacra, a quarterly founded in 1843, and for many years the organ of the Andover Theological Seminary.
To the Theological Seminary, opened in 1835, there came in the same year forty students from Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, after the discussion of slavery there had been forbidden by its board of trustees.
The modern theological position of Oberlin college is reflected in the writings of President King and of Dean Edward I.
Marca's biography was written in Latin by two of his intimate friends, Etienne Baluze, his secretary (Epistola ad Samuelem Sorbierium, de vita, gestis et scriptis Petri de Marca, Paris, 1663), and his cousin, Paul de Faget (at the beginning of a collection of Marca's theological pamphlets, first published by Paul de Faget in 1668).
The Union Theological School was established in connexion with the college in 1812, but in 1898 was removed to Richmond, Virginia.
He took his part in the theological disputations of the time, at Marburg (1529), the Concordia at Wittenberg (1536), the Convention at Schmalkalden (1537), the discussions at Hagenau and Worms (1540).
Ephesians has been called "the crown of St Paul's writings," and whether it be measured by its theological or its literary interest and importance, it can fairly dispute with Romans the claim to be his greatest epistle.
This theme is not formally discussed, as in a theological treatise, but is rather, as it were, celebrated in lofty eulogy and application.
The relationship, both literary and theological, between the epistle to the Ephesians and that to the Colossians is very close.
As to the other points, the question is, whether the admittedly new phase of Paul's theological thought is so different from his earlier system as to be incompatible with it.
They would never have died out, however, had not circumstances altered, and a new mental attitude been taken up. The spirit of philosophical and theological speculation and of ethical reflection, which began to spread through the churches, did not know what to make of the old hopes of the future.
His writings, which are chiefly theological and controversial, are largely formed of charges to his clergy, and sermons on different topics; but, though valuable and full of thought, they lose some of their force by the cumbrous German structure of the sentences, and by certain orthographical peculiarities in which the author indulged.
The stricter theological training of the Roman Catholic clergy throughout the world on the lines laid down by St Thomas Aquinas was his first care, and to this end he founded in Rome and endowed an academy bearing the great schoolman's name, further devoting about £1 2,000 to the publication of a new and splendid edition of his works, the idea being that on this basis the later teaching of Catholic theologians and many of the speculations of modern thinkers could best be harmonized and brought into line.
A man of literary taste and culture, familiar with the classics, a facile writer of Latin verses' as well as of Ciceronian prose, he was as anxious that the Roman clergy should unite human science and literature with their theological studies as that the laity should be educated in the principles of religion; and to this end he established in Rome a kind of voluntary school board, with members both lay and clerical; and the rivalry of the schools thus founded ultimately obliged the state to include religious teaching in its curriculum.
The third or theological class of writings consists mainly of commentaries, or of works which, if not commentaries in name, are so in fact.
Indeed it may be said that his works, scientific, historical and theological, practically sum up all the learning of western Europe in his time, which he thus made available for his countrymen.
And though Bede makes no pretensions to originality, least of all in his theological works, freely taking what he needed, and (what is very rare in medieval writers) acknowledging what he took, "out of the works of the venerable Fathers," still everything he wrote is informed and impressed with his own special character and temper.
In 1738 he went to Halle to finish his theological studies; he was a devoted worker in the Franckesche Stiftung, which later served as a partial model for his great-grandson's community at St Johnland, Long Island.
Thus, as Harnack points out, "there is no trace of a theological difference between Severus and Leontius," only a difference of terminology and of degree of willingness to assent to the formula of Chalcedon.
For higher education there were in 1908 three gymnasia, a realschool at Banjaluka, a technical college and a teachers' trainingcollege at Serajevo, where, also, is the state school for Moslem law-students, called scheriatschule from the sheri or Turkish code; and various theological, commercial and art institutes.
Here he spent nearly the whole of his life teaching and writing, and took no part in the theological movements of his time.
He was the author of numerous rhetorical and theological works.
For his theological position see Harnack, Dogmengeschichte; Hort, Six Lectures on the Ante-Nicene Fathers; Westcott, " Clem.
The Baptist theological college of Pontypool was removed to Cardiff in 1895.
The new archbishop, without being one of the English divines who have made notable contributions to theological learning, already had a great reputation for ecclesiastical statesmanship; and in subsequent years his diplomatic abilities found ample scope in dealing not only with the difficulties caused in the church by doctrinal questions, but pre-eminently with the education crisis, and with the new problems arising in the enlarged Anglican Communion.
In 1835 he became Repetent, in 1838 Privatdozent and in 1841 professor extraordinarius in the theological faculty at Erlangen.
He was a founder and the first president of the Massachusetts Missionary Society, and was influential in the establishment of Andover Theological Seminary.
From 1614 to 1619 he was director of the theological college at Leiden.
Vossius was amongst the first to treat theological dogmas and the heathen religions from the historical point of view.
The lack of early systematic theological training certainly had a momentous effect upon his development.
They were at first often called Wycliffites, as the theological theories of Huss were largely founded on the teachings of Wycliffe.
Huss indeed laid more stress on church reform than on theological controversy.
Bohemia was now again for a time free from foreign intervention, but internal discord again broke out caused partly by theological strife, partly by the ambition of agitators.
The Church had theological colleges at Manchester and Sheffield, boys' schools at Shebbear, in Devonshire, and at Harrogate, and a girls' school at Bideford.
As the theological doctrine of the Logos which bulks so largely in the writings of the apologists of the 2nd century came to the front, the trinitarian problem became acute.
His interest was not, however, confined to theological literature; he annotated the margins of his classical texts with numerous scholia (many of which are preserved), and had several MSS.
In Auburn are the Auburn (State) prison (1816), in connexion with which there is a women's prison; the Auburn Theological Seminary (Presbyterian), founded in 1819, chartered in 1820, and opened for students in 1821; the Robinson school for girls; and the Women's Educational and Industrial Union, for the education of working girls, with a building erected in 1907.
Our estimate of the theological teaching of this book will naturally be influenced by the particular critical theory which is adopted.
After being cure successively of two villages in that diocese, Loisy went in May 1881, to study and take a theological degree, to the Institut Catholique in Paris.
He took his theological degree in March 1890, by the oral defence of forty Latin scholastic theses and by a French dissertation, Histoire du canon de l'ancien testament, published as his first book in that year.
For the theological course he took up in 1834 his.
But on the 19th of May 1841 he preached at Boston a sermon on "the transient and permanent in Christianity," which presented in embryo the main principles and ideas of his final theological position, and the preaching of which determined his subsequent relations to the churches with which he was connected and to the whole ecclesiastical world.
Hamilton is the seat of Colgate University, which was founded in 1819, under the name of the Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution, as a training school for the Baptist ministry, was chartered as Madison University in 1846, and was renamed in 1890 in honour of the Colgate family, several of whom, especially William (1783-1857), the soap manufacturer, and his sons, James Boorman (1818-1904), and Samuel (1822-1897), were its liberal benefactors.
In 1908-1909 it had a university faculty of 33 members, 307 students in the college, 60 in the theological department, and 134 in the preparatory department, and a library of 54,000 volumes, including the Baptist Historical collection (about 5000 vols.) given by Samuel Colgate.
When the orthodox emperor Valentinian ascended the throne, Auxentius was left undisturbed in his diocese, but his theological doctrines were publicly attacked by Hilary of Poitiers.
Schmidt thinks that the author of the former made use of the latter, James that the Acts of Peter and of John were by one and the same author, but Ficker is of opinion that their affinities can be explained by their derivation from the same ecclesiastical atmosphere and school of theological thought.
In the earlier treatise he attacks the life and character of Aristotle, impugns the authenticity of almost all his works, and attempts to refute his doctrines from a theological standpoint.
In the Avesta, after the separation of the Iranian stock from the Hindu and the rise of Zoroastrianism, which elevated Ormazd to the summit of the Persian theological system, his role was more distinct, though less important; between Ormazd, who reigned in eternal brightness, and Ahriman, whose realm was eternal darkness, he occupied an intermediate position as the greatest of the yazatas, beings created by Ormazd to aid in the destruction of evil and the administration of the world.
There are over 30 mosques in the town, a dervish monastery, and numerous theological colleges (medresses), and the Moslem inhabitants have a reputation for bigotry.
For the conflicts which accompanied the first intrusion of philosophy into the theological domain more profound and cautious thinkers with a far ampler apparatus of knowledge had substituted a harmony.
This theological deduction from his doctrine drew upon Roscellinus the polemic of his most celebrated opponent, Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109).
Ueberweg cites a passage from his theological works which apparently bears out this view, for William there expressly distinguishes the two senses of the word " same."
The germs of Rationalism were unquestionably present in several of Abelard's opinions, and still more so, the traditionalists must have thought, in his general attitude towards theological questions.
He was more of a theologian than a philosopher; and in his chief work, of Summa universae theologiae, he simply employs his increased philosophical knowledge in the demonstration of theological doctrines.
Scotus extends the number of theological doctrines which are not, according to him, susceptible of philosophical proof, including in this class the creation of the world out of nothing, the immortality of the human soul, and even the existence of an almighty divine cause of the universe (though he admits the possibility of proving an ultimate cause superior to all else).
In the end of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th the Thomists and Scotists divided the philosophical and theological world between them.
A pupil of The Scotus, he carried his master's criticism farther, and Twofold denied that any theological doctrines were rationally Truth.
The principle of the twofold nature of truth 1 thus embodied in Occam's system was unquestionably adopted by many merely to cloak their theological unbelief; and it is significant of the internal dissolution of Scholasticism.
There are also notices of the leading systems in Milman's History of Latin Christianity; and the same writers are considered from the theological side in many works devoted to theology, and the history of dogma.
There were in Hungary in 1900 forty-nine high theological colleges, twenty-nine Roman Catholic; five Greek Uniat, four Greek Orthodox, ten Protestant and one Jewish.
Among the Protestants who exerted themselves in theological and controversial writings were Nemeti, Alvinczy, Alexander Felvinczy, Martonfalvi and Melotai, who was attached to the court of Bethlen Gabor.
The Calvinist Albert Molnar, already mentioned, was more remarkable for his philological than for his theological labours.
Among the few prose writers of distinction were Andrew Spangar, whose " Hungarian Bookstore," Magyar Konyvtdr (Kassa, 1738), is said to be the earliest work of the kind in the Magyar dialect; George Baranyi, who translated the New Testament (Lauba, 1 754); the historians Michael Cserei and Matthew Bel, which last, however, wrote chiefly in Latin; and Peter Bod, who besides his theological treatises compiled a history of Hungarian literature under the title Magyar Athends (Szeben, 1766).
His first distinctions are said to have been gained in theological controversy, but at an early age he became mathematical teacher in the military school of Beaumont, the classes of which he had attended as an extern.
Consequently there was a tinge of theological dogmatism about the whole matter.
In 1812 he became first professor in the newly established Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Princeton, New Jersey, where he remained until his death at Princeton on the 22nd of October 1851, filling successively the chairs of didactic and polemic theology (1812-1840), and pastoral and polemic theology (1840-1851).
Dr Alexander wrote a considerable number of theological works, which had a large circulation.
At Menlo Park is St Patrick's Theological Seminary (Roman Catholic).
In the literature as it survives many different branches of writing are represented - homilies in prose and verse, hymns, exposition and commentary, liturgy, apocryphal legends, historical romance, hagiography and martyrology, monastic history and biography, general history, dogmatics, philosophy and science, ecclesiastical law, &c. But the whole is dominated by the theological and ecclesiastical interest.
Beginning with the earliest versions of the Bible, which seem to date from the 2nd century A.D., the series comprises a great mass of translations from Greek originals - theological, philosophical, legendary, historical and scientific. In a fair number of cases the Syriac version has preserved to us the substance of a lost original text.
His theological position is clearly defined in a homily on the three doctors - Diodore, Theodore and Nestorius - published by the Abbe Martin in the Journal asiatique for July 1900.
An account of his theological position, derived from the treatise of Babhai De unione, will be found in Labourt, op. cit.
Moses bar Kepha (f903), one of the most fertile of 9th-century authors, wrote commentaries, theological treatises and many liturgical works.
Hitherto Fontenelle had made his home in Rouen, but in 1687 he removed to Paris; and in the same year he published his Histoire des oracles, a book which made a considerable stir in theological and philosophical circles.
Whether Xenophanes was a monotheist, whose assertion of the unity of God suggested to Parmenides the doctrine of the unity of Being, or a pantheist, whose assertion of the unity of God was also a declaration of the unity of Being, so that he anticipated Parmenides - in other words, whether Xenophanes's teaching was purely theological or had also a philosophical significance - is a question about which authorities have differed and will probably continue to differ.
Apart from the old controversy about Xenophanes's relations to philosophy, doubts have recently arisen about his theological position.
He graduated at Hamilton College, Clinton, N.Y., in 1820, and at the Princeton Theological Seminary in 1823, was ordained as a Presbyterian minister by the presbytery of Elizabethtown, New Jersey, in 1825, and was the pastor successively of the Presbyterian Church in Morristown, New Jersey (1825-1830) and of the First Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia(1830-1867).
Barnes was the author of several other works of a practical and devotional kind, and a collection of his Theological Works was published in Philadelphia in 1875., He died in Philadelphia on the 24th of December 1870.
This phase is most clearly developed in Archibald Pitcairne (1652-1713), who, though a determined opponent of metaphysical explanations, and of the chemical doctrines, gave to his own rude mechanical explanations of life and disease almost the dogmatic completeness of a theological system.
He started a theological college (the Scholae Cancellarii), founded night schools, delivered courses of lectures on church history, held Bible classes, and was instrumental in founding a society of mission preachers for the diocese, the "Novate Novale."
He was quite unacquainted with the history of his own language and literature, and more here than anywhere else he showed the extraordinarily limited and conventional spirit which accompanied the revolt of the French 18th century against limits and conventions in theological, ethical and political matters.
In 1594 he began to give theological lectures at Jena, and in 1596 accepted a call as professor of theology at Wittenberg, where he died on the 23rd of October 1616.
Having graduated and begun to give lectures at Jena in 1605, he in 1606 accepted the invitation of John Casimir, duke of Coburg, to the superintendency of Heldburg and mastership of the gymnasium; soon afterwards he became general superintendent of the duchy, in which capacity he was engaged in the practical work of ecclesiastical organization until 1616, when he became theological professor at Jena, where the remainder of his life was spent.
That neither this, nor any other, companion of Paul can have been the author of the whole work is supposed to follow both from its theological temper and from discrepancies between its statements and those of the Pauline Epistles on matters of fact.
In 1745, owing to his knowledge of Gaelic, he was appointed deputy chaplain of the 43rd (afterwards the 42nd) regiment (the Black Watch), the licence to preach being granted him by special dispensation, although he had not completed the required six years of theological study.
It has always prided itself most on its theological teaching.
He graduated at Western Reserve College in 1864 and at Andover Theological Seminary in 1869; preached in Edinburg, Ohio, in 1869-1871, and in the Spring Street Congregational Church of Milwaukee in 5875-5879; and was professor of philosophy at Bowdoin College in 58 791881, and Clark professor of metaphysics and moral philosophy at Yale from 1881 till 5905, when he took charge of the graduate department of philosophy and psychology; he became professor emeritus in 1905.
In 1879-1882 he lectured on theology at Andover Theological Seminary, and in 1883 at Harvard, where in 1895-1896 he conducted a graduate seminary in ethics.
The book treats of the Messiah and the Messianic kingdom, the woes of Israel in the past and the destruction of Jerusalem in the present, as well as of theological questions relating to original sin, free will, works, &c. The views expressed on several of these subjects are often conflicting.
This apocalypse is of very great importance, on account of its very full treatment of the theological questions rife in the latter half of the 1st century of the Christian era.
His contributions to theological literature included treatises on Christian ethics and dogmatics, on moral philosophy, on baptism, and a sketch of the life of Jakob Boehme, who exercised so marked an influence on the mind of the great English theologian of the 18th century, William Law.
Itlis not a more untrustworthy account than a vehement controversialist engaged in a life and death struggle might be expected to write of his theological antagonists.
He was prominent among the founders of Andover Theological Seminary, and was its first professor, occupying the chair of Christian theology from 1808 to 1846, and being professor emeritus until his death in Andover on the 24th of August 1854.
His son, Leonard Woods (1807-1878), was born in West Newbury, Mass., on the 24th of November 1807, and graduated at Union College in 1827 and at Andover Theological Seminary in 1830.
His translation of Georg Christian Knapp's Christian Theology (1831-1833) was long used as a text-book in American theological seminaries.
In1834-1837he edited the newly-established Literary and Theological Review, in which he opposed the "New Haven" theology.
Alva Woods (1794-1887), a nephew of the elder Leonard and the son of Abel Woods (1765-1850), a Baptist preacher, graduated at Harvard in 1817 and at Andover Theological Seminary in 1821, and was ordained as a Baptist minister.
As an exegete he exercised a powerful, and on the whole a beneficial, influence on theological investigation.
His Theological Works, consisting of sermons, charges, divinity lectures and the Discourse on Church Government, were published in 3 vols.
After his return he became the first head of St Stephen's House, Oxford (1876-1878), and then, after presiding for two years over the Theological College at Salisbury, where he acted as his father's chaplain, he accepted the college living of Great Budworth in Cheshire in 1880, and the same year married Alice, the daughter of his father's predecessor, Walter Kerr Hamilton.
In 1603 he was called, in succession to Franz Junius, to a theological professorship at Leiden, which he held till his death on the 19th of October 1609.
On the west slope of Pine Hill is Alfred University (co-educational), which embraces a college (non-sectarian), an academy (non-sectarian) and a theological seminary (Seventh-Day Baptist).
Thus the Nestorian Church in India, voluntarily and with perfect indifference to theological dogmas, passed under Jacobite rule, and when early in the 18th century, Mar Gabriel, a Nestorian bishop, came to Malabar, he had a cool reception, and could only detach a small following of Syrians whom he brought back to the old Nestorianism.
Their theological teaching is misty and perplexing; their earliest writings contain no error, and the hymns of their great St Ephrem, still sung in their services, are positively antagonistic to "Nestorianism"; their theology dating from the schism is not so satisfactory.
But in the spring of 1824 he was recalled to GÃ¶ttingen as repetent, or theological tutor, and in 1827 (the year of Eichhorn's death) he became professor extraordinarius in philosophy and lecturer in Old Testament exegesis.
The Jews, expelled from Constantinople, sought a home amongst them, developed the Khazar trade, and contended with Mahommedans and Christians for the theological allegiance of the Pagan people.
Walafrid Strabo's works are theological, historical and poetical.
The New York College for the Training of Teachers became its Teachers' College of Columbia; a Faculty of Pure Science was added; the Medical School gave up its separate charter to become an integral part of the university; Barnard College became more closely allied with the university; relations were entered into between the university and the General, Union and Jewish theological seminaries of New York City and with Cooper Union, the Metropolitan Museum of Fine Arts and the American Museum of Natural History; and its faculty and student body became less local in character.
Soon, at a Dominican council at Reggio, Savonarola had occasion to display his theological learning and subtlety.
The Wesleyans have a high school, a theological college, and other educative agencies.
These three stages are the Theological, the Metaphysical and the Positive.
Knowledge, or a branch H of knowledge, is in the Theological state, when it supposes the phenomena under consideration to be due to immediate volition, either in the Object or in some supernatural being.
In the Theological and Metaphysical state men seek a cause or an essence; in the Positive they are content with a law.
It follows that the crowning science of the hierarchy, dealing with the phenomena of human society, will remain longest under the influence of theological dogmas and abstract figments, and will be the last to pass into the positive stage.
Subsequent sociologists may have conceivably to men's minds were in the theological state, political events, for example, were explained by the will of the gods, and political authority based on divine right.
Instead of discoursing on the corporate conscience of the state and the endowments of the Church, the importance of Christian education, and the theological unfitness of the Jews to sit in parliament, he is solving business-like problems about foreign tariffs and the exportation of machinery; waxing eloquent over the regulation of railways, and a graduated tax on corn; subtle on the monetary merits of half-farthings, and great in the mysterious lore of quassia and cocculus indicus.
Vermigli published over a score of theological works, chiefly Biblical commentaries and treatises on the Eucharist.
It is the seat of a Greek-Orthodox bishop, and possesses a Greek-Orthodox theological seminary, two training schools for teachers - one Hungarian, and the other Rumanian - and a conservatoire for music. The town played an important part in the Hungarian revolution of 1848-49, and possesses a museum containing relics of this war of independence.
One of these, Summa de assumpto homine, is of a theological character, dealing with the humanity of Christ; the other, Summa de matrimonio, is a legal argument, to the effect that the essential fact in marriage is neither, as Gratian maintains, the copula, nor, as Peter Lombard, consent by verba de praesenti, but mutual traditio.
He then lived for two years in Italy and Greece, was a student in the Union Theological Seminary in New York city from 1853 to 1855, and in 1856 graduated at the Princeton Theological Seminary.
His brother, Charles Washington Baird (1828-1887), a graduate of New York University (1848) and of the Union Theological Seminary (1852), and the minister in turn of a Dutch Reformed church at Brooklyn, New York, and of a Presbyterian church at Rye, New York, also was deeply interested in the history of the Huguenots, and published a scholarly work entitled The History of the Huguenot Emigration to America (2 vols., 1885), left unfinished at his death.
The old university, founded in 1570 and suppressed in 1858, is now represented by a theological seminary, which contains a very valuable library and an important collection of manuscripts and early prints.
A useful handbook of Swedenborg's theology is the Compendium of the Theological Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg by the Rev. Samuel Warren (London, 1885).
At Dayton are the Union Biblical seminary, a theological school of the United Brethren in Christ, and the publishing house of the same denomination.
By an agreement made in 1907 the school of theology of Ursinus College (Collegeville, Pennsylvania; the theological school since 1898 had been in Philadelphia) and the Heidelberg Theological seminary (Tiffin, Ohio) united to form the Central Theological seminary of the German Reformed Church, which was established in Dayton in 1908.
The earliest was the Theological Magazine (1796-1798).
In Ceylon the Religious and Theological Magazine was started at Colombo in 1833, the Colombo Magazine in 1839, the Ceylon Magazine in 1840, and the Investigator at Kandy in 1841.
The Gundlingiana of the latter person, published at Halle (1715-1732), and written partly in Latin and partly in German by the editor, contained a miscellaneous collection of juridical, historical and theological observations and dissertations.
Adami published, between 1690 and 1713, certain theological repertories under the name of Deliciae.
Nannestad, consisting of moral and theological essays.
His works are (I) historical and political, (2) theological and grammatical.
The remaining years of his life he devoted to theological speculation and ecclesiastical reforms. His religious enthusiasm led him to oppress his Jewish subjects; on the other hand he sought to reconcile the Christian sects, and to this effect propounded in his Ecthesis a conciliatory doctrine of monothelism.
He preached in the Presbyterian church at East Hampton, Long Island (1798-1810, being ordained in 1 799); in the Congregational church at Litchfield, Connecticut (1810-1826), in the Hanover Street church of Boston (1826-1832), and in the Second Presbyterian church of Cincinnati, Ohio (1833-1843); was president of the newly established Lane Theological Seminary at Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, and was professor of didactic and polemic theology there (1832-1850), being professor emeritus until his death.
Upon his resignation from Lane Theological Seminary he lived in Boston for a short time, devoting himself to literature; but he broke down, and the last ten years of his life were spent at the home of his son, Henry Ward Beecher, in Brooklyn, New York, where he died on the 10th of January 1863.
This problem interested the East for the most part; in the West there was waged a theological warfare around the nature of man and the work of Christ.
But this political difference was connected with theological differences.
In April 1772 he passed his theological examination, and soon after became professor of Greek at the Collegium Humanitatis.
Bretschneider (Ober die Lage des Christenthums in unserer Zeit, 1832) having attracted the notice of Friedrich Wilhelm III., he was called to Breslau as theological professor and consistorial councillor, and in 1843 became "general superintendent" of the province of Silesia.
Zealous in the duties of his pastoral charge, he took a leading part in theological controversy.
While most of the "Broad Churchmen" were influenced by ethical and emotional considerations in their repudiation of the dogma of everlasting torment, he was swayed by purely intellectual and theological arguments, and in questions of a more general liberty he often opposed the proposed Liberal theologians, though he as often took their side if he saw them hard pressed.
Returning to Wurttemberg in 1828, he first undertook the duties of repetent or theological tutor in Tubingen, and afterwards accepted a curacy in Stuttgart; but having in 1830 received an appointment in the royal public library at Stuttgart, he thenceforth gave himself exclusively to literature and historical science.
Manning thereupon proceeded to Rome to pursue his theological studies, residing at the college known as the "Academy for Noble Ecclesiastics," and attending lectures by Perrone and Passaglia among others.
The Nicene Creed is the baptismal creed of an eastern church enlarged in order to combine theological interpretation with the facts of the historic faith.
Rose the third day, A, B, D, E (F omits " the third day " being a theological creed; the translation of C is uncertain).
Two years later, after negotiations with the Lutheran princes, a conference on theological matters was held at Lambeth with Lutheran envoys.
The interest felt by German literary men in Shaftesbury was revived by the publication of two excellent monographs, one dealing with him mainly from the theological side by Dr Gideon Spicker (Freiburg in Baden, 1872), the other dealing with him mainly from the philosophical side by Dr Georg von Gizycki (Leipzig, 1876).
He was interested in the theological disputes and schisms in Galatia, in the two languages spoken in Cilicia, &c. At Antioch the party remained some time.
He was appointed to a theological chair in the university of Frankfort-on-Oder, where he was the first professor who taught the reformed doctrines.
These interviews settled the preliminaries of an alliance; but they rested on the assumption that the theological feud between Wittenberg and Zurich could be removed, or its violence at least abated.
Yet the transformation is unequivocal; and the revised conception no longer seems to connote the theological implications that were at first ascribed to it.
In 1839 he graduated at the University of Vermont, and in 1843 at Andover Theological Seminary.
After a short pastorate at Brandon, Vermont, he was successively professor of English literature in the University of Vermont (1845-1852), professor of sacred rhetoric in Auburn Theological Seminary (1852-1854), professor of church history in Andover Theological Seminary (1854-1862), and, after one year (1862-1863) as associate pastor of the Brick Church of New York City, of sacred literature (1863-1874) and of systematic theology (1874-1890) in Union Theological Seminary.
He also wrote Lectures on the Philosophy of History (1856), in which he applied to history the doctrine of organic evolution; Discourses and Essays (1856); A Manual of Church History (2 vols., 1857), a translation of Guericke; A History of Christian Doctrine (2 vols., 1863); Theological Essays (1877); Literary Essays (1878); Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (1879); The Doctrine of Endless Punishment (1885); and he edited Coleridge's Complete Works (7 vols., New York, 1894).
But the climate did not agree with him, and his official duties interfered with his theological studies.
Crusius's chief theological works are Hypomnemata ad theologiam propheticam (1764-1778), and Kurzer Entwurf der Moraltheologie (1772-1773).
His theological sensitiveness appears in his refusal of a preferment offered to him in 1635 by Sir Thomas Coventry, lord keeper of the great seal.
His second important work, Critica Sacra, was distasteful from a theological point of view.
He had considerable knowledge of theology, took a prominent part in the theological controversies of the time, and was responsible for the addition of the clause filioque to the Nicene Creed.
It was in 1536, when Calvin was on a hurried and final visit to France, that in Paris he first met Servetus, and as he himself says, proposed to set him right on theological points.'
Outwardly he was a conforming Catholic; privately he pursued his theological speculations.
Late in 1545, or very early in 1546, he opened a fatal correspondence with Calvin, forwarding the manuscript of a much-enlarged revision of his theological tracts and expressing a wish to visit Geneva.
The volume of theological tracts, again recast, was declined by two Basel publishers, Jean Frellon (at Calvin's instance) and Marrinus, but an edition Beza incorrectly makes Servetus the challenger, and the date 1534.
As viceprincipal of the theological college at Cuddesdon (1854-1859) he wielded considerable influence, and, on returning to Oxford as vice-principal of St Edmund's Hall, became a growing force among the undergraduates, exercising his influence in strong opposition to the liberal reaction against Tractarianism, which had set in after Newman's secession in 1845.
In May 1876, he was appointed joint professor of systematic theology and apologetics with James Harper, principal of the United Presbyterian Theological College, whom he succeeded as principal in 1879.
On his return he wrote a long article on "Recent Scottish Theology" for the Presbyterian and Reformed Review, for which he read over every theological work of note published in Scotland during the preceding half-century.
His sermons show no traces of his bold theological speculations, and he seems to have been faithful in the discharge of his duty.
He became assistant bishop of Virginia in 1829; was pastor of Christ Church, Norfolk, in 1834-1836; in 1841 became bishop of Virginia; and in1842-1862was president of the Protestant Episcopal Theological Seminary in Virginia, near Alexandria, delivering an annual course of lectures on pastoral theology.
He had been prominent in the work of the Education Society, which was organized in 1818 to advance funds to needy students for the ministry of the American Episcopal Church, and in the establishment of the Theological Seminary near Alexandria, as he was afterwards in the work of the American Tract Society, and the Bible Society.
His theological position was conservative and anti-rationalistic; he enjoyed the friendship and respect of Ahmad Ibn IJanbal.
This appoinment had a deep influence on the already vigorous religious life of Huss himself; and one of the effects of the earnest and independent study of Scripture into which it led him was a profound conviction of the great value not only of the philosophical but also of the theological writings of Wycliffe.
By his bold and thorough-going opposition to this mode of procedure against Ladislaus, and still more by his doctrine that indulgence could never be sold without simony, and could not be lawfully granted by the church except on condition of genuine contrition and repentance, Huss at last isolated himself, not only from the archiepiscopal party under Albik of Unitschow, but also from the theological faculty of the university, and especially from such men as Stanislaus of Znaim and Stephen Paletz, who until then had been his chief supporters.
However, he took an active part in the university's resistance to the Jesuits; for these had established a theological school of their own in Louvain, which was proving a formidable rival to the official faculty of divinity.
In the following year he was recalled to Tubingen to undertake the office of Repetent or theological tutor.
The influence exerted by these upon his theological studies is manifest in some of his works.
After taking his licentiate in theology in March 1778, he gave little more attention to theological studies.
He boldly contradicted the legate's theological statements, refused to revoke anything and appealed to a future council.
In addressing the German nobility Luther had refrained from taking up theological or religious doctrines; but in September 1520 he attacked the whole sacramental system of the medieval Church in his Babylonish Captivity of the Church.
There are schools, of theology at Cambridge (Protestant Episcopal), Newton (Baptist) and Waltham (New Church), as well as in connexion with Boston University (Methodist), Tufts College (Universalist) and Harvard (non-sectarian, and the affiliated Congregational Andover Theological Seminary at Cambridge).
Some writers deny the company's right under this instrument to rule as they proceeded to do; but at any rate what they did was to make the suffrage dependent on stringent religious tests, and to repress with determined zeal all theological " vagaries " and " whimsies."
In addition to the few persons banished to Rhode Island, theological and political differences led many to emigrate thither.
Nearly 10,000 pupils are said to receive their education in its 140 madrasas or theological colleges; primary schools are kept at most mosques.
The principal theological writings of Basil are his De Spiritu Sancto, a lucid and edifying appeal to Scripture and early Christian tradition, and his three books against Eunomius, the chief exponent of Anomoian Arianism.
He also put into elegiac metre, in 106 epigrams, some of Augustine's theological dicta.
Andrewes declares against the invocation of saints, the apparent examples in patristic literature are "rhetorical outbursts, not theological definitions."
After working as a vine-dresser and then as a goldsmith he became a travelling doctor, and displayed great skill in disputations on medical subjects; but his controversial power soon found a wider field for its exercise in the great theological question of the time.
Here he pursued his exegetical, theological and historical researches, the results of which appeared in his Lehrbuch des christlichen Glaubens (1764).
This work caused some commotion, as much by the novelty of its method as by the heterodoxy of its matter, and more by its omissions than by its positive teaching, though everywhere the author seeks to put theological doctrines in a decidedly modern form.
He was not, however, to be moved by such means, and (1792) issued his work Die Religion der Vollkommeneren, an exposition of his theological position, in which he advocated at length the idea, subsequently often urged, of "the perfectibility of Christianity," - that is, of the ultimate transformation of Christianity into a scheme of simple morality, with a complete rejection of all specifically Christian ideas and methods.
Many of his theological writings were collected in one volume (Paris, 1622), and at the time of his death in 1623 he was engaged on a translation of the New Testament which is still in manuscript.
Besides a volume of sermons under the title Christ's Healing Touch, Mackennal published The Biblical Scheme of Nature and of Man, The Christian Testimony, the Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, The Kingdom of the Lord Jesus and The Eternal God and the Human Sonship. These are contributions to exegetical study or to theological and progressive religious thought, and have elements of permanent value.
In 1901 he delivered a series of lectures at Hartford Theological Seminary, Connecticut, U.S.A., published under the title The Evolution of Congregationalism.
In 655, after repeated examinations, in which he maintained his theological opinions with memorable constancy, he was banished to Byzia in Thrace, and afterwards to Perberis.
Thus it has been used broadly of all theological doctrines, and also in a narrower sense of fundamental beliefs only, confession of which is insisted upon as a term of church communion.
By sceptics the word " dogma " is generally used contemptuously, for an opinion grounded not upon evidence but upon assertion; and this attitude is so far justified from the purely empirical standpoint that theological dogmas deal with subjects which, by their very nature, are not susceptible of demonstration by the methods of physical science.
The new view of faith is bracketed with the old, and practically neutralized by it; as was already the case in Melanchthon's theological definitions in the 1552-1553 edition of Loci Communes, also printed in other works by him.
Others, who hold no less strongly to theological progress by evolution, not revolution, will hesitate to grant that the line of advance passes through the symbolical books.
Thirlwall replied by pointing out that no provision for theological instruction wa,s in fact made by the colleges except compulsory attendance at chapel, and that this was mischievous.
Zwingli's theological views are expressed succinctly in the sixtyseven theses published at Zurich in 1523, and at greater length in the First Helvetic Confession, compiled in 1536 by a number of his disciples.'
His peculiar theological opinions were set aside in Switzerland for the somewhat profounder views of Calvin.
He published a number of theological works, and edited the Oratorian Lives of the Saints.
The work of inquisition into cases of heresy proceeded slowly in the hands of the bishops, who were too busy with other matters to find much time for sitting in judgment on theological points about which they were imperfectly informed.
In 1847-1850 he was professor of moral philosophy and metaphysics at Amherst; and in 1850-1854 was Washburn professor of Church history, and in 1854-1874 Roosevelt professor of systematic theology, at Union Theological Seminary.
Karr prepared two volumes of Dr Smith's theological writings, Introduction to Christian Theology (1883) and System of Christian Theology (1884).
Dr Smith contributed articles on Calvin, Kant, Pantheism, Miracles, Reformed Churches, Schelling and Hegel to the American Cyclopaedia, and contributed to McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia; and was editor of the American Theological Review (1859 sqq.), both in its original form and after it became the American Presbyterian and Theological Review and, later, the Presbyterian Quarterly and Princeton Review.
The theological division was accentuated by the Salters' Hall Controversy (1717-1719), which, nominally touching religious liberty versus subscription, really involved differences as to Trinitarian doctrine.
The theological colleges which train for the Congregational ministry have themselves an interesting history, going back to the private " academies " formed by ejected ministers.
But they were burdened by the necessity of supplying literary as well as theological training, owing to the disabilities of Nonconformists at Oxford and Cambridge till 1871.
Two new theological schools began to emerge from the old Calvinistic theology of the early settlers.
In 1822 a special theological department was organized at Yale.
None the less, Congregationalism has through its leading representatives taken an increasingly important part in theological controversy and scholarship generally.
In the theological seminaries there were 417 students in 1907-1908, as compared with a maximum of 596 in 1891-1892, and a minimum of 181 in 1864-1865.
He taught quietly at Leiden till 1603, when Jakobus Arminius came to be one of his colleagues in the theological faculty, and began to teach Pelagian doctrines and to create a new party in the university.
He was shortly afterwards appointed to a theological chair at King's College, London.
C. Butler, articles in Downside Review, December 1899, and Journal of Theological Studies, April 1902.
Thus the recent defenders of the apostolic authorship, the Unitarian James Drummond (1903), the Anglican William Sanday (1905), the Roman Catholic Theodore Calmes (1904), can tell us, the first, that " the evangelist did not aim at an illustrative picture of what was most characteristic of Jesus "; the second, that " the author sank into his own consciousness and at last brought to light what he found there "; the third, that " the Gospel contains an entire theological system," " history is seen through the intervening dogmatic development," " the Samaritan woman is.
Its meaning varies (a) according to the various definitions of deity, and especially (b) according as it is (i.) deliberately adopted by a thinker as a description of his own theological standpoint, or (ii.) applied by one set of thinkers to their opponents.
He was one of the founders of the General Theological Seminary, became its professor of pastoral theology in 1821, and as bishop was its governor.
Upon his return he preached a characteristic sermon entitled The United States of America compared with some European Countries, particularly England (published 1826), in which, although there was some praise for the English church, he so boldly criticized the establishment, state patronage, cabinet appointment of bishops, lax discipline, and the low requirements of theological education, as to rouse much hostility in England, where he had been highly praised for two volumes of Sermons on the Principal Events and Truths of Redemption (1824).
For all that, the theological thinking is characteristically Jewish, and such guidance as Jewish thinkers required was mainly given by Greek culture.
But this is not certain, and even if it were, it does not necessarily imply that Hippolytus enjoyed the personal teaching of the celebrated Gallic bishop; it may perhaps merely refer to that relation of his theological system to that of Irenaeus which can easily be traced in his writings.
It has a Carnegie library, and is the seat of an Evangelical Lutheran theological seminary (1865), of Lutheran homes for the aged and orphan, of the Milwaukee county hospital for the insane, of the Milwaukee sanatorium for nervous diseases, and of the north-western branch of the national soldiers' home, which has grounds covering 385 acres and with main building and barracks affording quarters for over 2000 disabled veterans, and has a hospital, a theatre, and a library of 15,000 volumes.
About 1270 he returned to Oxford and taught there, being elected in 1275 provincial minister of the Franciscans in England, but he was soon afterwards called to Rome as lector sacri palatii, or theological lecturer in the schools of the papal palace.
Thus Ultramontanism is not to be conceived as a theological movement, but as the programme of a party whose principles are in fundamental opposition to modern culture, modern education, modern tolerance and the modern state - a party which seeks to carry out its campaign against the society of to-day, not by bridging the gulf betwixt creed and creed, but by widening it, by awakening religious fanaticism, and by closing the way to a peaceful co-operation of Catholics and non-Catholics in the highest tasks of culture and human civilization.
In the episcopacy it has numerous adherents; it has, made progress in the universities, and most of the learned and theological reviews are conducted in its spirit.
Or to put it more exactly, the "Apostolic Fathers" represent, chronologically in the main and still more from the religious and theological standpoint, the momentous process of 1 Cotelier included the Acts of Martyrdom of Clement, Ignatius and Polycarp; and those of Ignatius and Polycarp are still often printed by editors.
This theological "retrogression" is of much significance for the history of dogma.
Mosheim was much consulted by the authorities when the new university of Gottingen was being formed; especially in the framing of the statutes of the theological faculty, and the provisions for making the theologians independent of the ecclesiastical courts.
In 1695 the theological faculty of Wittenberg formally laid to his charge 264 errors, and only his death on the 5th of February, 1705, released him from these fierce conflicts.
In later life he ceased to hold the theological opinions of his youth, but remained a devout churchman.
The truth is that theological questions in themselves had no attraction for him.
And when a theological position was emphasized by party passion it became odious to him.
He had been born with the hopes of the Renaissance, with its anticipation of a new Augustan age, and had seen this fair promise blighted by the irruption of a new horde of theological polemics, worse than the old scholastics, inasmuch as they were revolutionary instead of conservative.
And when literary jealousy was complicated with theological differences, as in the case of the free-thinkers, or with French vanity, as in that of Budaeus, the cause of the enemy was espoused by a party and a nation.
It became - to quote Professor Kattenbusch - the "secular" designation of the adherents of the Reformation, the shibboleth of the "liberal" ecclesiastical and theological tendencies.
There is no doubt that in the beginning of the middle ages both general and theological education stood higher among the Greeks than in more western countries.
He is the first of a series of theological mystics which continued through every century of the middle ages.
The monasteries, too, learned to serve the Church by becoming nurseries of literary and theological culture.
The theological method of all these was merely that of restatement.
But the controversy about predestination, which, in the 9th century, Hincmar and Hrabanus fought out with the monk Gottschalk of Fulda, as well as the discussions that arose from the definition of the doctrine of transubstantiation of Radbert, enable us to gauge the intellectual energy with which theological problems were once more being handled.
This involved the question of the relation in theology of authority and reason, and of whether the theological method is authoritative or rational.
His principal theological work was Das nachapostolische Zeitalter (2 vols., 1846).
The city has a Carnegie library, De Veaux College (Protestant Episcopal, chartered in 1853), and Niagara University, a Roman Catholic institution, founded in 1856 by the priests of the Congregation of the Mission and incorporated in 1863 as the Seminary of Our Lady of Angels, a name still used for the theological department, but displaced, since the charter of the university in 1883, by the present name.
The divided state of German Protestantism, resulting from these theological differences, contributed in no small degree to the disasters of the Thirty Years' War, and various attempts were made to unite the two confessions.
The extreme divergence in doctrinal position is fostered by the fact that the theology taught in the universities is in a great measure divorced from the practical religious life of the people, and the theological opinions uttered in the theological literature of the country cannot be held to express the thoughts of the members of the churches.
One form of scepticism, however, may be claimed as an exclusively modern growth, namely, philosophical scepticism Scepti- in the interests of theological faith.
The theological application and development of Hamilton's arguments in Mansel's Bampton Lectures On the Limits of Religious Thought marked a still more determined attack, in the interests of theology, upon the competency of reason.
There are, besides, a theological academy, founded in 1615; a society of church archaeology, which possesses a museum built in 1900, very rich in old ikons, crosses, &c., both Russian and Oriental; an imperial academy of music; university courses for ladies; a polytechnic, with 1300 students - the building was completed in 190o and stands on the other side of Old Kiev, away from the river.
C. Edwards resigned the principalship of the University College at Aberystwyth to become head of Bala (1891), now a purely theological college, the students of which were sent to the university colleges for their classical training.
In 1905 Mr David Davies of Llandinam - one of the leading laymen in the Connexion - offered a large building at Aberystwyth as a gift to the denomination for the purpose of uniting North and South in one theological college; but in the event of either association declining the proposal, the other was permitted to take possession, giving the association that should decline the option of joining at a later time.
Lane Theological Seminary is situated in Walnut Hills, in the north-eastern part of the city; it was endowed by Ebenezer Lane and the Kemper family; was founded in 1829 for the training of Presbyterian ministers; had for its first president (1832-1852) Lyman Beecher; and in 1834 was the scene of a bitter contest between abolitionists in the faculty and among the students, led by Theodore Dwight Weld, and the board of trustees, who forbade the discussion of slavery in the seminary and so caused about four-fifths of the students to leave, most of them going to Oberlin College.
Albert's activity, however, was rather philosophical than theological (see Scholasticism).
His principal theological works are a commentary in three volumes on the Books of the Sentences of Peter Lombard (Magister Sententiarum), and the Summa Theologiae in two volumes.
But the headquarters of the opposition was Germany, and its leader was Dollinger, whose high reputation and vast stores of learning placed him far above any other member of the band of the theological experts who now gathered around him.
This result having been attained, he passed the rest of his days in retirement, emerging sometimes from his retreat to give addresses on theological questions, and also writing, in conjunction with his friend Reusch, his last book, Geschichte der Moralstreitigkeiten in der romisch-katholischen Kirche seit dem sechzehnten Jahrhundert mit Beitragen zur Geschichte and Charakteristik des Jesuitenordens (Nordlingen, 188 9), in which he deals with the moral theology of St Alfonso de' Liguori.
The authority to grant such discharge was conceived to be included in the power of binding and loosing committed by Christ to His Church; and when in the course of time the vaguer theological conceptions of the first ages of Christianity assumed scientific form and shape at the hands of the Schoolmen, the doctrine came to prevail that this discharge of the sinner's debt was made through an application to the offender of what was called the " Treasure of the Church " (Thurston, p. 315).
Gallaudet; the retreat for the insane (opened for patients in 1824); the Hartford hospital; St Francis hospital; St Thomas's seminary (Roman Catholic); La Salette seminary (Roman Catholic); Trinity college (founded by members of the Protestant Episcopal church, and now non-sectarian), which was chartered as Washington College in 1823, opened in 1824, renamed Trinity College in 1845, and in 1907-1908 had 27 instructors and 208 students; the Hartford Theological seminary, a Congregational institution, which was founded at East Windsor Hill in 1834 as the Theological Institute of Connecticut, was removed to Hartford in 1865, and adopted its present name in 1885; and, affiliated with the last mentioned institution, the Hartford School of Religious Pedagogy.
The third volume includes, however, some theological treatises, and the first part of it is occupied with editions of treatises on harmonics and other works of Greek geometers, some of them first editions from the MSS., and in general with Latin versions and notes (Ptolemy, Porphyrius, Briennius, Archimedes, Eutocius, Aristarchus and Pappus).
Before the arrival of the French two kinds of instruction were given, reading and writing being taught in the ordinary schools and higher education - largely theological - in medressas (colleges), usually attached to the chief mosques.
The Tubingen school founded by Baur dominated the theological criticism of the New Testament during a great part of the 19th century and it still finds some support.
The primary schools are numerous in the capital, as well as in the other cities, and even exist in villages, and madrasas or theological seminaries for higher courses of study are comparatively plentiful.
He was apparently one of the Cambridge men who were wont to gather at the White Horse Tavern for Bible-reading and theological discussion early in the third decade of the 16th century.
The current theological formula for this two-sided position is that the prophets are at once preachers of the law and forerunners of the gospel; and, as it is generally assumed that they found the law already written, their originality and real importance is made to lie wholly in their evangelical function.
The literature of the theological questions connected with prophecy is much too copious to be cited here; lists will be found in several of the books already referred to.
In 1808 he obtained the degree of doctor in divinity, which was given him as a reward for his theological writings.
His theological position was that of a very moderate orthodoxy, which had been influenced greatly by the philosophy and controversies of the Deistic period.
Amongst other theological works he published Dissertationes in Ada A postolorum (1756-1761); Antiquitates symbolicae (1772); and after his death appeared Observationes in Matthaeum ex Graecis inscriptionibus (1779).
Here in 1 754 he became professor extraordinarius of theology, and three years later received an ordinary professorship. He lectured on dogmatics, church history, ethics, polemics, natural theology, symbolics, the epistles of Paul, Christian antiquities, historical theological literature, ecclesiastical law and the fathers, and took an active interest in the work of the Gottinger Societdt In 1766 he was appointed professor primarius.