Theologians Sentence Examples
This, however, holds good of the Western theologians only after the middle of the 3rd century.
Possibly, fuller study of religions may help theologians to formulate the imperial claims of Christianity more happily than in the dry contrast between what is " revealed " and what is " natural."
He blends the tradition of the Old Testa ment with Greek philosophy, and, within the latter, exhibits that union of Platonism with Stoicism, especially in the doctrine of the Logos, which became dominant in the Christian apologists and the great theologians of the ancient church.
But the Christian bias is sure to make theologians, who borrow a doctrine of the Absolute, interpret it in a Christian sense; hence we may consider it something of an accident that even an Augustine fails exactly to put the argument in form.
His great work, the Mikhlol, consists of a grammar and lexicon; his commentaries on various parts of the Bible are admirably luminous, and, in spite of his anti-Christian remarks, have been widely used by Christian theologians and largely influenced the English authorized version of the Bible.Advertisement
His Reasonableness of Christianity (1695) is the thesis of " a whole century " of theologians.
Or it is the doctrine of unfallen man's " natural state " - a doctrine intensified in Protestantism - separating itself from the theologians' grave doctrine of sin.
An ardent admirer of Jonathan Edwards, whose great-grand-daughter he married, Park was one of the most notable American theologians and orators.
Even the most licentious of these have been fitted by Mahommedan theologians with a mystical interpretation.
But, like other modern German theologians, he showed a greater disposition to compromise.Advertisement
This proved impracticable, but the frequent conferences Cranmer had with the theologians composing the embassy had doubtless a great influence in modifying his views.
Of the propositions of sectarian theologians he said that confidence was the first, and the second, and the third part.
This burlesquing of things universally held sacred, though condemned by serious-minded theologians, conveyed to the child-like popular mind of the middle ages no suggestion of contempt, though when belief in the doctrines and rites of the medieval Church was shaken it became a ready instrument in the hands of those who sought to destroy them.
Those who take up such an extreme position regarding his merits have known too little of the state of contemporary science, and have limited their comparison to the works of the scholastic theologians.
In 1576 the elector of Saxony called a conference of theologians at Torgau to discuss these two efforts and from them produce a third.Advertisement
Nature myths have been entwined with other episodes in the epic and finally the theologians took up the combined stories and made them the medium for illustrating the truth and force of certain doctrines of the Babylonian religion.
It was only the chronologists and historians of the church who, following Julius Africanus, made use of apocalyptic numbers in their calculations, while court theologians like Eusebius entertained the imperial table with discussions as to whether the dining-hall of the emperor - the second David and Solomon, the beloved of God - might not be the New Jerusalem of John's Apocalypse.
Victorinus wrote a commentary on the Apocalypse of John; and all these theologians, especially Lactantius, were diligent students of the ancient Sibylline oracles of Jewish and Christian origin, and treated them as divine revelations.
In the hands of moralistic theologians, like Lactantius, they certainly assume a somewhat grotesque form, but the fact that these men clung to them is the clearest evidence that in the West millennarianism was still a point of "orthodoxy" in the 4th century.
The stricter theological training of the Roman Catholic clergy throughout the world on the lines laid down by St Thomas Aquinas was his first care, and to this end he founded in Rome and endowed an academy bearing the great schoolman's name, further devoting about £1 2,000 to the publication of a new and splendid edition of his works, the idea being that on this basis the later teaching of Catholic theologians and many of the speculations of modern thinkers could best be harmonized and brought into line.Advertisement
Theologians differed on the latter question, and Isabella directed that these Indians should be sent back to their native country.
Lucke, who was one of the most learned, many-sided and influential of the so-called "mediation" school of evangelical theologians (Vermittelungstheologie), is now chiefly known by his Kommentar fiber die Schriften d.
While by no means abandoning the tenets of the old Calvinistic faith, he came to be looked upon as the chief representative of what was then known as the "new school" of theologians.
The connexion became closer at the time when the schism with its violent controversies between the rival pontiffs, waged with the coarse invective customary to medieval theologians, had brought great discredit on the papacy.
Roman theologians generally reckon only seven orders, although, if we count the episcopate an order distinct from the presbyterate, the sum is not seven, but eight.Advertisement
All modern theologians of the Roman Church answer these questions in the affirmative, but from the 8th to the beginning of the 13th century they were fiercely agitated with the utmost divergence of opinion and practice.
The Roman theologians regard them as incapable of true ordination, alleging i Tim.
He knew very well that the theologians of his church almost without exception held that the handing over of the paten and chalice with the words, " Receive power of offering sacrifice," &c., were the essential matter and form of ordination to the priesthood; indeed he published the decree of Eugenius IV.
Like his brother Isaac, Jacob Abendana had a circle of Christian friends, and his reputation led to the appreciation of Jewish scholarship by modern Christian theologians.
Gregory refused, but after consulting a committee of theologians who declared him to be a heretic, the council promoted by Cardinal Cossa and other independent prelates met at Pisa.
Radbertus is one of the most important theologians in the history of the church.
A disciple of Neander, he belonged to the extreme right of the school of mediating theologians.
The wheel being her symbol she was the patron saint of wheelwrights and mechanics; as the confounder of heathen sophistry she was invoked by theologians, apologists, preachers and philosophers, and was chosen as the patron saint of the university of Paris; as the most holy and illustrious of Christian virgins she became the tutelary saint of nuns and virgins generally.
The best known are the Annales Ecclesiastici, written by Cardinal Baronius as a rejoinder to and refutation of the Historia ecclesiastica or "Centuries" of the Protestant theologians of Magdeburg (12 vols., published at Rome from 1788 to 1793; Baronius's work stops at the year 1197).
And these were strengthened by French influences, notably those of Renan and the Strassburg theologians.
Osiander's son Lukas (1534-1604), and grandsons Andreas (1562-1617) and Lukas (1571-1638), were well-known theologians.
Now again he maintained with great warmth of conviction that his views were in close accordance with Scripture and the Anglican standards, but the council, without specifying any distinct "heresy" and declining to submit the case to the judgment of competent theologians, ruled otherwise, and he was deprived of his professorships.
While most of the "Broad Churchmen" were influenced by ethical and emotional considerations in their repudiation of the dogma of everlasting torment, he was swayed by purely intellectual and theological arguments, and in questions of a more general liberty he often opposed the proposed Liberal theologians, though he as often took their side if he saw them hard pressed.
Eastern theologians expressed the mysterious relationship of the Holy Spirit to the Father and the Son in such phrases as " Who proceedeth from the Father and receiveth from the Son," rightly making the Godhead of the Father the foundation and primary source of the eternally derived Godhead of the Son and the Spirit.
Western theologians approached the problem from another point of view.
Since Eastern theologians would be willing to say " proceeds from the Father through the Son," it is clear that the two views are not irreconcilable.
This theory, however, depended upon unverified assumptions, such as the supposed silence of theologians about the creed at the beginning of the 9th century; the suggestion that the completed creed would have been useful to them if they had known it as a weapon against the heresy of Adoptianism; the assertion that no MS. containing the complete text was of earlier date than c. 813.
This was the work of Petrus Mogilas, metropolitan of Kiev, and other theologians.
However disconcerting such a revelation as this would have been to the theologians of an elder day, the Bible scholars of our own generation are able to regard it with entire composure.
Dr Shedd was a high Calvinist and was one of the greatest systematic theologians of the American Presbyterian church.
In 1890 he visited Berlin and Amsterdam to acquaint himself with the ways of younger theologians, especially with the Ritschlians, whose work he appreciated but did not accept as final.
In this, a genuine work of the Renaissance, Cano endeavours to free dogmatic theology from the vain subtleties of the schools and, by clearing away the puerilities of the later scholastic theologians, to bring religion back to first principles; and, by giving rules, method, co-ordination and system, to build up a scientific treatment of theology.
The confession was turned over to a committee of conservative theologians, including Eck, Faber and Cochlaeus.
In 1527, supported by the diet, he carried his measures for secularizing such portions of the Church property as he thought fit, and for subjecting the Church to the royal power (Ordinances of Vesteras); but many of the old religious ceremonies and practices were permitted to continue, and it was not until 1592 that Lutheranism was officially sanctioned by the Swedish synod .2 Charles V., finding that his efforts to check the spread of the religious schism were unsuccessful, resorted once more to conferences between Roman Catholic and Lutheran theologians, but it became apparent that no permanent compromise was possible.
Three theologians, including a conservative Lutheran, were chosen to draft 1555.
Geneva, however, with its most distinguished of Protestant theologians, became a school of Protestantism, which sent its trained men into the Netherlands, England and Scotland, and especially across the border into France.
Perhaps the Roman theologians of that age were more concerned than the Protestants to draw a line round necessary truths.
What he finds it necessary to condemn even in milder terms as bad doctrine is infallibily condemned; that is certain, Roman Catholic theologians tell us, though not yet de fide.
Thus Harnack agrees with Catholic theologians in holding that, in the fullest sense, there is no dogma except the Catholic.
On this account he was accused of impiety by the Stoic Cleanthes, just as Galileo, in later years, was attacked by the theologians.
If even now philosophers and theologians cannot resist the temptation to allegorize, how inevitable was it that this course should be pursued by early Jewish theologians!
Mosheim was much consulted by the authorities when the new university of Gottingen was being formed; especially in the framing of the statutes of the theological faculty, and the provisions for making the theologians independent of the ecclesiastical courts.
Individual theologians have sought to define more exactly the points on which the standards are vague.
The formal legal view continued to be widely held, though it was modified in many ways by various theologians.
All his life long Spener had been exposed to the attacks and abuse of the orthodox Lutheran theologians; with his years his opponents multiplied, and the movement which he had inaugurated presented increasingly matter for hostile criticism.
From the days of Ignatius, down through Paul of Samosata and Lucian to the 'great controversies of the 5th century which began with the theories of Apollinarius, the theologians of Antioch started from the one sure fact, that 1 Coptic Life of Dioscurus (Rev. Egyptologique, 1880-1883).
Erasmus never flouted at religion nor even at theology as such, but only at blind and intemperate theologians.
Since the time when the church of eastern Syria had decided, in opposition to the church of the Empire, to cling to the ancient views of Syrian theologians - therefore also to the teaching and person of Nestorius - her relations were broken off with the church in western Syria and in Greek and Latin countries; but the power of Nestorian, or, as it was termed, Chaldaic Christianity, was not thereby diminished.
The doctrinal decisions of the ancient Church remained the indestructible canon of belief, and what the theologians of the ancient Church had taught was reverenced as beyond improvement.
The second generation of Frankish theologians did not lag behind the first.
Aristotelian dialectics had always been taught in the schools; and reason as well as authority had been appealed to as the foundation of theology; but for the theologians of the 9th and 10th centuries, whose method had been merely that of restatement, ratio and auctoritas were in perfect accord.
The theologians of the Greek and Latin churches expressly found the conception of a Christian priesthood on the hierarchy of the Jewish temple, while the names by which the sacerdotal character is expressed - iEpEbs, sacerdos - originally designated the ministers of sacred things in Greek and Roman heathenism, and then came to be used as translations into Greek and Latin of the Hebrew kohen.
As Luther was a much greater preacher than a systematic thinker, it was not easy to say exactly what this deposit was, and controversies resulted among the Lutheran theologians of the 16th century.
In 1863 he invited loo theologians to meet at Malines and discuss the question which Lamennais and Lacordaire had prematurely raised in France, namely, the attitude that should be assumed by the Roman Catholic Church towards modern ideas.
Nevertheless criticism advanced by slow degrees among individuals, now in the Roman Church, now in the number of those who sat loosely to the restrictions of either Roman or Protestant authority, and now among Protestant scholars and theologians.
Hence the first Christian writings were no deliberate product of theologians who supposed themselves to be laying the foundation of a sacred volume.
In the fixing of the Canon, as in the fixing of doctrine, the decisive influence proceeded from the bishops and the theologians of the period 325-450.
The assured canonicity of the whole New Testament resulted in its use by the medieval theologians, the Schoolmen, as a storehouse of proof-texts.
This is the question which has occupied the theologians of the 19th and 20th centuries.
His permanent place amongst learned theologians rests on his works on church history.
In the chief cities of the empire Neoplatonic schools flourished till the beginning of the 5th century; during this period, indeed, they were the training-schools of Christian theologians.
The Neoplatonists themselves characterized the theologians of the church as intruders, who had appropriated the Greek philosophy and spoiled it by the admixture of strange fables.
This verdict of Porphyry's is at all events more just and apt than that of the theologians on the Greek philosophers, when they accused them of having borrowed all their really valuable doctrines from the ancient Christian books.
From the 4th century downwards, however, the influence of Neoplatonism on the Oriental theologians was of the utmost importance.
The church gradually expressed her most peculiar convictions in dogmas, which were formulated by philosophical methods, but were irreconcilable with Neoplatonism (the Christological dogmas); and the further this process went the more unrestrainedly did theologians resign themselves to the influence of Neoplatonism on all other questions.
The doctrines of the incarnation, the resurrection of the flesh and the creation of the world in time marked the boundary line between the church's dogmatic and Neoplatonism; in every other respect, theologians and Neoplatonists drew so closely together that many of them are completely at one.
This letter excited some rancour among the theologians, and Dr George Horne, afterwards bishop of Norwich, published in 1777 A Letter to Adam Smith on the Life, Death and Philosophy of his Friend David Hume, by one of the people called Christians.
The council of Trent, in its first period, seemed to increase the reputation of the Society; for the pope chose Laynez, Faber and Salmeron to act as his theologians in that assembly, and in this capacity they had no little influence in framing its decrees.
It is true that when Gnosticism was at its height it numbered amongst its followers both theologians and men of science, but that is not its main characteristic. Among the majority of the followers of the movement " Gnosis " was understood not as meaning " knowledge " or " understanding," in our sense of the word, but " revelation."
His refusal to subscribe unconditionally to the rigid formula of belief adopted by the theologians of Tubingen permanently closed against him the gates of his alma mater.
Of late years there has been a controversy among Anglican theologians as to the exact nature of the gif t conveyed through confirmation, or, in other words, whether the Holy Spirit can be said to have come to dwell in those who have been baptized but not confirmed.
Atheism is the only means of ensuring the happiness of the world, which has been rendered impossible by the wars brought about by theologians.
The Helmstedt theologians, represented by Gerhard Molanus (1633-1722), at the same time put forward their Methodus reducendae unionis.
In 1778 appeared a published correspondence between these two liberal theologians on the subjects of materialism and necessity, wherein Price maintains, in opposition to Priestley, the free agency of man and the unity and immateriality of the human soul.
When it was necessary to account for this position, theologians quoted the text of the Gospels, where St Peter is represented as the rock on which the Church is built, the pastor of the sheep and lambs of the Lord, the doorkeeper of the kingdom of heaven.
At a time when the non-Catholic theologians were chiefly small fry, bent on Leo XI., 1605.
In addition to the difficulties presented by the Bible as an historical record, and the literary problems which textual and other critics have investigated, the modern freethinker denies that the Christianity of the New Testament or its interpretation by modern theologians affords a coherent theory of human life and duty.
From that time the school as such ceased to have a real existence, though the results of its work are traceable more or less in all modern Biblical criticism, and its influence upon the attitude of modern theologians and Biblical critics can scarcely be overestimated.
He wrote the biographies of a number of German scholars of the 16th century, mostly theologians, which were published in Heidelberg and Frankfort (5 vols., 1615-1620).
The attitude of theologians generally regarding individual destiny is well expressed by Dr James Orr, "The conclusion I arrive at is that we have not the elements of a complete solution, and we ought not to attempt it.
They created profound excitement among orthodox theologians, and evoked many replies, in which Lessing was bitterly condemned for having published writings of so dangerous a tendency.
Finally, as Fourth Doctor of the Latin Church, Gregory claims the attention of theologians.
Several of his sons were distinguished as theologians or physicians.
It has been argued by theologians that the doctrine of divine fore-knowledge, coupled with that of the divine origin of all things, necessarily implies that all human action was fore-ordained from the beginning of the world.
Both in methods and in results, however, he occupied an almost solitary position among German theologians.
Rothe was one of the most profound and influential of modern German theologians.
He studied theology and oriental languages in the university of his native town, and in 1850 was appointed professor ordinarius of theology at Erlangen, where the school of theologians became almost as famous as that of Tubingen.
Greatly interested in the Jews, he longed ardently for their conversion to Christianity; and with a view to this he edited the periodical Saat auf Hoffnung from 1863, revived the "Institutum Judaicum" in 1880, founded a Jewish missionary college for the training of theologians, and translated the New Testament into Hebrew.
By the good offices of the theologians of Kairawan, one of whom was from Fez, Yahya was provided with a missionary, `Abd-Allah ibn Yazin, a zealous partisan of the Malekis, one of the four orthodox sects of Islam.
But one may imagine what a world of trouble it has cost the Moslem theologians to explain the saying in accordance with their dogmatic beliefs.
Although in theory he was an upholder of verbal inspiration, he did not push the doctrine to its extreme consequences; his practical good sense did not take these things so strictly as the theologians of later centuries.
Some theologians did indeed protest against it with great energy; it was in fact too preposterous to declare that a book composed of unstable words and letters, and full of variants, was absolutely divine.
But what were the distinctions and sophisms of the theologians for, if they could not remove such contradictions, and convict their opponents of heresy?
The Reformed theologians took the stricter view.
The distinction of a permanent and a transitory element in the law of the Sabbath is found, not only in Luther and Melanchthon, but in Calvin and other theologians of the Reformed church.
Mahommedanism has no priest hood standing between God and the congregation, but Koran and Sunna are full of minute rules for the details of private and civil life, the knowledge of which is necessarily in the hands of a class of professed theologians.
The theologians tried to uphold the orthodox theory by declaring the sultanate to be subordinate to the imamate or sovereignty of the caliphs, and dependent on the latter especially in all religious matters; but their artificial theories have never modified facts.
It was written in Latin in 1652, its principal author being the reformer Matthias Flacius, who was assisted by other Lutheran theologians.
While unequivocally rejecting the accepted creeds, and so scandalizing even liberal theologians, he was still more hostile to simply sceptical and materialist tendencies.
He entirely reformed the teaching of theology there, substituting the historical method of the German theologians for the antiquated Orthodox scholastic system.
The theologians of the 4th and 5th centuries were at one with the masses in recognizing the religious uses of the pilgrimages.
The theologians who surrounded Charlemagne held similar views.
The progressive theologians and clergy, moreover, assumed a hostile attitude, and, in 1800, even the Curia omitted the Year of Jubilee.
Gass describes him as the most notable of the Swiss theologians of the time.
Agur's dictum is one of pious agnosticism directed, apparently, against certain theologians who talked as if they were well acquainted with the ways of God.
Both of them were intent on forcing the theologians into the daylight, and grudged them any aid they might expect from Kant's postulation of God and immortality to crown the edifice of ethics.
The works of Damascenus give him a foremost place among the theologians of the early Eastern Church, and, according to Dorner, he "remains in later times the highest authority in the theological literature of the Greeks."
The proceeding was strictly academic. The matter discussed, to judge by the writings of theologians, was somewhat obscure; and Luther offered his theses as an attempt to make it clearer.
This doctrine of Attrition had not the undivided support of the theologians of the later medieval church; but it was taught by the Scotists and was naturally a favourite theme with the sellers of Indulgences.
Nor were all theologians at one upon the whole theory of Indulgences.
The majority of the best theologians held that Indulgences had nothing to do with the pardoning of guilt, but only with freeing from temporal penalties in this life or in purgatory.
The book practically discarded all the ideas and practices concerning Indulgences which had come into the medieval church since the beginning of the 13th century, and all the ingenious explanations of the scholastic theologians from Bonaventura and Thomas Aquinas downwards.
Three separate confessions were presented to the emperor - one from Zwingli, one by the theologians of the four cities of Strassbourg, Constance, Lindau and Memmingen (Confessio Tetrapolitana), and the Augsburg Confession, the future symbol of the Lutheran church.
The great aim of his life was to reform the church on Calvinistic lines, and to this end he sent many young Greek theologians to the universities of Switzerland, Holland and England.
In dire poverty he fled, in 1779, to Halle, where in spite of the opposition of the senate and the theologians, he obtained through the interest of the Prussian minister, von Zedlitz, permission to lecture on subjects other than theology.
But a majority of the theologians and all the monks opposed these measures with uncompromising hostility, and in the western parts of the empire the people refused to obey the edict.
This was condemned by certain archbishops and theologians as the repetition of the five condemned propositions of Jansen, and Gerberon defended it, under the name of "Abbe Valentin" in Le Miroir sans tache (Paris, 1680).
Again, by other theologians the death of Jesus is extolled because of the moral influence it exerts, since Christ's devotion unto death incites a like devotion in us.
Excepting in relatively narrow circles these theories have been seriously studied only by professed theologians.
While the theologians discussed doctrine the people longed for mystery, as it satisfied their religious natures.
Again and again individuals and groups turn back to the Semitic cycle of hopes and ideas, while the reconciliation of the two systems, Jewish and Graeco-Roman, becomes the task of exegetes and theologians.
Most theologians since Thomas Aquinas and Bonaventura have taught that the souls in purgatory are tormented by material fire, but the Greeks have never accepted this opinion.
In their theory of a triple manifestation of an impersonal deity, the Brahmanical theologians, as we have seen, had indeed elaborated a doctrine which might have seemed to form a reasonable, authoritative creed for logy.
Of special value to theologians is the Ausar Raze (Storehouse of Secrets), a critical and doctrinal commentary on the text of the Scriptures.
The great dogmas of the Christian Church were shaped by the interplay of the subtle wits of the theologians of the Oriental Churches.
When old-fashioned theologians talked about the canons and councils of antiquity, Laynez answered that the Church was not more infallible at one time than another; the Holy Ghost spoke through the decrees of Trent quite as plainly and directly as through the primitive Fathers.
Moreover, the temper of these more enlightened men was itself opposed to Italian indifference and immorality; it was pugnacious and polemical, eager to beat down the arrogance of monks and theologians rather than to pursue an ideal of aesthetical self-culture.
Both groups had their scientific theologians who sought to vindicate their characteristic doctrines, the Adoptianist divines holding by the Aristotelian philosophy, and the Modalists by that of the Stoics; while the Trinitarians (Tertullian, Hippolytus, Origen, Novatian), on the other hand, appealed to Plato.
The older Mahommedan theologians were agreed that they possessed a written revelation and were entitled accordingly to enjoy a toleration not granted to mere heathen.
The fire of human enthusiasm burnt low in the 18th century, and theologians shared the general conviction that self-interest was the ruling principle of men's conduct.
He has since been recognized as one of the profoundest Scottish theologians of the 19th century, although his deposition was never removed.
A schoolmaster by profession, he became prominent owing to his attacks on orthodox theologians, and his membership of a semi-theological debating society, the Robin Hood Society, which met at the "Robin Hood and Little John" in Butcher Row.
The latter prepared a great summary of all Jewish religious and civil law, the standard work upon which Christian theologians from the 16th century onwards based their studies - and also their criticisms - of early Rabbinism.
Stephen, however, migrated to Paris, and having graduated in that university became one of its most celebrated theologians.
Indian theologians classified them in three zones, earth, air and sky.
The theologians of India guarded their ancient hymns with the utmost care.
Theodore Beza from Geneva and Peter Martyr Vermigli from Zurich appeared at the colloquy; the German theologians to whom invitations had been despatched only arrived in Paris after the discussion was broken off.
His inward break with Jewish orthodoxy dated, no doubt, further back - from his acquaintance with the philosophical theologians and commentators of the middle ages; but these new interests combined to estrange him still further from the traditions of the synagogue.
He brought his pantheism and his determinism with him to the study of Descartes from the mystical theologians of his race.
Whereupon certain theologians (themselves perhaps the authors of it) took occasion to complain of me to the prince and the magistrates; moreover, the stupid Cartesians, because they are commonly supposed to side with me, desiring to free themselves from that suspicion, were diligent without ceasing in their execrations of my doctrines and writings, and are as diligent still."
Turrianus - one of the papal theologians at the Council of Justificatione, 1 557), the title was used in 1659 by the Lutheran Lukas Friedrich Reinhard (1623-1688), professor of theology at Altdorf (Synopsis theologiae dogmaticae, eds.
But "dogmatic" has also continued in use among Protestant theologians of the Left no less than among the orthodox.
Roman theologians may properly define dogmatic as the scientific study of dogmas; Protestant scholars have come to use "dogma" in ways which make that impossible.
The important part taken by Portuguese prelates and theologians at the Council of Trent stimulated religious writing, most of it in Latin, but Frei Bartholomeu dos Martyres, archbishop of Braga, wrote a Cathecismo da doutrina Christa, Frei Luiz de Granada a Compendio de Doutrina Christa and Sermoes, all in Portuguese, and other notable pulpit orators include Diogo de Paiva de Andrade, Padre Luiz Alvares, Dom Antonio Pinheiro and Frei Miguel dos Santos, who preached at the obsequies of King Sebastian.
At the Reformation it became a stronghold of Protestant learning, the Heidelberg catechism being drawn up by its theologians.
He contributed little to the solution of the problem, but forced the investigation of the canon alike on theologians and the reading public. Again, he sketched a view of early church history, further worked out by Johann Salomo Semler (1725-1791), and surprisingly like that which was later elaborated by the Tubingen school.
Even some cultured theologians, the historical representatives of latitudinarianism, seem to accept the great body of what was contended for by the deists.
Disputes arose when theologians tried to explain the latter phrase.
These testimonies were called forth mainly by the protest of Greek theologians against Jesuitism on the one hand, and against the reforming tendencies of the patriarch Cyril Lucaris on the other.
Cyril conceived the plan of reforming the Eastern Church by bringing its doctrines into harmony with those of Calvinism, and by sending able young Greek theologians to Switzerland, Holland and England to study Protestant theology.
Hodge was one of the greatest of American theologians.
While he expressed dissatisfaction with some of Calvin's earlier writings, he approved of the Consensus Tigurinus negotiated in 1549 between the Zwinglians and Calvinists of Switzerland; and it was this form of religion that he laboured to spread in England against the wishes of Cranmer, Ridley, Bucer, Peter Martyr and other more conservative theologians.
The doctrine of the rights of the lay monarchy sustained by Occam and John of Paris, by Marsilius of Padua, John of Jandun and Leopold of Bamberg, was affirmed by the jurists and theologians, penetrated into the parlements and the universities, and was combated by the upholders of papal absolutism, such as Alvaro Pelayo and Alonzo Trionfo.
After his death, however, the interdict was not removed from Germany, and the resistance of Louis and his theologians continued.
The theologians in Louis's following who were opposed to papal absolutism already spoke of "the new heretic, Jacques de Cahors," and reiterated with increasing insistency their demands for the convocation of a general council to try the pope.
The task was not easy; for it was necessary to make two sacraments the most prominent objects in the allegory, and of all Christian theologians, avowed Quakers excepted, Bunyan was the one in whose system the sacraments held the least prominent place.
The Considerazioni sulle censure and the Trattato dell' interdetto, the latter partly prepared under his direction by other theologians, speedily followed.
This work produced a great impression throughout Germany, and although large numbers of the orthodox Lutheran theologians and pastors were deeply offended by Spener's book, its complaints and its demands were both too well justified to admit of their being point-blank denied.
In Leipzig a society of young theologians was formed under his influence for the learned study and devout application of the Bible.
The lectures aroused, however, the ill-will of the other theologians and pastors of Leipzig, and Francke and his friends left the city, and with the aid of Christian Thomasius and Spener founded the new university of Halle.
It is not the truism it may seem if we reply that we are to find it in the writings of theologians.
The Gnostics were the " first theologians."
Modern theologians carry it back to much earlier views.
And the characteristic task for living theologians was to consist in writing commentaries on the Lombard's Sentences; for a time these Sentences themselves had been suspected, but they gained immense influence.
Alexander of Hales is the first to adopt it, in place of the " rhetorical " method of previous theologians.
Such problems engage the official theologians of the Church of Rome.
If we are warranted in regarding the Second Person of the Godhead as in very deed " Himself vouchsafing to be made, " that great Becoming cannot well be suspended upon a contingency which might or might not arise; and theologians in general regard the sin of man as such a contingent event.
On the other hand, not merely agnostics like Leslie Stephen but Christian theologians of the Left like Ernst Troeltsch regard it as the time when supernaturalism began decisively to go to pieces, and the " modern " spirit to assert its authority even over religion.
The most distinguished of the theologians classed as " mediating " are C. Ullmann, C. I.
Often the theologians in question look to psychology as the permanent basis of religion; who is to deny that religion is a psychological fact, and the natural expression of something in man's constitution?
The inspiration of early belief has disappeared; the ruling motive of the mollahs (priests) is the thirst for personal enrichment, and the people no longer follow the khojas or theologians.
They created in East Turkestan the power of the khojas, or "theologians," who afterwards fomented the many intestine wars that were waged between the rival factions of the White and the Black Mountaineers.
He had no objection to a national establishment of religion, provided that it was comprehensive enough, and was really the nation organized to promote goodness; not to protect the metaphysical subtleties of sectarian theologians.
These difficulties arise quite naturally from the obligation, which metaphysicians, theologians, moral philosophers, men of science, and psychologists alike recognize, to give an account, consistent with their theories, of the relation of man's power of deliberate and purposive activity to the rest of the universe.
Out of this contrast there ultimately grew an essentially different opposition between faith and knowledge or reason, according to which the theological basis of ethics was contrasted with the philosophical; the theologians maintaining sometimes that the divine law is essentially arbitrary, the expression of will, not reason; more frequently that its reasonableness is inscrutable, and that actual human reason should confine itself to examining the credentials of God's messengers, and not the message itself.
Under the influence of Ambrose and Augustine, the four cardinal virtues furnished a basis on which the systematic ethical theories of subsequent theologians were built.
These were at first commonly reckoned as eight; but a preference for mystical numbers characteristic of medieval theologians finally reduced them to seven.
Here Calvin was welcomed by the band of scholars and theologians who had conspired to make that city the Athens of Switzerland, and especially by Oswald Myconius, the chief pastor, Pierre Viret and Heinrich Bullinger.
Baader is, without doubt, among the greatest speculative theologians of modern Catholicism, and his influence has extended itself even beyond the precincts of his own church.
Islam had, it is true, a philosophy of its own among its theologians (see Mahommedan Religion).
In this way, by a theory which, according to Averroes, involves the negation of science, the Moslem theologians believed that they had exalted God beyond the limits of the metaphysical and scientific conceptions of law, form and matter; whilst they at the same time stood aloof from the vulgar doctrines, attributing a causality to things.
Nifo had edited the works of Averroes (1495-1497); but his expressions gave offence to the dominant theologians, and he had to save himself by distinguishing his personal faith from his editorial capacity.
In 1270 Etienne Tempier, bishop of Paris, supported by an assembly of theologians, anathematized thirteen propositions bearing the stamp of Arabian authorship; but in 1277 the same views and others more directly offensive to Christians and theologians had to be censured again.
On the 24th of February 1616 the consulting theologians of the Holy Office characterized the two propositions - that the sun is immovable in the centre of the world, and that the earth has a diurnal motion of rotation - the first as "absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical, because expressly contrary to Holy Scripture," and the second as "open to the same censure in philosophy, and at least erroneous as to faith."
On the 5th of March the Congregation of the Index issued a decree reiterating, with the omission of the word "heretical," the censure of the theologians, suspending, usque corrigatur, the great work of Copernicus, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, and absolutely prohibiting a treatise by a Carmelite monk named Foscarini, which treated the same subject from a theological point of view.
The practice of confession in the Church of England practically dates from his two sermons on The Entire Absolution of the Penitent, in 1846, in which the revival of high sacramental doctrine is complemented by the advocacy of a revival of the penitential system which medieval theologians had appended to it.
As against the theologians, he urged that in a spiritual religion experience, not reason, must be our guide.
The theologians whom Louis the Pious convened at Paris in 825, to answer the letter received from the iconoclast emperor Michael Balbus, were as hostile to the orthodox Greeks as to the image-worshippers, and did not scruple to censure Pope Adrian for having approved of the empress Irene's attitude.
In 1870 he put forth his Grammar of Assent, the most closely reasoned of his works, in which the case for religious belief is maintained by arguments differing somewhat from those commonly used by Roman Catholic theologians; and in 1877, in the republication of his Anglican works, he added to the two volumes containing his defence of the via media a long preface and numerous notes in which he criticized and replied to sundry anti-Catholic arguments of his own in the original issues.
To this conference were summoned some of the most notable statesmen, lawyers and theologians of the day.
Schmid in Jena, Buhle in Gottingen, Tennemann in Marburg, and Snell in Giessen, with many others, made it the basis of their philosophical teaching, while theologians like Tieftrunk, Staudlin, and Ammon eagerly applied it to Christian doctrine and morality.
It would have been much better to permit his exposition of the philosophy of religion to enjoy the same literary rights as his earlier works, since Kant could not be interdicted without first silencing a multitude of theologians who were at least equally separated from positive Christianity.
The Albigensian theologians and ascetics, the Cathari or perfecti, known in the south of France as bons hommes or bons chretiens, were few in number; the mass of believers (credentes) were perhaps not initiated into the Catharist doctrine; at all events, they were free from all moral prohibition and all religious obligation, on condition that they promised by an act called convenenza to become " hereticized " by receiving the consolamentum, the baptism of the Spirit, before their death or even in extremis.
We should always be wary of identifying appendages in the thought of smart theologians.
Perhaps that is not heady enough for some of our esteemed Reformed theologians but hey, too bloody bad!
The Cur deus homo, in which he develops views of atonement and satisfaction which are still held by orthodox theologians.
We need to be aware that liberal theologians in the Church of England are already supporting heterosexual immorality.
There are no medieval ' research articles ' and not many systematic, seemingly spontaneous meditations on philosophical topics by theologians.
Karl Marx as Watershed As we all know, Latin American liberation theologians are deeply engaged with Marxism.
It became largely theologians who argued in favor of the actual infinite.
Zondervan launches first Africa Bible Commentary The first Bible commentary written exclusively by African theologians has been launched in Kenya.
Feminist theologians will also want to question Lot's apparent willingness to hand his daughters over to a mad crowd to face certain death.
Black liberation theologians argue that their people have suffered oppression at the hands of racist whites.
In the 19th century liberal theologians said God didn't communicate with the world.
This, of course, isn't a problem with women theologians per se.
Unlike in classical theism in God for the process theologians is not omnipotent and does not know the future.
The results of revelation he found in the Holy Scriptures and in the writings of the fathers and the great theologians of the church; and his method was to proceed backwards.
The ritualistic theologians, however, go an important step further by identifying Prajapati with the performer, or patron, of the sacrifice, the sacrificer; every sacrifice thus becoming invested - in addition to its cosmic significance - with the mystic power of regenerating the sacrificer by cleansing him of all guilt and securing for him a seat in the eternal abodes.
There were, doubtless, in the 5th century church historians and theologians who still spoke of him with reverence, but such men became fewer and fewer.
Even those theologians, however, who have laid special stress on the limitations of the human will have repudiated the strictly fatalistic doctrine which is characteristic of Oriental thought and is the negation of all human initiative (see Predestination; Augustine, Saint; Will).
Some of them were taken from the confession of Augsburg, but the sections on Baptism, the Eucharist and penance, show that the English theologians desired to lay more emphasis on the character of sacraments as channels of grace.
It was about this time that some of the leading theologians of the Roman Catholic Church, conceiving that the best way of meeting present perils was to emphasize, as well as to define more clearly, the authority of the pope, advised him to make his personal infallibility a dogma of the Church, and urged strenuously on him the necessity of calling a council for that purpose.
Not the least of his achievements on this occasion was the successful attempt, made with extraordinary tact, ability, knowledge and perseverance, to induce the Orientals, Anglicans and Old Catholics present to accept a formula of concord, drawn from the writings of the leading theologians of the Greek Church, on the long-vexed question of the Procession of the Holy Spirit.
Though the Shorter Catechism, closely associated as this has been from the first with Scottish public elementary education, has had very great influence in forming and training the character of Presbyterians in Scotland, America and the British colonies, it is, like most other catechisms drawn up by dogmatic theologians, more admirable as an epitome of a particular body of divinity than as an instruction for the young and the unlearned.
But theologians in the West had elaborated a theory of the grace of confirmation, which made its severance from baptism seem natural; and at the time of the Reformation, while neither side favoured the Eastern practice, the reformers, with their strong sense of the crucial importance of faith, emphasized the action of the individual in the service, and therefore laid it down as a rule that confirmation should be deferred till the child could learn a catechism on the fundamentals of the Christian faith, which Calvin thought he might do by the time he was ten.
At the 18th session of the council of Trent (26th February 1562), in consideration of the great increase in the number of suspect and pernicious books,.and also of the inefficacy of the many previous "censures" which had proceeded from the provinces and from Rome itself, eighteen fathers with a certain number of theologians were appointed to inquire into these "censures," and to consider what ought to be done in the circumstances.
His work contained a measure of rationalism sufficient to arouse the suspicion of orthodox theologians, without making any valuable addition to, or modification of, the underlying doctrine.
But whilst, in its more comprehensive acceptation, the term Hinduism would thus range over the entire historical development of Brahmanical India, it is also not infrequently used in a narrower sense, as denoting more especially the modern phase of Indian social and religious institutions - from the earlier centuries of the Christian era down to our own days - as distinguished from the period dominated by the authoritative doctrine of pantheistic belief, formulated by the speculative theologians during the centuries immediately succeeding the Vedic period (see Brahmanism).
Theologians might draw their fine-spun distinctions between realms where the pope was actually infallible' and realms where he was not; but Pius knew well that loyal Catholic common sense would brush their technicalities aside and hold that on any conceivable question the pope was fifty times more likely to be right than any one else (see Vatican Council and Infallibility) .
But, as has been already said, the scholars and theologians had less influence in the beginning of the English Reformation than the mere lay politicians, whose anti-clerical tendencies chanced to fit in with King Henrys convenience when he quarrelled with the papacy.
But, though he has a place among lay theologians, dread of ecclesiastical impediment to free inquiry, added to strong inclination for scientific investigation, made him look to medicine as his profession, and before 1666 we find him practising as a physician in Oxford.
When the conquest of the city seemed inevitable, a great "brain drain" of scholars, artists, teachers, theologians, and the wealthy emigrated to Western Europe, especially to Italy.
The series invites Jewish, Christian and Islamic theologians back to the word, recovering modes of scriptural reasoning that underlie modernist reasoning.
The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith has often given tendentious interpretations of the writings of theologians.
Feminist theologians will also want to question Lot 's apparent willingness to hand his daughters over to a mad crowd to face certain death.
Continuing this theme, the Protestant theologian Julio de Santa Ana challenges contemporary theologians to examine the policies of the State of Israel.
A central topic of creative conflict between philosophers and theologians today is the nature and extent of the relationship between subjectivity and divinity.
This, of course, is n't a problem with women theologians per se.
William Arthur, an Irish Methodist loaned to the Wesleyan Missionary Society, was one of the influential theologians of the nineteenth century.
Theologians of most Christian churches tell their flocks evolution is not contrary to Christianity.
In common with some other great truths of the Christian faith, ' reconciliation ' has received but scant notice from theologians.
These German ' liberal ' theologians show that critical historical method does not lead to total skepticism, or to constantly wavering opinions.
Moral development is a complex issue that-since the beginning of human civilization-has been a topic of discussion among some of the world's most distinguished psychologists, theologians, and culture theorists.
Raudive's work expanded upon Juergenson's accidental discovery of the phenomenon and brought in a number of scientists and theologians in the course of the research.
Some modern-day artists and theologians argue that many popular Christian singers rarely make any mention of God or Jesus in their lyrics.
The " argument from design " had been a favourite form of reasoning amongst Christian theologians, and, as worked out by Paley in his Natural Theology, it served the useful purpose of emphasizing the fitness which exists between all the inhabitants of the earth and their physical environment.
Such quotations were multiplied, as theologians learnt to depend increasingly upon their predecessors, until the testimony of "our holy father" Athanasius, or Gregory the Divine, or John the Golden-mouthed, came to be regarded as decisive in reference to controverted points of faith and practice.
The period ends in the West with two great Italian names, Cassiodorus and Pope Gregory I., after Leo the greatest of papal theologians.
We can hardly overestimate the influence which Rufinus exerted on Western theologians by thus putting the great Greek fathers into the Latin tongue.
Her theologians had, to begin with, little turn for mystical speculation; their tendency was rather to reduce the gospel to a system of morals.
It is the same all through the 3rd and 4th centuries with those Latin theologians who escaped the influence of Greek speculation.