SHOEBURYNESS, a promontory on the coast of Essex, England, the point at which the coast-line trends north-eastward from the estuary of the Thames.
It lies on the south bank of the Thames and extends up the hills above the shore, many villas having been erected on the higher ground.
It lies in a hilly well-wooded district above the valley of the small river Wye, a tributary of the Thames.
Blue Town, the older part of the town, with the dockyard, is defended by strong modern-built fortifications, especially the forts of Garrison Point and Barton's Point, commanding the entrance of both the Thames and the Medway.
Sheerness has some trade in corn and seed,, and there is steamboat connexion with Port Victoria, on the opposite side of the Medway; with Southend, on the opposite side of the Thames; and with Chatham and London, and the town is in some favour as a seaside resort.
by the river Thames, E.
It has a river-frontage of 4.1 m., the Thames making two deep bends, enclosing the Isle of Dogs on the north and a similar peninsula on the Greenwich side.
To the south of the hospital is Greenwich Park (185 acres), lying high, and commanding extensive views over London, the Thames and the plain of Essex.
This ceremony arose out of a dinner held annually at Dagenham, on the Essex shore of the Thames, by the commissioners for engineering works carried out there in 1705-1720 - a remarkable achievement for this period - to save the lowlands from flooding.
boundary is in part the river Thames, but it includes two separate small areas on the N.
by the Thames, N.E.
The principal thoroughfares are Wandsworth Road and Battersea Park and York Roads from east to west, connected north and south with the Victoria or Chelsea, Albert and Battersea bridges over the Thames.
It lies on the slope of a low range of hills which borders the valley of the Thames on the south.
He was educated at St John's College, Cambridge, and successively held the livings of Islington (1662), of All-Hallows the Great, Thames Street, London (1679),(1679), and of Isleworth in Middlesex (1690).
The submarine cables of the world now have a length exceeding 200,000 nautical miles, and most of them have been manuf actured on the Thames.
Rivers bring down the plants of the upper levels of their basins to the lower: thus species characteristic of the chalk are found on the banks of the Thames near London.
The picturesque narrow-arched bridge over the Thames near St Helen's church dates originally from 1416.
The buildings lie close to the Thames, and the school is famous for rowing, sending an eight to the regatta at Henley each year.
It is not unlikely that the Thames became the boundary of the two kingdoms about this time.
Greathead (q.v.) began the City & South London railway, extending under the Thames from the Monument to Stockwell, a distance of 32 m.
Brunel for the construction of the original Thames tunnel, and it was afterwards improved by Beach, of New York, and finally developed by Greathead.
His elder brother was drowned in the Thames in the following year; and in 1814, on the death of his father, he took his seat in the House of Lords as Baron Auckland.
by the Thames, S.E.
The neighbouring Thames Tunnel was opened in 1843, but, as the tolls were insufficient to maintain it, was sold to the East London Railway Company in 1865.
The town dates from 1780 and owes its rise to the granite quarries at Craignair and elsewhere in the vicinity, from which were derived the supplies used in the construction of the Thames Embankment, the docks at Odessa and Liverpool and other works.
In Newington Causeway is the Sessions House for the county of London (south of the Thames).
The junction in Southwark of the great roads from the south of England for the passage of the Thames sufficiently accounted for the early origin of Southwark.
The name Richmond was suggested probably by the similarity of the site to that of Richmond on the Thames.
A statue in bronze was placed on the Thames Embankment, and there is a good portrait by Watts (a copy of which, by Watts himself, was hung in the National Gallery).
The parish stretches north and south from Wanstead and Leyton to the Thames, and east and west from East Ham to the river Lea.
They have also been found in Pleistocene gravels in several parts of England, as Maidenhead, Bromley, Freshfield near Bath, Barnwood near Gloucester, and in the brick-earth of the Thames valley at Crayford, Kent; while their remains also occur in Arctic America.
It is the commonest cetacean in the seas round the British Isles, and not infrequently ascends the Thames, having been seen as high as Richmond; it has also been observed in the Seine at Neuilly, near Paris.
from its junction with the Thames.
Esher is included in the urban district of Esher and The Dittons, of which Thames Ditton is a favourite riverside resort.
ROMFORD, a market town in the Romford parliamentary division of Essex, England; on the small river Rom, which flows into the Thames; 122 m.
See Thames (disambiguation) for articles sharing the title Thames.
THAMES, the chief river of England, rising in several small streams among the Cotteswold Hills in Gloucestershire.
Its source is generally held to be at a place known as Thames Head, in the parish of Coates, 3 m.
The length of the river from Thames Head Bridge to London Bridge is 1614 m.
The height of Thames Head above sea-level is 35 6 ft., but that of Seven Springs, the adoption of which as the source would extend the length of the river by several miles, is 700 ft.
m., including that of the Medway, which, as it joins the estuary immediately above Sheerness, may be considered a tributary of the Thames.
At Pangbourne (804) the Thames receives the Pang on the right, and at Reading (742) the Kennet on the same side.
In the tideway the principal affluents of the Thames are the Brent at Brentford, the Wandle at Wandsworth, the Ravensbourne at Deptford, the Lea at Blackwall, the Darent just below Erith, and the Ingrebourne at Rainham, besides the Medway.
The basin of the Thames is of curiously composite character.
Thus a well-marked depression in the Cotteswolds brings the head of the (Gloucestershire) Coln, one of the head-streams of the Thames, very close to that of the Isborne, a tributary of the upper Avon; the parting between the headstreams of the Thames and the Bristol Avon sinks at one point, near Malmesbury, below 300 ft.; and head-streams of the Great Ouse rise little more than two miles from, and only some 300 ft.
The White Horse Hills and the Chilterns strike right across the Thames basin, but almost their entire drainage from either flank lies within it, and similarly a great part of the low-lying Weald, though marked off from the rest of the basin by the North Downs, drains into it through these hills.
The basin thus presents interesting problems. The existence of wide valleys where the small upper waters of the Cherwell, Evenlode and Coln now flow, the occurrence of waterborne deposits in their beds from the northwest of England and from Wales, and the fact that the Thames, like its lower southern tributaries which pierce the North Downs, has been able to maintain a deep valley through the chalk elevation at Goring, are considered to point to the former existence of a much larger river, in the system of which were included the upper waters of the present Severn, Dee and other rivers of the west.
The Thames about Oxford is often called the Isis.
In the first statute passed for improving the navigation of the river near Oxford (21 Jac. I.) it is called the river of Thames, and it was only in a statute of George II.
The name Isis has indeed the authority of Spenser as applied to the Thames in its course above Dorchester (Faerie Queen, Bk.
The flow of the Thames varies greatly, according to the season of the year.
The water-supply of London is considered under that heading; it may be noted here that the Thames forms the chief source of supply for the metropolis, but apart from this the corporation of Oxford and two companies in the Staines district have powers to draw water from the river, though not in any large quantities.
above the intakes of the water companies (at Hampton or in the vicinity), the Thames Conservancy has enforced the requirements of parliament that no sewage or other pollution shall be allowed to pass into the Thames, into its tributary streams, or even into any water communicating with them.
The Thames is navigable for rowing-boats as far upwards as Cricklade, except in dry seasons, and for barges at all times as far as Lechlade, 18 m.
below Thames Head.
At Inglesham, threequarters of a mile above Lechlade, the Thames and Severn canal has its junction with the Thames.
Concurrently with the repair of the canal, the navigation works on the Thames were remodelled at a large cost, and barges drawing 3 ft.
Although the Thames, as one of the "great rivers of England," was always a navigable river, that is to say, one over which the public had the right of navigation, it was not until the last quarter of the 18th century that any systematic regulation of its flow in the upper reaches was attempted.
No substantial measures to remedy this state of things were adopted till 1771, when an act of parliament was passed authorizing the construction of pound locks on the Thames above Maindenhead Bridge.
In pursuance of the powers thus granted, the Thames Commissioners of that day caused locks to be built at various points above Maidenhead, and between 1810 and 1815 the Corporation of London carried out river works on the same lines as far down the river as Teddington.
The works as subsequently maintained by the Thames Conservancy ensure an efficient head of water during the drier seasons of the year, and facilitate the escape of winter floods.
The canals in use communicating with the Thames, in addition to the Thames and Severn canal, are the Oxford canal, giving communication from that city with the north, the Kennet and Avon canal from Reading to the Bristol Avon, the Grand Junction at Brentford, the Regent's canal at Limehouse, and the Grand Surrey canal at Rotherhithe.
The Wilts and Berks canal, joining the Thames at Abingdon, is disused.
By means of the Grand Junction and Oxford canals especially, constant communication is maintained between the Thames and the great industrial centres of England.
The trade on the upper Thames is steady, though not extensive.
In 1857 the Thames Conservancy Board was established.
They added "that the public at large have only to know that their rights are imaginary to induce them also to be content with the extant system under which permission is very freely granted by owners of fisheries to the public for angling on the more frequented parts of the Thames."
The fisheries are under the regulation of by-laws made by the Thames Conservancy, which apply to the riparian owners as well as to the public generally.
The principal associations are those at Oxford, Reading, Henley, Maidenhead and Windsor, and the Thames Angling Preservation Society, whose district is from Staines to Brentford.
Thames, New Zealand >>
The drawbridge of London Bridge having been lowered by treachery, Tyler and his followers crossed the Thames; and being joined by thousands of London apprentices, artisans and criminals, they sacked and burnt John of Gaunt's splendid palace of the Savoy, the official residence of the treasurer, Sir Robert Hales, and the prisons of Newgate and the Fleet.
CHISWICK, an urban district in the Ealing parliamentary division of Middlesex, England, suburban to London, on the Thames, 7a m.
St Marylebone was in the manor of Tyburn, which takes name from the Tyburn, a stream which flowed south to the Thames through the centre of the present borough.
In consequence of the breaking away of the lower part of "Cleopatra's Needles" when removed to Alexandria and re-erected, the Roman engineers supported the angles on bronze crabs, one of which with three reproductions now supports the angles of the obelisk on the Thames Embankment.
LONDON, the capital of England and of, the British Empire, and the greatest city in the world, lying on each side of the river Thames 50 m.
North of Thames.
Bounded by the Thames - Fulham, Chelsea, the City of Westminster (here the City of London intervenes), Stepney, Poplar.
South of the Thames.
North of the Thames, and west of its tributary the Lea, which partly bounds the administrative county on the east, London is built upon a series of slight undulations, only rarely sufficient to make the streets noticeably steep. On the northern boundary of the county a height of 443 ft.
The lesser streams which flow from this high ground to the Thames are no longer open.
South of the Thames a broken amphitheatre of low hills, approaching the river near Greenwich and Woolwich on the east and Putney and Richmond on the west, encloses a tract flatter than that to the north, and rises more abruptly in the southern districts of Streatham, Norwood and Forest Hill.
In attempting to picture the site of London in its original condition, that is, before any building took place, it is necessary to consider (I) the condition of the Thames unconfined between made banks, (2) the slopes overlooking it, (3) the tributary streams which watered these slopes.
The low ground between the slight hills flanking the Thames valley, and therefore mainly south of the present river, was originally occupied by a shallow lagoon of estuarine character, tidal, and interspersed with marshy tracts and certain islets of relatively firm land.
Through this the main stream of the Thames pursued an ill-defined course.
The Wallbrook rose in a marsh in the modern district of Finsbury, and joined the Thames close to the Cannon Street railway bridge.
Continuing westward, the most important stream was Tyburn, which rose at Hampstead, and joined the Thames through branches on either side of Thorney Island, on which grew up the great ecclesiastical foundation of St Peter, Westminster, better known as Westminster Abbey.
It rose on the heights of Hampstead, traversed Paddington, may be traced in the course of the Serpentine lake in Hyde Park, ran parallel to and east of Sloane Street, and joined the Thames close to Chelsea Bridge.
The main tributaries of the Thames from the north, to east and west of those described, are not covered, nor is any tributary of importance from the south entirely concealed.
Valley gravel borders the Thames, with some interruptions, from Kingston to Greenwich, and extends to a wide belt, with ramifications, from Wandsworth south to Croydon, and in a narrower line from Greenwich towards Bromley.
Brick earth overlies it from Kensington to Brentford and west thereof, and appears in Chelsea and Fulham, Hornsey and Stoke Newington, and in patches south of the Thames between Battersea and Richmond.
The main deposits of alluvium occur below Lambeth and Westminster, and in the valley of the Wandle, which joins the Thames from the south near Putney.
In London north of the Thames, the .salient distinction lies between West and East.
On the Thames below London Bridge, London appears in the aspect of one of the world's great ports, with extensive docks and crowded shipping.
London south of the Thames has none of the grander characteristics of the wealthy districts to the north.
In this aspect the principal extension of London has been into the counties of Kent and Surrey, to the pleasant hilly districts about Sydenham, Norwood and Croydon, Chislehurst and Orpington, Caterham, Redhill and Reigate, Epsom, Dorking and Leatherhead; and up the valley of the Thames through Richmond to Kingston and Surbiton, Esher and Weybridge, and the many townships on both the Surrey and the Middlesex shores of the river.
Their population is also largely occupied in local manufacturing establishments; while numerous towns on either bank of the lower Thames share in the industries of the port of London.
On the north of the Thames two great thoroughfares from the west meet in the heart of the City.
South of the Thames the thoroughfares crossing the river between Lambeth and Bermondsey converge upon two circuses, St George's and the Elephant and Castle.
The Thames follows a devious course through London, and the fine embankments on its north side, nowhere continuing uninterruptedly for more than 2 m., do not form important thoroughfares, with the exception of the Victoria Embankment.
The bold sweep of the Thames, here some 300 yds.
Fourteen road-bridges cross the Thames within the county of London.
There was no bridge over the Thames below London Bridge until 1894, when the Tower Bridge was opened.
The Thames Tunnel (1825-1843), 2 m.
The other most notable open spaces wholly or partly within the county are Hampstead Heath in the north-west, a wild, high-lying tract preserved to a great extent in its natural state, and in the south-west Wimbledon Common, Putney Heath and the royal demesne of Richmond Park, which from its higher parts commands a wonderful view up the rich valley of the Thames.
The only other ecclesiastical building to be specially mentioned is Lambeth Palace, opposite to the Houses of Parliament across the Thames.
Among secular buildings, there is none more venerable than the Tower of London (q.v.), the moated fortress which overlooks the Thames at the eastern boundary of the City.
They cover a great area, the east front giving immediately upon the Thames.
In 1906 the London County Council obtained parliamentary sanction for the erection of a county hall on the south bank of the Thames, immediately east of Westminster Bridge, and in 1908 a design submitted by Mr Ralph Knott was accepted in competition.
Among the survivals of names of non-ecclesiastical buildings Castle Baynard may be noted; it stood in the City on the banks of the Thames, and was held by Ralph Baynard, a Norman, in the time of William the Conqueror; a later building being erected in 1428 by Humphrey duke of Gloucester.
The survival of names of obliterated physical features or characteristics is illustrated in Section I.; but additional instances are found in the Strand, which originally ran close to the sloping bank of the Thames, and in Smithfield, now the central meat market, but for long the " smooth field " where a cattle and hay market was held, and the scene of tournaments and games, and also of executions.
The terminus of the Great Western railway is Paddington (Praed Street); and that of the London & South-Western, Waterloo, south of the Thames in Lambeth.
The London, Brighton & South Coast railway has its western terminus at Victoria, and its central terminus at London Bridge, on the south side of the Thames.
The East London line connects Shoreditch with New Cross (Deptford) by way of the Thames Tunnel, a subway under the river originally built for footpassengers.
This company combines with the Metropolitan District to form the Inner Circle line, which has stations close to all the great railway termini north of the Thames.
The northern, western and eastern outskirts and London south of the Thames are extensively served by trams. On the formation of the London County Council there were thirteen tramway companies in existence.
But this control does not meet the problem of actually lessening the number of vehicles in the main arteries of traffic. At such crossings as that of the Strand and Wellington Street, Ludgate Circus and south of the Thames, the Elephant and Castle, as also in the narrow streets of the City, congestion is often exceedingly severe, and is aggravated when any main street is under repair, and diversion of traffic through narrow side streets becomes necessary.
wide, one running west and east, from Bayswater Road to Whitechapel, and passing through the city in the neighbourhood of London Wall, and another from Holloway to the Elephant and Castle, to cross the Thames by a new bridge above Blackfriars.
A local passenger steamboat service on the Thames suffers from the disadvantage that the river does not provide the shortest route between points at any great distance apart, and that the main thoroughfares between east and west do not touch its banks, so that passengers along those thoroughfares are not tempted to use it as a channel of communication.
The sinking of the " Princess Alice " in 1878 was a serious blow to the London Steamboat Company, which collapsed, and was succeeded by the River Thames Steamboat Navigation Company, which went into liquidation in 1887.
The Thames Steamboat Company then took up the service, but early in 1902 announced that it would be discontinued, although in 1904 it was temporarily resumed.
Meanwhile, however, in 1902 the London County Council had promoted a bill in Parliament to enable them to run a service of boats on the Thames.
extending to Romford, Enfield, Harrow, &c., north of the Thames, and to Dartford Reigate, Epsom, &c., south of it.
There are actually two distinct systems, north and south of the Thames, having separate outfall works on the north and south banks of the river, at Barking and Crossness.
The clear effluent flows into the Thames, and the sludge is taken 50 m.
For smallpox the Board maintains hospital ships moored in the Thames at Dartford, and a land establishment at the same place.
The Chelsea Water Company opened its supply from the Thames in 1721; the Lambeth waterworks were erected in 1783; the Vauxhall Company was established in 1805, the West Middlesex, near Hammersmith, and the East London on the river Lea in 1806, the Kent on the Ravensbourne (Deptford) in 1810, the Grand Junction in 1811, and the Southwark (which amalgamated with the Vauxhall) in 1822.
The construction of large storage reservoirs was recommended, and this work was put in hand jointly by the New River, West Middlesex and Grand Junction companies at Staines on the Thames.
appointed by the London County Council 1 pp y y (4), the City of London and the City of Westminster (2 each), the other Metropolitan boroughs (1 each), the county councils of Middlesex, Hertfordshire, Essex, Kent and Surrey (1 each), borough of West Ham (2), various groups of other boroughs and urban districts, and the Thames and the Lea Conservancies.
During these periods other companies had a surplus of water, and in 1899 an act was passed providing for the interconnexion of systems. The Thames and Lea are the principal sources of supply, but the Kent and (partially) the New River Company draw supplies from springs.
Wasteful competition ensued until in 1857 an agreement was made between the companies to restrict their services to separate localities, and the Gas Light & Coke Company, by amalgamating other companies, then gradually acquired all the gas-lighting north of the Thames, while a considerable area in the south was provided for by another great gas company, the South Metropolitan.
The munificence of Sir Henry Tate provided the gallery, commonly named after him, by the Thames near Vauxhall Bridge, which contains the national collection of British art.
In summer, boating on the lovely reaches of the Thames above the metropolis forms the recreation of thousands.
The recommendations of the Commission included the creation of a single controlling authority to take over the powers of the Thames Conservancy Watermen's Company, and Trinity House and the docks of the companies already detailed.
The Thames Conservancy also offered itself as the public authority.
A noteworthy scheme to improve the condition of the Thames, first put forward in 1902-1903, was that of constructing a dam with four locks across the river between Gravesend and Tilbury.
The custom house stands on the north bank, a short distance from London Bridge, in Lower Thames Street.
Vessels entered and cleared (foreign and colonial trade): - In the coastwise trade, in 1881, 38,953 vessels of 4,545,904 tons entered; in 18 95, 43,7 0 4 vessels of 6,555,618 tons; but these figures include vessels trading within the Thames estuary (ports of London, Rochester, Colchester and Faversham), which later returns do not.
Among these are the Corn Exchange in Mark Lane, where the privilege of a fair was originally granted by Edward I.; the Wool Exchange, Coleman Street; the Coal Exchange, Lower Thames Street; the Shipping Exchange, Billiter Street; and the auction mart for landed property in Tokenhouse Yard.
Billingsgate Market, by the Thames immediately above the custom house, for fish.
Quarter-sessions for the county of London are held thirty-six times annually, for the north side of the Thames at the Sessions-house in Clerkenwell (Finsbury) and for the south side at that in Newington Causeway, Southwark.
The Metropolitan police courts are fourteen in number, namely - Bow Street, Covent Garden; Clerkenwell; Great Marlborough Street (Westminster); Greenwich and Woolwich; Lambeth; Marylebone; North London, Stoke Newington Road; Southwark; South Western, Lavender Hill (Battersea); Thames, Arbour Street East (Stepney); West Ham; West London, Vernon Street (Fulham); Westminster, Vincent Square; Worship Street (Shoreditch).
(a) North of the Thames.
(b) South of the Thames.
London north of the Thames is within the Church of England bishopric of London, the bishop's palace being at Fulham.
The discovery by General Pitt Rivers in 1867 of the remains of pile dwellings both on the north and on the south of the Thames gives ground for an argument of some force in favour of the date of the foundation of London having been before the Roman occupation of Britain.
The line from Bishopsgate ran eastward to St Giles's churchyard (Cripplegate), where it turned to the south as far as Falcon square; again westerly by Aldersgate round the site of the Greyfriars (afterwards Christ's Hospital) towards Giltspur Street, then south by the Old Bailey to Ludgate, and then down to the Thames, where Dr Edwin Freshfield suggests that a Roman fortress stood on the site of Baynard's Castle.
The Thames formed the natural barrier on the south, but the Romans do not appear to have been content with this protection, for they built a wall here in addition, which remained for several centuries.
As long as there was no bridge to join the north and south banks of the Thames the great object of Roman rule remained unfulfilled.
The position is vague, but the mouth of the Thames in these early times may be considered as not far from the present position of London Bridge.
120), but Dr Guest was not prepared to allow that the Britons were able to construct a bridge over a tidal river such as the Thames, some 300 yds.
Roach Smith is a strong advocate for the bridge, and remarks, " It would naturally be erected somewhere in the direct line of road into Kent, which I cannot but think pointed towards the site of Old London Bridge, both from its central situation, from the general absence of the foundations of buildings in the approaches on the northern side, and from discoveries recently made in the Thames on the line of the old bridge " (Archaeologia, xxix.
Along the banks of the Thames are several small havens whose names have remained to us, such as Rotherhithe, Lambhith (Lambeth), Chelchith (Chelsea), &c., and it is not unlikely that the Saxons, who would not settle in the city itself, associated themselves with these small open spots.
In 871 the chronicler affirms that Alfred fought nine great battles against the Danes in the kingdom south of the Thames, and that the West Saxons made peace with them.
The first charter by which the city claims the jurisdiction and conservancy of the river Thames was granted by Richard I.
The Friars of the Blessed Virgin of Mount Carmel or Carmelites or Whitefriars came to London in 1241, and made their home on land between Fleet Street and the Thames given by Edward I.
He first attempted to land from his ships in the city, but the Thames side from Baynard's Castle to the Tower was so well fortified that he had to seek a quieter and less prepared position.
The Strand was filled with noble mansions washed by the waters of the Thames, but the street, if street it could be called, was little used by pedestrians.
In the winter of1683-1684a fair was held for some time upon the Thames.
- London had hitherto grown up by the side of the Thames.
A frost almost as severe as the memorable one of1683-1684occurred in the winter of 1 7391740, and the Thames was again the scene of a busy fair.
In the winter of1813-1814the Thames was again frozen over.
Among other societies with similar objects in view are the "Thames Valley Legitimist Club" and the "Legitimist Jacobite League of Great Britain and Ireland."
A Roman road, which crossed from the Sussex coast to the Thames, passed near the present churchyard of St Martin.
ISLE OF DOGS, a district of London, England, on the north bank of the Thames, which surrounds it on three sides.
Henry conferred great honours on Peter, creating him earl of Richmond, and gave him a palace on the Thames, known as Savoy House.
MORTLAKE, a village in the Kingston parliamentary division of Surrey, England, on the Thames, 62 m.
TEDDINGTON, an urban district in the Uxbridge parliamentary division of Middlesex, England, close to the Thames, 13 m.
In the 27th of September the Dutch appeared in force off the mouth of the Thames, and Blake, whose fleet was collected in the Downs, stood to sea.
In spite of their heavy losses and their awkward administration, the Dutch were at sea before the end of May, and were close to the mouth of the Thames.
Blake, informed by the sound of the cannon, which was audible on the Thames, that an action was in progress, hurried to sea and joined Monk in the pursuit of the Dutch on the 3rd of June.
Monk and Rupert were fitting out a fleet of nearly the same strength in the Thames.
Yet Monk was clearly overtaxed, and on the 3rd he prepared to retreat to the Thames.
It was fought with extreme fury, and terminated in the retreat of the English to the Thames with a loss of 20 ships and 6000 men.
The Dutch remained masters of the approach to the Thames till the 21st of July.
It entered the Thames, forced the entrance of the Medway, and burnt both the dockyard at Chatham and a number of the finest ships in the navy which were lying in the river.
His inferiority in numbers did not allow him to push his attack quite home, but he inflicted so much injury that the allies were forced to return to the Thames to refit.
A closer investigation of the numerous long, narrow banks which lie off the Flemish coast and the Thames estuary shows that they are composed of fragments of rock abraded and transported by tidal currents and storms in the same way that the chalk and limestone worn off from the eastern continuation of the island of Heligoland during the last two centuries has been reduced to the coarse gravel of the off-lying Dune.
The boundaries of Essex were in later times the rivers Stour and Thames, but the original limits of the kingdom are quite uncertain; towards the west it probably included most if not the whole of Hertfordshire, and in the 7th century the whole of Middlesex.
The latter was a gigantic animal, especially during the Pleistocene period; the skulls and limbbones discovered in the brick-earths and gravels of the Thames valley and many other parts of England having belonged to animals that probably stood six feet at the shoulder.
Yarrell states that formerly the Thames alone supplied from i,000,000 to 1,200,000 lamperns annually, but their number has so much fallen off that, for instance, in 1876 only 40,000 were sold to the codfishers.
The season for catching l amperns closes in the Thames about the middle of March.
It is pleasantly situated on the right bank of the Thames, which is crossed by a bridge of seven arches, built of Purbeck stone in 1785.
Ferries over the Redewynd were subjects of royal grant in 1340 and 1399; the abbot built a new bridge over the Bourne in 1333, and wholly maintained the bridge over the Thames when it replaced the 14th century ferry.
The building up of these domes of lavas of intermediate chemical type was followed by the eruption of sheets of andesites and rhyolites in the Thames English Miles so Ioo 200 Cretaceous 'a '
The cyanide process of gold extraction, and the returns obtained by its means from the great Waihi mine in the Upper Thames, caused an outbreak of gold fever, which led to the opening up of a few good and a great many worthless quartz-mines in the Auckland fields.
Silver is chiefly extracted in the Thames district, but other mines containing silver ores have been found.
Thereafter large deposits were profitably exploited in the south and west of South Island and in the Thames and Coromandel districts of the Auckland province.
The British Museum and the Musee Cluny in Paris have fine collections of them, mainly dredged from the Thames and the Seine.
fired on Blackheath to travel across the Thames to Upminster Church in Essex, 121m.
The first bridges over the Thames at London were no doubt of timber.
Southwark bridge over the Thames, designed by John Rennie with cast iron ribs and erected in 1814-1819, has a centre FIG.
Early in life he published observations on the Tertiary and Post-Tertiary deposits in the Thames valley, and on fossil plants and various invertebrata, in the Magazine of Natural History, the Annals of Nat.
by the Thames estuary, E.
In the west the Darent, flowing north to the Thames below Dartford, pierces the hills north of Sevenoaks, but its waters are collected chiefly from a subsidiary ridge of the Downs running parallel to the main line and south of it, and known as the Ragstone Ridge, from 600 to 800 ft.
through the hills, past Maidstone, joining the Thames at its mouth through a broad estuary.
The estuary of the Thames may be said to stretch from London Bridge to Sheerness in the Isle of Sheppey, which is divided from the mainland by the narrow channel (bridged at Queensbridge) of the Swale.
Along the banks of the Thames the coast is generally low and marshy, embankments being in several places necessary to prevent inundation.
The London Clay occupies the tongue of land between the estuaries of the Thames and Medway, as well as Sheppey and a district about 8 m.
The plastic clay, which rests chiefly on chalk, occupies the remainder of the estuary of the Thames, but at several places it is broken through by outcrops of chalk, which in some instances run northwards to the banks of the river.
Valley gravels .border the Thames, and Pleistocene mammalia have been found in fissures in the Hythe beds at Ightham, where ancient stone implements are common.
The marsh lands along the banks of the Thames, Medway, Stour and Swale consist chiefly of rich chalk alluvium.
Among the principal modern industries are paper-making, carried on on the banks of the Darent, Medway, Cray and neighbouring streams; engineering, chemical and other works along the Thames; manufactures of bricks, tiles, pottery and cement, especially by the lower Medway and the Swale.
Shrimps, soles and flounders are taken in great numbers in the estuaries of the Thames and Medway, along the north coast and off Ramsgate.
The influence of London in converting villages into outer residential suburbs is to be observed at many points, whether seaside, along the Thames or inland.
The county is practically without inland water communications, excluding the Thames.
Also the so-called "white-bait" is not a distinct species, but consists chiefly of the fry or the young of herrings and sprats, and is obtained "in perfection" at localities where these small fishes find an abundance of food, as in the estuary of the Thames.
Many such, of the 14th and 15th centuries, have been recovered from the Thames.
At the mouth of the Thames the gathering of cockles forms a considerable industry, especially at Leigh.
They took part in the operations at Fort Wayne, Fort Meigs, the river Raisin and the Thames.
Caesar now penetrated into Middlesex and crossed the Thames, but the British prince Cassivellaunus with his war-chariots harassed the Roman columns, and Caesar was compelled to return to Gaul after imposing a tribute which was never paid.
In Stuart times all ranks of society believed in her, and referring to her supposed foretelling of the Great Fire, Pepys relates that when Prince Rupert heard, while sailing up the Thames on the 10th of October 1666, of the outbreak of the fire "all he said was, ` now Shipton's prophecy was out.'" One of her prophecies was supposed to have menaced Yeovil, Somerset, with an earthquake and flood in 1879, and so convinced were the peasantry of the truth of her prognostications that hundreds moved from their cottages on the eve of the expected disaster, while spectators swarmed in from all quarters of the county to see the town's destruction.
In the west of England, the Thames valley, Cambridgeshire and Norfolk a "bolt" of green stuff measures 42 to 45 in.
This arrangement has been provided at several weirs on the Thames, to afford control of the flood discharge, and reduce the extent of the inundations; the largest of these composite weirs on that river is at the tidal limit at Teddington, where the two central bays, with a total length of 2421 ft., are closed by thirty-five draw-doors sliding between iron frames supporting a foot-bridge, from which the doors are raised by a winch.'
By these arrangements the large draw-door weir across the Thames at Richmond, with three spans of 66 ft.
Greenhithe, on the banks of the Thames, has large chalk quarries in its neighbourhood, from which lime and cement are manufactured.
either for himself or for his family, declaring that he " had rather see it all cast into the Thames."
" More has built, near London, upon the Thames, a modest yet commodious mansion.
Here Claudius himself appeared - the one reigning emperor of the 1st century who crossed the waves of ocean, - and the army, crossing the Thames, moved forward through Essex and captured the native capital, Camulodunum, now Colchester.
In the lands looking on to the Thames estuary (Kent, Essex, Middlesex) the process had perhaps begun before the Roman conquest.
In the south the West Saxons are said to have conquered first Wiltshire and then all the upper part of the Thames valley, together with the country beyond as far as the Severn.
The northern frontier also seems to have been pushed considerably farther forward, perhaps into what is now Scotland, and it is very probable that the basin of the Trent, together with the central districts between the Trent and the Thames, was conquered about the same time, though of this we have no record.
The south of England, between Sussex and " West Wales (eventually reduced to Cornwall), was occupied by Wessex, which originally also possessed some territory to the north of the Thames.
The former seems to have prevailed everywhere; the latter, however, was much more common in the more northern counties than in the south, though cases are fairly numerous throughout the valley of the Thames.
above the level of the Thames.
Kilburn, which as a district extends outside the borough, takes name from a stream which, as the Westbourne, entered the Thames at Chelsea.
The force was segregated in the Swin (Thames) and specially trained in all its various tasks.
A success was gained by them (October 5) at the Thames, where the Indian chief Tecumseh fell, but they made no serious progress.
above its junction with the Thames.
P. capensis from South Africa is hardy south of the Thames and in favoured localities.
NORWICH, a city and one of the county-seats of New London county, Connecticut, U.S.A., in the township of Norwich, at the point where the Yantic (which expands here in " The Cove ") and Shetucket rivers join and form the Thames.
The city is at the head of navigation on the Thames river, whose channel is 100-200 ft.
bank of the Thames, about 3 m.
by the river Thames and Greenwich, S.
The name is connected with a ford over the Ravensbourne, a stream entering the Thames through Deptford Creek.
Since the wreck of the training-ship " Comte de Smet de Naeyer " in 1906, it has been decided that a stationary training-ship shall be placed in the Scheldt like the " Worcester " on the Thames.
In his reign the Chronicle mentions two great victories over the Welsh, one at a place called Bedcanford in 571, by which Aylesbury and the upper part of the Thames valley fell into the hands of the West Saxons, and another at Deorham in 577, which led to the capture of Cirencester, Bath and Gloucester.
by the river Thames, N.E.
Four road-bridges cross the Thames within the limits of the borough, namely Waterloo, Westminster, Lambeth and Vauxhall, of which the first, a fine stone structure, dates from 1817, and is the oldest Thames bridge standing within the county of London.
The palace of the archbishops is still here, and forms, with the parish church, a picturesque group of buildings, lying close to the river opposite the majestic Houses of Parliament, and to some extent joining with them to make of this reach of the Thames one of the finest prospects in London.
NORTHFLEET, an urban district of Kent, England, within the parliamentary borough of Gravesend, on the Thames, 22 m.
Meanwhile the force under Haesten set out to march up the Thames valley, possibly with the idea of assisting their friends in the west.
At the end of this year and early in 895 (896) the Danes drew their ships up the Thames"and Lea and fortified themselves twenty miles above London.
The greater part of the Portland cement made in England is manufactured on the Thames and Medway.
The following analysis may be taken as typical of cements made from chalk and clay on the Thames and 100.0 There may be variations from this composition according to the nature of the raw materials employed.
SOUTHEND-ON-SEA, a municipal borough and wateringplace in the south-east parliamentary division of Essex, England, on the estuary of the Thames.
His statue stands on the Thames Embankment.
The Scottish Jacobites were left in ignorance of the French attempt to land in the mouth of the Thames (February - March 1744), an effort frustrated by a disastrous tempest, and by the slackness of the English conspirators.
In the following year he was again looking for a country house, and lighted upon Kelmscott manor house, in the Upper Thames valley, which he took at first in joint-tenancy with Rossetti and used principally as a holiday home.
At Mount Pleasant is the parcels department of the general post office, and at Clerkenwell Green the sessions house for the county of London (north side of the Thames).
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.