The chief value of this very scholarly book is to be found in its textual side.
No book, however, presents such a complicated problem or such a wealth of material for the textual critic.
Much the same applies to Bp Westcott's Gospel according to St John (1882), devotionally so attractive, and in textual criticism excellent.
In a certain wide sense the textual criticism of the New Testa ment began as soon as men consciously made recensions and versions, and in this sense Origen, Jerome, Augustine and many other ecclesiastical writers might be regarded as textual critics.
Athos, a MS. of the Acts and epistles, with an early (mixed) type of text and textual comments and notes from Origen.
The lyrical metres of Plautus are wonderfully varied, and the textual critic does well not to attempt to limit the possibilities of original metrical combinations and developments in the Roman comedian.
For textual purposes the Vulgate possesses but little value, since it presupposes a Hebrew original practically identical with the text stereotyped by the Massoretes.
important, if limited and imperfect, efforts in textual criticism.
His textual views were peculiar; he preferred to follow late MSS.
His object, therefore, is to discover and remove the various corruptions which have crept into the text, by the usual methods of the textual critic - the collection of material, the grouping of MSS.
But in practice it is general, and certainly convenient, to regard their work rather as material for criticism, and to begin the history of textual criticism with the earliest printed editions which sought to establish a standard Greek Text.
In the use of the ancient versions for the purposes of textual criticism there are three precautions which must always be observed; we must reasonably assure ourselves that we possess the version itself in its original integrity; we must eliminate such variants as have the appearance of originating merely with the translator; the remainder, which will be those that are due to a difference of text in the MS. (or MSS.) used by the translator, we must then compare carefully, in the light of the considerations just stated, with the existing Hebrew text, in order to determine on which side the superiority lies."
Most of his numerous publications had reference to his great critical edition of the New Testament (1857-1872; see Bible; New Testament, Textual Criticism).
For further treatment of the importance of this evidence see the section Textual Criticism below.
The confusion has arisen through a textual error in an early edition of Ptolemy's Geography.
with a discussion of its textual relations is given in K.
The problem which faces the textual critic of the New Testament is to reconstruct the original text from the materials supplied by the MSS., versions, and quotations in early writers, which have been described in the preceding section on the apparatus criticus.
of the New Testament (Kenyon, Textual Criticism of the New Testament, p. 45), but it is not easy to be quite accurate on the point.
Wellhausen's briefer work (3rd ed., 1898) is especially suggestive for textual criticism.
The results of textual criticism, including a considerable number of conjectural emendations, are succinctly presented in Kittel's Biblia Hebraica (1906); but the text here printed is the ordinary Massoretic (vocalized) text.
Kenyon's Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament (London, 1901), especially valuable for a clear account of the Papyri fragments.] It is neither possible nor desirable to give any description of most of these MSS., but the following are, critically, the most important.
The section in Kenyon's handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament is particularly clear and full.] Syriac Versions.
It represents in the main the text of the later Greek MSS., but it has important textual notes, and has adopted a system of asterisks and obeli from the Hexaplar LXX.
The task is one of extraordinary difficulty, for the textual problems of the various writings are complex and confused: the Greek original is extant in a few cases only (the Commentary on Daniel, the Refutation, on Antichrist, parts of the Chronicle, and some fragments); for the rest we are dependent on fragments of translations, chiefly Slavonic, all of which are not even published.
These last are to be regarded either as old textual For a discussion of this word see W.
Its value for textual purposes is not great, partly because the underlying text is the same as the; Massoretic, partly because the Syriac text has at different times been harmonized with that of the Septuagint.
instance to detect the errors which have crept into the text in the course of its transmission, and to recover, so far as possible, the text in its original form; this is the task of Textual, or as it is sometimes called in contradistinction to another branch, Lower Criticism.
A model of the application of the various resources of Old Testament textual criticism to the restoration of the text is C. H.
But as no popular discourse delivered from the pulpit could ever be exclusively expository and as on the other hand every sermon professing to be based on Scripture required to be more or less "exegetical" and "textual," it would obviously be sometimes very hard to draw the line of distinction between OycXla and Aoyos.
Early in the 5th century other aristocratic Romans interested themselves in the textual criticism of Persius and Martial.
They are here divided accordingly, into two main divisions: - (A) Old Testament, and (B) New Testament; and under each of these are treated (1) the Canon, (2) the texts and versions, (3) textual criticism, (4) the " higher criticism," i.e.
In dealing, therefore, with the textual criticism of the Old Testament it is necessary to determine the period at which the text assumed its present fixed form before considering the means at our disposal for 'controlling the text when it was, so to speak, in a less settled condition.
He abandons the practice of making a distinction between uncial and minuscule, on the ground that for textual criticism the style of writing is less important than the date and contents of a MS. To indicate these he divided MSS.
Stich in the Teubner series (Leipzig, 1882; 2nd ed., 1903); textual emendations also in Journal of Philology, xxiii.
The writings of Origen consist of letters, and of works in textual criticism, exegesis, apologetics, dogmatic and practical theology.
His studies were chiefly in Oriental languages and the textual criticism of the New Testament, though his work as a bibliographer showed such results as the exhaustive list of writings (5300 in all) on the doctrine of the future life, appended to W.
The earliest among the versions as well as the most important for the textual criticism of the Old Testament is the Septuagint.
The textual criticism of the classical literatures made way before the textual criticism of the Old Testament: Bentley's Phalaris (1699) preceded any thorough or systematic application of Higher Criticism to any part of the Old Testament; Niebuhr's History of Rome (181i) preceded Ewald's History of Israel (1843-1859).
The dangers of conjectural emendation are well known and apparent; large numbers of such emendations have been ill-advised; but in the case of many passages the only alternative for the textual critic who is at once competent and honest is to offer such emendations or to indicate that such passages are corrupt and the means of restoring them lacking.
He commenced his great work on the textual criticism of the Scriptures; and at the instigation of his friend Ambrosius, who provided him with the necessary amanuenses, he published his commentaries on the Old Testament and his dogmatic investigations.
His Introduction, consisting of three closely packed volumes dealing with textual as well as literary criticism, is the first comprehensive treatment of the entire Old Testament as literature.
3), as well as in all books dealing with Textual Criticism generally; other important books are R6nsch's Itala and Vulgata (1875); Corssen's Der cyprianische Text der Acta Apostolorum (Berlin, 1892); Wordsworth and Sanday on the " Corbey S.
But the document has intricate textual peculiarities and may be the Judaean adaptation of a list originally written from the standpoint of the north-Israelite monarchy.
These authorities are, therefore, only available for the reconstruction of the order of the selections from the gospels, not for textual criticism properly so called.
Origen's textual studies on the Old Testament were undertaken partly in order to improve the manuscript tradition, and partly for apologetic reasons, to clear up the relation between the LXX and the original Hebrew text.
He was a good palaeographer, and excelled in textual criticism, in examination of authorship, and other such matters, while his vast erudition and retentive memory made him second to none in interpretation and exposition.
In the lower margin of the page he inserted a selection of various readings, the relative importance of which he denoted by the first five letters of the Greek alphabet in the following manner: - a was employed to denote the reading which in his judgment was the true one, although he did not venture to place it in the text; 1 3, a reading better than that in the text; y, one equal to the textual reading; S and e, readings inferior to those in the text.
Probably both Agag and Gog are textual corruptions.
remains; and with equal brevity it must suffice to indicate the position which faces the textual critic when all that can be done in this way has been done.
For the textual character and importance of these versions see the section Textual Criticism below.] 2.
Lachmann, the famous classical scholar, opened a new era in textual criticism in 1842-1850, in his N.T.
Besides these works the chief efforts of textual critics since WH have been directed towards the elucidation of minor problems, and the promulgation of certain hypotheses to explain the characteristics either of individual MSS.
Still, Blass's textual notes are very important, and there is a mass of material in his books.
At the same time, however little of Rendel Harris's results may ultimately be accepted by the textual critics of the future, his work will always remain historically of the first importance as having done more than anything else to stimulate thought and open new lines of research in textual criticism in the last decade of the 19th century.
But the importance of these modifications is something more than the doubt which they have thrown on WH's theories: they have really shifted the centre of gravity of the textual problem.
The adoption of this view sets textual critics a peculiarly difficult task.
The literature of textual criticism of the New Testament is so great that only a few of the more important modern books can be mentioned here: H.
Kenyon, Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament (London, 1901); C. R.
Salmon, Some Thoughts on Textual Criticism of the New Testament (London, 1897); Schmidtke, Die Evangelien eines alten Unzialcodex (Leipzig, 1903).
The first serious blow to this view came from the study of textual criticism.
The Haggada was likewise collected according to the textual sequence of the Old Testament.
See also Some Thoughts on the Textual Criticism of the New Testament, by G.
Although Mai was not as successful in textual criticism as in the decipherment of manuscripts, he will always be remembered as a laborious and persevering pioneer, by whose efforts many ancient writings have been rescued from oblivion.
For a textual discussion of ii.
TEXTUAL CRITICISM, a general term given to the skilled and methodical application of human judgment to the settlement of texts.
The aim of the "textual critic" may then be defined as the restoration of the text, as far as possible, to its original form, if by "original form" we understand the form intended by its author.
Autographs (which may be taken to include whatever, though not actually in the writing of its author, has been revised and attested by him) are not exempt from the operations of textual criticism.
With this branch of textual criticism, however, modern scholarship is not largely concerned.
The chief field of textual criticism is elsewhere.
Had the copies made of ancient writings been mechanical reproductions of the originals, such as the photographic facsimiles of modern times, there would have been little here for textual criticism to do.
The textual critic has occasionally to deal with the effects of oral transmission.
Even where, as in the Vedas, the sacred books of India, there is proof that the work has been transmitted without change through many centuries, the existence of unintelligible passages and unmetrical verses shows that here too there is work for textual criticism to perform, though in the opinion of most scholars it should be confined to the restoration of such forms as would be unconsciously and inevitably corrupted through changes of pronunciation and the like.
The invention of printing has naturally limited the province of textual criticism, and modified its operations.
As a source for the text it is superseded by the printed edition, and if there is more than one, then by the latest printed edition, which has been revised in proof by the author, or, in certain cases, by his representative; and the task of the textual critic is restricted to the detection of "misprints," in other words, of errors which the compositor (the modern analogue to the scribe) has made in "setting up" the manuscript, and which have escaped the notice of the proof-reader and the author or his representative.
Another question with which the textual critic of modern authors must be prepared to deal is the relative importance of different editions, each of which may have a prima facie claim to be considered authentic. Thus Shakespearean criticism must decide between the evidence of the first folio and the quartos: the critic of Shelley's poems must consider what weight is to be attached to the readings in the posthumous edition by Mrs Shelley, and in unpublished transcripts of various poems. Where there is great or complicated divergence between the editions, as in the case of Marlowe's Faustus, the production of a resultant text which may be relied upon to represent the ultimate intention of the author is well-nigh impossible.
The textual critic has no concern with what the writer ought to have thought or said; his business is solely with what he did say or think or might have said or thought.
It should, however, be here observed, that whoever takes a reading without investigation, on the authority either of a manuscript or of a great scholar, or of a number of scholars, ceases for the time being to be a textual critic.
Up to this point all schools of textual criticism are theoretically at least in accord.
It emerges because in all judgments on textual matters it is presupposed that they will be acted on, that a reading accepted will remain in the text, a rejected one obelized, enclosed between brackets or removed, and, in this last case, something else substituted in its place.
The text will be faithful but unreadable, and his work will be that of an honest man but of a textual antiquarian, not a textual critic, since he declines the duty of "the restoration of the text, as far as possible, to its original form."
One of the most vexed questions of textual criticism, and one which divides scholars more perhaps than any other, is the question to what extent admitted imperfections and inconsistencies may properly be left in a text as due to the default of an author rather than of a scribe or compositor.
It has been maintained that emendation (being guessing) is no part of textual criticism at all, though judgment upon emendation is.
Authority, as already hinted, has properly no place in textual criticism.
For his facts a textual critic may, and often must, be beholden to others: but never for his opinions.
One of the marks of a great textual critic is his attention to details.
As time goes on, textual criticism will have less and less to do.
The notices of Virgil's text, though seldom or never authoritative in face of the existing MSS., which go back to, or even beyond, the times of Servius, yet supply valuable information concerning the ancient recensions and textual criticism of Virgil.
In addition to the difficulties presented by the Bible as an historical record, and the literary problems which textual and other critics have investigated, the modern freethinker denies that the Christianity of the New Testament or its interpretation by modern theologians affords a coherent theory of human life and duty.
and Gr.) for the text, together with a complete textual commentary.
collated and the great pains taken to ensure textual accuracy on the part of the different editors, among whom may be mentioned Mommsen aud Lappenberg.
But this redaction is not the close of the textual history of the Koran.
They seem to be relatively free from textual corruption, but the vocabulary still occasions much difficulty to the translator.
We need not here do more than allude to the centralization of Jewish ideas and aspirations in Jerusalem, especially in the holy rock on which tradition (and probably textual corruption) have placed the scene of Abraham's sacrifice of Isaac, and over which the Most Holy Place of the Temple stood.
It was Semler who induced him to turn his attention to the textual criticism of the New Testament.
into three main groups - the Alexandrian, the Western and the Byzantine (see Bible: New Testament, " Textual Criticism").
A good deal of textual criticism must have been devoted to Cicero's works during this period.
There is too much textual warrant for this interpretation of Kant's meaning.
Bugge, in Beitrage zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache and Litteratur and other periodicals, are of the utmost importance for the textual criticism and interpretation of the poem.
threshold of the textual criticism of Homer and accordingly enters into a full discussion, first of the external evidence, then of the indications furnished by the poems. Having satisfied himself that writing was unknown to Homer, he is led to consider the real mode of transmission, and finds this in the Rhapsodists, of whom the Homeridae were an hereditary school.
His commentary on the Gospels is of great importance in connexion with the textual history of the N.T., for the text on which he composed it was that of the Diatessaron.
For textual and literary criticism see also Houbigant, Notae Criticae, ii.
Dr Driver devoted his life to the study, both textual and critical, of the Old Testament.
But his keen criticism of Hesse and Knoke is more successful than his positive explanation of the textual phenomena, and a more thorough-going process of literary criticism is necessary in order to solve the problems of the epistle.
From these and other considerations we may conclude that the textual evidence points to the composition of our book at some period between 250 B.C. and A.D.
The textual phenomena of the doxology (xvi.
If the hypothesis already outlined is set aside, it is open to the critic to regard large portions of the canonical Romans as having originally occupied a separate setting,5 or to ascribe the textual variations to the exigencies of church reading after the formation of the canon (which might explain the absence of Ev `Pt)t7j in i.
Legrand, Etude sur Theocrite (1898); (iv.) Textual Questions.
The materials for this work he had gathered during his travels, and although it contains many textual errors, its publication has been of great importance for the history of music, by preserving writings which might either have perished or remained unknown.
See further on textual, metrical and literary details, W.
In textual criticism Semler pursued further the principle of classifying MSS.
Moreover, textual criticism points to an early type of reading in Matt.
The collation of this manuscript by Immanuel Bekker first placed the textual criticism of Demosthenes on a sound footing.
There is probably here some textual corruption.
This statement, it should be noticed, has been questioned by some modern historical and textual critics, who believe that "Syria" (Hebrew Aram) is here a corruption for "Edom."
and versions), a new theory of textual history.
agonyders who notice a certain detachment from the rather exquisite agonies of textual bibliographers will now know why.
Music and audio can possess textual annotations, or vise versa.
cohere with the idea of inspired textual updating?
Regular weaknesses, especially with sentence construction, punctuation, textual coherence, appropriateness.
The effects of this on textual cohesion have been studied.
It may be possible to apply textual analysis systems to attempt to identify commonality of authorship.
compositor attributions are taken from William Shakespeare: A Textual Companion.
corpus of access to a great amount of linguistic data is not the only advantage of using computerized textual corpora.
Neither of the two has anything to do with the charge of textual corruption of the Holy Bible.
The problems that the textual critic has to solve are three.
He could not add to many of the technical aspects of the Western science of textual criticism.
discontinuityo much solid textual evidence in Allen's article about significant discontinuities in the play to dismiss his argument.
Most scholars attribute these problems to errors in transmission and try to solve them through textual emendation.
er diagrams and precise textual definitions of entities and relationships (connections) among entities.
This requires more than the visual and textual abstractions of an electronic global village; it requires a world.
Tricomi combines first-rate theoretical debate and textual analysis to explore the practical application of his suggestions for a new direction in literary historicism.
Are there any spelling mistakes or other textual errors?
mutilated at the end is one of the most certain results of textual criticism.
questionable on textual grounds.
It would be well to discuss the variants in these textual recensions.
rhetorical gestures, historical veracity, textual accuracy.
We also have a strong tradition of textual scholarship.
self-study with textual explanations and illustrations.
It might be simply a matter of performing textual substitutions on XML tags to perform translations in such a case.
textual variants between the texts to warrant such action.
textual corruption of the Holy Bible.
textual critics have a lot of work to do.
textual analysis using computers is central to the course.
Ethnographic representation What advantages do multimedia docu- ments have over purely textual ones for purposes of ethnographic representation?
That is the production by a large community of mainly textual documents for viewing on the Web.
They are not textual changes made to alter the reading.
If your site is primarily textual, try experimenting with a slight background tint.
For many, what they mean by coding is actually the mark-up coding scheme employed as part of digitizing largely textual resources.
It is possible to incorporate not just textual data, but information in other media as well.
We evaluate the effectiveness of different types of features, including textual, durational, F0, Tilt and ToBI features in that system.
As you will see each release contains textual on topic links back to your website.
Click ' textual transpositions ' under the heading for the Materials specific to each book.
There must have been serious textual variants between the texts to warrant such action.
Though the amount of information given by Mill is small compared with that in modern editions, it is probable that no one person, except perhaps Tischendorf, has added so much material for the work of textual criticism.
Important contributions to textual criticism are contained in Ritschl Parerga (1845), Neue plautinische Excurse (1869), and his collected Opuscula philologica; Studemund, Studia in priscos scriptores latinos (vol.
Eggeling, in Sacred Books of the East) respectively - arranged systematically in accordance with the ritual divisions, the older school on the other hand present their materials in a hopelessly jumbled form; for not only is each type of sacrifice not dealt with continuously and in orderly fashion, but short textual sections of mantras are constantly followed immediately by their dogmatic exegesis; the term brahmana thus applying in their case only to these detached comments and not to the connected series of them.
Where it follows the chapters in Samuel it is important for textual and other critical problems, but it omits narratives in which it is not interested (David's youth, persecution by Saul, Absalom's revolt, &c.), and adds long passages (David's arrangements for the temple, &c.) which reflect the views of a much later age than David's.
Smith's words, "as Paul's adaptation, ` the just shall live by faith,' has become the motto of evangelical Christianity, so we may say that Habakkuk's original of it has been the motto and the fame of Judaism: ` the righteous shall live by his faithfulness.'" The Hebrew text of this impressive and varied book is unfortunately corrupt in many places; even so cautious a critic as Driver accepts or favourably notices eighteen textual emendations in the three chapters, and suspects the text in at least seven other cases.
Here he was influenced, as to biblical languages and textual criticism, by the learned and loyal-minded Abbe Paulin Martin, and as to a vivid consciousness of the true nature, gravity and urgency of the biblical problems and an Attic sense of form by the historical intuition and the mordant irony of Abbe Louis Duchesne.
In 1894 he published his Manuel de diplomatique, a monument of lucid and wellarranged erudition, which contained the fruits of his long experience of archives, original documents and textual criticism; and his pupils, especially those at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes,.
and liii., &c.) reveals many variations which are obviously due to textual corruption, while there are many passages which in their present form are either ungrammatical, or inconsistent with the context or with other passages.
For what remains of this version, which owing to its character is of the greatest value to the textual critic, we have until recently been indebted to Origen's Hexapla (see below); for, though Jerome mentions a secunda editio, no MS. of Aquila's translation has survived.
The fundamental principles of the Textual Criticism of the Old Testament are the same as those which apply to any other ancient text and need not be described here (see the article Textual Criticism).
A further argument, sometimes based upon and sometimes in turn used to support the foregoing, is that the text of rN B represents that of Hesychius; but this is extremely doubtful (see the section Textual Criticism below).
(See the section Textual Criticism below.) [The following books and articles are important for the history, as apart from the text of the MS. Codex Bezae.
The Nouum Instrumentum published by Erasmus in 1516 (see above, Textual Criticism) contained more than the mere Editio Princeps of the Greek text: Erasmus accom panied it with a Latin rendering of his own, in which he aimed at giving the meaning of the Greek without blindly following the 'conventional phraseology of the Latin Vulgate, which was the only form in which the New Testament had been current in western Europe for centuries.
Textual criticism is called upon to repair the mischief done to inscriptions (texts inscribed upon stones) by weathering, maltreatment or the errors of the stone-cutter.
The work on its appearance created an immense sensation among scholars, and was vehemently attacked in many quarters, but on the whole it was received as being much the nearest approximation yet made to the original text of the New Testament (see Bible: New Testament, " Textual Criticism").
He was the first to lay down and apply sound rules of criticism and emendation, and to change textual criticism from a series of haphazard guesses into a "rational procedure subject to fixed laws" (Pattison).
Keown 's marginalization of the proximate goals is also questionable on textual grounds.
All textual critics agree that the Received Text or majority Greek text was preserved from the 4th century to the reformation.
History, rhetorical gestures, historical veracity, textual accuracy.
It is written in the style of an online text book designed for self-study with textual explanations and illustrations.
Similarly, the results of textual searches can usefully be strengthened by sequence similarity searches.
Should he not have at least tried some serious textual criticism?
Textual critics have a lot of work to do.
Learning skills of textual analysis using computers is central to the course.
Click ' Textual transpositions ' under the heading for the Materials specific to each book.
When videos aren't quite enough, detailed textual instruction along with handy fingering charts usually help get the subject of the lesson across.
This means that you can download the template and simply tweak the CSS code to modify the image positioning, textual formatting or any other aspect of these designs.
Hypertext Markup Language was originally designed simply as a way to share textual data.
The first task, of Old Testament textual criticism after the Reformation was to prove the independence of these two texts, to gain general Tecognition of the fact that vowels and accents formed no part .of the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.