How to use Texts in a sentence
The teens' texts were far less calm.
And before 1725, readings, both public and private, were given from Cartesian texts in some of the Parisian colleges.
The first volume contains some French texts, and the second a detailed discussion of the various versions from the pseudo-Callisthenes downwards.
There are also special elucidations of some difficult Scripture texts.
For editions of texts and the innumerable articles in scientific journals see the bibliographies and references in the above works.Advertisement
It will thus be seen that the term brahmanam applies not only to complete treatises of an exegetic nature, but also to single comments on particular texts or rites of which such a work would be made up.
The gradual elaboration of the sacrificial ceremonial, as the all-sufficient expression of religious devotion, and a constantly growing tendency towards theosophic and mystic speculation on the significance of every detail of the ritual, could not fail to create a demand for explanatory treatises of this kind, which, to enhance their practical utility, would naturally deal with the special texts and rites assigned in the ceremonial to the several classes of officiating priests.
As regards the Brahman, he would doubtless be chosen from one of those other three classes, but would be expected to have made himself thoroughly conversant with the texts and ritual details appertaining to all the officiating priests.
It is, then, to one or other of those three collections of sacred texts and the respective class of priests, that the existing Brahmanas attach themselves.
But when Pali first became known to Europeans it was already used also, by those who wrote in Pali, of the language of the later writings, which bear the same relation to the standard literary Pali of the canonical texts as medieval does to classical Latin.Advertisement
None of the pre-Buddhistic sites have as yet been excavated; and, with one doubtful exception, no inscriptions older than the texts have as yet been found.
We have to argue back from the state cf things revealed in the texts, of various dates from 450-250 B.C., and in the inscriptions from that date onwards.
Franke also shows that there were local peculiarities in small matters of spelling and inflexion, and that the particular form of the language used in and about the Avanti district, of which the capital was Ujjeni (a celebrated pre-Buddhistic city), was the basis of the language used in the sacred texts as we now have them.
Long ago Westergaard, Rhys Davids and Ernst Kuhn,' had made the same suggestion, mainly on historical grounds, Mahinda, who took the texts to Ceylon, having been born at Vedisa in that district.
Oldenberg; and the more important parts of it have been translated into English by Rhys Davids and Oldenberg in their Vinaya Texts.Advertisement
Immediately bordering on the Persians were the Amardians or Mardians, as well as the people of Khapirti (Khatamti, according to Scheil), the name given to Susiana in the Neo-Susian texts.
In the Sumerian texts of Babylonia it was called Numma, "the Highlands," of which Elamtu or Elamu, "Elam," was the Semitic translation.
Migne's texts are not always satisfactory, but since the completion of his great undertaking two important collections have been begun on critical lines - the Vienna edition of the Latin Church writers,' and the Berlin edition of the Greek writers of the ante-Nicene period .8 For English readers there are three series of translations from the fathers, which cover much of the ground; the Oxford Library of the Fathers, the Ante Nicene Christian Library and the Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers.
Canons were adopted, thirty according to the generally received tradition, although the most ancient texts contain but twentyeight, and, as Hefele points out, the so-called twenty-ninth and thirtieth are properly not canons, but repetitions of proposals made in a previous session.
And the Moslem came on the scenes bringing, as a gift for Christendom, fuller knowledge of classical, especially Aristotelian, texts.Advertisement
But, when increased knowledge of Aristotle's texts (and of the commentaries) led to the victory of a supposed Aristotelianism over a supposed Platonism, Albertus Magnus, and his still more distinguished pupil Thomas Aquinas, mark certain doctrines as belonging to faith but not to reason.
Sweet, Oldest English Texts, p. 171 (London, 1885).
In search of materials for this purpose, Pertz made a prolonged tour through Germany and Italy, and on his return in 1823 he received at the instance of Stein the principal charge of the publication of Monumenta germaniae historica, texts of all the more important historical writers on German affairs down to the year 1500, as well as of laws, imperial and regal archives, and other valuable documents, such as letters, falling within this period.
Another of Yung-lo's bells is hung in a Buddhist temple outside the north-west angle of the city wall, and is covered both on the inside and outside with the Chinese texts of the Lankavatara Sutra, and the Saddharma pundarika Sutra.
Again, many of the authorities which he used have been edited in superior texts.Advertisement
Both lines of study were readily combined by applying to the interpretation of descriptions of natural objects the allegorical method adopted for the interpretation of Biblical texts.
He had no scholarly interest in the past, and he never hesitated to transform the texts when he could give contemporary "point" to a poem; but his instinct was good, and he did much to stimulate an ignorant public to fresh enjoyment.
He edited the Didascalia apostolorum syriace (1854), and other Syriac texts collected in the British Museum and in Paris.
To the student of the original texts Lancelot is an infinitely less interesting hero than Gawain, Perceval or Tristan, each of whom possesses a well-marked personality, and is the centre of what we may call individual adventures.
Unfortunately, Dr Sommer, in his study on the Sources of Malory, omitted to consult these texts, with the result that the sections dealing with Lancelot and Queste urgently require revision.
The necessity of accurate acquaintance with any foreign language and of obtaining good texts, is a subject Bacon is never weary of descanting upon.
Halifax not only took measurements, but copied 18 Greek and 4 Palmyrene texts.
In other texts the Druids are able to produce insanity.
See the collection of texts by Sudendorf (1850); the Church Histories of Gieseler, ii.
The typical fighting costume of the Malay is a sleeveless jacket with texts from the Koran written upon it, short tight drawers reaching to the middle of the thigh, and the sarong is then bound tightly around the waist, leaving the hilt of the dagger worn in the girdle exposed to view.
The supreme importance of a study of Greek antiquities on the spot, long understood by scholars in Europe and in America, has gradually come to be recognized in England, where a close attention to ancient texts, not always adequately supplemented by a course of local study and observation, formerly fostered a peculiarly conservative attitude in regard to the problems of Greek archaeology.
Of the laws of the Alamanni, who dwelt between the Rhine and the Lech, and spread over Alsace and what is now Switzerland to the south of Lake Constance, we possess two different texts.
Though at first written consecutively, the work is now usually divided into three portions, - a preface, the history proper, and an epistle, - the last, which is largely made up of passages and texts of Scripture brought together for the purpose of condemning the vices of his countrymen and their rulers, being the least important, though by far the longest of the three.
Coptic papyri mainly contain Biblical or religious texts or monastic deeds.
A year passed before the Latin and Turkish texts of the treaty were harmonized; and meanwhile irregular fighting continued on all the borders.
Finally, the association of the first-born with the festival specially referred to in the texts, and carried out both in Samaritan tradition, which marks the forehead of the first-born with the blood of the lamb, and in Jewish custom, which obliged the first-born to fast on the day preceding Passover, also connects the idea of the feast with the sacro-sanctity of the first-born.
Marriott's Vestiarium Christianum (1868), though it must now be read with caution, is still of much value, notably the second part, which gives texts (with translations) of passages bearing on the subject taken from early and medieval writers, with many interesting plates.
The word apanage is still employed in this sense in French official texts of some Customs; but it was in old public law that it received its definite meaning and importance.
The texts present only a few traces of Roman law, which, however, are evidently additions of a later period.
His interest was not, however, confined to theological literature; he annotated the margins of his classical texts with numerous scholia (many of which are preserved), and had several MSS.
The commentary gives also a careful translation of the texts.
When these two words are at last found in the texts in their precise signification, Austrasia is applied to that part of the Frankish kingdom which Clotaire II.
Apokryphen, in loc. The best texts are given in Bonnet's Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, 1898, II.
The Greek and Latin texts were edited by Bonnet in 1883 and again in 1903, ii.
Evans Darby, and is published, along with'the texts of several projects for general arbitration, at the offices of the Peace Society, 47 New Broad Street, London.
Isaiah has been the discovery of two cuneiform texts relative to the fall of Babylon and the religious policy of Cyrus.
Paul Bedjan, most of which have been cited above, nearly all the texts recently edited are included in one or other of three comprehensive series now running - viz.
He was eminent alike in ecclesiastical history, as an editor of texts and as the historian of the English constitution.
A priest, " master of the wardrobe," is named as early as the VIth Dynasty, and later texts refer to the weavers and laundry servants of the temple.
In 1816 he established a society, consisting only of Hindus, in which texts from the Vedas were recited and theistic hymns chanted.
Upon these alone the modern texts are founded.
Paternoster Row, still occupied by booksellers, takes name from the sellers of prayer-books and writers of texts who collected under the shadow of St Paul's Cathedral.
Eine Prophetenstimme aus der Gegenwart, in which, starting from texts in the Old Testament and assuming the tone of a prophet, he discussed topics of every kind.
Traces of Kentish speech may be detected, however, in the Textus Roffensis, the MS. of the Kentish laws, and Northumbrian dialectical peculiarities are also noticeable on some occasions, while Danish words occur only as technical terms. At the conquest, Latin takes the place of English in the compilations made to meet the demand for Anglo-Saxon law texts as still applied in practice.
The Pallacopas, called Pallukkatu in the NeoBabylonian texts, started from Pallukkatu or Faluja, and running parallel to the western bank of the Euphrates as far as Iddaratu or Teredon (?) watered an immense tract of land and supplied a large lake near Borsippa.
Meissner may be right in identifying it with " the Canal of the Sun-god " of the early texts.
Before the decipherment of the cuneiform texts our knowledge of its history, however, was scanty and questionable.
Sumerian in its turn borrowed from Semitic Babylonian, and traces of Semitic influence in some of the earliest Sumerian texts indicate that the Semite was already on the Babylonian border.
Vocabularies, grammars and interlinear translations were compiled for the use of students as well as commentaries on the older texts and explanations of obscure words and phrases.
Similarly the word for " clothing " may be written SIG-BA, which represents again the " Sumerian " word, whereas, the BabylonianAssyrian equivalent being lubushtu it is so to be read in Semitic texts, and may therefore be also phonetically written lu-bu-ush-tu.
Aramaic endorsements on business documents repeating in Aramaic transliteration the names of parties mentioned in the texts have also been of service in fixing the phonetic readings of names.
In historical texts also variant readings occur in considerable number.
In the case of texts from the oldest historical periods we encounter hundreds of names that are genuinely Sumerian, and here in view of the multiplicity of the phonetic values attaching to the signs used it is frequently difficult definitely to determine the reading of the names.
Even the most ancient text, that in 65 chapters, contains passages which a comparison with the later texts shows to be interpolations.
So late as the 10th and iith centuries we find certain texts invoking the Salic Law, but only in a vague and general way; and it would be rash to conclude from this that the Salic Law was still in force.
His common sense appears in his rejection of Hutchinson's attempt to prove that the Bible supplies a complete system of physical science, and his shrewdness in his Notes on Scripture Texts (1747).
These, now almost sixty in number (excluding seals), are all in a pictographic character which employed symbols somewhat elaborately depicted in relief, but reduced to conventional and " shorthand " representations in the incised texts.
The words are perhaps distinguished in some texts by punctuation marks.
Messerschmidt, editor of the best collection of Hittite texts up to date, made a tabula rasa of all systems of decipherment, asserting that only one sign out of two hundred the bisected oval, determinative of divinity - had been interpreted with any certainty; and in view of this opinion, coupled with the steady refusal of historians to apply the results of any Hittite decipherment, and the obvious lack of satisfactory verification, without which the piling of hypothesis on hypothesis may only lead further from probability, there is no choice but to suspend judgment for some time longer as to the inscriptions and all deductions drawn from them.
A Christian revision of it is probably preserved in the two dialects of Coptic. Of these the Akhmim text is the original of the Sahidic. These texts and their translations have been edited by Steindorff, Die Apokalypse des Elias, eine unbekannte Apokalypse and Bruchstiicke der Sophonias-Apokalypse (1899).
This work in two recensions was first published by James, Texts and Studies, ii.
It contains nearly io,000 MSS., including many magnificent illuminated missals and Bibles and a number of valuable Greek and Latin texts, 242 incunabula and 11,000 printed books, chiefly dealing with palaeography; it is in some ways the most important of the Florentine libraries.
Domenichelli (Prato, 1881) may also be mentioned; likewise those texts of Odoric embedded in the Storia universale delle Missione Francescane, iii.
Croce, occupied with such studies as those mentioned, also found time to edit numerous texts and miscellaneous collections and composed many bibliographies, in addition to editing the Critica, in many respects the profoundest and widest in scope of all the European literary and philosophical reviews.
His Vie de Saint-Alexis (1872) broke new ground and provided a model for future editors of medieval texts.
The service-books were wholly in MS. until the press of the archbishop of Canterbury's mission at Urmia issued the Takhsa (containing the liturgies, baptismal office, &c.) and several other liturgical texts.
The tradition that the utterance of the name in the daily benedictions ceased with the death of Simeon the Just, two centuries or more before the Christian era, perhaps arose from a misunderstanding of Menalioth, 109b; in any case it cannot stand against the testimony of older and more authoritative texts.
This is doubtless the original of 'Iaw, frequently found in Greek authors and in magical texts as the name of the God of the Jews.
Scholars are now agreed that, so far as Yahu or Yah occurs in Babylonian texts, it is as the name of a foreign god.
Flodoard had been given charge of the episcopal archives, and constructed his history out of the original texts, which he generally reproduces in full; the documents for the period of Hincmar being especially valuable.
Two manuscripts, indeed, the British Museum and Mons texts, preserve a fragment relating the birth and infancy of the hero, which appears to represent the source at the root alike of Chretien and of the German Parzival, but it is only a fragment, and so far no more of the poem has been discovered.
Parzival exists in numerous editions; critical texts have been edited by Lachmann (1891), Martin (1903) and Leitzmann (1902-1903).
That this Targum was redly intended to supplement that of Onkelos is shown by comparing the two texts.
Unfortunately, we possess but little material for controlling the texts either of the Fragmentary Targum or of the pseudo-Jonathan.
Doubtless much still remains to be done; but the essential thing, from the present standpoint, is that a sufficient knowledge of the Assyrian language has been acquired to ensure trustworthy translations of the cuneiform texts.
Meanwhile, the material found by Botta and Layard, and other successors, in the ruins of Nineveh, has been constantly augmented through the efforts of companies of other investigators, and not merely Assyrian, but much earlier Babylonian and Chaldaean texts in the greatest profusion have been brought to the various museums of Europe and America.
The particular tablets in question date only from about the 7th century B.C., but it is agreed among Assyriologists that they are copies of older texts current in Babylonia for many centuries before, and it is obvious that the compilers of Genesis had access to the Babylonian stories.
The manuscripts of the time are accurate and artistic, copies of valuable books were made and by careful collation the texts were purified.
Silent prayer was a feature of the worship; sermons were without texts.
See Peace Conference and WAR; also Sir T.Barclay, supplement to Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy, for comparison of texts of 1899 and 1907.
As president of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, Franklin signed a petition to Congress (12th February 1790) for immediate abolition of slavery, and six weeks later in his most brilliant manner parodied the attack on the petition made by James Jackson (1757-1806) of Georgia, taking off Jackson's quotations of Scripture with pretended texts from the Koran cited by a member of the Divan of Algiers in opposition to a petition asking for the prohibition of holding Christians in slavery.
These men did not merely collect works, but sought to arrange them, to subject the texts to criticism, and to explain any allusion or reference in them which at a later date might become obscure.
For the loth, I 1 th and 12th centuries especially, there are some important texts dealing entirely with Anjou.
He has brought together, in the Bureau of American Ethnology in Washington, many hundreds of manuscripts, written by travellers, traders, missionaries, and scholars; and, better still, in response to circulars, carefully prepared vocabularies, texts and long native stories have been written out by trained collectors.
Sweet, Oldest English Texts, p. 179 (London, 1885).
This review contains studies in preparation for the continuation and remoulding of the Acta Sanctorum, inedited texts, dissertations, and, since 1892, a Bulletin des publications hagiographiques, containing criticisms of recent works on hagiographic questions.
They also prepared inventories of the hagiographic texts hitherto published, and of these there have appeared the Bibliotheca hagiographica graeca (1895), the Bibliotheca hagiographica latina (1899) and the Bibliotheca hagiographica Orientalis.
The Latin text, together with later recensions and a Greek version, is published in Texts and Studies, i.
Some of the older writers appealed to Scripture as supporting their systems, especially the texts Exod.
The special god of this city was Ea, god of the sea and of wisdom, and the prominence given to this god in the incantation literature of Babylonia and Assyria suggests not only that many of our magical texts are to be traced ultimately to the temple of Ea at Eridu, but that this side of the Babylonian religion had its origin in that place.
Donaldson, The Apostolical Fathers (1874), which, however, suffers from the imperfect state of the texts when he wrote.
The most useful edition for ready reference, containing critical texts (up to date) and good translations, is Lightfoot's one-volume edition, The Apostolic Fathers (London, 1891).
In these editions, partly texts, partly translations, it is impossible to determine the respective shares of Erasmus and his many helpers.
In England the 9th century closes with Alfred, who, with the aid of the Welsh monk, Asser, produced a series of free translations from Latin texts, including Boethius and Orosius and Bede, and the Cura Pastoralis of Gregory the Great.
In that school the study of " figures of speech " was treated as merely introductory to that of the classical texts.
Latin was, above all, to be learned through use, with as little grammar as possible, but with the reading of easy Latin texts, and with no repetition, no composition.
To facilitate the reading of Latin texts, the favourite method was the use of interlinear translations, originally proposed by Locke, first popularized in France by Dumarsais (1722), and in constant vogue down to the time of the Revolution.
One of the principal MS. sources used is the great Kitdb al-Aghani (Book of Songs) of Abu Faraj, which has since been published (20 vols., Boulak, 1868) in Egypt; but no publication of texts can deprive the Essai, which is now very rare, of its value as a trustworthy guide through a tangled mass of tradition.
The first task, of Old Testament textual criticism after the Reformation was to prove the independence of these two texts, to gain general Tecognition of the fact that vowels and accents formed no part .of the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament.
For reasons suggested partly by the study of Semitic inscriptions, partly by comparison of passages occurring twice within the Old Testament, and partly by a comparison of the Hebrew text with the Septuagint, it is clear that the authors of the Old Testament (or at least most of them) themselves made some use of these vowel consonants, but that in a great number of cases the vowel consonants that stand in our present text were inserted by transcribers and editors of the texts.
Again, and for similar reasons, it is probable that in many cases, if not in all, the original texts were written without any clear division of the consonants into words.
Apart from these changes in the history of the text, it has, like all ancient texts, suffered from accidents of transmission, from the unintentional mistakes of copyists.
Capellus drew conclusions from such important facts as the occurrence of variations in the two Hebrew texts of passages found twice in the Old Testament itself, and the variations brought to light by a comparison of the Jewish and Samaritan texts of the Pentateuch, the Hebrew text and the Septuagint, the Hebrew text and New Testament quotations from the Old Testament.
The figures in parentheses indicate the entire ages assigned to the several patriarchs; these are generally the same in the three texts.
It has been much debated, in both cases, which of the three texts preserves the original figures.
The freedom with which they used each other's work, and with which the early texts were transmitted, excludes this.
There was also a useful collection of texts by Prof. Charteris of Edinburgh, Canonicity (1880), based on Kirchhofer, Quellensamm- lung (1844), but with improvements.
None of these groups bears witness to quite the same text, nor can all of them be identified with the texts found in existing MSS.
Moreover, a comparison with the earlier sources of evidence shows that it was built up out of previously existing texts.
The only exception which they allowed to this general rule was in the case of certain passages, especially in the last chapters of Luke, where the " Western " authorities omit words which are found in the Neutral and Alexandrian texts.
Various useful texts have been issued, among which those of Nestle (Novum Testamentum Graece, Stuttgart, 1904), based on a comparison of the texts of Tischendorf, WH and Weiss, and of Baljon (Novum Testamentum Graece, Groningen, 1898), are the best.
He therefore conceived the idea that perhaps both texts were Lucan, and represented two recensions by the original writer, and he reconstructed the history as follows.
It has been approached from two sides, according as critics have considered the Western or the Neutral and Alexandrian texts.
We now know more about the Old Latin, and, thanks to Mrs Lewis' discovery, much more about the Old Syriac. The result is that the authorities on which WH relied for their Western text are seen to bear witness to two texts, not to one.
The Old Syriac, if we take the Sinaitic MS. as the purest form, compared in the same way, has a similar double series of interpolations and omissions, but neither the omissions nor the interpolations are the same in the Old Latin as in the Old Syriac. Such a line of research suggests that instead of being able, as WH thought, to set the Western against the Neutral text (the Alexandrian being merely a development of the latter), we must consider the problem as the comparison of at least three texts, a Western (geographically), an Eastern and the Neutral.
This makes the matter much more difficult; and an answer is demanded to the problem afforded by the agreement of two of these texts against the third.
It is difficult to see how texts, geographically so wide apart as the Old Latin and Old Syriac would seem to be, are likely to agree in error, but it is certainly true that some readings found in both texts seem to have little probability.
The only possible sources of evidence, apart from the discovery of fresh MSS., are the versions, and they do not point to existence in the 2nd or 3rd century of texts agreeing with the great uncials.
This has not yet been done, but enough has been accomplished to point to the probability that the result will be the establishment of at least three main types of texts, represented by the Old Syriac, the Old Latin and Clement's quotations, while it is doubtful how far Tatian's Diatessaron, the quotations in J ustin and a few other sources may be used to reconstruct the type of Greek text used in Rome in the 2nd century when Rome was still primarily a Greek church.
The influence of Christianity - whether Gnostic or Catholic - on Neoplatonism was at no time very considerable, although individual Neoplatonists, after Amelius, used Christian texts as oracles, and put on record their admiration for Christ.
The scriptural proof texts were added at the request of the English parliament.
For other and older Coptic-Gnostic texts, in one of which is contained the source of Irenaeus's treatises on the Barbelognostics, but which have unfortunately not yet been made completely accessible, see C. Schmidt in Sitzungsberichte der Berl.
The truth of the matter must be that Hippolytus probably made use of a collection of Gnostic texts, put together by a Gnostic, in which were already represented various secondary developments of the genuine Gnostic schools.
In general, Valentinianism displays a particular resemblance to the dominant ideas of the Church, both in its complicated Christology, its triple division of mankind into 7rvcvyartKoi, i/ivxtKoi and amt.., and its far-fetched interpretation of texts.'
In the second edition of the Bishops' Bible, 1572, the two texts were actually printed side by side; in all later editions except one (1585) the older Psalter alone remained.
Partisans found that havoc had been played with their proof texts.
It is usual to speak of two kinds of monarchianism - the dynamistic and the modalistic, though the distinction cannot be carried through without some straining of the texts.
Luke's account is too much interpolated from Paul, and the texts of his oldest MSS.
The legend of the Omophorus and Splenditeneus, rival giants who sustain earth and luminous heavens on their respective shoulders, even if it already figures in the cuneiform texts of Assyria, is yet to be traced in Mithraic bas-reliefs.
The extracts containing the Babylonian cosmology, the list of the antediluvian kings of Babylonia, and the Chaldaean story of the Deluge, have been shown by the decipherment of the cuneiform texts to have faithfully reproduced the native legends; we may, therefore, conclude that the rest of the History was equally trustworthy.
Al-Mufaddal was a careful and trustworthy collector both of texts and traditions, and is praised by all authorities on Arabian history and literature as in this respect greatly the superior of Hammad and Khalaf, who are accused (especially the latter) of unscrupulous fabrication of poems in the style of the ancients.
Texts may be either autographs or they may be transmitted texts; the latter, again, being immediate copies of autographs or copies of copies in any degree.
The texts of the older authors which have come down to us were written for the most part not on stone but on papyrus, parchment or other perishable material.
The ancient texts have not come to us in this way, but through copies made by the human hand directed more or less by the human intelligence.
Let us suppose that from a text which we will call A a copy has been made which we will call B, and from this again a copy which we will call C. If the copyist of B goes wrong once and the copyist of C twice in a hundred times, then, assuming that there is no coincidence or cancelling of errors, the relative correctness of the three texts A, B, C will be zoo (absolute correctness), 99 and 97.
The importance of this must be borne in mind when we are dealing with transmitted texts, which have passed through many stages of copying.
Some texts and portions of texts of ancient writers are now only known from printed books.
We shall speak first of those which affect the direct transmission of texts.
Texts which have had a long history will often show by the letter-confusions which they exhibit that they have passed through several distinct stages of copying.
At certain epochs in the transmission of literature systematic efforts have been made to improve the transmitted texts, and these efforts have naturally been accompanied by a good deal of emendation both successful and unsuccessful.
As regards the use of testimonia, it may be observed to begin with that their value must depend on the trustworthiness of the texts of the writers from whom they are taken, and further upon that of the text used by the translator, the excerptor or the quoter, about which we can know nothing for certain, though we may sometimes make probable inferences.
There are two reasons in particular why the part which emendation plays in the shaping of Greek and Latin texts is apt to be overlooked.
These confirmations, as they are called, should be carefully recorded in all critical texts, inasmuch as they constitute the most striking justification of the critical method.
The part which conjectural emendation should play must obviously be very different in different texts.
Nothing has discredited emendation as a means of improving texts more than the want of method, common care and research, which those addicted to it show.
Thus, to take an example, he will not print a critical text of Plautus with two letters (Y and Z) which were no part of the Latin alphabet in the age of that comedian; still less will he introduce into Latin texts distinctions, such as i,j and u, v, which were not used till long after the middle ages.
In the old texts its work will have been performed so far as it is performable.
In the newer texts, on the other hand, as experience has already shown, it will have from the outset but a very contracted field.
The Welsh texts never call Arthur gwledig (prince), but amheradawr (Latin imperator) or emperor, a title which would be bestowed on the highest official in the island.
These are the only texts in which Arthur is the central figure; in the great bulk of the romances his is but a subordinate role.
This system led to disputes and neglect, and was so unworkable that we find in the texts of the Middle Kingdom the whole responsibility put upon one well-endowed "ko-servant," who passed on his office to a single heir.
His first important appearance as a controversialist was against Edmund Calamy "the younger" in reference to conformity (1703-1707), and after this he came into conflict with Francis Atterbury, first on the interpretation of certain texts and then on the whole Anglican doctrine of non-resistance.
The introduction of the Ten Commandments in 1553 seems to be derived from the order of service published by Valerandus Pollanus (Pullain) in 1551; and that of the Comfortable Words in 1 549 is borrowed, though all the texts chosen are not identical, from the Consultation of Hermann.
At the same time, his characteristic exactness makes his collection a most admirable substitute for the texts of the many valuable treatises of earlier mathematicians of which time has deprived us.
The texts submitted to the emperor, lost before 1570, are reconstructed and compared with the textus receptus by P. Tschackert, Die unvercinderte Augsburgische Konfession (Leipzig, 1901).
Nicholas received them with some reserve; he refrained from giving them his sanction, and only borrowed from them what they had already borrowed from authentic texts, but in general he took up the same attitude as the forger had ascribed to his remote predecessors.
In France agitation was directed chiefly against the Jesuits, active in the movement to displace ancient local catechisms and liturgies by the Roman texts, to enroll the laity in Roman confraternities, and to induce the bishops to visit Rome more frequently.
The Naharin or Naharen of the Egyptian texts appears some five generations later in the Canaanitic of the Amarna letters in the form Nabrim (a), which would seem.
Two fragments of such a work have been preserved in texts of Lydgate's Troy-book, the first in MS. Camb.
In 1861 Lepsius published his paper Ueber chinesische and tibetische Lautverhdltnisse; and after 1864 Leon Feer brought out in Paris many translations of texts from Tibetan Buddhist literature.
A critical edition of all the previously known fables, prepared by Carl von Halm from the collections of Furia, Coray and Schneider, was published in the Teubner series of Greek and Latin texts.
But as Dhammapala confines himself rigidly either to questions of the meaning of words, or to discussions of the ethical import of his texts, very little can be gathered from his writings of value for the social history of his time.
For the right interpretation of the difficult texts on which he comments, they are indispensable.
Professor Paul Haupt may be termed the father of Sumerian etymology, as he was really the first to place this study on a scientific basis in his Sumerian Family Laws and Akkadian and Sumerian Cuneiform Texts.
Other presses were at work in Italy; and, as the classics issued from Florence, Rome or Milan, Aldo took them up, bestowing in each case fresh industry upon the collation of codices and the correction of texts.
They are decorated with religious scenes and texts, especially those which describe the passage of the sun through the underworld.
When such discrepancies came to the cognizance of Mahomet it was doubtless his desire that only one of the conflicting texts should be considered authentic; only he never gave h i mself much trouble to have his wish carried into effect.
It was inevitable, however, that discrepancies should emerge between the texts of professed scholars, and as these men in their several localities were authorities on the reading of the Koran, quarrels began to break out between the levies from different districts about the true form that these initials did not belong to Mahomet's text, but might be the monograms of possessors of codices, which, through negligence on the part of the editors, were incorporated in the final form of the Koran; he now deems it more probable that they are to be traced to the Prophet himself, as Sprenger, Loth and others suppose.
The additional headings found in our texts (the name of the suras, the number of verses, &c.) were not in the original codices, and form no integral part of the Koran.
Some of the divergent readings of both these texts have been preserved as well as a considerable number of other ancient variants.
In Christian texts the provinces appear to have been very numerous.
On the different days of the year each hour was determined by a fixed star culminating or nearly culminating in it, and the position of these stars at the time is given in the tables as in the centre, on the left eye, on the right shoulder, &c. According to the texts, in founding or rebuilding temples the north axis was determined by the same apparatus, and we may condude that it was the usual one for astronomical observations.
Besides the sun and moon, five planets, thirty-six dekans, and constellations to which animal and other forms are given, appear in the early astronomical texts and paintings.
Except that splints are sometimes found on the limbs of bodies of all periods, at present nothing is known, from texts or otherwise, of the existence of Egyptian surgery or dentistry.
Main Sources.(a) The Pyramid texts, a vast collection of incantations inscribed on the inner walls of five royal tombs of the Vth and VIth Dynasties at Sakkgra, discovered and first published by Maspero.
Much of these texts is of extreme antiquity; one incantation at least has been proved to belong to an age anterior to the unification of the Northern and Southern kingdoms. Later copies also exist, but possess little independent critical value.
Originally these texts had an application to the king alone, but before the beginning of the XIIth Dynasty private individuals had begun to employ them on their own behalf.
A number of chapters contained in the later recensions are already found on the sarcophagi of the Middle Kingdom, together with a host of funereal texts not usually reckoned as belonging to the Book of the Dead; these have been published by Lepsius and Lacau.
These texts are for the most part excessively corrupt, and despite the translations of Pierret, Renouf and Budge, much labor must yet be expended upon them before they can rank as a first-rate source.
The funerary ritual is known from texts in the Theban tombs (XVIIIthXXth Dyn.) and papyri and sarcophagi of later date; older versions are contained in the Pyramid texts and The Book of the Dead.
By the time that the Pyramid texts were put into writing, doubtless long before the Vth Dynasty, this religion had assumed a stereotyped appearance that clung to it for ever afterwards.
These, however, may have borne little resemblance to C later conceptions of the same gods with which we are made Egl siliar by the Pyramid texts.
Neither the influx of new deities nor the diligence of the priestly authors and commentators availed to break down the cast-iron traditions with which the compilers of the Pyramid texts were already familiar.
The Pyramid texts and the Book of the Dead are the most important of these, and teach us much about the dangers and needs that attended the dead man beyond the tomb, and about the manner in which it was thought, they could be counteracted.
This theme is elaborated with great detail in the Pyramid texts, where it is the dead king to whom this destiny is promised.
Even in the oldest texts these beliefs are blended inextricably with the Osirian doctrines.
At this time a rare translator of Egyptian texts in all branches was arising in.
The greater part of Egyptian texts after the Middle Kingdom having been written in.
In it we have(a) the recently discovered inscriptions of the 1st Dynasty, too brief and concise to throw much light on the language of that time; and the great collections of spells and ritual texts found inscribed in the Pyramids of the Vth and VIth Dynasties, which must even then have been of high antiquity, though they contain later additions made in the same style.
On the other hand, Egyptian is certainly related to Semitic. Even before the triliterality of Old Egyptian was recognized, Erman showed that the so-called pseudoparticiple had been really in meaning and in form a precise analogue of the Semitic perfect, though its original employment was almost obsolete in the time of the earliest known texts.
In ordinary texts some survive, especially as objects of verbs, namely, wL, tw, tn, 1w, at.
Pseudo-Participle.In very early texts this is the past indicative, but more commonly it is used in sentences such as, gm-n-f wi 11 kwl, he found me I stood, i.e.
The history of some of the alphabetic signs is still very obscure but a sufficient number of them have been explained to make it nearly certain that the values of all were obtained on the same principles.i Some of the ancient words from which the phonetic values were derived probably fell very early into disuse, and may, never be discoverable in the texts that have come down to us.
The written nieroglyphs, formed by the scribe with the reed pen on papyrus, eather, wooden tablets, &c., have their outlines more or less abbreyitted, producing eventually the cursive scripts hieratic and demotmc. The written hieroglyphs were employed at all periods, especially or religious texts, Hieratic.A kind of cursive hieroglyphic or hieratic writing is ound even in the 1st Dynasty.
Demotic.Widely varying degrees of cursiveness are at all periods observable in hieratic; but, about the XXVLth Dynasty, which inaugurated a great commercial era, there was something like a definite parting between the uncial hieratic and the most cursive form afterwards known as demotic. The employment of hieratic was thenceforth almost confined to the copying of religious and other traditional texts on papyrus, while demotic was used not only for all business but also for writing literary and even religious texts in the popular language.
This Sothic period r era of 1460 years, during which the Egyptian New Years day travelled all round the Sothic year, is recorded by Greek and Roman writers at least as early as the 1st century B.C. The epagomenal days appear on a monument of the Vth Dynasty and in the very ancient Pyramid texts.
It seems, therefore, that the known texts of Manetho, serviceable as they have been in the reconstruction of Egyptian.
Amenophis caused a series of large scarabs unique in their kind to be engraved with the name and parentage of his queen Taia, followed by varying texts commemorating like medals the boundaries of his kingdom, his secondary marriage with Gilukhipa, daughter of the king of Mitanni.
He tried to calm the unrest of his conscience by correspondence with the leaders of the evangelical revival on the continent, and sought for omens and supernatural guidance in texts and passages of scripture.
Some important sculpture was found, and a large number of inscriptions, the most valuable being two bilingual texts, in Lydian-Aramaic and Lydian-Greek.
The volumes of the book clubs, Bannatyne, Maitland, Abbotsford and Spalding, are full of matter; also those of the Early Scottish Texts Society and the Wodrow Society, with the works of Knox, Calderwood and the History of the Sufferings by Woodrow (edited by the Rev. Robert Burns, 1837-1838).
As such they supposed the" dying out "must mean the dying out of a" soul "; and endless were the discussions as to whether this meant eternal trance, or absolute annihilation, of the" soul."It is now thirty years since the right interpretation, founded on the canonical texts, has been given, but outside the ranks of Pali scholars the old blunder is still often repeated.
But a good deal of work is still required before the harvest of historical data contained in these texts shall have been made acceptable to students of philosophy and sociology.
It had been supposed on the authority of late priestly texts, where boasts of persecution are put forth, that the cause of the decline of Buddhism in India had been Brahmin persecution.
On the other hand, the comparison we are now able to make between the canonical books of the older Buddhism and the later texts of the following centuries, shows a continual decline from the old standpoint, a continual approximation of the Buddhist views to those of the other philosophies and religions of India.
His editions of the Midrash are the standard texts.
Friedmann, while inspired with regard for tradition, dealt with the Rabbinic texts on modern scientific methods, and rendered conspicuous service to the critical investigation of the Midrash and to the history of early homilies.
Pellican's autobiography describes the gradual multiplication of accessible books on the subjects, and he not only studied but translated a vast mass of rabbinical and Talmudic texts, his interest in Jewish literature being mainly philological.
Now the texts of the Gloria and Credo were more voluminous than any others which 16th-century composers attempted to handle in a continuous scheme.
The practical limits of the church service made it impossible to break them up by setting each clause to a separate movement, a method by which 16th-century music composers contrived to set psalms and other long texts to compositions lasting an hour or longer.
On the whole, there was everywhere a common foundation of culture and thought, with local, tribal and national developments; and it is useful to observe the striking similarity of religious phraseology throughout the Semitic sources, and its similarity with the ideas in the Egyptian texts.
Besides the colossal Denkmdler and other publications of texts such as the Todtenbuch der Agypter (Book of the Dead, 1842) his other works, amongst which may be specially named his Konigsbuch der Agypter (1858) and Chronologie der Agypter (1849), are characterized by a quality of permanence that is very remarkable in a subject of such rapid development as Egyptology.
In the Pyramid texts Thoth is already closely associated with the Osiris myth, having aided the god by his science and knowledge of magic, and demonstrated the justice of his claims in the contest with Set.
There are also indications that the extensive texts dealing with divination through the liver of sacrificial animals, which represents a more popular origin than divination through the observations of the heavens, based as it is on the primitive view which regarded the liver as the seat of life and of the soul, were brought into connexion with astral divination.
Less influenced by the astral-theological system are the old incantation texts which were gathered together into series.
Of special texts and monographs bearing on the religion may be mentioned various volumes in the new series of cuneiform texts from Babylonian tablets, &c., in the British Museum (London, 1901 -), especially parts v., xii., xv., xvii., xviii., xx.
Fisher, Excavations at Nippur (1st part 1905, 2nd part 1906); Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania, a monumental edition of the cuneiform texts found at Nippur, with brief introductions and notes of a more general character (1893 foil.).
For another fragment of the Atar-khasis legend of the same period, see Cuneiform Texts in the British Museum, pt.
For other Semitic legends of this early period, see Cuneiform Texts in the British Museum, pt.
Sumerian, in fact, predominated, not only on the historical monuments, but also throughout the religious literature, a fact which militates against assigning the newly discovered Semitic legend to the period of these early Sumerian texts.
For it strikingly illustrates the fact that the temple of En-lil, like that of the Sun-god at Sippar and the other great temples in Babylonia, possessed a body of mythological and religious texts, which formed subjects for study and comment among the priestly scribes.
But where no theological nor local prejudices were involved, the tendency to a faithful reproduction of the earlier texts prevailed.
The first contains a collection and exegesis of all the texts in the New Testament relating to the doctrine of the Trinity; in the second the doctrine is set forth at large, and explained in particular and distinct propositions; and in the third the principal passages in the liturgy of the Church of England relating to the doctrine of the Trinity are considered.
When the medical attendant declares the case hopeless a priest advances to the bed of the dying man, repeats sundry texts of the Zend-Avesta, the substance of which tends to afford him consolation, and breathes a prayer for the forgiveness of his sins.
The Parsees have shown themselves most desirous of receiving the benefits of an English education; and their eagerness to embrace the science and literature of the West has been conspicuous in the wide spread of female education, and in the activity shown in studying their sacred writings in critical texts.
It is therefore safest to rely on the texts collected by Mommsen, cumbered though they are by the various readings given to him by various authorities.
In addition to numerous critical works and editions of texts, he published Piligrim von Passau and des Erzbistum Lorch (1854), Ober die lllteren Slawen in Dalmatien (1856), Das Formelbuch des Bischofs Salomo III.
The state controlled the actual preparation and sale of text-books for the common schools from 1885 to 1903, when the Perry amendment to the constitution (ratified by popular vote in 1884) was declared to mean that such text-books must be manufactured within the state, but that the texts need not be prepared in California.
This doctrine of St Anselm's attaches itself readily to texts of St Paul, for his teachings contain undeniably the vicarious propitiatory element.
The like must be said even of the contribution to the problem made by August Pott,' though he has helped to define one condition of success - the classification of the strata in " Western " texts - and has taken some steps in the right direction, in connexion with the complex phenomena of one witness, the Harklean Syriac.
The frequent mention in the Scholia of " better " and inferior " texts may indicate a classification made by him or by the general opinion of critics.
Imperfect acquaintance with authors whom they studied in Latin translations made by Jews from Arabic commentaries on Greek texts, together with almost total ignorance of natural laws, condemned them to sterility.
At the same time the texts of ancient authors supplied hints which led to discoveries so far-reaching in their results as those of Copernicus, Columbus and Galileo.
One mass of Greek and Roman erudition, including history and metaphysics, law and science, civic institutions and the art of war, mythology and magistracies, metrical systems and oratory, agriculture and astronomy, domestic manners and religious rites, grammar and philology, biography and numismatics, formed the miscellaneous subject-matter of this so-styled rhetoric. Notes taken at these lectures supplied young scholars with hints for further exploration; and a certain tradition of treating antique authors for the display of general learning, as well as for the elucidation of their texts, came into vogue, which has determined the method of scholarship for the last three centuries in Europe.
This work contains also the texts of the Hymn and the Dream of the Rood.
The texts of his writings, as published by Jared Sparks, have been so "edited" in these respects as to destroy their value as evidence; but the edition of Mr Worthington C. Ford restores the original texts.
It consists of three texts describing the mystery, recited as versicle and response alternately with the salutation "Hail, Mary!"
Mombritius, published at Milan about 1480, is particularly valuable because it gives a faithful reproduction of the ancient texts according to the manuscripts.
The Greek texts are very much scattered.
In addition to the principal collections must be mentioned the innumerable works in which the hagiographic texts have been subjected to detailed critical study.
Thanks to the combined efforts of a great number of scholars, the classification of the hagiographic texts has in recent years made notable progress.
Of the Greek there are three forms. One is in the Vatican and Alexandrian MSS.; another is in the Sinaitic. Both these texts are to be found in Swete's Septuagint, the former denoted by B, and the latter by B is the common text, which is followed in the English Apocrypha.
At his order the orthodox doctrines and texts were compiled by the high priest Jansar; all divergent theories were prohibited and their adherents proscribed.
In these texts God the Father is identified with the Zervan of Zarathustrism, the devil with Ahriman.
A logical system of comparative exegesis, Ze led by constant reference to Sanskrit, its nearest ally, and to the her Iranian dialects, is the best means of recovering the lost of rise of the Zend texts.
Old Persian.This is the language of the ancient Persians operly so-called,3 in all probability the mother-tongue of Middle rsian of the Pahiavi texts, and of New Persian.
In the process considerable additions were made to Wood's find of sculptures in marble and bronze, and of inscriptions, including missing parts of the Vibius Salutaris texts.
Circumstances which strike his fancy, or furnish convenient texts for his polemic, are handled at inordinate length, while others are rapidly dismissed or passed over altogether.
He learned from him to be not a mere scholar, but something more - an acute observer, never losing sight of the actual world, and aiming not so much at correcting texts as at laying the foundation of a science of historical criticism.
Not a few such traditions Irenaeus has embodied in his work Against Heresies, so preserving in some cases the substance of Papias's Exposition (see Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, 1891, for these, as for all texts bearing on Papias).
All the above may be found in the Portugaliae monumenta historica, scriptores, while the Life of St Elizabeth of Portugal is included in the Monarchia lusitana; Romania has printed the following hagiographical texts belonging to the same century - the Vida de Eufrosina, the Vida de Maria Egypcia and the Vida de Sancto Amaro; the Vida de Santo Eloy has appeared in the Instituto and the Vida dos Santos Barlaao e Josafate has been issued by the Lisbon Academy of Sciences.
There are good reasons for thinking that the Christian story did not originate with John of Damascus, and a strong case has been made out by Zotenberg that it reflects the religious struggles and disputes of the early 7th century in Syria, and that the Greek text was edited by a monk of Saint Saba named John, his version being the source of all later texts and translations.
But, whereas there is no great difficulty (though much labour) in ascertaining the original and all subsequent texts of Froissart, the original text of Joinville was until recently unknown, and even now may be said to be in the state of a conjectural restoration.
The modern science of critical editing, however, which applies to medieval texts the principles long recognized in editing the classics, has discovered in the 16th-century manuscript, and still more in the original miscellaneous works of Joinville, the letters, deeds, &c., already alluded to, the materials for what we have already called a conjectural restoration, which is not without its interest, though perhaps it is possible for that interest to be exaggerated.
All these texts are written in a special character, which is said to have been invented by Wulfila.
Apart from the texts mentioned above, the only remains of the Gothic language are the proper names and occasional words which occur in Greek and Latin writings, together with some notes, including the Gothic alphabet, in a Salzburg MS. of the 10th century, and two short inscriptions on a torque and a spear-head, discovered at Buzeo (Walachia) and Kovel (Volhynia) respectively.
Somewhat different are the omens drawn from books; in ancient times the poets were often consulted, more especially Virgil, whence the name sortes virgilianae, just as the Bible is used for drawing texts in our own day, especially in Germany.
But even men like Roger Bacon, who deplored the inaccuracy of texts, had worked out no general method to aF ply in their restoration.
But if the literary side of humanism has been a barrier to the progress of scientific history, the discovery and elucidation of texts first made that progress possible.
But when Luc d'Achery turned from exegetics to patristics and the lives of the saints, as a sort of Christian humanist, he led the way to that vast work of collection and comparison of texts which developed through Mabillon, Montfaucon, Ruinart, Martene, Bouquet and their associates, into the indispensable implements of modern historians.
Without manuals, dictionaries, and easy access to texts, we should go as far astray as any medieval chronicler.
The texts themselves have mostly become as correct as they can ever be, and manuals and bibliographies guide one to and through them, so that no one need go astray who takes the trouble to make use of the mechanism which is at his hand.
The Jewish texts, once the infallible basis of history, are now tested by the libraries of Babylon, from which they were partly drawn, and Hebrew history sinks into its proper place in the wide horizon of antiquity.
The Yasna, the principal liturgical book of the Parsees, in 72 chapters (hait-i, ha), contains the texts that are read by the priests at the solemn yasna (Izeshne) ceremony, or the general sacrifice in honour of all the deities.
Yet even this section includes some interesting texts, e.g.
All those texts in which the grammar is handled, now with laxness and want of skill, and again with absolute barbarism, may probably be placed to the account of the Sassanian redactors.
All the grammatically correct texts, together with those portions of the Avesta which have intrinsic worth, especially the metrical passages, are indubitably authentic and taken ad verbum from the original Avesta.
The priests, who were the composers and repositories of these texts, succeeded in giving them a perfectly general form.
The understanding of the older Avesta texts began to die away at an early period.
For the interpretation of the older texts it is of great value where they are concerned with the fixed, formal statutes of the church.
Texts of treaties between Abyssinia and the European Powers up to 1896 will be found in vol.
In the resulting conflicts, in which his personal interest was in question, he displayed great activity and a wide knowledge of canon law, but did not scruple to resort to disingenuous interpretation of texts.
Applying to the French classics the rigorous method used with regard to the texts of the middle ages, he published the of Pascal, revised with the original manuscript (1887-1889), and the Provinciales (1891), edited with notes.
In each case in which there is a genuine difference of reading between the two texts, it is for the critic to decide; often, however, he will have to seek to go behind what both the texts present in order to constitute a truer text than either.
In recent years a whole body of scholars and editors have been engaged in giving to the world the texts of Leonardo's existing MSS.
But the same texts which draw the line between the two classes make it clear that there were no other guarantees to the maintenance of the rights of the superior rustics than the moral sense and the self-interest of their masters.
The oldest of these are direct translations from Slavonic texts, following the original word for word, even in its grammatical construction.
In the latter, which is his greatest work, Dositheiu uses not only Greek texts, but also Slavonic legends and other MS. material; and he includes a goodly number of the apocryphal legends of saints.
Besides his edition of the Rumanian Church service-books with musical notation, he published a series of tales, proverbs and songs either from older texts or from oral information; and he made the first collection' of popular songs, Spitalul amorului, " The Hospital of Love " (1850-53), with tunes either composed by himself or obtained from the gipsy musicians who alone performed them.
Most of these texts date in their Rumanian form from the 16th and 17th centuries; the Sunday Epistle is well known in connexion with the Flagellants.
Quicherat's great work, Le Proces de Jeanne d'Arc (1841-1849), a collection of the texts so full and so vivid that they reveal the character and life of the heroine with great distinctness.
His editions of Icelandic classics (1858-68), Biskopa Sogur, Bardar Saga, Forn Sbgur (with Mobius), Eyrbyggia Saga and Flateyar-bok (with Unger) opened a new era of Icelandic scholarship, and can only fitly be compared to the Rolls Series editions of chronicles by Dr Stubbs for the interest and value of their prefaces and texts.
Gotama then spoke to the king on the miseries of the world which arise from passion, and on the possibility of release by following the 1 Vinaya Texts, i.
A literal translation will be found in Vinaya Texts, i.
In the afternoon the essential ceremony begins; it consists simply in "standing" on Arafa shouting "Labbeyka" and reciting prayers and texts till sunset.
Similarly, it has become customary to give the name of canons to the texts inserted in certain canonical complications such as the Decretum of Gratian, while the name of chapters is given to the analogous quotations from the Books of the Decretals.
This division, which has been found convenient for the study of canon law, has no precedent in the collections of texts.
These texts were adopted at Antioch, where there were further added the twenty-five canons of the so-called council in encaeniis of that city (341).
A collection in which the texts are simply reproduced in their chronological order is obviously inconvenient; towards 550, Johannes Scholasticus, patriarch of Constantinople, drew up a methodical classification of them under fifty heads.
In spite of some hesitation, with regard rather to the official character than to the historical authenticity of the letters attributed to the popes of the earlier centuries, the False Decretals were accepted with confidence, together with the authentic texts which served as a passport for them.
This is made even more noticeable by the fact that, in a good number of the works extant, the author is not content merely to set forth and classify the texts; but he proceeds to discuss the point, drawing conclusions and sometimes outlining some controversy on the subject, just as Gratian was to do more fully later on.
Nowadays, and for some time past, the only part of the Decretum considered is the collection of texts; but it is actually a treatise, in which the author endeavours to piece together a coherent juridical system from the vast body of texts, of widely differing periods and origin, which are furnished by the collections.
These texts he inserts bodily in the course of his dissertation; where they do not agree, he divides them into opposite groups and endeavours to reconcile them; but the really original part of his work are the Dicta Gratiani, inserted between the texts, which are still read.
Moreover, it could not have become an official code; it would be impossible to transform into so many laws either the discordant texts which Gratian endeavoured to reconcile or his own Dicta; a treatise on canon law is not a code.
The Decretum has thus remained a work of private authority, and the texts embodied in it have only that legal value which they possess in themselves.
Raymond does not attempt any original work; to the texts already included in the Quinque compilationes, he adds only nine decretals of Innocent III.
Canonists obtained the recent texts as they could.
The law during this period, as abstracted from the texts and compilations, suggests the following remarks.
For this third period, the most important and most considerable of the canonical texts is the body of disciplinary decrees of the council of Trent (1545-1563).
In consequence of the prohibition issued by Pius IV., they have not of the been published separately from the dogmatic texts council of and other acts, and have not been glossed; 3 but their Trent.
After briefly reviewing the present condition of the canonical texts and collections, he pointed out its inconvenience, referred to the many requests from the episcopate, and decreed the preparation of a general code of canon law.
There remain two texts in which the injunction to baptize is attributed to Jesus, namely, Mark xvi.
For other texts, translations, commentaries and monographs see the excellent bibliography contained in the Gru ' ndriss d.
Students of the original romances are aware that there is in these texts an extraordinary diversity of statement as to the nature and origin of the Grail, and that it is extremely difficult to determine the precise value of these differing versions.'
With regard to the religious form of the story, recent research has again aided us - we know now that a legend similar in all respects to the Joseph of Arimathea Grail story was widely current at least a century before our earliest Grail texts.
In this latter case the legend professes to date from the 8th century, and scholars who have examined the texts in their present form consider that there may be solid ground for this attribution.
Neither of these texts is, however, very good, and the student who can decipher old Dutch would do well to read it in the metrical translation published by Joenckbloet, Roman van Lanceloet, as the original here was considerably fuller.
But the critical value of this edition, and of other editions of separate texts printed elsewhere in India, leaves much to be desired.
It is in any case no doubt identical with the demon Aeshma of the Zend-Avesta and the Pahlavi texts.
The period covered by the texts in their present form represents, roughly speaking, the century 1150-1250.
The History of Nennius is, of course, considerably earlier, and that of Geoffrey of Monmouth somewhat antedates 1150 (1136), but with these exceptions the dates above given will be found to cover the composition of all our extant texts.
Of not one do we as yet possess a critical and comparative text, and in the absence of such texts the publication of any definite and detailed theory as to the evolution and relative position of the separate branches of the Arthurian cycle is to be deprecated.
It is assumed that divine commands have been implicitly given for all occasions of life, and that they are to be ascertained in particular cases by interpretation of the general rules obtained from texts of scripture, and by inference from scriptural examples.
Even the old method of casuistry was maintained2 during the r6th and 17th centuries; though Scriptural texts,..
Salvian sets himself to prove God's constant guidance, first by the facts of Scripture history, and secondly by the enumeration of special texts declaring this truth.
Alexander was murdered in the palace of Nebuchadrezzar, which must therefore have been still standing, and cuneiform texts show that, even under the Seleucids, E-Saggila was not wholly a ruin.