I'll text you my address.
He pulled out his phone to text Damian.
Jule's text message brought him back to the unpleasant task ahead of him.
She shook her head and sat down, sending a text to Darian.
This morning she asked me the meaning of "carpenter," and the question furnished the text for the day's lesson.
He typed a quick text then shut off the phone.
The text message was from Jule.
His phone had a text waiting.
Text me if you need anything else.
Torelli's monumental edition of the works with the commentaries of Eutocius, published at Oxford in 1792, folio, remained the best Greek text until the definitive text edited, with Eutocius' commentaries, Latin translation, &c., by J.
Damian glanced at the new text message from Han before his gaze returned to the small base camp tucked between two ridges in the Tucson Mountains.
Another text popped up, worsening his mood.
In the last-mentioned work he seeks to prove that the St Petersburg Codex, for so many years accepted as the genuine text of the Babylonian school, is in reality a Palestinian text carefully altered so as to render it conformable to the Babylonian recension.
They won't let me in, Ashley's text was accompanied by half a dozen frowny faces.
916 to the Eastern Recension of the Hebrew Text" (1899, for private circulation).
Gibbs in 1868 for the Early English Text Society.
Sofia pulled over to the side of the road to await the text and load the address into the car's GPS.
An unread text message blinked on the screen. 4got 2 tell you.
"I saw something in an ancient text," Tamer mumbled.
A text made her phone ding as she finished eating.
Careful study of the text will not support this view.
Xander received a text a minute later.
His phone dinged, and he pulled it out to see the odd text message.
Feel free to call, text or visit.
"I'll text it when we hang up," Traci said.
Xander reached for his phone, satisfied to see a text from Jule.
She pulled it free to see a text from Dusty.
And you can text me.
Linda whipped out a phone to text Lon.
The text of the pseudo-Callisthenes was edited by C. W.
His phone dinged, and he looked down at one of the zillion text messages he received from any number of his Guardians every day.
index verborum (to his own text), J.
They'll be freaked out, but I'll text them and tell them to go with you.
I'll text you the address.
I might have a later text with similar symbols I can use to trace the roots of the writing, Tamer answered.
Gabe saw the screen light up with a text message.
A text drew her attention to the cell phone.
No, I can drive, just text me the address.
The fragment by Alberic was edited by P. Heyse (Berlin, 1856); Lamprecht's German text by H.
He tested his new phone by sending Damian and Jule a text. 911.
She sent the text then tucked the phone in her pocket, praying they could track her with the tag Toni placed there.
She consulted a Russian priest as to the possibility of divorce and remarriage during a husband's lifetime, and the priest told her that it was impossible, and to her delight showed her a text in the Gospel which (as it seemed to him) plainly forbids remarriage while the husband is alive.
And I awoke and found in my mind the text from the Gospel: The life was the light of men.
She grunted and left the booth, pausing to text Gerry to let him know she was still working.
She checked her phone twice on the way to Xander's, waiting for a text saying Jonny kidnapped Ashley.
She grimaced as she reread the text, torn between amusement and disappointment.
This text came from the Watcher.
Again, it was the growth of a plant that furnished the text for a lesson.
This text, however, is not a law, but rather an abstract of the special usages obtaining in those regions - what the Germans call a Weistum.
She pulled it free of her pocket, expecting to see a text from Ashley.
The text is preserved in the Maitland folio MS. in the Pepysian library, Cambridge.
A text popped up.
He pulled out his cell to text his confidants.
"It's a slow process replacing the letters to the text," Cynthia added.
In the same way she played with Latin, learning not only from the lessons her first Latin teacher gave her, but from going over and over the words of a text, a game she played by herself.
Your paws are too big to text.
The Watcher returned his gaze to his phone, reading a text.
The cab dropped her off, and she went to the side entrance to buzz in as Wynn directed in his text.
"I'll bet a mug of hot chocolate there are twenty-six different characters!" she said as she searched the text.
It was difficult for all of them to work together so Cynthia made two extra copies of a dozen random pages of the ancient text.
She methodically searched the text.
Dean hardly had time to detail their day's activities before Cynthia proudly showed him the transcribed text.
Jule said in the text.
Wallis Budge (1896, 2 vols., with English translation); the Syriac text of pseudo-Callisthenes by Budge (Cambridge, 1889); cp. K.
Besides the English editions quoted in the text, the alliterative English poems were partially edited by J.
The Hebrew text of the book of Ezekiel is not in good condition - it is full of scribal inaccuracies and additions.
4 ff.) gives the duration of the national punishment in loose chronological reckoning: 40 years (a round number) for Judah, and 150 more (according to the corrected text) for Israel, the starting-point, probably, being the year 722, the date of the capture of Samaria; the procedure described in v.
On the Hebrew text; C. H.
Cornill, Ezechiel (1886) (very valuable for text and ancient versions); H.
Toy, " Text of Ezek."
The 15th century has the honour of composing the great commentary on the text of the Canon, grouping around it all that theory had imagined, and all that practice had observed.
The text indeed is that of R.
Editions: (text and exhaustive commentary) E.
Metzner (1842); (text) T.
Again, taking as a text Mr L.
Pilgrims' Text Society and of the Societe de l'Orient latin; papers in Quarterly Statements of the P. E.
This phenomenon of what might have been taken for a piece of Umbrian text appearing in a district remote from Umbria and hemmed in by Latins on the north and Oscan-speaking Samnites on the south is a most curious feature in the geographical distribution of the Italic dialects, and is clearly the result of some complex historical movements.
For the text and fuller account of the Volscian inscription, and for other records of the dialect, see R.
Professor Marr has lately published an Arabic text from a MS. in Sinai which seems to contain an older tradition.
We do intend to keep the names of the editors in those cases, but it will usually not be possible to specify who exactly wrote which part of the text.
- The editio princeps, based mainly on a transcript of D, was printed at Venice, 1472: the first scientific text, based on B, C and D, was that of Camerarius, completed 1552, in whose steps followed Lambinus (with a commentary which is still useful), 1576; Taubmann, 1605-1621; Pareus (a meritorious edition), 1619 and 1623; Guyet, edited by Marolles, 1658; Gronovius (the "Vulgate"), 1664-1684; then, after the lapse of more than a century, came the editions of Bothe, 1809-1811; Naudet, 1830; and Weise, 1837-1848.
The other modern editions of the text are those of Fleckeisen (containing ten plays, excellent for his time), 1859; Ussing (with a commentary), 1875-1887, 2nd ed.
G (From Vines's Text Book of Botany, by permission.) FIG.
brahma), in the sense of "sacred utterance or rite," in which case it might mean a comment on a sacred text, or explanation of a devotional rite, calculated to bring out its spiritual or mystic significance and its bearing on the Brahma, the world-spirit embodied in the sacred writ and ritual.
In its original form the text of Magna Carta was not divided into chapters, but in later times a division of this kind was adopted.
again issued the two charters with only two slight alterations, and this is the final form taken by Magna Carta, this text being the one referred to by Coke and the other early commentators.
This, however, was not the original text, which was neglected until the time of Blackstone, who printed the various issues of the charter in his book The Great Charter and the Charter of the Forest (1759).
The text of Magna Carta is also printed in the Statutes of the Realm (1810-1828), and in T.
The whole of the Pali inscriptions so far discovered might fill somewhat more than a hundred pages of text.
These have now nearly all, mainly through the work of the Pali Text Society, been published in Pali.
The four principal ones have been published for the Pali Text Society, and some volumes have been translated into English or German.
Of these, eleven volumes had by 1910 been edited for the Pali Text Society by various scholars, the Jatakas and two other treatises had appeared elsewhere, and two works (one a selection of lives of distinguished early Buddhists, and the other an ancient commentary), were still in MS.
Of the seven treatises contained in the Abhidhamma Pitaka five, and one-third of the sixth, had by 1910 been published by the Pali Text Society; and one, the Dhamma Sangani, had been translated by Mrs Rhys Davids.
Hardy for the Pali Text Society in 1902; and the Petaka Upadesa.
Three of these have been published by the Pali Text Society; and Professor E.
Franke in two articles in the Journal of the Pali Text Society for 1903, and in his Geschichte and Kritik der einheimischen Pali Grammatik.
Two volumes only of these, out of about twenty still extant in MS., have been edited for the Pali Text Society.
- Texts: Pali Text Society (63 vols., 1882-1908); H.
Besides some occasional references in the text, only a few more of the general works dealing with the distribution of birds can here be mentioned.
They are important witnesses to the text of the New Testament, to the history of the canon, and to the history of interpretation.
Various scholars, while agreeing on the actual divisions of the text, differ on the question of priority.
As Hebrew became less familiar to the people, a system of translating the text of the Law into the Aramaic vernacular verse by verse, was adopted in the synagogue.
Both Talmuds are arranged according to the six orders of the Mishnah, but the discussion of the Mishnic text often wanders off into widely different topics.
Both add notes and explanations of their own, and both have in turn formed the text of commentaries.
Its object was to fix the biblical text unalterably.
It is generally divided into the Great and the Small Masorah, forming together an apparatus criticus which grew up gradually in the course of centuries and now accompanies the text in most MSS.
Some system of the kind was necessary to guard against corruptions of copyists, while the care bestowed upon it no doubt reacted so as to enhance the sanctity ascribed to the text.
Their long lists of the occurrences of words and forms fixed with accuracy the present (Masoretic) text, which they had produced, and were invaluable to subsequent lexicographers, while their system of vowel-points and accents not only gives us the pronunciation and manner of reading traditional about the 7th century A.D., but frequently serves also the purpose of an explanatory commentary.
The Hebrew text was edited with a Latin translation by Breithaupt (Gotha, 1707).
2 On the various recensions of the text see D.
He commented on all the Bible and on nearly all the Talmud, has been himself the text of several super-commentaries, and has exercised great influence on Christian exegesis.
Dukes (Prag, 1838, in Hebrew-German characters, with the text), and parts by others.
mg.; obtained by inserting n above the consonantal text in the Hebrew) is apparently intended to suggest that he was the son of that idolatrous king.
Nitzsch, however, held that this was a copyist's gloss, harmonizing with the received Boetius legend, which had been transferred to the text, and did not consider that it outweighed the opposing internal evidence from De Cons.
The text of the second was based on the fullest collation of MSS.
The play is, however, founded on Bacon's Life, of which the text is used by Ford with admirable discretion, and on Thomas Gainsford's True and Wonderful History of Perkin Warbeck (1618).
Mitchell reprinted the 1567 volume (expurgated) for the Scottish Text Society.
The text of the Complaynt was first edited by Leyden in 1801.
1, the Septuagint shows that the singular form " terebinth " stood in the original text.
The text and rendering of the passage are doubtful in the cuneiform letter discovered by Sellin in Ta'annek (biblical Ta'anach, near Megiddo) addressed by Abi-jawi (?
The true character of Urim (as expressing " aye ") and Thummim (as expressing " nay ") is shown by the reconstructed text of 1 Sam.
The text of the notice of the third Cadmus of Miletus in Suidas is unsatisfactory; and it is uncertain whether he is to be explained in the same way, or whether he was an historical personage, of whom all further record is lost.
The text was published in 20 vols.
Guidi (Leyden, 1900), and a missing fragment of the text was published by J.
In these illustrations, which gave an impluse to the production of "enblems" and were copied in the English version, there appears a humour quite absent from the text.
He particularly congratulated himself on having discovered the " philosophical argument " against transubstantiation, " that the text of Scripture which seems to inculcate the real presence is attested only by a single sense - our sight, while the real presence itself is disproved by three of our senses - the sight, the touch, and the taste."
With regard to the second of the above complaints, surprise will probably be felt that it was not extended to portions of the text as well as to the notes.
Before Lightfoot's time commentaries, especially on the epistles, had not infrequently consisted either of short homilies on particular portions of the text, or of endeavours to enforce foregone conclusions, or of attempts to decide with infinite industry and ingenuity between the interpretations of former commentators.
That the substance of the Physiologus was borrowed from commentaries on Scripture 4 is confirmed by many of the sections opening with a text, followed up by some such formula as "but the Physiologus says."
When zoological records failed, Egypto-Hellenic ingenuity was never at a loss for a fanciful invention distilled from the text itself, but which to succeeding copyists appeared as part of the teaching of the original Physiologus.
So the text "the myrmekoleon bath perished for that he had no nourishment" set them pondering, and others reproduced their meditations, with the following result: "The Physiologus relates about the ant-lion: his father hath the shape of a lion, his mother that of an ant; the father liveth upon flesh, and the mother upon herbs.
So little was the collection considered as a literary work with a definite text that every one assumed a right to abridge or enlarge, to insert ideas of his own, or fresh scriptural quotations; nor were the scribes and translators by any means scrupulous about the names of natural objects, and even the passages from Holy Writ.
The Greek text of the Physiologus exists only in late MSS., and has to be corrected from the translations.
" In those days Yahweh began to cut short " (or, altering the text, " to be angry with ") " Israel."
Cheyne involves the view that a history dealing with the south actually underlies our sources and can be recovered by emendation of the text.
From the text which Philo uses, it is probable that the translation had been transmitted in writing; and his legend probably fixes the date of the commencement of the undertaking for the reign of Ptolemy Lagus.
text) that others were brought with it, and that one of them was given to the Edinburgh Museum.
0111vier's work quoted in the text, see L.
apocryphi syriace (1861), a Coptic translation of the Pentateuch, Der Pentateuch koptisch (1867), and a part of the Lucianic text of the Septuagint, which he was able to reconstruct from manuscripts for nearly half the Old Testament.
This would easily allow clarification of what is 100-years-ago vague without really tampering with the text.
It even appears from a study of the Greek text that some copies of the books of Samuel incorporated narratives which other copies did not acknowledge.
represented by the Vatican text omit xvii.
According to the Hebrew text of I Sam.
and xii.3 The shorter text, represented by the Septuagint, gives an account of Saul's jealousy which is psychologically more intelligible.
4 According to this text Saul was simply possessed with such a personal dislike and dread of Conflicts with David as might easily occupy his disordered brain.
The Gibeonites demanded the latter, and five sons of Merab (the text by a mistake reads Michal) and two sons of Saul's concubine were sacrificed.
There is no critical edition, and the only version available for the general reader is the modernized and abridged text published by Paulin Paris in vols.
This only begins with what Paulin Paris terms the Agravain section, all the part previous to Guenevere's rescue from Meleagant having been lost; but the text is an excellent one, agreeing closely with the Lenoire edition of 1533.
The text at his disposal, especially in the Queste section, must have been closely akin to that used by the Dutch translator and the compiler of Lenoire, 1533.
In other cases he tampers with the documents which he inserts (as, for instance, with the text of Magna Carta).
Text by Valckenaer, 1739, Schafer, 1822; Kopp, De Ammonii.
The original works of Rufinus are - (I) De Adulteratione Librorum Origenis - an appendix to his translation of the Apology of Pamphilus, and intended to show that many of the features in Origen's teaching which were then held to be objectionable arise from interpolations and falsifications of the genuine text; (2) De Benedictionibus XII Patriarcharum Libri II - an exposition of Gen.
which have survived contain more than six (though one has the same text in seven Books).
interspersing them with his own problems. Next Xylander (Wilhelm I-Iolzmann) published a Latin translation (Basel, 1575), an altogether meritorious work, especially having regard to the difficulties he had with the text of his MS. The Greek text was first edited by C. G.
A reprint of 1670 is only valuable because it contains P. de Fermat's notes; as far as the Greek text is concerned it is much inferior to the other.
A more correct text is that published by L.
1731; 2nd ed., 1 735, 4 vols.; 3rd ed., 1736-1738, 4 vols.); Life and Acts o f Edmund Grindal, Archbishop of Canterbury (1710), of Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury (1711), and of John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury (1718); An Accurate Edition of Stow's Survey of London (1720), a valuable edition of Stow, although its interference with the original text is a method of editing which can scarcely be reckoned fair to the original author; and Ecclesiastical Memorials (3 vols., 1721; 3 vols., 1733).
See Pfnor, Monographie de Fontainebleau, with text by Champollion Figeac (Paris, 1866); Guide artistique et historique au palais de Fontainebleau (Paris, 1889); E.
Origen's textual studies on the Old Testament were undertaken partly in order to improve the manuscript tradition, and partly for apologetic reasons, to clear up the relation between the LXX and the original Hebrew text.
The results of more than twenty years' labour were set forth in his Hexapla and Tetrapla, in which he placed the Hebrew text side by side with the various Greek versions, examined their mutual relations in detail, and tried to find the basis for a more reliable text of the LXX.
Origen worked also at the text of the New Testament, although he produced no recension of his own.
It is, moreover, highly probable that he was the author of a radical pamphlet entitled La Philosophie au people frangais, published in 1788, the text of which is not known.
Muller, in the Didot edition of Arrian, 1846), containing the genuine fragments and the text of the pseudo-Callisthenes, with notes and introduction; A.
The original Latin text was printed at Cologne (1473), Spires (1483), Paris (1500), Oxford (1598 and 1599), &c. It was first translated into English by J.
C. Thomas, accompanying the Latin text, with full biographical and bibliographical introductions (1888).
The publication of the Arabic text of the synaxarium of the Church of Alexandria was started simultaneously by J.
The work is almost wholly a compilation, and that not of the most discriminative kind, while a peculiar jealousy of Gesner is continuously displayed, though his statements are very constantly quoted - nearly always as those of " Ornithologus," his name appearing but few times in the text, and not at all in the list of authors cited.
Latham entered, so far as the limits of his work would allow, into the 1 They were drawn and engraved by Martinet, who himself began in 1787 a Histoire des oiseaux with small coloured plates which have some merit, but the text is worthless.
The fulness and accuracy of the text, combined with the neat beauty of its coloured plates, have gone far to promote the study of ornithology in Germany, and while essentially a popular work, since it is suited to the comprehension of all readers, it is throughout written with a simple dignity that commends it to the serious and scientific. Its twelfth and last volume was published in 1844 - by no means too long a period for so arduous and honest a performance, and a supplement was begun in 1847; but, the editor - or author as he may be fairly called - dying in 1857, this continuation was finished in 1860 by the joint efforts of J.
Heysham added to Hutchins's Cumberland a list of birds of that county, whilst in the same year began Thomas Lord's valueless Entire New System of Ornithology, the text of which was written or corrected by Dr Dupree, and in 1794 Donovan began a History of British Birds which was only finished in 1819 - the earlier portion being reissued about the same time.
The first volume of this, containing the land-birds, appeared in 1797 6 - the text being, it is understood, by Beilby - the second, containing the water-birds, in 1804.
Of the text it may be said that it is respectable, but no more.
Temminck, whose father's aid to Le Vaillant has already been noticed, brought out at Paris a Histoire naturelle des pigeons illustrated by Madame Knip, who had drawn the plates for Desmarest's volume.3 Since we have begun by considering these large illustrated works in which the text is made subservient to the coloured plates, it may be convenient to continue our notice of such others of similar character as it may be expedient to mention here, though thereby we shall be led somewhat far afield.
It does not seem to have been the author's original intention to publish any letterpress to this enormous work, but to let the plates tell their own story, though finally, with the assistance, as is now known, of William Macgillivray, a text, on the whole more than respectable, was produced in five large Ma egil- octavos under the title of Ornithological Biography, of liyr ay.
Scientific names are assigned to the species figured; but no text Lear.
A Century of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains was followed by The Temminck subsequently reproduced, with many additions, the text of this volume in his Histoire naturelle des pigeons et des gallinacees, published at Amsterdam in 1813-1815, in 3 vols.
In this the large plates were reduced by means of the camera lucida, the text was revised, and the whole systematically arranged.
Nevertheless a scientific character was so adroitly assumed that scientific men - some of them even ornithologists - have thence been led to believe the text had a scientific value, and that of a high class.
begun about 1855, with a brief text by D.
description of every species of bird; but that was soon found to be impossible; and, when six parts had been issued, with text by some unnamed author, the scheme was brought within practicable limits, and the writing of the letterpress was Vieillot.
entrusted to Vieillot, who, proceeding on a systematic plan, performed his task very creditably, completing the work, which forms two quarto volumes, in 1825, the original text and fifty-seven plates being relegated to the end of the second volume as a supplement.
It now behoves us to turn to general and particularly systematic works in which plates, if they exist at all, form but an accessory to the text.
Gould's great Birds of Australia has been already named, and he subsequently reproduced with some additions the text of that work under the title of Handbook to the Birds of Australia (2 vols.
The former of these has the entire text, but no plates; the latter reproduces the plates, but the text is in places much condensed, and excellent notes are added.
For Scandinavia generally Herr Collin's Skandinaviens Fugle (8vo, 1873) is a greatly bettered edition of the very moderate Danmarks Fugle of Kjaerbolling; but the ornithological portion of Nilsson's Skandinavisk Fauna, Foglarna (3rd ed., 2 vols., 8vo, 1858) is of great merit; while the text of Sundevall's Svenska Foglarna (obl.
The procession was followed, inside the church, by a curious combination of ritual office and mystery play, the text of which, according to the Ordo processionis asinorum secundum Rothomagensem usum, is given in Du Cange.
The view maintained in the text as to the number of votes necessary is supported by Duruy (H.
18, however, from which the Chronicler derived his statement, reads " Tamar " in the Hebrew text, with " Tadmor " in the Hebrew margin; there can be no doubt that the text is right and refers to Tamar in the land of Judah (Ezek.
Their opportunity came with the disaster which befell the Roman army under Valerian (q.v.) at Edessa, a disaster, says ' The full text, both Greek and Palmyrene, with an English translation, is given in NSI, pp. 313-340.
A free abridged translation by King Alfred is still extant (Old English text, with original in Latin, edited by H.
The text of Ibelin became a textus receptus - but it also became overlaid by glosses, for it was used as authoritative in the kingdom of Cyprus after the loss of the kingdom of Jerusalem, and it needed expounding.
We can only say that we have the text of Ibelin which was used in Cyprus in the later middle ages.
At the same time, if our text is thus late, it must be remembered that its content gives us the earliest and purest exposition of French feudalism, and describes for us the organization of a kingdom, where all rights and duties were connected with the fief, and the monarch was only a suzerain of feudatories.
They were used, like the assizes of the high court, in Cyprus; and, like the other assizes, they were made the subject of investigation in 1531, with the object of discovering a good text.
It has already been noticed that such a war between the sons of Malik-al-Adil accounts in large Ayyubite rulers serves to illustrate the text :- hy.
The authorities for the Crusades have been collected in Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611) (incomplete); Michaud, Bibliotheque des croisades (Paris, 1829) (containing translations of select passages in the authorities); the Recueil des historiens des croisades, published by the Academie des Inscriptions (Paris, 1841 onwards) (the best general collection, containing many of the Latin, Greek, Arabic and Armenian authorities, and also the text of the assizes; but sometimes poorly edited and still .incomplete); and the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin (founded in 1875), especially the Archives, of which two volumes were published in 1881 and 1884, and the volumes of the Revue, published yearly from 1893 to 1902, and containing not only new texts, but articles and reviews of books which are of great service.
God, the text here declares, has made the world an object of man's thought, yet so that man can never find out the work that God has done (iii.
2 The text has" folly,"but the parallelism and v.
A change of the Hebrew text seems necessary; possibly we should read S1p $t"', "low is the voice," instead of 51p$ o'p', "he rises up at the voice."
The text of the obscure passage iv.
The data are not numerous and distinct enough to settle the question beyond determining general limits: for reasons given above the book can hardly have been composed before about zoo B.C., and if, as is probable, a Septuagint translation of it was made (though the present Septuagint text shows the influence of Aquila), it is to be put earlier than 50 B.C. Probably also, its different parts are of different dates.
An edition of the Arabic text has been printed at Bulaq, (7 vols., 1867) and a part of the work has been translated by the late Baron McG.
Berthelot, Les Origines de l'alchimie (1885); Collection des anciens alchimistes grecs (text and translation, 3 vols., 1887-1888); Introduction a l'etude de la chimie des anciens et du moyen age (1889); La Chimie au moyen age (text and translation of Syriac and Arabic treatises on alchemy, 3 vols., 1893).
11) has hardly been satisfactorily explained; perhaps the text has suffered.
The best maps are those in Die Karten von Attika, published with explanatory text by the German Archaeological Institute (Berlin, 1881).
The text of the Lex Burgundionum has been published by F.
The earlier text, of which five short fragments have come down to us, is known as the Pactus Alamannorum, and from the persistent recurrence of the expression "et sic convenit" was most probably drawn up by an official commission.
There is no doubt that the text dates back to the reign of Dagobert I., i.e.
The later text, known as the Lex Alamannorum, dates from a period when Alamannia was independent under national dukes, but recognized the theoretical suzerainty of the Frankish kings.
Germany comprised two other duchies, Saxony and Frisia, of each of which we possess a text of law.
Herold and du Tillet), and the text has been edited by Karl von Richthofen in the Mon.
This text is a collection of local customs arranged in the same order as the law of the Ripuarians.
It will be sufficient here to mention: A Book of Spiritual Exercises, written by Garcias de Cisneros (London, 1876); the official Latin text in the third volume of the Avignon edition of the Constitutions (1830); Roothaan's Exercitia spiritualia S.
The oldest mention of Robin Hood at present known occurs in the second edition - what is called the B text - of Piers the Plowman, the date of which is about 1377.
If Marca's criticism is too often undecided, both in the ancient epochs, where he supports the text by a certain amount of guesswork and in certain points where he touches on religion, yet he always gives the text correctly.
The text of Gildas founded on Gale's edition collated with two other MSS., with elaborate introductions, is included in the Monumenta historica Britannica, edited by Petrie and Sharpe (London, 1848).
Jameson (1897) of the text of the Ring (first published in the pocket edition of the full scores) is the most wonderful tour de force yet achieved in its line.
They were not contained in the text used by Origen (d.
On the English text see H.
There has been much controversy both as to the authenticity of some of the sermons in this edition and as to the text in general.
In his text Eratosthenes ignored the popular division of the world into Europe, Asia and Libya, and substituted for it a northern and southern division, divided by the parallel of Rhodes, each of which he subdivided into sphragides or plinthia - seals or plinths.
1 In the early decades of the Christian era the text was current in two forms, which are denoted by H a and H R in this article and in the edition of the text published by the Oxford University Press.
Here again two types of text, A.
241, 1899), and later, with considerable fullness, in his edition of the Greek text of the Testaments (1908), brought to light a number of facts that put the question of a Hebrew original beyond the range of doubt.
Charles's Text, § I I.
The Hebrew Text of one of the Testaments of the XII.
Charles's Text, § 12.
In the late Hebrew text of Naph.
To one member of the Maccabean dynasty are the prophetic gifts assigned in our text (T.
For the text refers most probably to the destruction of Samaria, T.
Christian Additions to the Text.
The existence of these Christian elements in the text misled nearly every scholar for the past four hundred years into believing that the book itself was a Christian apocryph.
We have already shown that St Paul twice quoted from the Greek text of the Testaments.
15, 35, which deal with the great question of forgiveness, are clearly dependent on our text.
- Sinker, Testamenta XII Patriarcharum (1869); [this work gives b in the text and a in the footnotes; subsequently (1879) Sinker issued an Appendix with variations from cg]; Charles, The Greek Versions of the Testaments of the XII.
- Charles, The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs translated from the Editor's Greek Text (1908).
For the text of scripture he uses both the Latin versions, the Itala and the Vulgate, often comparing them together.
While the translation was still in progress Ficino from time to time submitted its pages to the scholars, Angelo Poliziano, Cristoforo Landino, Demetrios Chalchondylas and others; and since these men were all members of the Platonic Academy, there can be no doubt that the discussions raised upon the text and Latin version greatly served to promote the purpose of Cosimo's foundation.
His text, however, is so confused, both from obscurity of style and from corruptions in the MSS., that there is much difference of opinion as to the meaning of many words and phrases employed in his narrative, and their application in particular points of detail.
Besides, in case of the entire roll not being filled with the text, the unused and inferior sheets at the end could be better spared, and so might be cut off.
Fansboll (London Pali Text Society, 1884); Katha Vatthu, ed.
For the catacombs of Alexandria, Neroutsos Bey, L'Ancienne Alexandrie, may be consulted in addition to De Rossi's article mentioned in the text.
(2) The words of the text are ranged in squares in such a manner as to be read either vertically or boustrophedon.
- The Greek text is given in O.
But it will be noticed that the second half of the definition in the text - "from the general premisses of all reasoning" - is left unexpressed.
An important event not to be passed over without mention is the grant on the 10th of March 1870 of the firman instituting the Bulgarian exarchate, thus severing the Bulgarian Church from Text in Holland, p. 212.
This seeming casual connexion, to some extent, confirms the historic connexion suggested by the text, that the Jews at the Exodus had to use bread prepared in haste; but not even Hebrew tradition attempts to explain why the abstention should last for seven days.
This is a highly ingenious hypothesis to explain the discrepancies of the text, but is, after all, nothing but hypothesis.
(Oxford, 1869) is little more than a reprint of the text of Bishop Potter, 1715.
Either of these will supply the names of works upon Clement's biblical text, his use of Stoic writers, his quotations from heathen writers, and his relation to heathen philosophy.
Though now cultivated in India, and almost wild in some parts of the northwest, and, as we have seen, probably also in Afghanistan, it has no Sanskrit name; it is not mentioned in the Hebrew text of the Scriptures, nor in the earliest Greek times.
The text of this letter occurs in a number of MSS.
The critical text of R.
Percival translates and comments on an old text in the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers (2nd series), xiv.
An English translation by the side of the Welsh text of the so-called triads of Dyvnwal Moel Mud is given by Owen, in the The Ancient Laws of Wales.
The Latin text is much shorter than the Welsh, but we do not know whether this abridgment was made on purpose, or whether the translation is an imitation of an earlier text.
The text of Howel's laws has been edited by A.
The text of the commentary is given in Migne, Patrologia Graeca, cvi.; see also O.
Ulm is remarkable in the history of German literature as the spot where the Meistersinger lingered longest, preserving without text and without notes the traditional lore of their craft.
The complete text, together with a French translation (on the basis of the Leiden and Paris copies, the latter first discovered by M.
The quatrains have been edited at Calcutta (1836) and Teheran (1857 and i862); text and French translation by 3.
H: Whinfield, and the first critical edition of the text, with translation, by the same (1883).
Occasionally the word " invariants " includes covariants; when this is so it will be implied by the text.
1-4, have been incorporated into the present text from the margins on which they were written, its subject being the suffering of the righteous.
ii., in Century Bible (1906); Duhm, Das Buch Habakkuk (Text, Ubersetzung and Erklarung), 1906 (regards the book as a unity belonging to the time of Alexander the Great), Max L.
7, a text which, in the wake of a line of scholars from Erasmus downwards, Abbe Paulin Martin had, in 1887, exhaustively shown to be no older than the end of the 4th century A.D.
An incisive introduction discusses the ecclesiastical tradition, modern criticism; the second, the first and the third Gospels; the evangelical tradition; the career and the teaching of Jesus; and the literary form, the tradition of the text and the previous commentaries.
VII, Usually considered to be the tergum of the genital somite, but suggested by Pocock to be that of the other [According to the system of numbering explained in the text, if VII is the tergum of the praegenital somite (as is probable) it should be labelled Prg without any number, and the somites VIII to XIII should be lettered 1 to 6, indicating that they are the six normal somites of the mesosoma; whilst XV to XVIII should be replaced by the numbers 7 to 12 - an additional suppressed segment (making up the typical six) being reckoned to the metasomatic fusion.] (From Lankester, Q.
If we may trust the text, this meaning appears in Origen (Prolog.
against that of the Massoretic text, though conversely in a few cases.
is occasionally followed in its translation of Biblical passages, in others the Massoretic is followed against the LXX., and in one or two passages the text presupposes a text different from both.
Ceriani edited this text from a Milan MS. (Monuments Sacra et Profana, v.
Since the western text of 2 Tim.
For the Greek text see Tischendorf, Evang.
I.) presupposes the existence of a like text.
The quotations from the Old Testament are made from the Massoretic text.
The text has been edited most completely by Bonnet, Acta Apostol.
According to this authority one-third of the text is now lost.
On the Latin text see Corriere and Berger, Correspondance apocr.
The best text is that of Lipsius, Acta Apostol.
The text is in the utmost confusion. It is unreadable.
The text of the Actus Vercellenses is edited by Lipsius, Ada Apostol.
The best critical edition of the Greek text will be found in Lipsius, Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, 1891, pp. 279-283.
The text has been edited by Hilgenfeld in 1877, Gebhardt and Harnack in 1878, and Funk in 1887 and 1901.
Soc., 2 vols., 1848-1849); but Thorpe's text of John's continuation needs revision.
The text of the passages has to be critically treated anew.
The last-named gives an elaborate history of interpretation from the Septuagint down to Calvin, and appends the Ethiopic text edited by Dillmann.
The text, however, is in a very corrupt state.
On the other hand, there are elements in the poem which show that it is not entirely the work of a poor crowder; and these (notably references to historical and literary authorities, and occasional reminiscences of the literary tricks of the Scots Chaucerian school) have inclined some to the view that the text, as we have it, is an edited version of the minstrel's rough song story.
In 1889 the Scottish Text Society completed their edition of the text, with prolegomena and notes by James Moir.
vi., 1900), a plea for Ramsay's authorship of the known text; also W.
(1844-1855; 2nd edition, 1878 seq.); Greek series, first published in Latin (85 vols., 1856-1861); with Greek text and Latin translation (165 vols., 1857-1866).
Adrien Augier resumed the work, giving Lebeuf's text, though correcting the numerous typographical errors of the original edition (5 vols., 1883), and added a sixth volume containing an analytical table of contents.
A single sentence in Porphyry's Isagoge or " introduc tion " to the Categories of Aristotle furnished the i o, s text of the discussion.
" These writings contained," says Haureau, " the text of the Organon, the Physics, the Metaphysics, the Ethics, the De anima, the Parva naturalia and a large number of other treatises of Aristotle, accompanied by continuous commentaries.
On the new constitution, see published text and also S.
of the Greek text, with copious introduction, by W.
The best known of his works are De gentibus et familiis Judaeis (Gottingen, 1870); Der Text der Bucher Samuelis untersucht (Gottingen, 1871); Die Phariseier and Sadducder (Greifswald, 1874); Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels (Berlin, 1882; Eng.
The Greek text of Josephus' works has been edited with full collection of different readings by B.
The Teubner text by Naber is based on this.
33 in the Western text; Origen; B.
And here we have first to observe that in the Hebrew text the Psalter is divided into five books, each of which closes with a doxology.
Obviously the word r ' must refer to something in the music; and inasmuch as the cymbals were for the purpose of producing a volume of sound (v'#r), it is reasonable to suppose that the 1 The threefold division of the singers appears in the same list according to the Hebrew text of verse 17, but the occurrence of Jeduthun as a proper name instead of a musical note is suspicious, and makes the text of LXX.
xlv., though the unsoundness of the text in certain parts makes it difficult to speak with certainty, would suit the marriage of Alexander Balas at Ptolemais in 150 B.C., at which the high priest Jonathan was present as an honoured guest.
The musical notes found in the titles of the psalms and occasionally also in the text (Selah, 1 Higgaion) are so obscure that it seems unnecessary to enter here upon the various conjectures that have been made about them.
- (A) The oldest version, the LXX., follows a text generally closely corresponding to the Massoretic Hebrew, the main variations being in the titles and in the addition (lacking in some MSS.) of an apocryphal psalm ascribed to David when he fought with Goliath.
text has many " daughters," of which may be noticed (a) the Memphitic (ed.
Lagarde, 1875); (b) the old Latin, which as revised by Jerome in 383 after the current Greek text forms the Psalterium romanum, long read in the Roman Church and still used in St Peter's; (c) various Arabic versions, including that printed in the polyglots of Le Jay and Walton, and two others of the four exhibited together in Lagarde's Psalterium, Job, Proverbia, arabice, 1876; on the relations and history of these versions see G.
The Hexaplar text of the LXX., as reduced by Origen into greater conformity with the Hebrew by the aid of subsequent Greek versions, was further the mother (d) of the Psalterium gallicanum - that is, of Jerome's second revision of the Psalter (385) by the aid of the Hexaplar text; this edition became current in Gaul and ultimately was taken into the Vulgate; (e) of the SyroHexaplar version (published by Bugati, 1820, and in facsimile from the famous Ambrosian MS. by Ceriani, Milan, 1874).
This important version was first published in a good text by Lagarde, Psalterium juxta hebraeos hieronymi (Leipzig, 1874).
While some works of patristic writers are still of value for text criticism and for the history of early exegetical tradition, the treatment of the Psalms by ancient and medieval Christian writers is as a whole such as to throw light on the ideas of the commentators and their times rather than on the sense of a text which most of them knew only through translations.
The question of the text was first properly raised by Olshausen, and has since received special attention from, among others, Lagarde (Prophetae chald., 1872, p. 46 seq.), Dyserinck (in the " scholia " to his Dutch translation of the Psalms, Theol.
Bib., 1902); Bickell, Die Dichtungen der Hebraer (3 der Psalter, 1883), from a revised and metrically arranged text; Baethgen, in Nowack's Hand-Komm.
Beginning with the earliest versions of the Bible, which seem to date from the 2nd century A.D., the series comprises a great mass of translations from Greek originals - theological, philosophical, legendary, historical and scientific. In a fair number of cases the Syriac version has preserved to us the substance of a lost original text.
The text of the Gospels underlying it " represents the Greek text as read in Rome about A.D.
Its text " represents, where it differs from the Diatessaron, the Greek text as read in Antioch about A.D.
which contain the Syriac Massorah or tradition of the reading of the text pass over Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, and in the case of the Nestorians also Esther.
Rabbi - la's text of the Gospels " represents the Greek text as read in Antioch about A.D.
The history of the Peshitta rendering of the Acts and Epistles is less clear; apparently the earliest Syrian writers used a text somewhat different from that which afterwards became the standard.'
Rabbula, the powerful and energetic bishop of Edessa who withstood the beginnings of Nestorianism, and who gave currency to the Peshitta text of the four Gospels, abolishing the use of the Diatessaron, is dealt with in a separate article.
The entire text of the London MS. was published by Land in the third volume of his Anecdota syriaca; and there is now an English translation by Hamilton and Brooks (London, 1899), and a German one by Ahrens and Kruger (Leipzig, 1899).
Langlois (Venice, 1868): but the Syriac text has now been found in a MS. belonging to the library of the church at Edessa, and is in course of publication by J.
s Text and translation, by E.
to The text has been twice edited by Bedjan (Paris, 1888 and 1895), and there is a French translation, with copious notes, by Chabot (Paris, 1895); cf.
Skeat, 1881-1900, for the Early English Text Society) the practice is so regular that most of them are arranged as verse by Professor Skeat.
1 That this is so, is proved by the presence of a doublet in the text of the rite of baptism, the words "But the penitent" on p. 96, as far as "over the person baptized" on p. 97, repeating in substance the words "Next the elect one" on p. 97 to "am wellpleased" on p. 98.
The Syriac text is rendered from a Greek original of unknown age, which from its complete correspondence with the Key of Truth may be judged to have been a Paulician writing.
They explained away baptisms as "words of the Holy Gospel," citing the text "I am the living water."
Their canon included only the "Gospel and Apostle," of which they respected the text, but distorted the meaning.
- Beside the works mentioned in the text see J.
17-23) actually used the clothing peculiar to some deity, nor is it quite clear what is meant when a Babylonian ritual text refers to the magical use of the linen garment of Eridu (seat of the cult of Ea).
16 -18 (1903), with text by W.
xix., xx., with Amelung's text; articles by W.
But the character being ideographic, the words which express them are dissimilar in the two languages, and official text is read in Chinese by a Chinese, in Annamese by an Annamese.
1888), Das Neue Testament: Berichtigter Text (3 vols., 1902), and Die Quellen des Lukasevangeliums (1907).
To him Damasus entrusted the revision of the Latin text of the Bible and other works of religious erudition.
The chief authorities for the text of Dunbar's poems are :- (a) the Asloan MS. (c. 1515); (b) the Chepman and Myllar Prints (1508) preserved in the Advocates' library, Edinburgh; (c) Bannatyne MS. (156$) in the same; (d) the Maitland Folio MS. (c. 1570-1590) in the Pepysian library, Magdalene College, Cambridge.
This has been superseded by the Scottish Text Society's edition (ed.
There is no doubt that his work is chiefly a compilation; and Daremberg, with other scholars, has traced a large number of passages of the Latin text to the Greek originals from which they were translated.
Van Swieten's commentaries on the aphorisms of Boerhaave are thought more valuable than the original text.
The scientific editing of the text began with C. C. Lachmann (1852) whose work still holds the field.
Brieger's numerous contributions in German periodicals and his text in the Teubner series (2nd ed., 1899).
In the second place, in direct disregard of a promise given to Frederick, a supplement to Akakia appeared, more offensive than the main text.
So you should indicate precisely, what parts of your site are restricted in use â€” because the 1911 text as such (whether on paper or in electronic form) is free, and anyone may use it for any purpose, without any conditions.
He contributed to draw up Louis's charter, and in his memoirs boasted of having furnished the text of the proclamation addressed by the king to the French people before his return to France; but it is known now that it was another text that was adopted.
The principal points of uncertainty, due to gaps in the text, concern the length of Dynasties IV.
From this text we learn that the Dynasty of Ur consisted of five kings and lasted for 117 years, and was.
Lehmann-Haupt .uggested an emendation of the text, reducing the number by a thousand years; 14 while Winckler has regarded the statement of Nabonidus as an uncritical exaggeration.
So, for -example, the word for " name " may be written by a sign MU, or it may be written out by two signs shu-mu, the one sign MU representing the " Sumerian " word for " name," which, however, in the case of a Babylonian or Assyrian text must be read as shumu - the Semitic equivalent of the Sumerian MU.
The third text consists of 99 chapters, and is divided into two groups, according as the MSS.
Opinions differ as to the true import of these glosses; some scholars hold that the Salic Law was originally written in the Frankish vernacular, and that these words are remnants of the ancient text, while others regard them as legal formulae such as would be used either by a plaintiff in introducing a suit, or by the judge to denote the exact composition to be pronounced.
Even the most ancient text, that in 65 chapters, contains passages which a comparison with the later texts shows to be interpolations.
Finally, we find capitularies of the kings immediately following Clovis being gradually incorporated in the text of the lawe.g.'the Pactum pro tenore pacis of Childebert I.
distinguished above give evidence of further changes, the law being supplemented by other capitularies and sundry extravagantia, prologues and epilogues, which some historians have wrongly assumed to be parts of the main text.
Finally, Charlemagne, who took a keen interest in the ancient documents, had the law emended, the operation consisting in eliminating the Malberg glosses, which were no longer intelligible, correcting the Latinity of the ancient:text, omitting a certain number of interpolated chapters, and adding others which had obtained general sanction.
The text is filled with valuable information on the state of the family and property in the 6th century, and it is astonishing to find Montesquieu describing the Salic Law as the law of a people ignorant of landed property.
Waitz, Das alte Recht der salischen Franken (1846), text of the first version; J.
Geffcken, Lex Salica (Leipzig, 1898), the text in 65 chapters, with commentary paragraph by paragraph, and appendix of additamenta; and the edition undertaken by Mario Krammer for the Mon.
the text is identical, but it is a revised text - in other words, we have only a lex emendata.
There is an edition of the text of the Ripuarian Law in Mon.
It was compiled by the itinerant Frankish officials known as the missi Dominici, and the text undoubtedly goes back to the time of Charlemagne, perhaps to the years 802 and 803, when the activity of the missi was at its height.
There is an edition of this text by R.
Schefer, Sefer Nameh, public, traduit et annote (Paris, 1881), and by Guy le Strange in Pilgrims' Text Society (1888) H.
16-18) were given in the text in order to explain its publication so long after the date of its professed period.
Now it is acknowledged by Christian and Jewish scholars alike to have been written in Hebrew in the 2nd century B.C. From Hebrew it was translated into Greek and from Greek into Armenian and Slavonic. The versions have come down in their entirety, and small portions of the Hebrew text have been recovered from later Jewish writings.
A Christian revision of it is probably preserved in the two dialects of Coptic. Of these the Akhmim text is the original of the Sahidic. These texts and their translations have been edited by Steindorff, Die Apokalypse des Elias, eine unbekannte Apokalypse and Bruchstiicke der Sophonias-Apokalypse (1899).
There are other Hebraisms in the text.
The text, as first published in the original Greek by Tischendorf (Opacalypses A pocr.
His sermons occasionally created some stir, and on one occasion Elizabeth interrupted his sermon, telling him to stick to his text and cease slighting the crucifix.
The numerous copies of Odoric's narrative (both of the original text and of the versions in French, Italian, &c.) that have come down to our time, chiefly from the 14th century, show how speedily and widely it acquired popularity.
He loved discussing the sense of single portions of the Bible with other scholars, and made many fine expositions of the text.
Edition in Pali for the Pali Text Society by S.
Schmeller, gave the appropriate name of Heliand (the word used in the text for "Saviour," answering to the O.
Somewhat curiously, but very naturally, Enoch the son of Cain is confused with the Enoch who was translated to heaven - an error which the author of the Old English Genesis avoids, though (according to the existing text) he confounds the names of Enoch and Enos.
That the author of the Heliand was, so to speak, another Ca dmon - an unlearned man who turned into poetry what was read to him from the sacred writings - is impossible, because in many passages the text of the sources is so closely followed that it is clear that the poet wrote with the Latin books before him.
It included the original text and the variations of it dating from the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries.
834) with additions and omissions (text ed.
Though he sometimes glided lightly over difficulties, his work is of service in fixing the text of Tabari.
1201) (Arabic text, ed.
and Gregory's Canon and Text of N.
The ablest among recent editions of the Greek text are those of R.
Zerubbabel is certainly meant here, and, if the received text names Joshua instead of him (vi.
Sturz (1824-1836); text by I.
The same qualities appear in Walton's Considerator Considered (1659), a reply to the Considerations of John Owen, who thought that the accumulation of material for the revision of the received text tended to atheism.
In the middle of the pages is the Latin text of the Bible; in the margins are the "glosses," consisting of a very full collection of patristic excerpts in illustration and explanation of the text.
The name of the ruler alluded to is not indeed introduced into the actual text, but "Carolus Inlperator" form the initial letters of the passage dealing with this subject.
de l'Afrique septentrionale, by De Slane, Paris, 1859; Arabic text, ibid.
vii.; Arabic text, Tunis, 1286 A.H.) deals especially with Tunisia and goes down to 1681.
M.; X.) On the 5th of April 1879 the republic of Chile declared war upon Peru, the alleged pretext being that Peru had made an offensive treaty, directed against Chile, with Bolivia, War with a country with which Chile had a dispute; but the Chile, 1879- publication of the text of this treaty made known 1882.
In such cases of substitution the vowels of the word which is to be read are written in the Hebrew text with the consonants of the word which is not to be read.
An Armenian translation, belonging to the 4th or 5th century, containing five additional chapters, was published with the Greek text and a French version, by M.
In the printed text this document, entitled An Invective Against the Armenians, is dated 800 years after Constantine, but the author Isaac Catholicos almost certainly belonged to the earlier time.
40, Paris, 1685), whose text was reproduced in substance by Muratori (Verona, 1736), and reprinted by Migne.
A valuable edition of the De aquis (text and translation) has been published by C. Herschel (Boston, Mass., 1899).
and iii., in which the prophet 1 A confusion between the two prophets of the name has led to the insertion in the Massoretic text of 1 Kings xxii.
2-4 are but slightly modified recensions of the same text, and as Isa.
Lord Palmerston soon saw that further resistance was useless; his Peelite colleagues stuck to their text, and, within three weeks after resuming office, Gladstone, Sir James Graham and Mr Sidney Herbert resigned.
Firmin-Didot), now in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris; the other, and much superior text, in the Biblioteca Estense, Modena.
The text shows a curious mingling of sources; the real primitive Perceval story, the Enfances, is omitted; he grows up in his father's house and goes to court at his wish.
This was at one time claimed as the original source of all the Perceval romances, but this theory cannot be maintained in face of the fact that the writer gives in one place what is practically a literal translation of Chretien's text in a passage which there is strong reason to believe was borrowed by Chretien from an earlier poem.
The Perceval was edited from the Mons text by Potvin (6 vols., 1866-1871); Syr Percyvelle of Galles, in The Thornton Romances, by Halliwell (1844) for the Camden Society.
For the general reader the most useful text is that of Bartsch in Deutsche Classiker des Mittelalters, as it includes notes and a glossary.
of Le Saint Graal (1875-1878); an edition of the Modena text has also been prepared.
The Welsh text, with translation, has been edited by Canon Williams. A fine translation by Dr Sebastian Evans is published in "The Temple Classics," under the title of The High History of the Holy Grail.
The only trustworthy text is that published by Guichenon in his Histoire ge'nealogique de la maison de Savoie (ed.
The text was published by Dr M.
They marked him as one of the most able critics of Bentley's (in many cases) rash and tasteless conjectural alterations of the text.
He was thus enabled to go to; Italy to study the Vatican text of Plutarch, on the translation on whose Lives (1 559; 1 565) he had been some time engaged.
This piece was played after the fall of the Terror, but the fratricide of Timoleon became the text for insinuations to the effect that by his silence Joseph de Chenier had connived at the judicial murder of Andre, whom Joseph's enemies alluded to as Abel.
Its vigour and originality have had scanty justice done to them owing to the difficulty of the subject-matter and the style, and the corruptions which still disfigure its text.
A first edition of his Historia Britonum was in circulation by the year 1139, although the text which we possess appears to date from 1147.
All these, however, have been superseded for the modern student by the editions of Natalis de Wailly (1872 and 1874), in which the text is critically edited from all the available MSS.
de Wailly for text.
Thus, by degrees, the reproduction of the original text became of secondary importance, and merely served as a pretext for the discussion of topics that had little or no bearing on the context.
The method, by which the text was thus utilized as a vehicle for conveying homiletic discourses, traditional sayings, legends and allegories, is abundantly illustrated by the Palestinian and later Targums, as opposed to the more sober translations of Onkelos and the Targum to the Prophets.
It would, however, be incorrect to suppose that the translation of the text was left entirely to the individual taste of the translator.
7 as if the text had " his father " and " his mother."
The official recognition of a written Targum, and therefore the final fixing of its text belongs to the post-Talmudic period, and is not to be placed earlier than the 5th century.
The Hebrew text used by the translators appears to have been practically identical with the Massoretic. The version was held in high esteem in Babylon, and, later, in Palestine, and a special Massora was made for it.
On the other hand, they regarded it as necessary to present the sacred text in such a manner as best to convey the particular form of interpretation then current.
On the other hand, the version of Onkelos affords just the supplementary material that is required to restore sense to the shorter text.
we find Targums to the Song of Moses and to the Decalogue, in which this process has been fully carried out, the text of Onkelos being given as well as the variants of the Fragmentary Targum.
It is not, however, a revision of the Fragmentary Targum - for it is clearly independent of that version - but is rather a parallel, if somewhat later, production, in which the text of Onkelos is already combined with a number of variants and additions.
It exhibits, to a marked degree, that tendency to expand the text by additions of every kind, which has been already noted as characteristic of the later stages of Targumic composition.
Some writers, notably Professor Zahn,' piecing together this text with 2 Tim.
His Latin text is probably as ancient as the Greek text of Marcellus, because the Roman Church must always have been bilingual in its early days.
700, which contain forms almost identical with the received text, are connected with monasteries founded by Columban and his friends: Bobbio, Luxeuil, S.
From one of these monasteries the received text seems to have been taken to Rome.
We can trace the use of the received text along the line of the journeys both of Pirminius and Boniface, and there is little doubt that they received it from the Roman Church, with which Boniface was in frequent communication.
It seems clear, therefore, that the received text was either made or accepted in Rome, c. A.D.
At the end of the 8th century Charlemagne inquired of the bishops of his empire as to current forms. The reply of Amalarius of Trier is important because it shows that he not only used the received text, but also connected it with the Roman order of Baptism.
4 Burn, " Note on the Old Latin text," Journal of Theol.
to alter the text used in Rome by including the words.
This theory, however, depended upon unverified assumptions, such as the supposed silence of theologians about the creed at the beginning of the 9th century; the suggestion that the completed creed would have been useful to them if they had known it as a weapon against the heresy of Adoptianism; the assertion that no MS. containing the complete text was of earlier date than c. 813.
Ommanney, who was successful in the discovery of new documents, notably early commentaries, which contained the text of the creed embedded in them, and thus su