Molybdenum dichloride (MoC1 2) 3 or Cl 4 Mo 3 C1 2 (chlormolybdenum chloride), is prepared (together with some tetrachloride) by heating the trichloride in a stream of carbon dioxide (C. W.
Iridium tetrachloride, IrC1 41 is obtained by dissolving the finely divided metal in aqua regia; by dissolving the hydroxide in hydrochloric acid; and by digesting the hydrated sesquichloride with nitric acid.
Sulphur chloride, S2C12, is obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of carbon tetrachloride from carbon bisulphide and chlorine, and may also be prepared on the small scale by distilling sulphur in a chlorine gas, or by the action of sulphur on sulphuryl chloride in the presence of aluminium chloride (0.
The tetrachloride, SC14, is formed by saturating S 2 C1 2 with chlorine at - 22° C. (Michaelis, Ann., 1873, 170, p. 1).
Ru2C16.4KC1; Ru 2 C1 6.4NH 4 C1, &c. The pure tetrachloride, RuC1 4, has not been isolated, but is chiefly known in the form of its double salts, such as potassium ruthenium chloride, K 2 RuC1 6, which is obtained when finely divided ruthenium is fused with caustic potash and potassium chloride is gradually added to the fused mass (U.
When, as in the formation of naphthalene tetrachloride, for example, the one ring becomes saturated, the other might be expected to assume the normal centric form and become relatively inactive.
Normal values of K were given by nitrogen peroxide, N204, sulphur chloride, S 2 C1 21 silicon tetrachloride, SiC1 4, phosphorus chloride, PC1 3, phosphoryl chloride, POC1 31 nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO) 4, carbon disulphide, benzene, pyridine, ether, methyl propyl ketone; association characterized many hydroxylic compounds: for ethyl alcohol the factor of association was 2.74-2.43, for n-propyl alcohol 2.86-2.72, acetic acid 3.62 -2.77, acetone 1 .
The best solvents for rubber are carbon bisulphide, benzol and mineral naphtha, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.
If a suspension of lead dichloride in hydrochloric acid be treated with chlorine gas, a solution of lead tetrachloride is obtained; by adding ammonium chloride ammonium plumbichloride, (NH 4) 2 PbC1 6, is precipitated, which on treatment with strong sulphuric acid yields lead tetrachloride, PbC1 4, as a translucent, yellow, highly refractive liquid.
Columbium oxychloride, CbOC1 3r is formed when carbon tetrachloride, and columbic acid are heated together at 440° C.: 3CC14+Cb205 = 2CbOC1 3 +30001 2, and also by distilling the pentachloride,in acurrent of carbon dioxide, over ignited columbic acid.
A colloidal or soluble stannic acid is obtained by dialysing a mixture of tin tetrachloride and alkali, or of sodium stannate and hydrochloric acid.
Stannic Chloride, SnC1 4, named by Andreas Libavius in 1605 Spiritus argenti vivi sublimate from its preparation by distilling tin or its amalgam with corrosive sublimate, and afterwards termed Spiritus fumans Libavii, is obtained by passing dry chlorine over granulated tin contained in a retort; the tetrachloride distils over as a heavy liquid, from which the excess of chlorine is easily removed by shaking with a small quantity of tin filings and re-distilling.
Silicon tetraphenyl, Si(C6H5)4, a solid melting at 231° C., is obtained by the action of chlorobenzene on silicon tetrachloride in the presence of sodium.
Titanium trichloride, TiC131 forms involatile, dark violet scales, and is obtained by passing the vapour of the tetrachloride mixed with hydrogen through a red-hot tube, or by heating the tetrachloride with molecular silver to 200°.
Two chlorides are known, the dichloride, TeC121 and the tetrachloride, TeCl 4.
They are both obtained by passing chlorine over tellurium, the product being separated by distillation (the tetrachloride is the less volatile).
The tetrachloride is a white crystalline solid which is formed by the action of chlorine on the dichloride or by sulphur chloride on the element.
Tellurous acid, H 2 TeO 3, is obtained when the tetrachloride is decomposed by water, or on dissolving tellurium in nitric acid and pouring the solution into water.
The tetrachloride, OsC1 41 is obtained as a dark red sublimate (mixed with the dichloride) when osmium is l}eated in dry chlorine.
There is a vast amount of literature on the subject, but in spite of the difficulty of conceiving a luminous carbon vapour at the temperature of an ordinary carbon flame, the evidence seems to show that no other element is necessary for its production as it is found in the spectrum of pure carbon tetrachloride and certainly in cases where chlorine is excluded.
It readily forms addition products with chlorine and with hydrogen; the dichloride, C10H8C12, is obtained as a yellow liquid by acting with hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate; the solid tetrachloride, C,o 11 8 C1 4, results when chlorine is passed into naphthalene dissolved in chloroform.
By suspending the dioxide in carbon tetrachloride and passing in hydrochloric acid gas, W.
It is obtained by condensing benzal chloride with mercury diphenyl (Kekule and Franchimont, Ber., 1872, 5, p. 907); from benzal chloride or benzotrichloride and zinc dust or aluminium chloride; from chloroform or carbon tetrachloride and benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride; and deamidating diand tri-aminotriphenylmethane with nitrous acid and alcohol (0.
Considerable interest is attached to the remarkable series of hydrocarbons obtained by Gomberg (Ber., 1900, 33, p. 3150, et seq.) by acting on triphenylmethane chloride (from triphenylmethane carbinol and phosphorus pentachloride, or from carbon tetrachloride and benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride) and its homologues with zinc, silver or mercury.
Soc., 1904, p. 203) have made an exhaustive study of its reactions, and find that it is decomposed by the halogens (dissolved in carbon tetrachloride) with liberation of carbon monoxide and formation of a nickel halide.
Tungsten dioxide, W02, formed on reducing the trioxide by hydrogen at a red heat or a mixture of the trioxide and hydrochloric acid with zinc, or by decomposing the tetrachloride with water, is a brown strongly pyrophoric powder, which must be cooled in hydrogen before being brought into contact with air.
The dichloride, WC1 2, is an amorphous grey powder obtained by reducing the hexachloride at a high temperature in hydrogen, or, better, by heating the tetrachloride in a current of carbon dioxide.
The tetrachloride, WC1 41 is obtained by partial reduction of the higher chlorides with hydrogen; a mixture of the pentaand hexa-chloride is distilled in a stream of hydrogen or carbon dioxide, and the pentachloride which volatilizes returned to the flask several times.
This gives the tetrachloride as a greyishbrown crystalline powder.
It is more hygroscopic than the tetrachloride; and when treated with much water the bulk is at once decomposed into the blue oxide and hydrochloric acid, but an olive-green solution is also produced.
Bismuth and antimony chlorides are decomposed by water with production of oxychlorides, whilst titanium tetrachloride yields titanic acid under the same conditions.
SeC1 2 (+H 2 O)-->Se 2 C1 2 -1-SO 2 (OH)Cl; and by heating selenium and selenium tetrachloride to ioo° C. in a sealed tube.
Selenium tetrachloride, SeCl 4, is obtained by passing excess of chlorine over selenium; by the action of phosphorus pentachloride on selenium dioxide: Se0 2 +PC1 5 =SeOC1 2 +POC1 3 i 3SeOC12-I-2POC13=3SeC14-1-P205; and by the action of thionyl chloride on selenium oxychoride.
Selenyl chloride, SeOCl 21 is formed when selenium tetrachloride is heated with the dioxide to 150° C. (R.
Centralblatt, 1870, I, p. 340) obtained it by passing nitric oxide through a series of bottles containing tin and hydrochloric acid, to which a small quantity of platinum tetrachloride has been added; the acid liquid is poured off when the operation is completed, and sulphuretted hydrogen is passed in; the tin sulphide is filtered off and the filtrate evaporated.
Vanadium dichloride, VC12, is a green crystalline solid obtained when the tetrachloride is reduced with hydrogen at a dull red heat.
The trichloride, VC1 31 is a deliquescent solid formed when the tetrachloride is heated in a retort as long as chlorine is given off (Roscoe), or by heating vanadium trisulphide in a current of chlorine and fractionally distilling the resulting product at 150° C. in a current of carbon dioxide (Halberstadt, Ber., 1882, 15, p. 1619).
The tetrachloride, VC14, is formed by the direct union of vanadium and chlorine or by the action of sulphur chloride on vanadium pentoxide (Matignon, Comptes rendus, 1904, 138, p. 631).
They are completely soluble in ether, carbon bisulphide, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, petroleum ether, and benzene.
Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, acetone and benzene are far too expensive.
Carbon tetrachloride would be an ideal solvent, as it is non-inflammable and shares with carbon bisulphide the advantage of being heavier than water.
This indicates the percentage of iodine absorbed by an oil or fat when the latter is dissolved in chloroform or carbon tetrachloride, and treated with an accurately measured amount of free iodine supplied in the form of iodine chloride.