The spirit in the Old Testament is a refined material thing that may come or be poured out on men.
The very brevity of the New Testament narratives is astounding.
His optimistic attitude was a testament to Nick's love of life.
Sarah's weight-loss story served as a testament to the nutritional supplement's claims.
This is not expressly stated in the New Testament but is regarded as a necessary inference.
Some of the Old Testament passages cited are clearly taken out of context.
Organs used to be regarded as contrary to New Testament example, but their use is now all but universal.
In the New Testament, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude and the Apocalypse were originally left out, but Syriac versions were made at a later time.
He also published works on the Last Days of the Life of Jesus, on Judaism in the Time of Christ, on John of Damascus (1879) and an Examination of the Vatican Dogma in the Light of Patristic Exegesis of the New Testament.
In 1870 he was appointed one of the first members of the committee for the revision of the English version of the Old Testament.
HAGGAI, in the Bible, the tenth in order of the "minor prophets," whose writings are preserved in the Old Testament.
He died on the 23rd of June 1707, just a fortnight after the publication of his Greek Testament.
Though the jus divinum of presbytery is not now insisted upon as in some former times, Presbyterians claim that it is the church polity set forth in the New Testament.
There seems to be evidence of this in the later writings of the New Testament.
They did not get their ideas of church polity from one another, but drew it directly from the New Testament.
But Jesus further maintains that this view of the law as a whole, and the interpretation of the Sabbath law which it involves, can be historically justified from the Old Testament.
They are important witnesses to the text of the New Testament, to the history of the canon, and to the history of interpretation.
The literature begins with, as it is almost entirely based upon, the Old Testament.
The Pentateuch (or Hexateuch) was finally completed in its present form at some time before 400 B.C. The latest parts of the Old Testament are the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah (c. 330 B.C.), Ecclesiastes and Esther (3rd century) and Daniel, composed either in the 3rd century or according to some views as late as the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (c. 168 B.C.).
It is not to be supposed that all the contents of the Old Testament were immediately accepted as sacred, or that they were ever all regarded as being on the same level.
It began, as a method, with the Sopherim (though there are traces in the Old Testament itself), and was most developed among the Tannaim and Amoraim, rivalling even the study of halakhah.
In later usage it describes those of the New Testament books which have obtained a doubtful place in the Canon.
simply ignore the Old Testament with F.
Peake, Problem of Suffering in the Old Testament, 1904).
The New Testament reflects a controversy.
On the other hand, Christians and Jews are pretty well agreed on natural theology; so the New Testament tends to take its theism for granted.
When we leave the New Testament, apologetics becomes conspicuous until the political triumph of Christianity, and even somewhat later.
1 may or may not be affected by Philo; it is almost or quite solitary in the N.T.) Similarly, the immortality of the soul may be maintained on Platonic or quasi-Platonic lines, as by St Athanasius (Contra Gentes, § 33) - a writer who repeatedly quotes the Alexandrian Book of Wisdom, in which Platonism and the Old Testament had already joined partnership. This.
The Old Testament was an immense religious asset to the early church.
(a) Old Testament criticism won startling victories towards the end of the 19th century.
(b) New Testament criticism raises even more delicate issues.
C. Baur and his school - important as the first scientific attempt to conceive New Testament conditions and literature as a whole - has been abandoned.
(c) New Testament history.
It ceases to lay much stress upon coincidences between Old Testament predictions or " types " and events in Christ's career.
(iii.) We have New Testament reports of appearances of the risen Jesus; subjective?
In 1501 Bishop Luke of Prague edited the first Protestant hymn-book; in 1502 he issued a catechism, which circulated in Switzerland and Germany and fired the catechetical zeal of Luther; in 1565 John Blahoslaw translated the New Testament into Bohemian; in1579-1593the Old Testament was added; and the whole, known as the Kralitz Bible, is used in Bohemia still.
In order to reply to accusations brought against them, or in order to be confirmed in their functions, they had to travel to the Golden Horde on the Volga or even to the camp of the grand khan in some distant part of Siberia, and the journey was considered so perilous that many of them, before setting out, made their last will and testament and wrote a parental admonition for the guidance of their children.
The best instances of these ideas in the Old Testament are in Psalms 1.
The ideas are also found both in the New Testament and in early Christian literature: "Let us offer up a sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of lips which make confession to His name" (Heb.
(I) It was regarded as a true offering or sacrifice; for in the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, in Justin Martyr and in Irenaeus it is designated by each of the terms which are used to designate sacrifices in the Old Testament.
He studied theology at Erlangen and Berlin, and in 1856 became professor ordinarius of systematic theology and New Testament exegesis at Leipzig.
S5) that Elohim as a plural form for the name of the Hebrew deity " can hardly be understood otherwise than as a comprehensive expression for the multitude of gods embraced in the One God of Old Testament religion," in other words that it presupposes an original polytheism.
Nowhere in the Old Testament does the doctrine taught by Amos of Yahweh's universal power and sovereignty 1 Viz.
Strongly to be recommended are Smend, Lehrbuch der alttestamentlichen Religionsgeschichte; Bennett, Theology of the Old Testament and Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets; A.
Davidson, The Theology of the Old Testament, as well as the sections devoted to " Sacralaltertumer " in the Hebraische Archaologie both of Benzinger and also of Nowack.
(3rd ed.) is specially important to the Old Testament student.
The asp (Pethen, ×Ö¶Ö¼×ªÖ¶×Ÿ) is mentioned in various parts of the Old Testament.
In a series of masterly papers in the Contemporary Review, between December 1874 and May 1877, Lightfoot successfully undertook the defence of the New Testament canon.
Smith's Dictionary of Christian Biography and Dictionary of the Bible, and he also joined the committee for revising the translation of the New Testament.
These commentaries may be described as to a certain extent a new departure in New Testament exegesis.
Their history may be divided into three great periods: (1) That covered by the Old Testament to the foundation of Judaism in the Persian age, (2) that of the Greek and Roman domination to the destruction of Jerusalem, and (3) that of the Diaspora or Dispersion to the present day.
- OLD Testament History 1.
Hence it is possible, by a comprehensive comparative study of Eastern peoples, in both ancient and modern times, to supplement and illustrate within certain limits our direct knowledge of the early Jewish people, and thus to understand more clearly those characteristics which were [OLD Testament History peculiar to them, in relation to those which they shared with other Oriental peoples.
When the curtain rises again we enter upon the historical traditions of the Old Testament.
- For the rest of the first period the Old Testament forms the main source.
In the light of contemporary monuments, archaeological evidence, the progress of scientific knowledge and the recognized methods of modern historical criticism, the representation of the origin of mankind and of the history of the Jews in the Old Testament can no longer be implicitly accepted.
On the other hand, criticism has given a deeper meaning to the Old Testament history, and has brought into relief the central truths which really are vital; it may be said to have replaced a divine account of man by man's account of the divine.
and the Old Testament (Eng.
Alte Testament, 1903), and, with an instructive account of the history of " ancient nearer Asia," in H.
- The Old Testament preserves the remains of an extensive literature, representing different standpoints, which passed through several hands before it reached its present form.
At an age when - on literary-critical grounds - the Old Testament writings were assuming their present form, it was possible to divide the immediately preceding centuries into three distinct periods.
(July 1909, " Simeon and Levi: the Problem of the Old Testament "); and Swete's Cambridge Bib.
[OLD Testament History deserves preference where precise distinction is unnecessary or impossible.
Some appear written for the first time in the book of Jubilees, in " the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs " (both perhaps 2nd century B.C.) and in later sources; and although in Genesis the stories are now in a post-exilic setting (a stage earlier than Jubilees), the older portions may well belong to the 7th or 6th cent.
At all events, two quite distinct views seem to underlie the opening books of the Old Testament.
The era of the Temple of Jerusalem starts with a new regime, another captain of the army L EWS [OLD Testament History and another priest.
- Biblical history previous to the separation of Judah and Israel holds a prominent place in current ideas, since over two-fifths of the entire Old Testament deals with these early ages.
[OLD Testament History show that Damascus was neither crushed nor helpless, but thenceforth for a number of years Assyria was fully occupied elsewhere and the west was left to itself.
A vaunting challenge to Joash (of Israel) gave rise to one of the two fables that are preserved in the Old Testament (Judg.
[OLD Testament History Hamath and the quiescence of Assyria may have encouraged Israelite ambitions, but until more is known of the campaigns of Hadad-nirari and of Shalmaneser III.
Various collections are preserved in the Old Testament; they are attributed to the time of Moses the lawgiver, who stands at the beginning of Israelite national and religious history.
[OLD Testament History be loyal to Babylonia and to resume their former peaceful occupations.
Smith, Old Testament in Jewish Church, p. 438 seq.; W.
There are external historical circumstances and internal literary features which unite to show that the application of the literary hypotheses of the Old Testament to the course of Israelite history is still incomplete, and they warn us that the intrinsic value of religious and didactic writings should not depend upon the accuracy of their history.'
The Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis, that the hierarchical law in its complete form in the Pentateuch stands at the close and not at the beginning of biblical history, that this mature Judaism was the fruit of the 5th century B.C. and not a divinely appointed institution at the exodus (nearly ten centuries previously), has won the recognition of almost all Old Testament scholars.
There is also an unmistakable development in the laws; and the priestly legislation, though ahead of both Ezekiel and Deuteronomy, not to mention still earlier usage, not only continues to undergo continual internal modification, but finds a further distinct development, in the way of definition and interpretation, outside the Old Testament - in the Talmud.
The Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis (§ 4) does not pretend to be complete in all its details and it is independent of its application to the historical criticism of the Old Testament.
Thus, in any estimate of the influence of Babylonia upon the Old Testament, it is obviously necessary to ask whether certain features (a) are of true Babylonian origin, or (b) merely find parallels or analogies in its stores of literature; whether the indebtedness goes back to very early times or to the age of the Assyrian domination or to the exiles who now returned.
But through the Priestly hands the Old Testament history passed, and their standpoint colours its records.
Old Testament History and External Evidence.
- Thus the Old Testament, the history of the Jews during the first great period, describes the relation of the Hebrews to surrounding peoples, the superiority of Judah over the faithless (north) Israelite tribes, and the reorganization of the Jewish community in and around Jerusalem at the arrival of Ezra with the Book of the Law.
Yet it is impossible to recover with confidence or completeness the development of Hebrew history from the pages of the Old Testament alone.
External research constantly justifies the cautious attitude which has its logical basis in the internal conflicting character of the written traditions or in their divergence from ascertained facts; at the same time it has clearly shown that the internal study of the Old Testament has its limits.
Hence, in the absence of more complete external evidence one is obliged to recognize the limitations of Old Testament historical criticism, even though this recognition means that positive reconstructions are more precarious than negative conclusions.
3 The various tendencies which can be observed in the later pseudepigraphical and apocalyptical writings are of considerable value in any consideration of the development of thought illustrated in the Old Testament itself.
The complexity of modern knowledge and the interrelation of its different branches are often insufficiently realized, and that by writers who differ widely in the application of such material as they use to their particular views of the manifold problems of the Old Testament.
It has been easy to confuse the study of the Old Testament in its relation to modern religious needs with the technical scientific study of the much edited remains of the literature of a small part of the ancient East.
Many traces of myth, legend and " primitive " thought survive in the Old Testament, and on the most cautious estimate they presuppose a vitality which is not a little astonishing.
The differences between the form of the written history and the conditions which prevailed have impressed themselves variously upon modern writers, and efforts have been made to recover from the Old Testament earlier forms more in accordance with the external evidence.
Although the light thrown upon ancient conditions of life and thought has destroyed much that sometimes seems vital for the Old Testament, it has brought into relief a more permanent and indisputable appreciation of its significance, and it is gradually dispelling that pseudo-scientific literalism which would fetter the greatest of ancient Oriental writings with an insistence upon the verity of historical facts.
And if the work of criticism has brought a fuller appreciation of the value of these facts, the debt which is owed to the Jews is enhanced when one proceeds to realize the immense difficulties against which those who transmitted the Old Testament had to contend in the period of Greek domination.
The growth of the Old Testament into its present form, and its preservation despite hostile forces, are the two remarkable phenomena which most arrest the attention of the historian; it is for the theologian to interpret their bearing upon the history of religious thought.
There is no indication of the observance of the Easter festival in the New Testament, or in the writings of the apostolic Fathers.
He had left Paris during the whole of 1520, and, removing to Meaux, was appointed (May r, 1523) vicar-general to Bishop Brigonnet, and published his French version of the New Testament (1523).
His complete version of the Bible (1530), on the basis of Jerome, took the same place as his version of the New Testament.
He edited the Aramaic translation (known as the Targum) of the Prophets according to the Codex Reuchlinianus preserved at Carlsruhe, Prophetae chaldaice (1872), the Hagiographa chaldaice (1874), an Arabic translation of the Gospels, Die vier Evangelien, arabisch aus der Wiener Handschrift herausgegeben (1864), a Syriac translation of the Old Testament Apocrypha, Libri V.
apocryphi syriace (1861), a Coptic translation of the Pentateuch, Der Pentateuch koptisch (1867), and a part of the Lucianic text of the Septuagint, which he was able to reconstruct from manuscripts for nearly half the Old Testament.
1aTpcapXfs, from irarput, clan, and apxii, rule), originally the father or chief of a tribe, in this sense now used more especially of the " patriarchs " of the Old Testament, i.e.
If one excepts the Old Testament, which is a product of the extreme west of Asia, it is remarkable how small has been the influence of Asiatic literature on Europe.
Of great value are a short notice in the fragments of Berossus and another in the Old Testament.
(From this practice the sect received the less commonly used nickname "Dompelaers," meaning "tumblers.") They accept implicitly and literally the New Testament as the infallible guide in spiritual matters, holding it to be the inspired word of God, revealed through Jesus Christ and, by inspiration, through the Apostles.
In 1712 appeared a Testament politique de M.
His chief exegetical works are his Philologisch-kritischer and historischer Kommentar fiber das Neue Testament (4 vols., 1800-1804); Philologischer Clavis fiber die Psalmen (1791); and Philologischer Clavis fiber Jesaias (1793); and particularly his Exegetisches Handbuch fiber die drei ersten Evangelien (3 vols., 1830-1833; 2nd ed., 1841-1842).
Olshausen's department was New Testament exegesis; his Commentary (completed and revised by Ebrard and Wiesinger) began to appear at Konigsberg in 1830, and was translated into English in 4 vols.
This Salome is the only one of the three who is mentioned in the New Testament (Matt.
He was a member of the Old Testament Revision Company in 1874-1884; deputy professor of comparative philology in Oxford 1876-1890; Hibbert Lecturer 1887; Gifford Lecturer 1900-1902.
(1883); Ancient Empires of the East (1884); Introduction to Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther (1885); Assyria (1885); Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion (1887); The Hittites (1889); Races of the Old Testament (1891); Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments (1894); Patriarchal Palestine (1895); The Egypt of the Hebrews and Herodotus (1895); Early History of the Hebrews (1897); Israel and the Surrounding Nations (1898); Babylonians and Assyrians (1900); Egyptian and Babylonian Religion (1903); Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscr.
At the same time he endeavoured to acquire a knowledge of Hebrew, in order to be able to read the Old Testament in the original.
He commenced his great work on the textual criticism of the Scriptures; and at the instigation of his friend Ambrosius, who provided him with the necessary amanuenses, he published his commentaries on the Old Testament and his dogmatic investigations.
Origen's textual studies on the Old Testament were undertaken partly in order to improve the manuscript tradition, and partly for apologetic reasons, to clear up the relation between the LXX and the original Hebrew text.
Origen worked also at the text of the New Testament, although he produced no recension of his own.
Of the names of the planets Estera (Ishtar Venus, also called Ruha d'Qudsha, "holy spirit"), Enba (Nebo, Mercury), Sin (moon), Kewan (Saturn), Bil (Jupiter), and Nirig (Nirgal, Mars) reveal their Babylonian origin; Il or Il Il, the sun, is also known as Kadush and Adunay (the Adonai of the Old Testament); as lord of the planetary spirits his place is in the midst of them; they are the source of all temptation and evil amongst men.
In the Mandaean view the Old Testament saints are false prophets; such as Abraham, who arose six thousand years after NU (Noah) during the reign of the sun, Misha (Moses), in whose time the true religion was professed by the Egyptians, and Shlimun (Solomon) bar Davith, the lord of the demons.
From 1872 until his death he was Bussey Professor of New Testament Criticism and Interpretation in the Harvard Divinity School.
His studies were chiefly in Oriental languages and the textual criticism of the New Testament, though his work as a bibliographer showed such results as the exhaustive list of writings (5300 in all) on the doctrine of the future life, appended to W.
Hackett) of the enlarged American edition of Dr (afterwards Sir) William Smith's Dictionary of the Bible (1867-1870), to which he contributed more than 400 articles besides greatly improving the bibliographical completeness of the work; was an efficient member of the American revision committee employed in connexion with the Revised Version (1881-1885) of the King James Bible; and aided in the preparation of Caspar Rene Gregory's Prolegomena to the revised Greek New Testament of Tischendorf.
The service opened with a procession of Old Testament characters, prophets, patriarchs and kings, together with heathen prophets, including Virgil, the chief figure being Balaam on his ass.
In addition to the books mentioned above he published a number of books which had a remarkable circulation in England and America, such as Speaking to the Heart (1862); The Way to Life (1862); Man and the Gospel (1865); The Angel's Song (1865); The Parables (1866); Our Father's Business (1867); Out of Harness (1867); Early Piety (1868); Studies of Character from the Old Testament (1868-1870); Sundays Abroad (1871).
On the other hand, he came to look upon the Old Testament prophets as approved by their antiquity, sanctity, mystery and prophecies to be interpreters of the truth.
His works are also of great value for the history of the New Testament writings.
He knows of no canon of the New Testament, i.e.
The mosaics of the atrium date from 1200 to 1300; the subjects are taken from Old Testament story.
The interior, a basilica with nave and two aisles, contains columns said to come from a temple of Minerva and a fine mosaic pavement of 1166, with interesting representations of the months, Old Testament subjects, &c. It has a crypt supported by forty-two marble columns.
But the persecution of the clergy led him to seek an antidote for what he regarded as the corruption of the Church, and he resolved to translate the New Testament into the vernacular.
After visiting Luther at Wittenberg, he settled with his amanuensis William Roy in Cologne, where he had made some progress in printing a 4to edition of his New Testament, when the work was discovered by John Cochlaeus, dean at Frankfurt, who not only got the senate of Cologne to interdict further printing, but warned Henry VIII.
Besides the New Testament, the Pentateuch and Jonah, it is believed that he finished in prison the section of the Old Testament extending from Joshua to Chronicles.
The name of Catholic Epistles is given to those letters (two of Peter, three of John, one of James, one of Jude) incorporated in the New Testament which (except 2 and 3 John) are not, like those of St Paul, addressed to particular individuals or churches, but to a larger and more indefinite circle of readers.
(See Bible: New Testament, Canon.) The title of Catholicus (KaBoXucen) seems to have been used under the Roman empire, though rarely, as the Greek equivalent of consularis and praefectus.
In the Old Testament Memphis is mentioned under the names of Moph (Hos.
14pas in the New Testament, and Heb.
6) in the Old Testament.
" The Jesus Christ presented to us in the New Testament would become a very different person if the miracles were removed " (Temple's Relations between Religion and Science).
that may be presented in the Old Testament.
The supernatural element that is prominent in the Old Testament is God's providential guidance and guardianship of His people, and His teaching and training of them by His prophets.
The Apostolic miracles, to which the New Testament bears evidence, were wrought in the power of Christ, and were evidences to His church and to the world of His continued presence.
His first great work, an historico-critical introduction to the Old Testament, Historisch-kritisch onderzoek naar het onstaan en de verzameling van de boeken des Ouden Verbonds (3 vols., 1861-1865; 2nd ed., 1885-1893; German by T.
There he collaborated with Oscar Leopold von Gebhardt in Texte and Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur (1882 sqq.), an irregular periodical, containing only essays in New Testament and patristic fields.
It has been followed by some very interesting and important New Testament studies (Beitreige zur Einleitung in das neue Testament, 1906 sqq.; Engl.
His distinctive characteristics are his claim for absolute freedom in the study of church history and the New Testament; his distrust of speculative theology, whether orthodox or liberal; his interest in practical Christianity as a religious life and not a system of theology.
This was followed in 1777 by A Letter to Dr Hurd, Bishop of Worcester, wherein the Importance of the Prophecies of the New Testament and the Nature of the Grand Apostasy predicted in them are particularly and impartially considered.
Evanson rejected most of the books of the New Testament as forgeries, and of the four gospels he accepted only that of St Luke.
This usage is not Hebrew; it is not found either in the Old Testament or in the later (Mishnaic)Hebrew.
The word is not found in this sense elsewhere in the Old Testament, but it so occurs in the Mishna (Pirke Aboth, iv.
It is not certain that it is quoted in the New Testament, but it appears to be included in Josephus' list of sacred books.
In addition to the Old Testament the Therapeutae had books by the founders of their sect on the allegorical method of interpreting Scripture.
There is reason to believe that soap came to the Romans from Germany, and that the detergents in use in earlier times and mentioned as soap in the Old Testament (Jer.
After the close of the Old Testament history the word Gilead seldom occurs.
In Josephus and the New Testament the name Peraea or ripav Tou 'Iopbavou is most frequently used; and the country is sometimes spoken of by Josephus as divided into small provinces called after the capitals in which Greek colonists had established themselves during the reign of the Seleucidae.
The cities of Gilead expressly mentioned in the Old Testament are Ramoth, Jabesh and Jazer.
In the Old Testament it is regularly written with the article, i.e.
The Old Testament depicts the history of the people as a series of acts of apostasy alternating with subsequent penitence and return to Yahweh, and the question whether this gives effect to actual conditions depends upon the precise character of the elements of Yahweh worship brought by the Israelites into Palestine.
This has been translated into English under the title of The testament of Ignatius Loyola, being sundry acts of our Father Ignatius, under God, the first founder of the Society of Jesus, taken down from the Saint's own lips by Luis Gonzales (London, 1900); and the above account of Ignatius is taken in most places directly from this, which is not only the best of all sources but also a valuable corrective of the later and more imaginative works.
AMALEKITES, an ancient tribe, or collection of tribes, in the south and south-east of Palestine, often mentioned in the Old Testament as foes of the Israelites.
The name is a compound of two divine names; the first part is a form of the Himyaritic `Athtar, the equivalent of the Old Testament Ashtoreth, the Phoenician Astarte, with the feminine ending omitted (Assyr.
In the public and private use of Christians some parts of Ephesians have been among the most favourite of all New Testament passages.
Questions of genuineness, purpose, &c., are discussed in the New Testament Introductions of H.
Charteris, Canonicity (1880) and the New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers (Oxford, 1905).
1877); and in the works on New Testament theology by B.
µapTvp or wiprvs), a word meaning literally "witness" and often used in that sense in the New Testament e.g.
But from a comparison of prophetic passages of the Old Testament learned apocalyptic writers came to the conclusion that a distinction must be drawn between the earthly appearance of the Messiah and the appearance of God Himself amongst His people and in the Gentile world for the final judgment.
Dionysius of Alexandria had already referred a Messianic prediction of the Old Testament to the emperor Gallienus.
Old Testament), are an important constituent of the apocryphal scriptures connected with the Old Testament, comprising the dying commands of the twelve sons of Jacob.
The main, the overwhelming value of the book lies not in this province, but in its ethical teaching, which has achieved a real immortality by influencing the thought and diction of the writers of the New Testament, and even those of our Lord.
This ethical teaching, which is indefinitely higher and purer than that of the Old Testament, is yet its true spiritual child, and helps to bridge the chasm that divides the ethics of the Old and New Testaments.
The first Greek translation was used by our Lord, by St Paul, and other New Testament writers.
Charles's The Greek Versions of the Testament of the XII.
Of manumissio justa there were four modes: (I) by adoption, rarely resorted to; (2) by testament, already recognized in the Twelve Tables; (3) by census, which was of exceptional use, and did not exist later than the time of Vespasian; and (4) by vindicta, which was the usual form.
7) fixed the proportion of a man's slaves which he could liberate by testament, and forbade more than a hundred being so enfranchised, whatever might be the the number of the familia.
They read the Greek Testament and the classics; fasted on Wednesday and Friday; received the Lord's Supper every week; and brought all their life under review.
His teaching may be described as Evangelical Arminianism and its standards are his own four volumes of sermons and his Notes on the New Testament.
The suggestion has been made that the name Cain is the eponym, of the Kenites, and although this clan has a good name almost everywhere in the Old Testament, yet in Num.
The cycle of Old Testament subjects is equally limited.
These and similar statements favouring the doctrines of the New Testament made many Kabbalists of the highest position in the synagogue embrace the Christian faith and write elaborate books to win their Jewish brethren over to Christ.
The first Welsh testament issued by that Society appeared on the 6th of May 1806, the bible on the 7th of May 1807 - both being edited by Charles.
It was used, however, by New Testament writers (vii.
This is the last historical event related in the Old Testament of Bashan.
WISDOM LITERATURE, the name applied to the body of Old Testament and Apocryphal writings that contain the philosophical thought of the later pre-Christian Judaism.
A duty of 10 per mille on its estimated value has to be paid on transfer by sale, donation or testament; 5 per mille on transfer by inheritance; and, a registration duty on expenses of transfer.
He quotes all the books of the Old Testament except Ruth and the Song of Solomon, and amongst the sacred writings of the Old Testament he evidently included the book of Tobit, the Wisdom of Solomon and Ecclesiasticus.
He is equally full in his quotations from the New Testament, for he quotes from all the books except the epistle to Philemon, the second epistle of St Peter, and the epistle of St James, and he quotes from The Shepherd of Hermas, and the epistles of Clemens Romanus and of Barnabas, as inspired.
Among its curiosities still extant are two New Testament Codices of the 10th century and two of the 11th; various works by Alphonso the Wise (1252-1284), a Virgil of the 14th century, a Koran of the 15th, &c. Of the Arabic manuscripts which it contained in the 17th century a catalogue was given in J.
It is to be remarked that the "laying on of hands," which in the Old and the New Testament alike is the usual "form" of blessing, is not used in liturgical benedictions, the priest being directed merely to extend his right hand towards the person to be blessed.
According to the Old Testament account the Assyrian king even advanced against Israel, and only withdrew in consideration of a tribute amounting to about f400,000.
by "ark," is used in the Old Testament (I) of the box made of bulrushes in which Pharaoh's daughter found the infant Moses (Exodus ii.
The traditional history of Ammon as related in the Old Testament is not free from obscurity, due to the uncertain date of the various references and to the doubt whether the individual details belong to the particular period to which each is ascribed.
The word is commonly used in the Alexandrian Greek translation of the Old Testament (Septuagint) for the Hebrew word (ger) which is derived from a root (gur) denoting to sojourn.
Some authorities think that the " God-fearers " of some of the Psalms and of the New Testament were these limited proselytes.
'HABAKKUK, the name borne by the eighth book of the Old Testament "Minor Prophets."
1) in titles, but nowhere else in the Old Testament.
The other objections, however, remain, and have provoked a variety of theories from Old Testament scholars, of which three call for special notice.
The closing verses strike that deep note of absolute dependence on God, which is the glory of the religion of the Old Testament and its chief contribution to the spirit of the Gospels.
The different application of these words in the New Testament to "faith" Earlier, however, than Ps.
He took his theological degree in March 1890, by the oral defence of forty Latin scholastic theses and by a French dissertation, Histoire du canon de l'ancien testament, published as his first book in that year.
Italy: "Lettres Romaines" in Annales de philosophie chretienne (Paris, January-March 1904), an Italian theologian's fearless defence of Loisy's main New Testament positions; Rev. P. Louis Billot S.J., De sacra traditione (Freiburg i.
This metal was known to the ancients, and is mentioned in the Old Testament.
versions ap X ab and aXab), a Hebrew name, mentioned only once in the Old Testament (Gen.
Perowne was a good Hebrew scholar of the old type and sat on the Old Testament Revision Committee.
De Wette's Beitrage zur Einleitung in das Alte Testament.
Besides those already mentioned it is sufficient to refer to his New Testament Introduction (the first edition, 1750, preceded the full development of his powers, and is a very different book from the later editions), his reprint of Robert Lowth's Praelectiones with important additions (1758-1762), his German translation of the Bible with notes (1773-1792), his Orientalische and exegetische Bibliothek (1775-1785) and Neue 0.
use was made by the writers of the New Testament.
It is in a like laudatory meaning that Gregory reckons the New Testament apocalypse as iv anron: pi flocs (Oratio in swam ordinationem, iii.
As they stood in the Septuagint or Greek canon, along 2 The New Testament shows undoubtedly an acquaintance with several of the apocryphal books.
Already Wycliffe had declared that " whatever book is in the Old Testament besides these twentyfive (Hebrew) shall be set among the apocrypha, that is, without authority or belief."
OLD Testament Apocryphal Books We shall now proceed to enumerate the apocryphal books: first the Apocrypha Proper, and next the rest of the Old and New Testament apocryphal literature.
The Apocrypha Proper, or the apocrypha of the Old Testament as used by English-speaking Protestants, consists of the following books: 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, Additions to Esther, Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, Epistle of Jeremy, Additions to Daniel (Song of the Three Holy Children, History of Susannah, and Bel and the Dragon), Prayer of Manasses, i Maccabees, 2 Maccabees.
Thus the Apocrypha Proper constitutes the surplusage of the Vulgate or Bible of the Roman Church over the Hebrew Old Testament.
Since this surplusage is in turn derived from the Septuagint, from which the old Latin version was translated, it thus follows that the difference between the Protestant and the Roman Catholic Old Testament is, roughly speaking, traceable to the difference between the Palestinian and the Alexandrian canons of the Old Testament.
It should further be observed that the Vulgate adds the Prayer of Manasses and 3 and 4 Ezra after the New Testament as apocryphal.
lectionibus (Oxford, 1798-1827); Swete, Old Testament in.
C. Bissell, Apocrypha of the Old Testament (Edinburgh, 1880); Zickler, Apok.
Other Old Testament Apocryphal Literature: (a) Historical.
preserved in its entirety only in Ethiopic. Jubilees is the most advanced pre-Christian representative of the midrashic tendency, which was already at work in the Old Testament 1 and 2 Chronicles.
This work is found also in Armenian, and has been published by the Mechitharist community in Venice in their Collection of Uncanonical Writings of the Old Testament, and translated by Conybeare (Jewish Quarterly Review, vii.
New Testament Apocryphal Literature: (a) Gospels: - Uncanonical sayings of the Lord in Christian and Jewish writings.
The quotations from the Old Testament are made from the Massoretic text.
274), and also in the Old Testament (Amos v.
And the name of Javan is not found in any part of the Old Testament certainly older than Ezekiel.
Christians being released, in important particulars, from conformity to the Old Testament polity as a whole, a real difficulty attended the settlement of the limits and the immediate authority of the remainder, known vaguely as the moral law.
Marcionites, named by Clement of Alexandria Antitactae (revolters against the Demiurge) held the Old Testament economy to be throughout tainted by its source; but they are not accused of licentiousness.
Random as are some of his statements, he was consistent in two objects: (1) in the interest of solifidian doctrine, to place the rejection of the Catholic doctrine of good works on a sure ground; (2) in the interest of the New Testament, to find all needful guidance for Christian duty in its principles, if not in its precepts.
Indeed, phrases more or less equivalent occur in the sub-apostolic literature, and even in the New Testament itself, such as those who are " over you in the Lord " (r Thess.
This theory is clearly stated by Cranmer: " In the New Testament he that is appointed bishop or priest needed no consecration, by the Scripture, for election or appointment thereto is sufficient."2 This view, widely held among modern scholars, has strong support in the fact that the words used for ordination in the first three centuries (xaporov€ v, xaOcvTav€CV, «Afpova9at, constituere, ordinare) also expressed appointment to civil office.
town of Sajo-St-Peter (1403) relating to the wine trade; by the testament of Kazzai-Karacson (1413); and by other relics of this period published by Dobrentei in vol.
Among these there are - versions of the Epistles of St Paul, by Benedict Komjati (Cracow, 1 533); of the Four Gospels, by Gabriel (Mizser) Pesti Vienna, 1536); of the New Testament, by John Erdosi (Ujsziget, 1541; 2nd ed., Vienna, 1574 6), and by Thomas 060> Felegyhazi (1586); and the translations of the Bible, by Caspar Heltai (Klausenburg, 1551-1565), and by Caspar Karoli (Vizsoly, near Goncz, 1589-1590).
Among the few prose writers of distinction were Andrew Spangar, whose " Hungarian Bookstore," Magyar Konyvtdr (Kassa, 1738), is said to be the earliest work of the kind in the Magyar dialect; George Baranyi, who translated the New Testament (Lauba, 1 754); the historians Michael Cserei and Matthew Bel, which last, however, wrote chiefly in Latin; and Peter Bod, who besides his theological treatises compiled a history of Hungarian literature under the title Magyar Athends (Szeben, 1766).
of Marie de Medici and Louis XIII.), sometimes attributed to Mezeray, published at Amsterdam in 1730 and, under the title Histoire de la regence de reine Marie de Medicis, femme de Henry IV., at the Hague in 1743 Memoires sur la regne de Louis XIII., extending from 1610 to 1638, and of which the earlier portion is a reprint of the Histoire de la mere et du fils, published in Petitot's collection (Paris, 1823 seq.); Testament politique d'Armand du Plessis, cardinal de Richelieu (Amsterdam, 1687 seq.); Journal de 1630-31 (Paris, 1645); "Lettres, instructions diplomatiques, et papiers d'etat," published by G.
Among these may be mentioned his Brief Outline of the Evidences of the Christian Religion (1825), which passed through several editions, and,; was translated into various languages; The Canon of the Old and New Testament Ascertained; or the Bible Complete without the Apocrypha and Unwritten Traditions (1826); A History of the Israelitish Nation (1852), and Outlines of Moral Science (1852), the last two being published posthumously.
Having studied theology at the university of Gottingen under Heinrich Ewald, he established himself there in 1870 as privat-docent for Old Testament history.
Wellhausen made his name famous by his critical investigations into Old Testament history and the composition of the Hexateuch, the uncompromising scientific attitude he adopted in testing its problems bringing him into antagonism with the older school of biblical interpreters.
Bleek's Einleitung in das Alte Testament (4-6, 1878-1893).
He also did useful and interesting work as a New Testament commentator.
2 The title iliaNuoc or MVOs 11 a)pLiv is used in the New Testament (Luke xx.
Indeed it is at least equally probable that it was the recent translation of some of the poetical books of the Old Testament which fired him with a desire to translate his grandfather's book, and perhaps add the work of a member of the family to the Bible of the Egyptian Jews.
These considerations, in addition to numerous phrases and expressions which cannot here be noticed, of which the full force can only be felt by those who have specially studied the Maccabaean period and those other portions of the Old Testament, such as Zechariah ix.
For the Psalms, as for the other books of the Old Testament, the scholars of the period of the revival of Hebrew studies about the time of the Reformation were mainly dependent on the ancient versions and on the Jewish scholars of the middle ages.
To these may be added (excluding general commentaries on the Old Testament) the two acute but wayward commentaries of Hitzig (1836, 1863-1865), that of Delitzsch (1859-1860, then in shorter form in several editions since 1867; Eng.
This theory, which he set forth with all his accustomed learning and force, is still accepted in many quarters, many other passages of the Old Testament being likewise assigned to the same date.
In the judgment of the present writer however, the results of Old Testament study (particularly in the Prophets) since Professor Robertson Smith's death have shown that this theory is untenable.
Robertson Smith's article the following may be specially noticed: Cheyne, The Book of Psalms (1888), The 1 It contains, however, elements which are as early as the time of the New Testament.
Asshur), a Hebrew name, occurring in many passages of the Old Testament, for the land and dominion of Assyria.'
- Isaiah is the name of the greatest, and both in life and in death the most influential of the Old Testament prophets.
P. Smith, Old Testament History, Edin., 1903, p. 202, note 2.) II.
And by a skilful piecing together of the date furnished by the oldest Syriac versions of the Bible - such as the derivation of the Old Testament version from the Jews, and the almost exclusive use of Tatian's Diatessaron as the gospel of the Syriac Church down to the beginning of the 5th century - F.
The received Syriac Bible or Vulgate (called the Peshitta or " simple " version from the 9th century onwards 4) contains all the canonical books of the Old Testament.
The Peshitta version of the Old Testament must have been originally made mainly by Jews, of whom we know there were colonies in Mesopotamia in the 2nd century.
The Peshitta New Testament - according to the convincing theory which at present holds the field s - is not the oldest form of the Syriac version, at least as regards the Gospels.
It appears to be traceable in its Greek dress in writings of the philosopher Democritus and the dramatist Menander; it was certainly known to the author of Tobit and perhaps to the author of Daniel; some would trace its influence in the New Testament, in the parable of the wicked servant and elsewhere; it was known to Mahomet and is referred to in the Koran; it has been included among the tales in the Arabian Nights; and it survives in a good many versions ancient and modern.
and the Testament of Adam by M.
By the wish of ZEthelweard he also began a paraphrase 3 of parts of the Old Testament, but under protest, for the stories related in it were not, he thought, suitable for simple minds.
in the New Testament and in the most ancient monuments of Christian thought, to all believers.
The "Gospel and Apostle" was a comprehensive term for the whole of the New Testament (except perhaps Revelation), as read in church.
Yet this did not probably go beyond the dualism of the New Testament itself.
Before passing to the special covering for the feet and head some further reference to the Old Testament usage may be made.
BERNHARD WEISS (1827-), German Protestant New Testament scholar, was born at Konigsberg on the 10th of June 1827.
trans., 1883), Lehrbuch der Einleitung in das Neue Testament (1886; 3rd ed., 1897; Eng.
1888), Das Neue Testament: Berichtigter Text (3 vols., 1902), and Die Quellen des Lukasevangeliums (1907).
He was also the reviser of commentaries on the New Testament in the series of H.
Of the well-known Notes on the New Testament it is said that more than a million volumes had been issued by 1870.
HADAD, the name of a Syrian deity, is met with in the Old Testament as the name of several human persons; it also occurs in compound forms like Benhadad and Hadadezer.
He is named in Lyndsay's Testament and Complaynt of the Papyngo (1530) with poets then dead, and the reference precedes that to Douglas who had died in 1522.
Probably nowhere can the actual historical progress from the primitive use of animal sacrifices to the later refinement of burning incense be more clearly traced than in the pages of the Old Testament, where no mention of the latter rite occurs before the period of the Mosaic legislation; but in the monuments of ancient Egypt the authentic traces of the use of incense that still exist carry us back to a much earlier date.
In Montpellier, where he lived from 1303 to 1306, he was much distressed by the prevalence of Aristotelian rationalism, which, through the medium of the works of Maimonides, threatened the authority of the Old Testament, obedience to the law, and the belief in miracles and revelation.
The writer is more versed than any other New Testament writer except the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and very much more than most of them, in the literary Greek of the period of the rise of Christianity; and he has, also, like other writers, his favourite words, turns of expression and thoughts.
The promises of Old Testament prophets that the Gentiles would share in the blessing of the coming of Christ are also recalled, ii.
EPISTLE TO PHILEMON, a scripture of the New Testament.
xvi.), this is the only letter in the New Testament addressed, even in part, to a woman, unless the second epistle of John be taken as meant for an individual.
Philemon, ein Vorbild fiir die 1 History of the New Testament Times (1895), iv.
Eine Prophetenstimme aus der Gegenwart, in which, starting from texts in the Old Testament and assuming the tone of a prophet, he discussed topics of every kind.
This " bank " or kisad, together with the corresponding western bank of the Tigris (according to Hommel the modern Shatt el-Hai), gave its name to the land of Chesed, whence the Kasdim of the Old Testament.
The only ancient authority of value on Babylonian and Assyrian history is the Old Testament.
This led to an examination of the New Testament foundation of the Christian Church, and in 1725, in a letter to Francis Archibald, minister of Guthrie, Forfarshire, he repudiated the obligation of national covenants.
From the scriptural doctrine of the essentially spiritual nature of the kingdom of Christ, Glas in his public teaching drew the conclusions: (1) that there is no warrant in the New Testament for a national church; (2) that the magistrate as such has no function in the church; (3) that national covenants are without scriptural grounds; (4) that the true Reformation cannot be carried out by political and secular weapons but by the word and spirit of Christ only.
- In the Old Testament the name of the race is written Heth (with initial aspirate), members of it being Hatti, Hittim, which the Septuagint renders XET, xETTaGOS,)(Err or or xETTEty, keeping, it will be noted, in the stem throughout.
2), is not connected explicitly with Hittites, a fact which is not surprising, since that city was no longer under a Hatti dynasty at the epoch of the Old Testament references.
So far as the Old Testament goes, therefore, we gather that the Hittites were a considerable people, widely spread in Syria, in part subdued and to some extent assimilated by Israel, but in part out of reach.
The transition from prophecy to apocalyptic (Corot(aXi 7rrecv, to reveal something hidden) was gradual and already accomplished within the limits of the Old Testament.
We shall now consider (I.) Apocalyptic, its origin and general characteristics; (II.) Old Testament Apocalyptic; (III.) New Testament Apocalyptic.
Old Testament prophecy had addressed itself to both these problems, though it was hardly conscious of the claims of the latter.
Apocalyptic thus forms the indispensable preparation for the religion of the New Testament.
OLD Testament Apocalyptic i.
Testament of Job.
important of Old Testament apocryphs, has only recently come into its own.
The ethical character of the book is of the highest type, and its profound influence on the writers of the New Testament is yet to be appreciated.
About a half of the original Testament is preserved in the Latin version.
With this "Testament" the "Assumption," to which almost all the patristic references and that of Jude are made, was subsequently edited.
16), the first of which only is preserved in the Greek and is assigned by James to the 2nd century A.D., see that scholar's "Testament of Abraham," Texts and Studies, ii.
NEW Testament Apocalyptic When we pass from Jewish literature to that of the New Testament, we enter into a new and larger atmosphere at once recalling and transcending what had been best in the prophetic periods of the past.
Hence we shall not be surprised to find that the two tendencies are fully represented in primitive Christianity, and, still more strange as it may appear, that New Testament apocalyptic found a more ready hearing amid the stress and storm of the 1st century than the prophetic side of Christianity, and that the type of the forerunner on the side of its declared asceticism appealed more readily to primitive Christianity than that of Him who came "eating and drinking," declaring both worlds good and both God's.
Testament of Hezekiah.
Testament of Abraham.
- In the latter half of the 2nd century this book enjoyed a respect bordering on that paid to the writings of the New Testament.
See Vassiliev's Anecdota GraecoByzantina (Moscow, 1893), pp. 3 8 -44; Uncanonical Books of the Old Testament (Venice, 1901), pp. 237 sqq., 387 sqq.
At the peace congress of Abo (January - August 1743) he insisted that the whole of Finland should be ceded to Russia, by way of completing the testament of Peter the Great.
seigneur; thus in the Old Testament it represents Yahweh, Jehovah, and in the New Testament «upcos, as a title of Jesus Christ.
GAMALIEL (SK'), This name, which in Old Testament times figures only as that of a prince of the tribe of Manasseh (vide Num.
is the only Jewish scribe whose name is mentioned in the New Testament he became a subject of Christian legend, and a monk of the 12th century (Hermann the Premonstratensian) relates how he met Jews in Worms studying Gamaliel's commentary on the Old Testament, thereby most probably meaning the Talmud.
He soon became the most popular teacher of Hebrew and of Old Testament introduction and exegesis in Germany; during his later years his lectures were attended by nearly five hundred students.
The poem is based, not directly on the New Testament, but on the pseudo-Tatian's harmony of the Gospels, and it shows acquaintance with the commentaries of Alcuin, Banda and Hrabanus Maurus.
It is usually maintained that this work was written before the Old Testament poems. The arguments for this view are that the Heliand contains no allusion to any foregoing poetical treatment of the antecedent history, and that the Genesis fragments exhibit a higher degree of poetic skill.
BARNABAS, in the New Testament, the surname, according to Acts iv.
Yet we must beware of regarding Barnabas as merely a fine character; he plays too prominent a part in the New Testament for any such limitation.
THE Epistle Of Barnabas is one of the apocryphal books of the New Testament.
At the end of the Codex Sinaiticus of the 4th century, as a sort of appendix to the New Testament, there stands an "Epistle of Barnabas."
Here it is followed by the Shepherd of Hernias, while in an 11th-century MS., which contains also the Didache, it is followed by two writings which themselves form an appendix to the New Testament in the Codex Alexandrinus.
See also APOCRYPHAL LITERATURE, section "New Testament."
His views on questions of Old Testament criticism were "advanced" in his own day; for on all the disputed points concerning the unity and authorship of the books of the Old Covenant he was opposed to received opinion.
But with respect to the New Testament his position was conservative.
An opponent of the Tubingen school, his defence of the genuineness and authenticity of the gospel of St John is among the ablest that have been written; and although on some minor points his views did not altogether coincide with those of the traditional school, his critical labours on the New Testament must nevertheless be regarded as among the most important contributions to the maintenance of orthodox opinions.
After his death were published: - (1) His Introduction to the Old Testament (Einleitung in das Alte Testament), (3rd ed., 1869); Eng.
Wellhausen, who made extensive alterations and additions; (2) his Introduction to the New Testament (3rd ed., W.
Cheyne's Founders of Old Testament Criticism (1893).
The Old Testament references to Arabs were obscure.
section Antiquities above), which have done service both by their own indication of a great civilization in Arabia for nearly (or more than) a thousand years before the Christian era, and by the new stimulus which they gave to the study and appreciation of the materials in the Assyrian inscriptions, the Old Testament, and the Greek and Roman writers.
This evidence is confirmed by (a) the canon of Theodore of Edessa (800) allowing metropolitans of China, India and other distant lands to send their reports to the catholikos every six years; (b) the edict of Wu Tsung destroying Buddhist monasteries and ordering 300 foreign priests to return to the secular life that the customs of the empire might be uniform; (c) two 9th-century Arab travellers, one of whom, Ibn Wahhab, discussed the contents of the Bible with the emperor; (d) the discovery in 1725 of a Syrian MS. containing hymns and a portion of the Old Testament.
And there has lately come to light a MS. of the 9th or 10th century in Sogdianese, an Indo-Iranian language spoken in the north-east of Asia,which shows that theNestorians had translated the New Testament into that tongue and had taught the natives the alphabet and the doctrine.
Rendel Harris, Sidelights on New Testament Research, Lect.
But in the spring of 1824 he was recalled to GÃ¶ttingen as repetent, or theological tutor, and in 1827 (the year of Eichhorn's death) he became professor extraordinarius in philosophy and lecturer in Old Testament exegesis.
Solly (London, 1876); Commentary on the Prophets of the Old Testament, by J.
Cheyne, Founders of Old Testament Criticism (1893); F.
EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPPIANS, a book of the New Testament.
the evidence tabulated in The New Testament in the Apostolic 6 To the details furnished in the present writer's Historical New Testament (2nd ed., 1901, pp. 6 346 35) may be added references to Volter's Paulus u.
Kennedy (Expositor's Greek Testament, 1903), to which may be added the older commentaries of C. J.
Moule (Cambridge Greek Testament, 1897) and J.
ZECHARIAH, son of Berechiah, son of Iddo (or by contraction, son of Iddo), a prophet of the Old Testament.
Rather its contents came to him piecemeal and at various stages in his ministry as a Christian "prophet," extending over a period of years; and, like certain Old Testament prophets, he shows us how by his own experiences he became the medium of a divine message to his church and to God's " elect " people at large.
The New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers, Oxford, 1905, 105 seq.).
the pre-existent Holy Spirit or Son, who dwelt in Christ's " flesh "), in baptism, the " seal " which even Old Testament saints had to receive in Hades (Sim.
Generally speaking, Hermas's piety, especially in its language, adheres closely to Old Testament forms. But it is doubtful (pace Spitta and Volter, who assume a Jewish or a proselyte basis) whether this means more than that the Old Testament was still the Scriptures of the Church.
Some of the later writers in the Old Testament employ the appellative Elohim, God, prevailingly or exclusively; a collection of Psalms (Ps.
Wisdom, 2 and 3 Maccabees), as in the New Testament, Kupcos takes the place of the name of God.
The Samaritans, who otherwise shared the scruples of the Jews about the utterance of the name, seem to have used it in judicial oaths to the scandal of the rabbis.4 The early Christian scholars, who inquired what was the true name of the God of the Old Testament, had therefore no great difficulty in getting the information they sought.
The name Jhvh enters into the composition of many proper names of persons in the Old Testament, either as the initial element, in the form Jehoor Jo- (as in Jehoram, Joram), or as the final element, in the form -jahu or -jah (as in Adonijahu, Adonijah).
" To be " in the Hebrew of the Old Testament is not hawah, as the derivation would require, but hayah; and we are thus driven to the further assumption that hawah belongs to an earlier stage of the language, or to some older speech of the forefathers of the Israelites.
And, inasmuch as nowhere in the Old Testament, outside of Exod.
r4 seq., intended to give an etymological interpretation of the name Yahweh," his etymology is any better than many other paronomastic explanations of proper names in the Old Testament, or than, say, the connexion of the name 'A7roXXcwv with airo?ovwv, 6.7roXuwv in Plato's Cratylus, or the popular derivation from eurOXXvµe.
The association of Yahweh with storm and fire is frequent in the Old Testament; the thunder is the voice of Yahweh, the lightning his arrows, the rainbow his bow.
4 seq.; 4 See a collection and critical estimate of this evidence by Zimmern, Die Keilinschriften and das Alte Testament, 465 sqq.
In the Christian Church the tradition of faith healing dates from the earliest days of Christianity; upon the miracles of the New Testament follow cases of healing, first by the Apostles, then by their successors; but faith healing proper is gradually, from the 3rd century onwards, transformed into trust in relics, though faith cures still occur sporadically in later times.
Lag., p. 280), the scene of one of the most striking episodes in Old Testament history (1 Sam.
Day by day his impassioned words, filled with the spirit of the Old Testament, wrought upon the minds of the Florentines and strung them to a pitch of pious emotion never before - and never since - attained by them.
SAMUEL, a prominent figure in Old Testament history, was born at Ramah and was dedicated to the service of Yahweh at the sanctuary of Shiloh where his youth was spent with Eli.
The name in various modifications - Micaiahu, Micaiehu, Micaiah - is common in the Old Testament, expressing as it does a fundamental point of Hebrew faith: Who is like Yahweh ?
He also collated some Paris manuscripts of the Greek Testament for John Fell, bishop of Oxford.
Hereafter the simple name Pontus without qualification was regularly employed to denote the half of this dual province, especially by Romans and people speaking from the Roman point of view; it is so used almost always in the New Testament.
The workmanship of the book is unequal: historical and literary criticism had never been Martineau's strongest point, although he had almost continuously maintained an amount of New Testament study, as his note-books show.
They possess - not in Hebrew, of which they are altogether ignorant, but in Ethiopic (or Geez)- the canonical and apocryphal books of the Old Testament; a volume of extracts from the Pentateuch, with comments given to Moses by God on Mount Sinai; the Te-e-sa-sa Sanbat, or laws of the Sabbath; the Ardit, a book of secrets revealed to twelve saints, which is used as a charm against disease; lives of Abraham, Moses, &c.; and a translation of Josephus called Sana Aihud.
He superintended an edition of Luther's translation of the Old and New Testament, with a commentary extracted from the writings of the English theologians (Leipzig, 1758-1770, completed by W.
It was an attempt to provide a more accurate rendering of the Greek Bible than had hitherto existed in Syriac, and obtained recognition among the Monophysites until superseded by the still more literal renderings of the Old Testament by Paul of Tella and of the New Testament by Thomas of Harkel (both in 616-617), of which the latter at least was based on the work of Philoxenus.
Origen indulged in many speculations which were afterwards condemned, but, as these matters were still open questions in his day, he was not reckoned a heretic. (iii.) In accordance with the New Testament use of the term heresy, it is assumed that moral defect accompanies the intellectual error, that the false view is held pertinaciously, in spite of warning, remonstrance and rebuke; aggressively to win over others, and so factiously, to cause division in the church, a breach in its unity.
of tion to observe the whole of the Mosaic law,"and" outran the Old Testament monotheism by a barren monarchian.- ism that denied the divinity of Christ "(Kurtz, Church History, i.
375) it was held to be not penal for a clergyman to speak of merit by transfer as a "fiction,"or to express a hope of the ultimate pardon of the wicked, or to affirm that any part of the Old or New Testament, however unconnected with religious faith or moral duty, was not written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.
If any person who has been educated in or has professed the Christian religion shall, by writing, printing, teaching, or advised speaking, assert or maintain that there are more Gods than one, or shall deny any of the persons of the Holy Trinity to be God, or shall deny the Christian religion to be true or the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be of divine authority, he shall for the first offence be declared incapable of holding any ecclesiastical, civil, or military office or employment, and for the second incapable of bringing any action, or of being guardian, executor, legatee, or grantee, and shall suffer three years' imprisonment without bail.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to the Old Testament.
See Jeremias, Das Alte Testament im Lichte des Alten Orients, p. 121, I; Winckler, Die Keilinschriften and das Alte Testament', p. 333 s Reville, Religions of Mexico and Peru, p. 129.
On the other Old Testament references to creation, and on the prophetic doctrine of creation, see Ency.
On the traces of dragon and serpent myths in the Old Testament and their significance, see Gunkel, Schopfung and Chaos (1895) - a pioneering work of the highest merit - and Ency.
KARL HEINRICH GRAF (1815-1869), German Old Testament scholar and orientalist, was born at Miilhausen in Alsace on the 28th of February 1815.
Graf was one of the chief founders of Old Testament criticism.
Cheyne, Founders of Old Testament Criticism (1893); and Otto Pfleiderer's book translated into English by J.
A more discriminating light is thrown upon him by the New Testament narratives of the trial of Jesus.
MALACHI, the name assigned to the last book of the Old Testament in English (the last of the " prophets " in the Hebrew Bible), which according to the title (Mal.
passages in the Old Testament, e.g.
By this time the canon of New Testament Scripture was fairly settled, and with Origen (d.
It allowed that the bishops were the successors of the apostles, that the Catholic rule of faith was a complete and authoritative exposition of Christianity, and that the New Testament was the supreme rule of the Christian life.
In his time there was no fixed, divinely instituted congregational organization, no canon of New Testament Scriptures, no anti-Gnostic theology, and no Catholic Church.
In their origin they were designed to meet the needs of the unlearned among the people who had ceased to understand the Hebrew of the Old Testament.
8, 3 is inconsistent with the linguistic evidence furnished by the postexilic literature of the Old Testament, and must be rejected as unhistorical, if only because the process by which Aramaic took the place of Hebrew was admittedly a very gradual one.
As we know from the New Testament, the custom of reading in the synagogues both from the Law 4 and from the Prophets 5 was well established in the 1 st century A.D.: its introduction, therefore, will date from a much earlier period.
But it is highly probable that this prohibition, in the case of the Targums, was mainly enforced with respect to those parts of the Old Testament which were read in the synagogal services, e.g.
Eustace Conway, or the Brother and Sister, a novel (1834); The Kingdom of Christ (1842); Christmas Day and Other Sermons (1843); TheUnity of the New Testament (1844); The Epistle to the Hebrews (1846);.
The Religions of the World (1847); Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy (at first an article in the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, 1848); The Church a Family (1850); The Old Testament (1851); Theological Essays (1853); The Prophets and Kings of the Old Testament (1853); Lectures on Ecclesiastical History (1854); The Doctrine of Sacrifice (1854); The Patriarchs and Lawgivers of the Old Testament (1855); The Epistles of St John (1857); The Commandments as Instruments of National Reformation (1866); On the Gospel of St Luke (1868); The Conscience: Lectures on Casuistry (1868); The Lord', Prayer, a Manual (1870).
The majority of critics agree that the only trace of a formal creed in the New Testament is the simple confession of Jesus as the Lord, or the Son of God (Rom.
From this point of view it is easy to explain the occurrence of creed-like phrases in the New Testament as fragments of early hymns (r Tim.
471-728) of the meaning of the theological teaching both of the New Testament and of the earliest creeds.
In his revised New Testament Marcion speaks of " the covenant which is the mother of us all, which begets us in the holy Church, to which we have vowed allegiance."
Its prosperity, as also its profligacy, is attested by the New Testament, by Strabo and Pausanias.
At Rome were published the Gospels (with a dedication to Pope Damasus, an explanatory introduction, and the canons of Eusebius), the rest of the New Testament and the version of the Psalms from the Septuagint known as the Psalterium romanum, which was followed (c. 388) by the Psalterium gallicanum, based on the Hexaplar Greek text.
Jerome's mind was evidently full of anxiety about his translation of the Old Testament, for we find him in his letters recording the conversations he had with learned men about disputed readings and doubtful renderings; the blind Didymus of Alexandria, whom he heard interpreting Hosea, appears to have been most useful.
Here he did most of his literary work and, throwing aside his unfinished plan of a translation from Origen's Hexaplar text, translated the Old Testament directly from the Hebrew, with the aid of Jewish scholars.
The story of Abraham is of greater value for the study of Old Testament theology than for the history of Israel.
3 But it is important to remember that the narratives are not contemporary, and that the interesting discovery of the name Abi-ramu (Abram) on Babylonian contracts of about 2000 B.C. does not prove the Abram of the Old Testament to be an historical person, even as the fact that there were "Amorites" in Babylonia at the same period does not make it certain that the patriarch was one of their number.
(1893); the apocryphal "Testament of Abraham" (M.
THE GENERAL EPISTLE OF JUDE, a book of the New Testament.
Moffat's Historical New Testament, 2nd ed., p. 589, contains a convenient summary of the evidence with copious bibliography.
In 1533 a decree of the Scottish clergy, prohibiting the reading of the New Testament by the laity, drew from Alesius a defence of the right of the people, in the form of a letter to James V.
Not many years ago it would have been accounted a heresy to suggest that the historical books of the Old Testament had conveyed to our minds estimates of Oriental history that suffered from this same defect; but to-day no one who is competent to speak with authority pretends to doubt that such is really the fact.
The case of the historical books of the Old Testament furnishes no exception.
From the standpoint of the historian even greater interest attaches to the records of the Assyrian and Babylonian kings when compared with the historical books of the Old Testament.
This work was valuable for the use which its author made of the Greek of the Septuagint, of the Old and New Testament Apocrypha, of Josephus, and of the apostolic fathers, in illustration of the language of the New Testament.
He sets his face against innovation in such matters as the accepted authorship of canonical writings, verbal inspiration, and the treatment of persons and events in the Old Testament as types of the New.
His views, unscholarly and uncritical as they seem to us now, have had influence on later evangelical students of the Old Testament, such as E.
the Ephraimite or Elohist source, E), see GENESIS and BIBLE: Old Testament Criticism.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about places occuring in the Old Testament.
BOOKS OF EZRA AND NEHEMIAH, in the Old Testament.
(c) Twelve years elapse before the return of Nehemiah, whose description of his work is one of the most interesting pieces of Old Testament narrative (Neh.
Guthe in Haupt's Sacred Books of Old Testament (1899); and S.
BOOK OF REVELATION, in the Bible, the last book of the New Testament.
The title is different from what the New Testament use of the term would have led us to expect, i.e.
The fact that Eusebius does not mention Revelation among the New Testament books known to Papias (H.E.
It formed no part of the Peshitta New Testament.
If, therefore, the possibilities of exegesis were exhausted in the list of methods already enumerated, science would have to put the New Testament Apocalypse aside as a hopeless enigma.
For in the New Testament Apocalypse there is not that rigid consistency and unity in detail that the past presupposed.
The critical studies of recent years have shown that most of the Old Testament prophetical books are composite.
Now modern scholars have with varying success used in turn these three hypotheses with a view to the solution of the problems of the New Testament Apocalypse.
Julicher (Einleitung in das Neue Testament', 1901, pp. 204-29) adopts the same three methods of interpretation.
The author or the final redactor has impressed a certain linguistic character on the book, which differentiates it not only from all secular writings of the time, but also from all the New Testament books, including the Johannine.
As a result of these considerations we may arrive at the date of the work with almost greater certainty than that of any other New Testament book.
But this universal characteristic of apocalyptic is almost wholly lacking in the New Testament Apocalypse.
Cheyne, Founders of Old Testament Criticism (1893).
Hence he began to study the New Testament.
The jury decided unanimously in the affirmative, and on the 16th of October 1793 Marie Antoinette was led to the guillotine, leaving behind her a touching letter to Madame Elizabeth, known as her "Testament."
fixed in the earliest creed and protected by the determination of the canon of the New Testament.
the Language of the New Testament and apply'd to the Christian State and Worship. By I.
The word used in the New Testament to describe an excommunicated person, a iOeµa (1 Cor.
The practice of the Jewish courts in New Testament times may be inferred from certain passages in the Gospels.
The general principles which govern the exclusion of members from a religious community may be gathered from the New Testament writings.
It is clear from these illustrations that within the New Testament there is development from spontaneous towards strictly regulated methods; also that the use of excommunication is chiefly for disciplinary and protective rather than punitive purposes.
Even at this time he had religious doubts; it is interesting in view of his later work that one cause of his perplexities was the difficulty of ascertaining the true reading of certain passages in the Greek New Testament.
The works on which Bengel's reputation rests as a Biblical scholar and critic are his edition of the Greek New Testament, and his Gnomon or Exegetical Commentary on the same.