Territories Sentence Examples
The territories are under the direct control of the national government .
There were two smaller kingdoms whose territories overlapped in between.
For a time Bela was equally fortunate in the north-west, where the ambitious and enterprising Piemyslidae had erected a new Bohemian empire which absorbed the territories of the old Babenbergers and was very menacing to Hungary.
The republic of Venice was respected in her liberties and Lombard territories.
Ferdinand, a great and wise prince, under whom the tide of Moslem conquest was first effectually stemmed, on his deathbed, in 1065, divided his territories among his five children.Advertisement
After the death of Charlemagne the Moravian princes took advantage of the dissensions of his successors to enlarge their territories and assert their independence, and Rastislaus (c. 850) even formed an alliance with the Bulgarians and the Byzantine emperor.
In the third place, the rejection of the Wilmot Proviso and the acceptance (as regards New Mexico and Utah) of "Squatter Sovereignty" meant the adoption of a new principle in dealing with slavery in the territories, which, although it did not apply to the same territory, was antagonistic to the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
Of these the most important was that of the Haihayas of Ratanpur, a family which, settled from time immemorial in the Nerbudda valley, had towards the close of the 10th century succeeded the Pandava dynasty of Maha Kosala (Chhattisgarh) and ruled, though from the 16th century onwards over greatly diminished territories, until its overthrow by the Mahrattas in 1745.
Sangram Sah died in 1530; and the break up of his dominion began with the enforced cession to the Mogul emperor by Chandra Sah (1563-1575) of Saugor and Damoh and of that portion of his territories which afterwards formed the state of Bhopal.
Under their peaceful rule their territories flourished, until the weakening of the Mogul empire and the rise of the predatory Bundela and Mahratta powers, with the organized forces of which their semi-barbarous feudal levies were unable to cope, brought misfortune upon them.Advertisement
In 1743 Raghoji Bhonsla of Berar established himself at Nagpur, and by 1751 had conquered the territories of Deogarh, Chanda and Chhattisgarh.
The territories in the north ceded in 1817 by the peshwa (parts of Saugor and Damoh) and in 1818 by Appa Sahib were in 1820 formed into the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories under an agent to the governor-general, and in 1835 were included in the newly formed North-West Provinces.
On the death of Edgar, king of Scotland, in 1107, the territories of the Scottish crown were divided in accordance with the terms of his will between his two brothers, Alexander and David.
On the murder of the 3rd earl (1333), his male kinsmen, who had a better right, by native Irish ideas, to the succession than his daughter, adopted Irish names and customs, and becoming virtually native chieftains succeeded in holding the bulk of the de Burgh territories.
As part of the North-West Territories the district of Alberta was organized in 1875.Advertisement
The former papal territories are now comprised within the Italian provinces of Bologna, Ferrara, Forli, Ravenna, Pesaro and Urbino, Ancona, Macerata, Ascoli-Piceno, Perugia, Rome and Benevento.
Special commissioners were to have concurrent jurisdiction with the U.S. circuit and district courts and the inferior courts of Territories in enforcing the law; fugitives could not testify in their own behalf; no trial by jury was provided; i The precise amount of organization in the Underground Railroad cannot be definitely ascertained because of the exaggerated use of the figure of railroading in the documents of the "presidents" of the road, Robert Purvis and Levi Coffin, and of its many "conductors," and their discussion of the "packages" and "freight" shipped by them.
The arrests of Sims and of Shadrach in Boston in 1851; of "Jerry" M`Henry, in Syracuse, New York, in the same year; of Anthony Burns in 1854, in Boston; and of the two Garner families in 1856, in Cincinnati, with other cases arising under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, probably had as much to do with bringing on the Civil War as did the controversy over slavery in the Territories.
The chief interest of the Spanish period lies in the advance of settlement in the western territories of the United States, the international intrigues - British, French and Spanish - involving the future of the valley, the demand of the United States for free navigation on the Mississippi, and the growing consciousness of the supreme importance of the river and New Orleans to the Union.
The streams of both territories yield excellent trout and crayfish; salmon, sturgeon and sterlet, from the Danube, are netted in the Save.Advertisement
It has been a juxtaposition of separate and generally hostile peoples in territories bound under one rule by the military sway of a dominant race.
They in their turn distributed the lands so acquired among their sons and principal emirs on strictly feudal principles, the feudatory lands being styled ziamet and timar, a system long continued by their successors in regard to the territories which they conquered.
This convention caused much excitement and irritation in Great Britain, owing to the encroachment of German influence sanctioned by it on territories bordering the Persian Gulf, hitherto considered to fall solely within the sphere of British influence.
The Bulgarians, Bosnians and Servians had at different periods invaded and conquered the territories inhabited by them; the Albanians, original natives of their land, were governed by princes of their own.
He continued to extend his territories in the north and west; the king of Servia and the rulers of Kiustendil, Nicopolis and Silistria agreed to pay tribute to the conquering Turk.Advertisement
In 1413 Mahommed defeated Mussa, and thus remained sole heir to Bayezid's throne; in seven or eight years he succeeded Mahom- in regaining all the territories over which his father med 1., had ruled, whereas Timur's empire fell to pieces 1413-1421.
The independent princes of Asia Minor were now completely subjugated and their territories finally absorbed into the Turkish dominions; Walachia was next reduced to the state of a tributary province.
The first named were charged with the duty of revising and duly executing the decisions of the divan respecting the assignment of lands to warriors and the apportioning of conquered territories.
Their territories are being rapidly occupied by Russians, and their settlements are cut in two by the Russian stream - the Baraba Tatars and the Yakuts being to the north of it, and the others having been driven back to the hilly tracts of the Altai and Sayan Mountains.
This Franconia was in 843 included in the kingdom of Louis the German, and was then increased by the addition of the territories of Mainz, Spires and Worms, on the right bank of the river.
The German occupation did not prevent the Lettish National Council, on June 26-29 1918, from claiming the reunion of all Lettish territories in accordance with the protest addressed to the German Chancellor on April 4.
Under the provisions of the Anglo-French agreement of January 1896, from the Chinese frontier southwards to the mouth of the Nam Hok the Mekong forms the frontier between the British Shan States on the west and the territories acquired from Siam by France in 1893.
The republic has no territories, although Amazonas, Matto Grosso, Para and Goyaz cover an immense region of uninhabited and only partially explored territory.
Their territories were surrounded and partly occupied by large tribes of savages.
Negotiations were set on foot, and finally by treating the matter in a give-and-take spirit a settlement was reached and a treaty for an amicable exchange of territories in the district in question, accompanied by a pecuniary indemnity, was signed by President Alves at Petropolis on the 17th of November 1903.
This army, led by the podesta of Florence and twelve burgher captains, set forth gaily on its march towards the enemy's territories in the middle of April 1260, and during its first campaign, ending on the 18th of May, won an insignificant victory at Santa Petronilla, outside the walls of Siena.
The territories of the state were enlarged; a friendly alliance was maintained with Florence; trade flourished; in 1321 the university was founded, or rather revived, by the introduction of Bolognese scholars; the principal buildings now adorning the town were begun; and the charitable institutions, which are the pride of modern Siena, increased and prospered.
The neighbouring lords attacked and ravaged the municipal territories; grave injuries were inflicted by the mercenary bands, especially by the Bretons and Gascons.
To his insistence in 1860 that the Democratic party should support his claim to the protection of slavery in the territories by the Federal government, the disruption of that party was in large measure due.
An act authorizing the annexation was passed during 1902 and the territories were formally transferred to Natal in January 1903.
From the Transylvanian counties there is an emigration to Rumania and the Balkan territories of 4000 or 5000 persons yearly.
But its place was taken more and more by Yugoslavia, which, it should be remarked, was then still used to denote all the territories inhabited by any southern Slav tribe, and so to include the Bulgars no less than the Serbo-Croats and Slovenes.
At the opening sitting (May 30) Czechs, Poles and Ruthenes defined their national attitude in formal resolutions, and the Slovene leader, Father Korosec, in the name of the Yugoslays, demanded " the union of all the Yugoslav territories of the Monarchy in an independent state organism, free from the rule of any foreign nation, and resting on a democratic basis, under the sceptre of the Habsburg-Lorraine Dynasty."
In 1810, after the peace of Vienna (Schonbrunn), the grand-duchy of Frankfort was created for his benefit out of his territories, which, in spite of the cession of Regensburg to Bavaria, were greatly augmented.
The discovery of gold at Tati led President Pretorius in April 1868 to issue a proclamation extending his territories on the west and north so as to embrace the goldfield and all Efforts Bechuanaland.
In the previous month certain native territories between Tongaland and Swaziland had been annexed by Great Britain.
On the 5th of August 1909, however, a new division was promulgated, giving 20 states, I federal district and 2 territories.
In the territories there are civil and criminal courts of first instance, and municipal courts.
The governors of the federal territories are appointees of the president of the republic, and the jefe politico of each territorial municipio is an appointee of the governor.
Leopold increased the territories of the Babenbergs by acquiring Styria in 1192 under the will of his kinsman Duke Ottakar IV.
He was here practically at the meeting-point of four distinct jurisdictions - Geneva, the canton Vaud, Sardinia and France, while other cantons were within easy reach; and he bought other houses dotted about these territories, so as never to be without a refuge close at hand in case of sudden storms. At Les Delices he set up a considerable establishment, which his great wealth made him able easily to afford.
At that time the Transvaal government - which had been the first to reap the benefit of Great Britain's defeat of the Zulu by acquiring the " New Republic " - was endeavouring to obtain the territories of Zambaan and Umtegiza, hoping also to secure a route through Tongaland to Kosi Bay.
Explanations being made and terms'of accommodation offered by General Erskine, the commanding officer, the Burmese commander retired from the British territories, when the fugitives were restored, and all differences for the time amicably arranged.
But it was evident that the gradual extension of the British and Burmese territories would in time bring the two powers into close contact along a more extended line of frontier, and in all probability lead to a war between them.
At length their chiefs ventured on the open violation of the British territories.
From 1833 to 1840 Cilicia formed part of the territories administered by Mehemet Ali of Cairo, who was compelled to evacuate it by the allied powers.
His territories were then divided between his sons and his condottieri, and Florence, ever keeping her eye on Pisa, now ruled by Gabriele Maria Visconti, made an alliance with Pope Boniface IX., who wished to regain Perugia and Bologna.
The seventh article provided that bountied sugars (sucres primes) must be excluded from import into the territories of the signatory powers, by absolute prohibition of entry or by levying thereon a special duty in excess of the amount of the bounties, from which duty sugars coming from the contracting countries, and not bountyfed, must be free.
In the, 5th century, when it attained its greatest extent, it included, besides Armagnac, the neighbouring territories of Fezensac, Fezensaguet, Pardiac, Pays de Gaure, Riviere Basse, Eauzan and Lomagne, and stretched from the Garonne to the Adour.
This was first done on a large scale in 1803, when by a recess of the imperial diet many of the smaller fiefs were mediatized, in order to compensate those German princes who had been forced to cede their territories on the left bank of the Rhine to France.
In time the private lord, who had never been an officer of the state, assumed the old administrative titles and called himself count or viscount, and perhaps with some sort of right, for his position in his territories, through the development of the immunity, did not differ from that now held by the man who had been originally a count.
Jordanes says that they had been expelled from their territories by the Danes, from which it may be inferred that they belonged either to what is now the kingdom of Denmark, or the southern portion of the Jutish peninsula.
Both then joined the Florentines, took part in the war against their native city, and laid waste its surrounding territories.
But their adversaries always returned to the assault, and, what was worse, yearly laid waste their territories and destroyed all their crops.
Its area in 1906, including Tacna and Arica, and other disputed territories occupied by neighbouring states, was officially estimated.
The principal conditions imposed by Chile were the absolute cession by Peru of the province of Tarapaca, and the occupation for a period of ten years of the territories of Tacna and Arica, the ownership of these districts to be decided by a popular vote of the inhabitants of Tacna and Arica at the expiration of the period named.
The principal political problem before the government of Peru was the ownership of the territories of Tacna and Arica.
The exchequer being drained by the payment of 10,000 pieces of gold to buy off the Gauls who had invaded their territories about 279 B.C., and by the imposition of an annual tribute which was ultimately raised to 80 talents, they were compelled to exact a toll on all the ships which passed the Bosporus - a measure which the Rhodians resented and avenged by a war, wherein the Byzantines were defeated.
The territories of Zela and Megalopolis were divided between Lycomedes, the high-priest of Zela and Ateporix, who ruled the principality of Carana (later Sebastopolis).
The bishops of Eichstatt were princes of the Empire, subject to the spiritual jurisdiction of the archbishops of Mainz, and ruled over considerable territories in the Circle of Franconia.
His son and grandson, both named Hermann, added to their territories, which about 1200 were divided, and the lines of Baden-Baden and BadenHochberg were founded, the latter of which was divided about a century later into the branches of Baden-Hochberg and BadenSausenberg.
One of these died childless in 1533, and in 1535 his remaining sons, Bernard and Ernest, having shared their brother's territories, made a fresh division and founded the lines of Baden-Baden and Baden-Pforzheim, called after 1565 Baden-Durlach.
In 1771 Augustus George of Baden-Baden died without sons, and his territories passed to Charles Frederick of Baden-Durlach, who thus became ruler of the whole of Baden.
When war broke out between France and Austria in 1792 the Badenese fought for Austria; consequently their country was devastated and in 1796 the margrave was compelled to pay an indemnity, and to cede his territories on the left bank of the Rhine to France.
Changing sides in 1805 he fought for Napoleon, with the result that by the peace of Pressburg in that year he obtained the Breisgau and other territories at the expense of the Habsburgs.
Step by step, and in spite of the efforts of the emperors at Constantinople, the great imperial officials became landowners, the owners of land - kinsmen or at least associates of these officials - intruded on the imperial administration, while the necessity for providing for the defence of the imperial territories against the Lombards led to the formation of local militias, who at first were attached to the imperial regiments, but gradually became independent.
The Army is divided, usually in harmony with national boundaries, into "territories," each under a "Commissioner," with headquarters in the capital of the country.
The Territories are generally divided into "Provinces" and these again into "Divisions," which include a number of corps, each supporting its own "Captain" and "Lieutenant."
Hydraulic mining has for the most part been confined to the country of its invention, California, and the western territories of America, where the conditions favourable for its use are more fully developed than elsewhere - notably the presence of thick banks of gravel that cannot be utilized by other methods, and abundance of water, even though considerable work may be required at times to make it available.
As Baldwin had secured the supremacy of the lay power in Jerusalem, so he extended into a compact kingdom the poor and straggling territories to which he had succeeded.
After the collapse of that monarchy its territories passed to the German kings, and Savoy was divided between the counts of Provence, of Albon, of Gex, of Bresse, of the Genevois, of Maurienne, the lords of Habsburg, of Zahringen, &c., and several prelates.
With these territories Umberto commanded three of the great Alpine passes, viz.
Oddone thus came to rule over territories on both sides of the Alps, a fact which was to dominate the policy.
At his death these territories were divided among his sons, Thomas II.
Count Peter also acquired fresh territories in Vaud, and defeated Rudolph of Habsburg at Chillon.
The count extended his territories both in Savoy itself and in Italy, and in 1416 was created duke by the emperor Sigismund.
Wars and civil commotions occupied the period of his minority and Savoy lost Freiburg and many other territories.
In the war between France and Spain after the accession of Henry IV., he took the Spanish side, and at the peace of Lyons (1601), although he gave up all his territories beyond the Rhone, his possession of Saluzzo was confirmed.
The Kuch Behar Raja applied for aid, and a force under Captain James was despatched to his assistance; the invaders were expelled and pursued into their own territories.
Since that time the annexed territories have settled down into peaceful and prosperous British districts.
These ruins were discovered in 1877 by Ernest de Sarzec, at that time French consul at Basra, who was allowed, by the Montefich chief, Nasir Pasha, the first Wali-Pasha, or governor-general, of Basra, to excavate at his pleasure in the territories subject to that official.
A war of manoeuvre on the middle Rhine ended in favour of the French, and the allies then turned against the territories of Cologne and Munster, while William, disappointed in his hopes of joining forces with his friends, made a bold, but in the end unsuccessful, raid on Charleroi (September-December 1672).
Although reunited with the " province " of Pennsylvania in 1693, the so-called " territories " or " lower counties " secured a separate legislature in 1704, and a separate executive council in 1710; the governor of Pennsylvania, however, was the chief executive until 1776.
Adrian, between whom and the Lombards other causes of quarrel existed, refused to assent to this demand, and when Desiderius invaded the papal territories he appealed to the Frankish king for help. Charles, who was at the moment engaged in his first Saxon campaign, expostulated with Desiderius; but when such mild measures proved useless he led his forces across the Alps in 773.
The vast extent of this donation, which, moreover, included territories not owning Charles's authority, and the fact that the king did not execute, or apparently attempt to execute, its provisions, has caused many scholars to look upon the passage as a forgery; but the better opinion would appear to be that it is genuine, or at least has a genuine basis.
The area of the grant may have been enlarged by later interpolations; or it may have dealt with property rather than with sovereignty, and have only referred to estates claimed by the pope in the territories named; or it is possible that Charles may have actually intended to establish an extensive papal kingdom in Italy, but was released from his promise by Adrian when the pope saw no chance of its fulfilment.
In 806 Charles arranged a division of his territories among his three legitimate sons, but this arrangement came to nothing owing to the death of Pippin in 810, and of the younger Charles in the following year.
A large dowry was stipulated for; and in consideration of this the king promised to forgo all claims that his wife might otherwise possess to the Spanish crown or any part of its territories.
For his services he received the kingdom of Syphax, and thus under Roman protection he became master of the whole of Numidia, and his dominions completely enclosed the Carthaginian territories, now straitened and reduced at the close of the Second Punic War.
The congress of Vienna (1814-1815) erected Luxemburg into a grand-duchy, added part of the duchy of Bouillon to it, and assigned it to William king of the Netherlands, in return for the German territories of the house of Orange-Nassau, which Napoleon had confistated in 1806, and which were given by the congress to the king of Prussia.
Nine years later the raja rebelled, but although with the help of the Bahmani kings of the Deccan he managed for a time to assert his independence, he was finally subdued and deprived of his territories.
The sultan was forced to acknowledge their validity, and to grant a German company a lease of his mainland territories south of the mouth of the Umba river, a British company formed by Mackinnon taking a lease of the territories north of that point.
On the 28th of October 1890 the sultan of Zanzibar ceded absolutely to Germany the mainland territories already leased to a German company, receiving as compensation £200,000.
Pitt received him cordially; and to Grenville the envoy stated his hope that the two free nations would enter into close and friendly relations, each guaranteeing the other in the possession of its existing territories, India and Ireland being included on the side of Britain.
When the Constituent Assembly, on the 26th of February 1790, decreed the division of France into departments, Anjou and the Saumurois,with the exception of certain territories, formed the department of Maine-et-Loire, as at present constituted.
In 1397 he divided his territories between his sons John and Frederick, and died in the following year.
The vast territories acquired by Spain in this brief period were held to be, by virtue of the pope's bull, the peculiar property of the sovereign.
The peoples of the thirteen states which had secured emancipation from British sovereignty were wisely intent on framing their own Federal Union, and in taking effective possession of the vast territories in the Ohio region and beyond the Mississippi.
This condition of things was ended by Wellesley's victories at Assaye and Argaon (1803), which forced the Bhonsla raja to cede his territories west of the Wardha, Gawilgarh and Narnala.
By the partition treaty of Hyderabad (1804) these ceded territories in Berar were transferred to the nizam, together with some tracts about Sindkhed and Jalna which had been held by Sindhia.
He was now planning to induce the crusading armies of the West to pass through his territories, and seemed about to play a leading part in the third Crusade.
After this Charles II., duke of Piedmont, interfered to save his territories from further confusion, and promised the Vaudois peace.
Since then, the enumeration has been decennial, except in the case of the more recently colonized territories of Manitoba and the North-West, where an intermediate census was found necessary in 1885-1886.
As the sphere of the census operations in Canada has been gradually spreading from the small beginnings on the east coast to the immense territories of the north-west, so, in the island continent, colonization, first concentrated in the south-east, has extended along the coasts and thence into the interior, except in the northern region.
It was not until about 1850 that American Congregationalists began to draw more closely together, and to propagate in the Western states and territories their own distinctive policy.
They judged, further, that should their attempt by any chance miscarry, the Great Powers, more particularly Russia, protector of the Slav peoples, would not allow them to be crushed, or their present territories to be diminished.
The northern boundary was fixed in 1899 on the division of the middle Niger territories (up to that date officially called the French Sudan) among the other French West African colonies.
The navigation of the Weser was long hampered by the various and vexatious claims and rights of the different states through whose territories it ran.
The North-West Territories were secured as a part of confederated Canada by the purchase of the rights of the Hudson's Bay Company, and the establishment of Manitoba as a province in 1870.
In 1870 the value of lumber products was $1,307,585, and the Territory ranked thirty-first among the states and territories in this industry, and in 1880 the value of the product was $ 1, 734,74 2; by 1905 the value had increased to $49,572,512, and Washington now ranked first.
Except the diamonds, which go to London via Cape Town, all the exports are taken by the neighbouring territories.
The title duke of Saxony was given to Bernard, the sixth son of Albert the Bear, together with the small territories of Lauenburg and Wittenberg, which were thus the only portions of the former duchy which now bore the name of Saxony.
Albert died in 1260, and soon after his death his two sons divided his territories, when the elder son John took Lauenburg which was sometimes called lower Saxony, and the younger, Albert II., took Wittenberg or upper Saxony.
Only a few scattered territories were reserved for John Frederick's sons, although these were increased by the treaty of Naumburg in 1554, and on them were founded the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Coburg, Saxe-Meiningen and Saxe-Altenburg.
The two survivors then founded separate jurisdictions at Weimar and Coburg, though arrangements were made to exchange territories every three years.
The duke of Hildburghausen gave up his lands entirely for Altenburg and became duke of Saxe-Altenburg; the duke of Coburg exchanged Saalfeld for Gotha and became duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha; and the duke of Saxe-Meiningen received Hildburghausen, Saalfeld and some other territories, and added Hildburghausen to his title.
The territories governed or administered by chartered companies form a class by themselves.
In the style of the Government offices this mass of territories was known as " Cisleithania."
It was in Bohemia that they championed the principle most openly, where they were striving for national separation and protection against the Czechs of the territories which they had inhabited since the Middle Ages.
After a short period of German government, which was highly beneficial to the country, Galicia received after the Constitution of 1867 an exceptional position which was gradually consolidated; the German officials were removed, and the Polish members in the Reichsrat (who represented 71 votes) held the balance between the parties, which brought Galicia, without any effort, great financial advantages at the cost of the other Crown territories.
It might have been expected that the concession of universal suffrage in the case of the House of Deputies would have led to the abolition of the class system of voting for the legislative bodies of the several territories and the introduction of an equal franchise, and also to the doing away with the three-class system of voting - established on the Prussian model - in the case of the election of municipal representatives.
The Social Democratic party endeavoured, indeed, to remove the last remains of the old electoral privilege in town and country; but the urgent motion which they brought in to this effect as early as July 8 1908 broke down, owing to a not unfounded anxiety lest in the Crown territories of mixed populations one nationality should predominate too much over another.
There was only a cautious and gradual extension of the right to vote in Diet and municipal elections in the several territories; and it was not till Jan.
The organization of the administrative system in the Austrian Empire was complicated by the fact that between the State and the purely local communal administration there intruded yet a third element, grounded in history, the territories (Lander).
The State administration comprised all affairs having relation to rights, duties and interests " which are common to all territories"; all other administrative tasks were left to the territories.
Under these ministries came the Statthalter, whose administrative area had ordinarily the proportions of a Crown territory (Kronland); but the immense variations in area of the Crown territories made a uniform and consistent intermediate administrative organization practically impossible.
Side by side with the State administration certain Crown territory administrations also existed in the 17 Crown territories, carried on by selected honorary officials, having under them a staff of professional officials.
In purely German territories moreover it was claimed that only German officials should be appointed, just as in purely Czech territories the appointment of Czech officials was already uncontroverted and looked upon as a matter of course.
In this respect Austria found herself in the same position as the German Empire; in fact, her position was in many respects considerably worse; many richly productive territories were temporarily occupied by the enemy; and as Austria was far less well provided with raw materials than Germany she was less in a position to produce goods for exchange.
The Hungarian Government could claim the right to take independent economic measures for her own territory in war-time; a joint arrangement was only possible for the territories of the Dual Monarchy - which were united for tariff purposes - by agreements between the Austrian and Hungarian Governments; and since neither Government was exclusively concerned to carry out an adjustment of economic conditions solely in accordance with what was necessary for waging war and holding out with the supplies at their disposal, but each had also to champion the interests of one half of the monarchy against the other, the negotiations between the two Governments were often attended with the greatest difficulties, and constantly ended unsatisfactorily.
No better picture can be obtained of its overwhelming economic impoverishment than by studying the figures which show the decline in the crop returns for Austria, and taking into account the fact that imports from Hungary and the territories under military occupation naturally fell far below the proportion of foodstuffs formerly imported.
The eastern section was successively a part of the territories of Michigan 1834-1836, Wisconsin 1836 - 1838, Iowa1838-1849and Minnesota 1849-1858, and the western section a part of the territory of Nebraska 1854 - 1861.
The peshwa being driven from his throne, his territories were annexed to the British dominions, and Elphinstone was nominated commissioner to administer them.
During his reign the patriarch of Aquileia was forced to cede his territories to the republic (1420), which also acquired Friuli and Dalmatia.
In 18J7 he commenced the third expedition up the Niger, and after labouring with varied success, returned to England and was consecrated, on St Peter's Day 1864, first bishop of the Niger territories.
Some of its constituent territories, however, notably Bohemia and the lands of the Bohemian crown (Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia) enjoyed, up to the year 1620, many centuries of independent existence and played an important, sometimes a dominating, part in the political and religious history of central Europe.
The Hungarians (Magyars) declined to surrender the territories inhabited by Slovaks, and it was necessary to call in the military help of the Czechs before the last Hungarian troops, who had initiated a reign of terror in Slovakia, could be driven out of the land.
Previous to 1918 the territories now composing the Czechoslovak Republic were of course subject to the Austrian or Hungarian code of laws respectively.
Previous to the war the present Czechoslovak territories were responsible for 92% of the sugar produced by Austria-Hungary, for 46% of the spirits, beer 57%, malt 87%, foodstuffs 50%, chemicals 75%, metals 60%, porcelain too %, glass 90%, cotton goods 75%, woollen goods 80%, jute 90%, leather 70%, gloves 90%, boots 75%, paper 60%.
His territories included Bavaria, where he made Regensburg the centre of his government, Thuringia, Franconia and Saxony.
On July 31, in a reply to the German Chancellor Michaelis, he admitted that in 1917 an agreement had been made with the Tsar to erect the German territories on the left bank of the Rhine into an autonomous state, but denied that there had been any question of their annexation to France.
In the first year of the 13th century, the Knights of the Sword, one of the numerous orders of crusading military monks, had been founded in Livonia to "convert" the pagan Letts, and, in 1208, the still more powerful Teutonic order was invited by Duke Conrad of Masovia to settle in the district of Kulm (roughly corresponding to modern East Prussia) to protect his territories against the incursions of the savage Prussians, a race closely akin to the Lithuanians.
A year later Wladislaus died at his huntingbox at Merecz, at the very moment when the long-impending tempest which he himself had conjured up burst with overwhelming fury over the territories of the Republic.
Seriously disturbed at the prospect of Russian aggrandizement, the idea occurred, almost simultaneously, to the courts of Berlin and Vienna that the best mode of preserving the equilibrium of Europe was for all three powers to readjust their territories at the expense of Poland.
At the same time, however, it was decided by a secret protocol that the four powers should first settle among themselves the distribution of the conquered territories, and that France and Spain should only be consulted when their final decision was announced.
Territories were distributed among the powers with no consideration for the feelings of their inhabitants, and in general the right of the strongest prevailed.
In Africa it is true that no species is known to extend to within some ten degrees of the tropic of Cancer; but Pionias robustus inhabits territories Italian Papagaio still continue in vogue.
Shortly afterwards the French arms suffered severe reverses in Italy, and Ferdinand was restored to his territories; but in 1801, by the peace of Luneville, Tuscany was converted into the kingdom of Etruria, and he was again compelled to return to Vienna.
All the remaining states and territories stood by the Union, except Missouri, Kentucky and Maryland, in which public opinion was divided.
There are complete postal and telegraphic facilities in all parts of the colony save the Saharan Territories, and cable communication with France.
The Algerian Sahara was divided into four territories, officially named Tuggurt, Ghardaia, Ain Sefra and the Saharan Oases (Tuat, Gurara and Tidikelt).
The governor-general represents the territories in civil affairs; the budget is distinct from that of Algeria and an annual subvention is provided by France.
These pacts have hitherto been scrupulously observed, and as the local authorities levy the contribution after their own local customs, landed property and the industrial and commercial classes are less heavily taxed in these territories than in the rest of Spain.
It is often stated that the territories to which the name is now applied were first known as Nueva Cartago, while Costa Rica was used in a wider sense to designate the whole south-western coast of the Caribbean Sea, from the supposed mineral wealth of this region.
The question of Dardistan is debated at length in Leitner's Dardistan (1877); Drew's Jummoo and Kashmir Territories (1875); Bidduiph's Tribes of the Hindu-Kush (1880) and Durand's The Making of a Frontier (1899).
For a brief period, in the 7th and 8th centuries, the conquering Sla y s made it one of their Zupanates, or governments; but in the 10th century it was sacked by the Magyars, and in 1092 its territories were bestowed upon the cathedral chapter of Agram by Ladislaus I., king of Hungary.
At the close of the season Caesar raided the territories of the Morini and Menapii in the extreme north-west.
Far from submitting to the papal breve, the ex-Jesuits, after some ineffectual attempts at direct resistance, withdrew into the territories of the free-thinking sovereigns of Russia and Prussia, Frederick II.
Political Divisions.-The republic of Mexico is politically divided into 27 states, one federal district, and three territories.
The territory of Lower California is divided into two large districts, northern and southern, and the latter into partidos and municipios-the larger divisions practically forming two distinct territories.
Mines of some description are to be found in 26 of the 31 states and territories, and of these the great majority yield silver.
Its political divisions consist of 27 states (originally 19) having independent local governments, 3 territories and 1 federal district in which the national capital stands.
The territories are governed by federal laws.
The first result was a law regulating free and compulsory education in the federal district and national territories, which came into effect on the 17th of January 1892.
The national revenues are derived from import and export duties, port dues and other taxes levied on foreign commerce; from excise and stamp taxes and other charges upon internal business transactions; from direct taxes levied in the federal district and national territories, covering a land tax in rural districts, a house tax in the city, commercial and professional licences, water rates, and sundry taxes on bread, pulque, vehicles, saloons, theatres, &c.; from probate dues and registry fees; from a surcharge on all taxes levied by the states, called the " federal contribution," which is paid in federal revenue stamps; from post and telegraph receipts; and from some minor sources of income.
The territories of all these tribes can be, more or less exactly, calculated by the existence of Indian local names.
In 1164 he joined a league of princes formed against Henry the Lion, and peace being made in 1169, Albert divided his territories among his six sons, and died on the 13th of November 1170, and was buried at Ballenstadt.
It was thus far the largest of the regions of Italy, but possessed comparatively few towns; though such as there were, with the large territories, acquired considerable power and influence.
The Boers then resorted to cajolery, and at a meeting held in August 1870, at which President Pretorius and Paul Kruger represented the Transvaal, invited the Barolong to join their territories with that of the republic, in order to save them from becoming British.
The result was that their territories and those of other petty chiefs lying to the north of the Molopo were made native reserves, into which the importation of alcohol was forbidden.
In December 1895 the occurrence of the Jameson Raid, which started from these territories, prevented the completion of negotiations, and the administration of the protectorate remained in the hands of the imperial government.
As soon as Ismail had assumed the sovereignty at Balkh, Mahmud, who was at Nishapur, addressed him in friendly terms, proposing a division of the territories held by their father at his death.
But he had to face two great forces - the East Roman empire, which claimed the whole of his territories and was supported in its claim by Raymund of Toulouse, and the strong Mahommedan principalities in the north-east of Syria.
He did so; but Alexius, aided by the Venetians, proved too strong, and Bohemund had to submit to a humiliating peace (I108), by which he became the vassal of Alexius, consented to receive his pay, with the title of Sebastos, and promised to cede disputed territories and to admit a Greek patriarch into Antioch.
Within the duchy were some independent secular territories, notably the county of Mark, while other districts were held as fiefs from the archbishops, afterwards electors.
Like Numa, his reputed grandfather, he was a friend of peace and religion, but was obliged to make war to defend his territories.
Separating from the total population of the country in 1900 the non-Caucasians (9,185,379), all white persons having both parents foreign (20,803,800), and one-half (2,541,365) of the number of persons having only one parent foreign, the remaining 43,555,250 native inhabitants comprised the descendants of the Americans of 1790, plus those of the few inhabitants of annexed territories, plus those in the third and higher generations of the foreigners who entered the country after 1790 (or for practical purposes, after 1800).
Discoveries in other Cordilleran territories, notably in Montana and Idaho, made up, however, in part for the deficiency of California, so that in I 860 the total amount of gold produced in the United States was estimated at not less than $45,000,000.
In the latter part of the decade1850-1859the territories adjacent to California on the east, north and south were overrun by thousands of miners from the Sierra Nevada goldfields, and within a few years an extraordinary number of discoveries were made, some of which proved to be of great importance.
The three leading producing states or Territories of the Union are, and since the early eighties have been, Arizona, Montana and Michigan.
Besides the full members, each of the Territories is allowed to send a delegate, who has, however, no vote.
In the far north of the territories of Yukon, Mackenzie and Ungava the climate has been little studied, as the region is uninhabited by white men except at a few fur-trading posts.
Beyond the forest country of Ontario come the prairies of Manitoba and the North-West Territories.
The flora of the forest belt of the North-West Territories differs little from that of northern Ontario.
In 1869 the North-west Territories were purchased from the Hudson's Bay Company, from a corner of which Manitoba was carved in the next year.
West of the province of Ontario, then inaccurately defined, the provinces of Manitoba and British Columbia were the only organized divisions of the western territory, but in 1882 the provisional districts of Assiniboia, Athabasca, Alberta and Saskatchewan were formed, leaving the remainder of the north-west as unorganized territories, a certain portion of the north-east, called Keewatin, having previously been placed under the lieutenant-governor of Manitoba.
The unorganized territories are sparsely inhabited by Indians, the people of the Hudson's Bay Company's posts and a few missionaries.
The population is composed mainly of Englishor French-speaking people, but there are German settlements of some extent in Ontario, and of late years there has been a large immigration into the western provinces and territories from other parts of Europe, including Russians, Galicians, Polish and Russian Jews, and Scandinavians.
Except in British Columbia and the unorganized territories, nearly all of these are on reservations, where they are under government supervision, receiving an annuity in money and a certain amount of provisions; and where, by means of industrial schools and other methods, civilized habits are slowly superseding their former mode of life.
In Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, the so-called railway belt of British Columbia and the territories, these crown lands are chiefly owned by the federal parliament; in the other provinces, by the local legislatures.
Since the opening of the 10th century, great progress has been made in the settlement and agricultural development of the western territories between the provinces of Manitoba and British Columbia.
In anticipation of the formal transfer to the Dominion an act was passed by the Canadian parliament in the same month providing for the temporary government of Rupert's Land and the North-West Territories.
The chief features of his administration were the fiscal preference of 333% in favour of goods imported into Canada from Great Britain, the despatch of Canadian contingents to South Africa during the Boer war, the contract with the Grand Trunk railway for the construction of a second transcontinental road from ocean to ocean, the assumption by Canada of the imperial fortresses at Halifax and Esquimault, the appointment of a federal railway commission with power to regulate freight charges, express rates and telephone rates, and the relations between competing companies, the reduction of the postal rate to Great Britain from 5 cents to 2 cents and of the domestic rate from 3 cents to 2 cents, a substantial contribution to the Pacific cable, a practical and courageous policy of settlement and development in the Western territories, the division of the North-West territories into the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the enactment of the legislation necessary to give them provincial status, and finally (1910), a tariff arrangement with the United States, which, if not all that Canada might claim in the way of reciprocity, showed how entirely the course of events had changed the balance of commercial interests in North America.
Of the total population, 10 years of age and over, 30.5% were illiterates in 1 9 00 -49'9% were illiterates in 1880 - and as regards the whites of native birth alone, Georgia ranked ninth in illiteracy, in 1900, among the states and territories of the Union.
As early as 1835 the legislature adopted a resolution which asserted the legality of slavery in the Territories, a principle adopted by Congress in the Kansas Bill in 1854, and in 1847 ex-Governor Wilson Lumpkin (1783-1870) advocated the organization of the Southern states to resist the aggression of the North.
It embraces the duchies of Schwerin and Gtistrow, the district of Rostock, the principality of Schwerin, and the barony of Wismar, besides several small enclaves (Ahrensberg, Rosson, Tretzeband, &c.) in the adjacent territories.
Though opposed to a monopoly of political power in the South by the great slaveholders, he deprecated anti-slavery agitation (even favouring denial of the right of petition on that subject) as threatening abolition or the dissolution of the Union, and went with his sectional leaders so far as to demand freedom of choice for the Territories, and protection for slavery where it existed - this even so late as 1860.
In these critical circumstances Wellesley was charged with "the general direction and control of military and political affairs in the territories of the Nizam, the Peshwa and the Mahratta states and chiefs."
In great measure owing to his energy, and in spite of much concealed opposition from the French-Canadians, the North-West Territories were purchased by the new Dominion.
Other cases of regulation by treaty are certain contractual engagements which have been entered into by states for the preservation of the status quo of other states and territories.
By the treaty of Vienna of the 9th of June 1815, the powers whose territories were separated or traversed by the same navigable river, undertook to regulate by common consent all that regarded its navigation, and for this purpose to name commissioners who should adopt as the bases of their proceedings the principle that the navigation of such rivers along their whole course " from the point where each of them becomes navigable to its mouth, shall be entirely free, and shall not in respect of commerce be prohibited to anyone."
One is mentioned in the annals of China two centuries before our era, between the territories of the Huns in the west and those of the Tunguses in theeast - a vast area of some 300 to 400 m., on the opposite margin of which the two peoples kept watch.
Another such guarantee of a vaguer character is that which the North Sea powers recently entered into for the maintenance of the status quo of their respective North Sea territories; and the similar one entered into by the Mediterranean powers for the same objects in the Mediterranean.
It applies outside territorial waters to all legally established submarine cables landed on the territories, colonies or possessions of one or more of the high contracting parties.
In 1856 he was engaged under the United States government, and commenced a series of investigations of the Western Territories, one result of which was his Geological Report of the Exploration of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers in 1859-1860 (1869).
In 1867 he was appointed geologist-in-charge of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, and from his twelve years of labour there resulted a most valuable series of volumes in all branches of natural history and economic science; and he issued in 1877 his Geological and Geographical Atlas of Colorado.
During 1861-1862 he was chairman of the important joint-committee on the conduct of the war, and in 1862, as chairman of the Senate Committee on Territories, was instrumental in abolishing slavery in the Federal Territories.
In the census of 1901 the operations were extended for the first time to the Kurram Valley and the Sherani country, trans-frontier territories containing a population of 66,628 souls, which had not been previously enumerated.
Daulat Rao was then compelled to sign the treaty of Sarji Anjangaon (December 30, 1803), which stripped him of his territories between the Jumna and Ganges, the district of Broach in Gujarat and other lands in the south.
By a treaty signed at Burhanpur in 1803 Daulat Rao further agreed to maintain a subsidiary force, to be paid out of the revenues of the territories ceded under the treaty of Sarji Anjangaon.
No Chinese labourer is allowed to enter any other Territory of the Union from Hawaii; and the act of Congress of the 26th of February 1885, " to prohibit the importation and migration of foreigners and aliens under contract or agreement to perform labour in the United States, its Territories and the District of Columbia," and the amending and supplementary acts, are extended to it.
We need not doubt that the first invasion was followed by a long period of warfare between the natives and the invaders, in which the latter gradually strengthened their hold on the conquered territories.
In the latter part of the 6th century, however, the territories occupied by the invaders seem to have been greatly extended.
Most of these were situated within the territories eventually occupied by the invaders, and reappear as towns in later times.
In the age of national migrations - from the 4th to the 6th century - the territories of the Teutonic peoples were vastly extended, partly by conquest and partly by arrangement with the Romans.
In the following century the Vandals settled in Pannonia (western Hungary), while the Goths occupied Dacia, which had now been given up by the Romans, and subsequently took possession also of large territories to the south of the lower Danube.
The motive force towards extension of territories was supplied by military ambition; especially we have to take account of the growth of a warlike spirit in the North, which was constantly driving young warriors to seek their fortunes in the service of continental princes.
Several of the tribes with which he came into collision had been expelled from their own territories by other tribes, and we are expressly told that Ariovistus's troops had not entered a house for fourteen years.
Rome, together with such of the Byzantine territories as still subsisted in her neighbourhood, was considered as a domain sacred to the apostle Peter, and entrusted to the administration of his successor, the pope.
If Spain could gain this Alpine valley her territories would touch those of Austria, so that the Habsburgs north of the Alps could send troops to the aid of their Spanish cousins against Venice, and Spain in turn could help to subdue the Protestant princes of Germany in the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648).
The peace of Luneville (1801) established the French boundary at the Rhine; and the German princes who thereby lost lands west of the river were indemnified by the secularization of ecclesiastical territories to the east.
This alliance of the empire with the clergy was shaken by the Italian War of 1859, which resulted in the loss by the pope of two-thirds of his territories.
While the hold of the popes on the States of the Church was constantly weakening, their power over the domestic policies of foreign governments was increasing; and the transition from autocracy to parliamentary rule accelerated this process, at least in non-Catholic territories.
The decisive factor in the separation of Silesia from Poland was furnished by a partition of the Polish crown's territories in 1138.
This prosperity, however, was checked by a growing tendency among the Silesian dynasties to make partitions of their territories at each new succession.
New territories were annexed on the south, until, after the capture of Toledo in 1085, and the consequent formation of a New Castile, the kingdom comprised the whole of central Spain.
Phoenicia was incorporated into the Roman province of Syria; Aradus, Sidon, Tyre and Tripolis were confirmed in their rights of self-government and in the possession of their territories.
Meeting with no opposition, he was received at Viterbo by Innocent, but refused the papal demand that he should concede to the church all the territories which, previous to 1197, had been in dispute between the Empire and the Papacy, consenting, however, not to claim supremacy over Sicily.
The breach with Innocent soon widened, and in violation of the treaty made with the pope Otto attempted to recover for the Empire all the property which Innocent had annexed to the Church, and rewarded his supporters with large estates in the disputed territories.
This was done; the Rohillas were driven beyond the Ganges, and Bijnor was incorporated in the territories of the nawab, who in 1801 ceded it to the East India Company.
On the death of William V., whose territories had been conquered by the Imperialists, his widow Amalie Elizabeth, as regent for her son William VI.
A treaty concluded by him with the Allies (Dec. 2) stipulated that he was to receive back all his former territories, or their equivalent, and at the same time to restore the ancient constitution of his country.
This treaty, so far as the territories were concerned, was carried out by the powers at the congress of Vienna.
In return for a sum of money these princes renounced their rights under their father's will, and the new elector thus secured the whole of Frederick William's territories.
The Roman Catholic missionaries also are scattered over these immense territories, and have a large number of Indian adherents.
Julian of Indiana, were nominated for the presidency and the vice-presidency respectively, on a platform which declared slavery "a sin against God and a crime against man," denounced the Compromise Measures of 1850,1850, the fugitive slave law in particular, and again opposed the extension of slavery in the Territories.
Given at the partition of 817 to the king of the East Franks, Louis the German, it formed part of the larger territories which were confirmed to him in 843 by the treaty of Verdun.
When he divided his possessions in 865 it passed to his eldest son, Carloman, who had already undertaken its government, and after his death in 880 it formed part of the extensive territories of the emperor Charles the Fat.
In 1803, accordingly, in the territorial rearrangements consequent on Napoleon's suppression of the ecclesiastical states, and of many free cities of the Empire, Bavaria received the bishoprics of Wurzburg, Bamberg, Augsburg and Freisingen, part of that of Passau, the territories of twelve abbeys, and seventeen cities and villages, the whole forming a compact territory which more than compensated for the loss of her outlying provinces on the Rhine.'
Piperno, and the tribus Falerna (in the Ager Falernus), while the foundation of the colonies of Cales (334) and Fregellae (328) secured the newly won south Volscian and Campanian territories and led no doubt to a prolongation of the Via Latina.
Latiuvi NovUM or Adjectum, as it is termed by Pliny, comprised the territories occupied in earlier times by the Volsci and Hernici.
But it was not separated from the adjacent territories by any natural frontier or physical boundaries, and it is only by the enumeration of the towns in Pliny according to the division of Italy by Augustus that we can determine its limits.
Certain characteristics in the skin reveal to the expert from what section of territory they come, but in classifying them it is considered sufficient to mention territories only.
Telegraph lines connect Kumasi with the coast towns and with the towns in the Northern Territories.
In Aquitaine he gave his brother Charibert the administration of the counties of Toulouse, Cahors, Agen, Perigueux, and Saintes; but at Charibert's death in 632 Dagobert became sole ruler of the whole of the Frankish territories south of the Loire.
He entered into relations with the eastern empire, and swore a "perpetual peace" with the emperor Heraclius; and it is probable that the two sovereigns took common measures against the Slav and Bulgarian tribes, which ravaged in turn the Byzantine state and the German territories subject to the Franks.
At the earliest historical period we find the territories between the Ardennes and the Rhine occupied by the Treviri, the Eburones and other Celtic tribes, who, however, were all more or less modified and influenced by their Teutonic neighbours.
Born about 316 B.C., she married Lysimachus, king of Thrace, who made over to her the territories of his divorced wife, Amastris.
These territories were treated in every way as a part of Belgium, and sent representatives to the chambers.
In India it is confined to the province of Kathiawar in Gujerat, though within the 19th century it extended through the north-west parts of Hindustan, from Bahawalpur and Sind to at least the Jumna (about Delhi) southward as far as Khandesh, and in central India through the Sagur and Narbuda territories, Bundelkund, and as far east as Palamau.
One was killed at Rhyli, in the Dumaoh district, Sagur and Narbuda territories, so late as in the cold season of 1847-1848; and about the same time a few still remained in the valley of the Sind river in Kotah, central India.
The archbishopric was secularized in 1801, all its territories on the left bank of the Rhine being annexed to France; in 1803 those on the right bank were divided up among various German states; and in 1815 by the congress of Vienna, the whole was assigned to Prussia.
There remained the Bernese, who had occupied some of the duke's territories in Savoy and Vaud, and in Geneva, over which he claimed certain rights.
It was not till 1834 that, overcome by the insistence of Captain Francis Jenkins, who maintained and proved that, called by the name Camellia or not, the leaves belonged to a tea-plant, Dr Wallich admitted "the fact of the genuine tea-plant being a native of our territories in Upper Assam as incontrovertibly proved."
Jacqueline, countess of Hainaut, the divorced wife of the duke of Brabant and the heiress of Holland and Zeeland, had married the duke of Gloucester, who attempted to take forcible possession of his wife's territories.
The lower course of the Adda was formerly the boundary between the territories of Venice and of Milan; and on its banks several important battles have been fought, notably that of Lodi, where Napoleon defeated the Austrians in 1796.
Lincoln pointed out that the majority of the members of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 opposed slavery and that they did not think that Congress had no power to control slavery in the Territories.
Congress by express act (approved on the 19th of June) prohibited the existence of slavery in all territories outside of states.
The territories occupied by peoples of distinctively Teutonic race and language are commonly designated as German, and in this sense may be taken to include, besides Germany proper (the subject of the present article), the German-speaking sections of Austria, Switzerland and Holland.
In the Prussian provinces of Silesia and Posen the eastern parts ate mixed territories, the German language progressing very slowly among the Poles.
Included within it, besides the grand-duchy of Luxemburg, are the Austrian communes of Jungholz and Mittelberg; while, outside, lie the little free-port territories of Hamburg, Cuxhaven, Bremerhaven and Geestemnde, Heligoland, and small portions of the districts of Constance and Waldshut, lying on the Baden Swiss frontier.
In the mixed territories those places which formerly belonged to Roman Catholic princes are Roman Catholic still, and vice versa.
These territories are bordered by a broad stretch of country on the north, where Protestantism has maintained its hold since the time of the Reformation, including Bayreuth or eastern upper Franconia, middle Franconia, the northern half of Wui-ttemberg and Baden, with Hesse and the Palatinate.
The territories of the former principality of Cleves and of the countship of Mark (comprising very nearly the basin of the Ruhr), which went to Brandenburg in 1609, must, however, be excepted.
The Boii were expelled from their territories inBohemia by the Marcomanni in the time of Augustus, and the Helvetii are also recorded to have occupied formerly lands east of the Rhine, in what is now Baden and Wurttemberg.
His jurisdiction embraced the territories occupied by the five ancient German tribes, and included the five archbishoprics of Mainz, Treves (Trier), Cologne, Salzburg and Bremen.
He built towns and encouraged those which already existed; he founded and restored bishoprics in his new territories; and between the Elbe and the Oder he planted bodies of industrious colonists.
Until the time of the interregnum the territories of a prince were rarely divided among his descendants, the reason being that, although the private fiefs of the nobles were Divisions hereditary, their officesmargrave, count and the like of the were in theory at the disposal of the king.
It was thus practically settled that the offices and territories, as well as the private fiefs, of the princes were hereditary, to be disposed of by them at their pleasure.
For some time before this event the most powerful prince in Germany had been Ottakar II., king of Bohemia, who by marriage and conquest had obtained large territories outside his native kingdom, including the duchy of Austria and other possessions of the extinct family of Babenberg.
The result was that when he died in November 1378 he wore the crowns of the Empire, of Gei many, of Bohemia, of Lombardy and of Burgundy; he had added Lower Lusatia and parts of Silesia to Bohemia; he had secured the mark of Brandenburg for his son Wenceslaus in 1373; and he had bought part of the Upper Palatinate and territories in all parts of Germany.
The Lutherans denied the validity of this clause, and notwithstanding the protests of the Roman Catholics several prelates became Lutheran and kept their territories as secular possessions.
A compromise was at last effected by both parties agreeing to the date 1624, an arrangement which secured to the Catholics their gains in Bohemia and the other territories of the house of Habsburg.
In virtue of her German possessions Sweden became a member of the Empire; but France obtained absolute control of her new territories.
Austria, shorn of her fairest provinces, robbed of her oversea commerce, bankrupt and surrounded on all sides by the territories of the French emperor and his allies, seemed to exist only on sufferance, and had ceased to have any effective authority in Germanynow absolutely in the power of Napoleon, who proved this in 1810 by annexing the whole of the northern coast as far as the Elbe to his empire.
She received, however, the northern part of Saxony, Swedish Pomerania, Posen and those territories formerly part of the kingdom of Westphaliawhich constitute her Rhine provinces.
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was the first to succumb (1819); Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1822), Saxe-Weimar and Anhalt-Bernburg (1823), Lippe-Detmold and MecklenburgSchwerin (1826) followed suit so far as their enclaved territories were concerned; and in 1826 Anhalt-Dessau and Anhalt-Cothen, after several years resistance, joined the Prussian Customs-Union.
In accordance with this policy, the territories were not actually incorporated in the empire (there would also hav& been constitutional difficulties in doing that), and they were officially known as Protectorates (Schulzgebiete), a word which thus acquired a new signification.
It acquired, among other territories, the important ship-building and saltproducing centre Stagno Grande (Ston Veliki), on the promontory of Sabbioncello; and from 1413 to 1416 it held the islands of Curzola, Brazza and Lesina by lease from Hungary.
The empire of Austria, as the official designation of the territories ruled by the Habsburg monarchy, dates back only to 1804, when Francis II., the last of the Holy Roman emperors, proclaimed himself emperor of Austria as Francis I.
Meanwhile the acquisition of neighbouring territories had been steadily pressed on.
Composed of a congeries of nationalities which included Czechs, Magyars, Ruthenes, Rumanians, Germans, Italians, Flemings and other races, and with territories separated by many miles, the Habsburg dominions required from their ruler patience, tolerance, administrative skill and a full knowledge of the currents of European diplomacy.
These reforms were practically confined to the central provinces of the monarchy; for in Hungary, as well as in the outlying territories of Lombardy and the Netherlands, it was recognized that the conservative temper of the peoples made any revolutionary change in the traditional system inadvisable.
He had, it is true, been unable to prevent the retention of the grand-duchy of Warsaw by Alexander of Russia; but with the aid of Great Britain and France (secret treaty of January 3, 1815) he had frustrated the efforts of Prussia to absorb the whole of Saxony, Bavaria was forced to disgorge the territories gained for her by Napoleon at Austria's expense, Illyria and Dalmatia were regained, and Lombardy was added to Venetia to constitute a kingdom under the Habsburg crown; while in the whole Italian peninsula French was replaced by Austrian influence.
By relinquishing her claim to the Belgian provinces and other outlying territories in western Germany, and by acquiescing in the establishment of Prussia in the Rhine provinces, she abdicated to Prussia her position as the bulwark of Germany against France, and hastened the process of her own gravitation towards the Slavonic East to which the final impetus was given in 1866.
In doing so they carried out with great exactitude the principle of dualism, establishing in form a complete parity between Hungary on one side and the other territories of the king on the other.
The separation of Hungary made it necessary to determine the method by which these territories' were henceforth to be governed.
Each of the territories was a separate political unit with a separate history, and some of them had a historic claim to a large amount of selfgovernment; in many the old feudal estates had survived till 1848.
Since that year the empire had been the subject of numerous experiments in government; by the last, which began in 1860, Landtage or diets have been instituted in each of the territories on a nearly uniform system and with nearly identical powers, and by the constitution published in February 1861 (the February Constitution, as it is called), which is still the ultimate basis for the government, there was instituted a Reichsrath or parliament for the whole empire; it consisted of a House of Lords (Herren- haus), in which sat the archbishops and prince bishops, members of the imperial family, and other members appointed for life, besides some hereditary members, and a Chamber of Deputies.
This arrangement seems to have been deliberately made by Schmerling, so as to It is impossible to avoid using the word " Austria " to designate these territories, though it is probably incorrect.
Officially the word " Austria " is not found, and though the sovereign is emperor of Austria, an Austrian empire appears not to exist; the territories are spoken of in official documents as " the kingdoms and lands represented in the Reichsrath."
This constitution had failed; territories so different in size, history and circumstances were not contented with similar institutions, and a form of self-government which satisfied Lower Austria and Salzburg did not satisfy Galicia and Bohemia..
The latter claimed that the new constitution must be made by agreement with the territories; the former maintained that the constitution of 1861 was still valid, and demanded that in accordance with it the Reichsrath should be summoned and a " constitutional " government restored.
Very different was it in the other territories where the majority of the population was not German - and where there was a lively recollection of the time when they were not Austrian.
They looked on the German schoolmaster as the apostle of German culture, and they looked forward to the time when the feeling of a common Austrian nationality should obscure the national feeling of the Sla y s, and the Slavonic idioms should survive merely as the local dialects of the peasantry, the territories becoming merely the provinces of a united and centralized state.
Moreover, the Delegation was to be chosen not by the House as a whole, but by the representatives of the separate territories.
At the same time the number of members was increased to 353, but the proportion of representatives from the different territories was maintained and the system of election was not altered.
In those territories in which several races dwell, the public and educational institutions are to be so arranged that, without applying compulsion to learn a second Landessprache, each of the races receives the necessary means of education in its own language."
This hostility of the Church to the German nationalist movement led in 1898 to an agitation against the Roman Catholic Church, and among the Germans of Styria and other territories large numbers left the Church, going over either to Protestantism or to Old Catholicism.
He knew that the national government had no power over the system in any state, though it could abolish it at the national capital, and prohibit it in the territories.
While the lower classes remained pagan, a fairly civilized system of administration, with an efficient judicial and fiscal organization, was established in the Hausa territories.
At the beginning of the 19th century the Hausa territories were conquered by another dominant Mahommedan race, the Fula (q.v.), who form a separate caste of cattle-rearers.
The territories which were placed by the charter under the control of the company were those immediately bordering the Lower Niger in its course from the confluence at Lokoja to the sea.
The interior was held by powerful Mahommedan rulers who had imposed a military domination upon the indigenous races and were not prepared to open their territories to European intercourse.
To secure British political influence, and to preserve a possible field for future development, the Niger Company had negotiated treaties with some of the most important of these rulers, and the nominal extension of the company's territories was carried over the whole sphere of influence thus secured.
When the company's troops were withdrawn the deposed emir returned and reoccupied the throne, leaving the situation to be dealt with after the territories of the company had been transferred to the crown.
The complications to which the pressure of foreign nations, and especially of France, on the frontiers of the territories gave rise, became at this period so acute that the resources of a private company were manifestly inadequate to meet the possible necessities of the to position, Relations with.
In these circumstances it was judged advisable to place the territories of the Royal Niger Company, to which the general name of Nigeria had been given, under the direct control of the crown.
It was therefore arranged that in consideration of compensation for private rights the company should surrender its charter and transfer all political rights in the territories to the Crown.
The company, during its tenure of administrative power under the charter, had organized its territories south of the confluence, into trading districts, over each of which there.
The entire direction of the proceedings of the company was, however, in the hands of the council in London, and the administrative control of the territories was practically from first to last vested in the person of Sir George Goldie.
While the development of the Royal Niger Company's territories was proceeding in the manner described, the regions under direct British control were also being opened up and law and order introduced.
In 1900, as stated, the southern portion of the Niger Company's territories was added to the protectorate, the change in administration being effected without difficulty of any kind.
These territories, with the exception of Zaria, were all in the more or less immediate neighbourhood of the valleys of the Niger and the Benue, and Zaria bordered upon the Kaduna.
For all these territories an initial system of administration was organized, and British residents were appointed to each province.
Seventeen legislative proclamations were enacted in the first year dealing with the immediate necessities of the position, and providing for the establishment of a supreme and provincial court of justice, for the legalization of native courts of justice, and dealing with questions of slavery, importation of