The second was patriarchal and of a strictly territorial nature.
No territorial association was needed.
Towards Prince Bjsmarck Robilant maintained an attitude of dignified independence, and as, in the spring of 1886, the moment for the renewal of the triple alliance drew near, he profited by the development of the Bulgarian crisis and the threatened Franco-Russian understanding to secure from the central powers something more than the bare territorial guarantee of the original treaty.
These conditions made a territorial system of recruiting or organization, as understood in Germany, practically impossible.
Nye (1814-1876) of New York was appointed Territorial governor.
It is the see of a bishop, the seat of the district prefecture and a tribunal, and the headquarters of the territorial militia corps, having besides a large number of regular troops in garrison.
Encouraged from Berlin, Kalnky agreed to the reciprocal territorial guarantee, but declined reciprocity in support of special interests.
The soldier spends six years in the Territorial Army, and six in the reserve of the Territorial Army.
A city government was organized in December 1859; and continued under a reincorporation effected by the first territorial legislature of 1861.
The thegn became a member of a territorial nobility, and the dignity of thegnhood was attainable by those who fulfilled certain conditions.
In that year the newly formed Dominion of Canada bought from the company its territorial and.
Political Divisions and Towns.-The chief political divisions of the republic consist of one federal district, 14 provinces and 10 territories, the last in great part dating from the settlement of the territorial controversies with Chile.
Assigned to Territorial Militia and excused peace service..
Though the territorial authority of the papal see was practically abolished in 1870, the fact that Rome is the seat of the administrative centre of the vast organization of the church is not without significance to the nation.
Educational interests were almost entirely neglected during the colonial and territorial periods.
Having obtained these important concessions the tsar imagined for a moment that in any further territorial changes he would be consulted and his advice allowed due weight, and he seems even to have indulged in the hope that the affairs of Europe might be directed by himself and his new ally.
The Territorial Army and its reserve (members of which undergo two short periods of training) are, however, allocated to local service.
The reserves of the active army and the Territorial Army and its reserve can only be recalled to active service in case of emergency and by decree of the head of the state.
AVARAY, a French territorial title belonging to a family some of whose members have been conspicuous in history.
Unfortunately for the political future of this new state, its internal consolidation did not keep pace with its territorial expansion.
At the close of the war he was appointed by President Johnson secretary of Montana Territory, and there, in the absence of the territorial governor, he acted as governor from September 1866 until his death from accidental drowning in the Missouri River near Fort Benton, Montana, on the 1st of July 1867.
During the continuance of the lease Germany exercises all the rights of territorial sovereignty, including the right to erect fortifications.
The army consists of: (1) The Line, comprising the Active and Reserve, in which all citizens 20 to 28 years of age are obliged to serve; (2) the National Guard, comprising citizens of 28 to 40 years; (3) the Territorial Guard, comprising those 40 to 45 years.
The advantages of a purely territorial system have tempted various War Ministers to apply it, but the results were not good, owing to the want of uniformity in the military qualities and the political subordination of the different districts.
On November I, 1908, then the active army was composed of the classes registered 1906 and 1907, the reserve of the classes 1895I905, the Territorial Army of those of 1889-1894 and the Territorial Army reserve of those of 1883-1888.
St Mary's in Builth, took its name from the ancient territorial division of Buallt in which it is situated, which was, according to Nennius, an independent principality in the beginning of the 9th century, and later a cantrev, corresponding to the modern hundred of Builth.
In order to avoid this danger it was therefore necessary to refuse all compromise, and, by perpetual reiteration of a claim incompatible with Italian territorial unity, to prove to the church at large that the pope and the curia were more Catholic than Italian.
Amongst nomads the tribe is the unit of government, the political bond is personal, and there is no definite territorial association of the people, who may be loyal but cannot be patriotic. The idea of a country arises only when a nation, either homogeneous or composed of several races, establishes itself in a region the boundaries of which may be defined and defended against aggression from without.
Political geography takes account of the partition of the earth amongst organized communities, dealing with the relation of races to regions, and of nations to countries, and considering the conditions of territorial equilibrium and instability.
In this respect a country is either centralized, like the United Kingdom or France, 1 For the history of territorial changes in Europe, see Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, edited by Bury (Oxford), 190; and for the official definition of existing boundaries, see Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty (4 vols., London, 1875, 1891); The Map of Africa by Treaty (3 vols., London, 1896).
On the whole, however, at that period as in more recent times, they contributed largely to the process of territorial expansion.
There was no attempt to overwhelm whole empires by pouring into them masses of troops, but commerce was combined with territorial acquisition, and a continuity of European interest secured by the presence of merchants and settlers.
In 1307 the city became a lordship for Giberto da Correggio, who laid the basis of its territorial power by conquering Reggio, Brescello and Gaustalla, and was made commander-in-chief of the Guelphs by Robert of Apulia.
Under present regulations the term of liability is divided into nine years in the Active Army and Reserve (three or two years with the colors) four in the Mobile MilitIa and six in the Territorial Militia.
The large Adminis- territorial units of administration created by Peter the trative Great were broken up into so-called " governments " reforms. (gubernii) and further subdivided into districts (uyezdy), and each government was confided to the care of a governor and a vice-governor assisted by a council.
After the political and territorial upheavals which marked the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th, all these concordats either fell to the ground or had to be recast.
Baron Hirsch (q.v.) founded the Jewish colonial association, which has undertaken vast colonizing and educational enterprises, especially in Argentina, and more recently the Jewish territorial organization has been started to found a home for the oppressed Jews of Russia.
Quintana Roo was separated from the state of Yucatan in 1902 and received a territorial government under the immediate supervision of the national executive.
A similar agitation on a smaller scale was organized in southern Albania to resist the territorial concessions awarded by the powers to Greece.
Reserve) 750,000, Mobile Militia 320,000, Territorial Militia 2,300,000 (more than half of the last-named untrained).
Reports of territorial encroachments aroused much sympathy with Liberia in America and led in February 1909 to the appointment by President Roosevelt of a commission which visited Liberia in the summer of that year to investigate the condition of the country.
On national the 30th of July 1907 she signed a convention with position Japan of mutual respect for treaty and territorial of Russia.
In December 1862 the Territorial legislature passed an act " to frame a constitution and state government for the state of Washoe."
The territorial divisions and subdivisions often survive the conditions which led to their origin; hence the study of political geography is allied to history as closely as the study of physical geography is allied to geology, and for the same reason.
The object of this gathering was to frame a government for the settlers, as the seat of the Territorial government of Utah was too remote to afford protection for life and property.
Vast areas of the country were in fact under the single control of a territorial lord or an ecclesiastical foundation.
The division of Italy into eleven regions, instituted by Augustus for administrative purposes, which continued in official use till the reign of Constantine, was based mainly on the territorial divisions previously existingi and preserved with few exceptions the ancient limits.
Their names vary in origin and probably also in point of age, and where they represent fixed territorial limits, the districts so described were in some cases certainly peopled by groups of non-Israelite ancestry.
The foregoing brief review of the principal territorial divisions according to which the forms of life are distributed in Asia, indicates how close is the dependence of this distribution on climatic conditions, and this will be made more apparent by a somewhat fuller account of the main features of the flora and fauna.
The products of the territorial coast lands are sugar, cotton, tobacco, maize, palm oil, coffee, fine woods and medicinal plants.
Josh was married to Lori now, but he was territorial.
By this law, every man liable and accepted for service served for eight or nine years on the Active Army and its Reserve (of which three to five were spent with the colors), four or, five in the Mobile Militia, and the rest of the service period of nineteen years in the Territorial Militia.
A territorial form of government places it more directly under the control of the national executive.
In the latter territorial division there exists a great disproportion between the sexes, namely, to every Ioo males only 86 females; indeed in the Black Sea government there are only 65.5 females to every too males.
This process received a great impulse from the erection in the 11th and 12th centuries of defined territorial jurisdictions for the archdeacons, who had hitherto been itinerant representatives of the central power of the diocese.
As War Minister he had the gigantic task of demobilizing armies of between four and five millions who had been in the war, of providing armies of occupation and forces for immediate garrisoning of the Empire, of building up an after-war army, and of re-creating the territorial army.
Immediately on the outbreak of war, batteries were erected at Scapa and the Territorial Garrison Artillery of the Orkneys were mobilized to man them.
As a result of the dispute between Governor Arthur St Clair and the Territorial legislature, the constitution of 1802 conferred nearly all of the ordinary executive functions on the legislature.
During the Territorial period (1787-1803) Ohio was first a part of the unorganized North-West Territory (1787-1799), then a part of the organized North-West Territory (1799-1800), and then the organized North-West Territory (1800-1803), Indiana Territory having been detached from it on the W.
The first Territorial government was established at Marietta in October 1787, and General Arthur St Clair (1734-1818), the governor, arrived in the summer of 1788.
This rapid increase of population led to the establishment of the organized Territorial government in 17 99, to the restriction of that government in Ohio in 1800, and to the admission of the state into the Union in 1803.
The Enabling Act was passed on the 30th of April 1802, the first state legislature met on the 1st of March 1803, the Territorial judges gave up their offices on the 15th of April 1803, and the Federal senators and representatives took their seats in Congress on the 17th of October 1803.
Congress decided in 1806 in connexion with the payment of salaries to Territorial officials that the 1st of March 1803 was the date when state government began.
Territorial Period (1787-1803).
For the Territorial period, and especially for the Indian wars of 1790-1794, see W.
The Anglo-German agreement of October 1900, to which Japan also became a party, and by which it was agreed to " maintain undiminished the territorial condition of the Chinese empire," was considered by Great Britain and Japan not to exclude Manchuria; but Germany, on the other hand, declared that Manchuria was of no interest to her.
The highest strata (Volcanic group) form the rugged elevated spurs of the Drakensburg mountains which extend along the eastern territorial boundary.
Its affairs are administered by a governor-general, who is also commander-in-chief of the forces, by a bureau of civil government, and by three prefectural governors, below whom are the heads of twenty territorial divisions called cho; its finances are not included in the general budget of the Japanese empire; it is garrisoned by a mixed brigade taken from the home divisions; and its currency is on a silver basis.
In the second place it was necessary to form a territorial government for the remainder of the territory acquired from Mexico, including that now occupied by Nevada and Utah, and parts of Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.
They formed the phalanx, and were divided into 6 brigades (raEets), probably on the territorial system.
They bore by old custom the name of the king's Companions (raapot), and were distributed into 8 territorial squadrons Oat) of probably some 250 men each, making a normal total of 2,000.
Transplanted into this foreign soil, the monarchy became an absolute despotism, unchecked by a proud territorial nobility and a hardy peasantry on familiar terms with their king.
In the Seleucid kingdom the territorial expanse of the realm made the creation of a distinct subordinate government for part of it a [measure of practical convenience.
The question of the origin of the territorial jurisdiction of the pope is treated under PAPACY.
With the moral and ecclesiastical decay of the papacy in the 9th and 10th centuries much of its territorial authority slipped from its grasp; and by the middle of the I ith century its rule was not recognized beyond Rome and the immediate vicinity.
Under the Territorial government the legislative officers were not at first elective.
Very little was done for education in the French and Spanish period, although the Spanish governors made commendable efforts in this regard; the first American Territorial legislature began the incorporation of feeble " colleges " and " academies."
Up I Other acts bearing on Territorial government are those of the 31st of October 1803 and the 23rd of March 1805.
Perley Poore's Constitutions (2 vols., Washington, 1877); a special account of the government of the territorial period may be found in D.
The revision of the whole military system was undertaken in 1910, especially as regards enrolment and promotion of officers, but, as things then stood, the term of service was twenty years (from the age of 20 to the age of 40), for all Ottoman male subjects: active service (muasaff) nine years, of which three with the colours (nizam), in the case of infantry, four in the case of cavalry and artillery; six and five respectively in the reserve (ikhtiat); Landwehr (redif) nine years; territorial (mustahfiz) two years.
In permanent remuneration of certain services to be rendered to the state, the sovereign assigned to civil or military functionaries territorial regions for the purpose, and with the power, of collecting land taxes imposed by Mussulman and Imperial law, i.e.
The university of Minnesota at Minneapolis was projected by the Territorial Legislature of 1851.
On the 26th of August a convention met at Stillwater, where measures were taken for the formation of a separate territorial government, and Henry Hastings Sibley (1811-1891) was sent to Congress as a delegate of " Wisconsin Territory."
This situation did not last long, however, for on the 3rd of March 1849 the bill organizing the territory of Minnesota was passed, and on the 19th President Zachary Taylor appointed Alexander Ramsey of Pennsylvania the first territorial governor.
The territorial boundaries extended to the Missouri river, including a greater part of the present North and South Dakota.
The first territorial legislature met at St Paul on the 3rd of September following.
For the territorial period consult also E.
Flandreau's " Reminiscences of Minnesota during the Territorial Period " (1901); C. D.
The water-works and electric-lighting plant are owned and operated by the Territorial government, and to the plentiful water-supply is partly due the luxuriant vegetation of the city.
The eldest son alone succeeded to the crown; but at the same time a custom was established by which the king made territorial provision suitable to their rank for his other children or for his brothers and sisters; custom forbade their being left landless.
While the persevering policy of the Capets, which aimed at reuniting the great fiefs, duchies, countships, baronies, &c., to the domain of the crown, gradually reconstructed for their benefit a territorial sovereignty over France, the institution of the appanage periodically subtracted large portions from it.
He is often spoken of in German works as the author of the "territorial system," or Erastian theory of ecclesiastical government.
In 1822 the relations subsisting between the ruler of Cutch and the British were modified by a new treaty, under which the territorial cessions made by the rao in 1816 were restored in consideration of an annual payment.
This became universally adopted and developed into the three-mile belt (see Territorial Waters).
To group (a) belong territorial differences in regard to ownership of land and rights of fishing at sea; to group (b) belong pecuniary claims in respect of acts wrongfully done to one or more subjects of one state by, or with the authority of, another state.
In Germany the change from the official to the territorial and hereditary counts followed at the outset much the same course as in France, though the later development of the title and its meaning was different.
By the second half of the 12th century the official character of the count had quite disappeared; he had become a territorial noble, and the foundation had been laid of territorial sovereignty (Landeshoheit).
Even before the end of the Empire (1806) the right of bestowing the title of count was freely exercised by the various German territorial sovereigns.
It was not, however, till 1662 that Holland signed a treaty with Portugal, by which all territorial claims in Brazil were abandoned in exchange for a cash indemnity and certain commercial privileges.
While such was the domestic state of affairs during the period of self-government, the settlers cherished large territorial views.
He had raised him to princely rank, endowed him with property which made him the greatest territorial magnate in the kingdom, placed in his hands the sacred crown and half-a-dozen of the strongest fortresses, and won over to his cause the majority of the royal council.
part transference to the territorial sovereigns of modern Europe of the theocratic character of the Christian heads of the Roman world-empire; with the result that for the reformed Churches the unit of church organization was no longer the diocese, or the group of dioceses, but the Christian state.
Henceforth the various corps lost more and more their territorial character, one nationality was set to watch and control the other, and espionage and delation prevailed.
The agreement signed between them in London on March 7 1918 laid down the basis of ItaloYugoslav cooperation: it recognized each of the two nations to be equally interested in the completion of the other's national unity, and in the liberation of the Adriatic. It left territorial questions to be decided amicably after the war, " on the basis of the principle of nationality and self-determination," and mutually guaranteed the rights of national minorities.
On March 3, however, Italy, who had steadily refused to recognize the accomplished fact of Yugoslav unity and insisted on the Conference only admitting the Yugosla y s as a " Serbian " delegation, declined American arbitration and threatened to withdraw altogether from Paris unless their territorial demands were conceded.
The Italian claim of territorial continuity with Fiume was definitely rejected.
Whatever their internal dissensions the Boers were united in regard to what they considered their territorial rights, and in the interval between the signing of the Sand River Convention and the death of Pretorius an incident occurred significant alike of their claims to jurisdiction over enormous areas and of their manner of treating the natives.
The territorial divisions of Venezuela have been subjected to many changes.
The governors of the federal territories are appointees of the president of the republic, and the jefe politico of each territorial municipio is an appointee of the governor.
The Federal District is the seat of federal authority, "and consists of a small territory surrounding Caracas and La Guaira, known in the territorial division of 1904 as the West district, and the island of Margarita and some neighbouring islands, known as the East district.
Ever after his exit from the Bastille in April 1718 he was known as Arouet de Voltaire, or simply Voltaire, though legally he never abandoned his patronymic. The origin of the famous name has been much debated, and attempts have been made to show that it actually existed in the Daumart pedigree or in some territorial designation.
in 1740 extended the summons to all abbots, provosts and others who held territorial jurisdiction.
This movement, extending in time from about the middle of the 11th to the middle of the 13th century and carrying a stream of settlers and traders from the Northwest, resulted not only in the Germanization of a wide territory but in the extension of German influence along the sea-coast far to the east of actual territorial settlement.
The exact signification of this purely territorial name varied greatly at different times.
Still the Portuguese remained largely under the control of the Chinese, who had never surrendered their territorial rights and maintained their authority by means of mandarins - these insisting that even European criminals should be placed in their hands.
Although Macao is de facto a colonial possession of Portugal, the Chinese government persistently refused to recognize the claim of the Portuguese to territorial rights, alleging that they were merely lessees or tenants at will, and until 1849 the Portuguese paid to the Chinese an annual rent of X71 per annum.
Kirche Sctben and Brixen (really a special territorial history of Tirol) (to vols., Brixen, 1821-1837); J.
All the vigilance of the emperor could not restrain the dishonesty and the cupidity of his servants, and no sooner was the strong hand of their ruler removed than they began to acquire territorial power for themselves.
In 1817, by the treaty of Poona, the British government acquired from the peshwa all his rights, interests and pretensions, feudal, territorial or pecuniary, in Bundelkhand.
Most of the settlers came from the southern section of the Union and of course brought their slaves with them, but there is no evidence to show that their object was the territorial extension of slavery, or that the revolt against Mexico was the result of dissatisfaction with that country's anti-slavery policy.
(1826); Review of the late Revolution in France (1833); Reminiscences of Spain (1833); Oration on the Growth and Territorial Progress of the United States (1839); Life and Public Services of William H.
Under the Territorial government when first organized the governor was given an extensive appointing power, as well as the right of an absolute veto on all legislation, but this speedily resulted in such friction between him and the legislature that Congress was petitioned for his removal, with the outcome that the office has since been much restricted in its appointing power, and the veto has been subjected to the ordinary United States limit, i.e.
Governors Of Iowa Territorial.
LUYNES, a territorial name belonging to a noble French house.
Peace seemed assured in Uganda; territorial limits to religious teaching were abolished, English Roman Catholic priests were added to the French Fathers, and the material progress of the country was very marked.
The new triple alliance had the effect of lessening the demands of those Powers, and of leading to the well-known territorial compromise of 1815.
At the same time the Jews of the Dispersion had to some extent shaken off the exclusiveness of their old political relations and were prepared to compare and contrast their old territorial theology with cosmopolitan culture.
The king of Prussia had some reason to complain of the sudden desertion of his ally, but there is no evidence whatever to substantiate his accusation that Bute had endeavoured to divert the tsar later from his alliance with Prussia, or that he had treacherously in his negotiations with Vienna held out to that court hopes of territorial compensation in Silesia as the price of the abandonment of France; while the charge brought against Bute in 1765 of having taken bribes to conclude the peace, subsequently after investigation pronounced frivolous by parliament, may safely be ignored.
REFORMATION The Reformation, as commonly understood, means the religious and political revolution of the 16th century, of which the immediate result was the partial disruption of the Western Catholic Church and the establishment of various national and territorial churches.
The personnel, revenue, jurisdiction, ritual, even the faith of the Church, were in this way placed under the complete control of the territorial governments.
The territorial extent of each town was determined by its grant or grants from the general court, which the towns served as agents in the management of land.
xliv.).2 In fact the question arises whether the history of the Philistines is not that of a territorial designation, rather than that of the lineal descendants of the Purasati, who, if one of the peoples who took part in the events of the XXth Dynasty, may well have bequeathed their name.
The prospect of revenge upon her enemies of the Second Balkan War - Serbia, Greece and Rumania - and of attaining her large territorial ambitions at their expense, proved sufficient, after prudent hesitation, to attract Bulgaria to the side of Germany.
The territorial provisions of the Treaty reduced the empire to a nation little larger than Spain.
Herzl's health had been failing and he did not long survive the initiation of the somewhat embittered "territorial" controversy.
The act establishing a territorial government for Oregon was approved on the 14th of August 1848, and the first governor, Joseph Lane (1801-1881), assumed the government on the 3rd of March 1849.
Governors Of Washington Territorial.
Several thousand people now rushed in, and before the Territorial government was created, the gold districts and the roads thereto suffered from a reign of lawlessness.
In most of the territorial or state elections the Democrats, or the Democrats and Populists united, have been triumphant, a Republican governor having been elected only in 1892; but the contests have often been ardent and bitter.
It has, however, a policy of territorial expansion.
Territorial sovereignty is used in a variety of senses.
Territorial sovereignty is thus defined by Leibnitz: "Superioritatem territorialem in summo subditos coercendi jure consistere" (Opera, 4.35 8.
The Austrian Government being largely dependent upon the parliamentary aid of the Poles, could not stand out against them much on account of the far-reaching autonomy of the Galician Territorial Government.
Ban Jellacic, though loyal to the Emperor, had given expression to their aspirations towards unity as early as 1848; but Francis Joseph handed over the Croats and Serbs to Magyar domination (1867), and Dalmatia, the territory of the Austrian Croats, had been neglected by Vienna for years past; thus it was not till the years immediately preceding the war that it was rapidly developed by the construction of ports and railways and the encouragement of tourist traffic. The Slovenes, who inhabited Carinthia and Carniola, had less grounds for discontent, for the barren Karst had been afforested at the expense of the state; but though they were at the very gate of Serbia, they suffered from a shortage of meat, for Hungary obstructed the traffic in livestock in the interests of her great territorial magnates, and Austria bore the brunt of this.
Active committees for women's rights were, it is true, set up in the territorial capitals.
This was all the more probable owing to the fact that since the Constitution of 1867 there had been a certain analogy between the franchise for the Reichsrat, the Territorial Diets, and the elected commercial bodies.
To this division of the work of administration corresponded a three-fold organization of the authorities: State, territorial and communal.
Many branches of the territorial administration had great similarities with those of the State, so that their spheres of activity frequently overlapped and came into collision.
Both the Southern Sla y s and Czechs immediately made constitutional declarations; the former demanded a national union of the Southern Slays, the latter a territorial union of the lands S.
The constitution fixes the debt limit at $100,000 over and above the share of the territorial debt assumed at the time of the formation of the state.
Other organizations are The Army Nursing Reserve and Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Reserve, and there is also a nursing reserve attached to the territorial forces.
At Wyandotte were made the first moves for the Territorial organization of Kansas and Nebraska.
THURINGIA (German ThÃ¼ringen), an historical division of Germany, but now a territorial term without political significance.
The state debt, excluding the amount of Territorial indebtedness assumed when Dakota Territory was divided, may not exceed $200,000.
The total bonded debt of the state on the 31st of October 1908 was $642,300, and was incurred for the most part for the construction of public buildings during the Territorial period.
After Minnesota entered the Union, in 1858, the country between the Red and the Missouri rivers had no Territorial government for three years, but the inhabitants formed a provisional government.
The seat of the Territorial government was fixed at Yankton, and remained there until 1883, when it was removed to Bismarck.
By an agreement between North and South Dakota, embodied in their constitutions, each state assumed the debt created for the erection of public buildings within its limits during the Territorial period.
The new arrangement, which is strictly territorial, was enforced in eight montons by the year 1909, resulting in a standing peace army of 20,000 of all ranks,.
The administration of the larger territorial divisions (gouvernement, residentie) is in the hands of Dutch governors, residents, assistant residents and controleurs.
In 1684 the British even evacuated Bantam, their chief settlement, and retired to Benkulen in Sumatra, which remained for more than a century their sole territorial possession in the archipelago.
of the city is the university of New Mexico, under territorial control, founded in 1889 and opened in 1892; in 1908 it had a college of letters and science, a school of engineering, a school of education, a preparatory school and a commercial school.
The churches of the Lombards, West Goths, Franks and Anglo-Saxons, all counted themselves parts of the Catholic Church; but the Catholic Church had altered its condition; it lacked the power of organization, and split up into territorial churches.
Under the Empire the bishop of Rome had possessed in the Church an authority recognized and protected by the State; respect for Rome and for the successor of Saint Peter was not forgotten by the new territorial churches, but it had altered in character; legal authority had become merely moral authority; its wielder could exhort, warn, advise but could not command.
The bishops continued to meet in synods as before, but the councils became territorial synods; they were called together at irregular intervals by the king, and their decisions obtained legal effect only by royal sanction.
In the Empire all churches, and all the property of the Church, were at the disposal of the bishops; in Germanic countries, on the contrary, the territorial nobles were looked upon as the owners of churches built upon their lands, and these became " proprietary churches."
The logical consequence of this was that the territorial nobles claimed the right of appointing clergy, and the enjoyment of the revenues of these churches derived from the land (tithes).
No one found anything objectionable in this; investiture with a bishopric was parallel with the appointment by a territorial proprietor to a patronal church.
Thus over a great part of Europe the Catholic Church was split up into territorial or national churches, which, whatever the theoretical ties which bound them together, were in fact separate organizations, tending ever more and more to become isolated and self-contained units with no formal intercommunion, and, as the rivalry of nationalities grew, with increasingly little even of intercommunication.
It was not, indeed, till the settlement of Westphalia in 1648, after the Thirty Years' War, that this territorial division of Christendom became stereotyped, but the process had been going on for a hundred years previously; in some states, as in England and Scotland, it had long been completed; in others, as in South Germany, Bohemia and Poland, it was defeated by the political and missionary efforts of the Jesuits and other agents of the counter-Reformation.
They are, in fact, the state in its religious aspect, and as such are territorial or national, not Catholic. This tendency has been common in the East also, where with the growth of racial rivalries the Orthodox Church has split into a serieq of national churches, holding the same faith but independent as to organization.
Her territorial losses, though considerable, were, in the circumstances, not excessive, and she was still a considerable power in the opinion of Europe.
The constitution of the 3rd of May had scarce been signed when Felix Potocki, Severin Rzewuski and Xavier Branicki, three of the chief dignitaries of Poland, hastened to St Petersburg, and there entered into a secret convention with the empress, whereby she undertook to restore the old constitution by force of arms, but at the same time promised to respect the territorial integrity of the Republic. On the 14th of May 1792 the conspirators formed a confederation, consisting, in the first instance, of only ten other persons, at the little town of Targowica in the Ukraine, protesting against the constitution of the 3rd of May as tyrannous and revolutionary, and at the same time the new Russian minister at Warsaw presented a formal declaration of war to the king and the diet.
They refused to consent to the annexation of Saxony by Prussia, and other territorial arrangements which would have enabled him to unite all Poland in his - own hand.
Castlereagh had left Vienna with the hope that the powers would solemnly guarantee their territorial settlement and promise to make collective war on whoever dared to disturb it.
What it wanted most of all was peace, and by establishing something like a territorial equilibrium the congress did much to win that breathing space which was the cardinal need of all.
The territorial exchanges were amicably agreed upon; the relations between the Indian and Afghan governments, as previously arranged, were confirmed; and an understanding was reached upon the important and difficult subject of the border line of Afghanistan on the east, towards India.
to grant a charter conveying almost unlimited territorial and governmental rights therein to George Calvert, first Lord Baltimore (1580?-1632), and styling him its absolute lord and proprietor.
There are in addition a territorial army reserve and a special body of troops, largely Arab, for the defence of the Saharan territory.
In 1795 the townships (Athens and Alexander) were located and surveyed, and in 1800 Rufus Putnam and two other commissioners, appointed by the Territorial legislature, laid out a town, which was also called Athens.
Somewhat later the nomad Yue-chi began to move into the valley of the Oxus from the east, and gradually became a settled territorial power in Bactria and Sogdiana, and the dominions of their king, Kadphises I.
Quintana Roo was detached from the state of Yucatan in 1902 and received a territorial government.
VENETIA, a territorial division of northern Italy, lying between the Alps and the Adriatic, and stretching from the frontier of Carinthia and Istria (Austria) in the north-east to the lower Po and Lombardy in the south-west.
The plebeian assembly, which had perhaps originally met by curiae, was organized on the basis of the territorial tribes in 471 B.C. This change suggested a renewed organization of the whole people for comitial purposes.
In the year 1867 the United States government had purchased from Russia all her territorial rights in Alaska and the adjacent islands.
2 The areas assigned to Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and British Columbia are exclusive of the territorial seas, that to Quebec' is exclusive of the Gulf of St Lawrence (though including the islands lying within it), and that to Ontario is exclusive of the Canadian portion of the Great Lakes.
Indeed, no department of national life has caused more continual trouble between the two peoples than the fisheries, owing to different laws regarding fish protection, and the constant invasion by each of the territorial waters of the other.
He was associated with Blake in his sustained opposition to high tariff, and to the Conservative plan for the construction of the Canadian Pacific railway, and was a conspicuous figure in the long struggle between Sir John Macdonald and the leaders of the Liberal party to settle the territorial limits of the province of Ontario and the legislative rights of the provinces under the constitution.
His fear lest Russia should demand a stretch of coast along the Varanger Fjord induced him to remain neutral during the Crimean War, and, subsequently, to conclude an alliance with Great Britain and France (November 2 5th, 1855) for preserving the territorial integrity of Scandinavia.
and Silvester II., in urging certain territorial claims. But not till 1050 was it made the basis of the larger papal claims, when another Frankish pope, Leo IX., used it in his controversy with the Byzantines.
We may still hold the opinion of Dollinger that it was intended to impress the barbarian Pippin and justify in his eyes the Frank intervention in favour of the pope in Italy; or we may share the view of Loening (rejected by Brunner, Rechtsgeschichte) that the forgery was a pious fraud on the part of a cleric of the Curia, committed under Adrian I., 4 with the idea of giving a legal basis to territorial dominion which that pope had succeeded in establishing in Italy.
The maharaja bahadur of Darbhanga, a Rajput, whose ancestor Mahesh Thakor received the Darbhanga raj (which includes large parts of the modern districts of Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur, Monghyr, Purnea and Bhagalpur) from the emperor Akbar early in the 16th century, is not only the premier territorial noble of Behar but one of the greatest noblemen of all India.
The following is a list of the territorial and state governors of Alabama: - Governor of the Territory.
The concession, however, gives no territorial jurisdiction.
The principal ground of this hostility was probably dissatisfaction on both sides with the territorial partition.
Not only the number of possible war-making states but also the territorial area over which war can be made has been reduced in recent times by the creation of neutralized states such as Switzerland, Belgium, Luxemburg and Norway, and areas such as the Congo basin, the American lakes and the Suez Canal.
The essential feature of the concert has been recognition of the advantage to all the great powers of common action in reference to territorial changes in the Near East, of meeting together as a council, in preference to unconcerted negotiation by the powers acting severally.
The Current Grouping of Mankind and Nation-making.- In the consolidation of peace one of the most important factors is unquestionably the grouping of mankind in accordance with the final territorial and racial limitations of their apparent destiny.
Apart, however, from self-defence, the main causes of war are four: (I) The desire for territorial expansion, due to the overgrowth of population, and insufficiency of the available food-supply; if the necessary territory cannot be obtained by negotiation, conquest becomes the only alternative to emigration to foreign lands.
" The preservation of the common interests of the Powers in China, of insuring the independence and the integrity of the Chinese empire, and the principle of equal opportunities for the commerce and industry of all nations in China; c. " The maintenance of the territorial rights of the high contracting parties in the regions of Eastern Asia and of India, and the defence of their special interests in such regions."
By it all the powers represented agree to respect the territorial integrity of Morocco, subject to a possible intervention limited to the purpose of preserving order within it.
Differing from these general acts in not being contractual is the Monroe doctrine, which is a policy of ensuring the maintenance of the territorial status quo as regards non-American powers throughout the American continent.
With these precedents and current instances of tendency to place the territorial relations of the powers on a permanent footing of respect for the existing status quo, it seems possible to go beyond the mere enunciation of principles, and to take a step towards their practical realization, by agreeing to respect the territorial status quo throughout still larger tracts of the world, neutralize them, and thus place them outside the area of possible wars.
A rather special case of neutralization of a territorial area 2 The institution of " buffer " zones in a more strictly correct sense of the term is of very ancient origin.
It applies outside territorial waters to all legally established submarine cables landed on the territories, colonies or possessions of one or more of the high contracting parties.
The family name was Howman, but, according to the English custom, Feckenham, on monastic profession, changed it for the territorial name by which he is always known.
The gain to Russia was, indeed, much more than territorial.
Santa Fe remained the capital when a Territorial government was inaugurated in 1851.
The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, 5 circuit courts, and 29 district courts, each having a jurisdiction corresponding to similar courts in each state in the Union; and, entirely distinct from these territorial courts, Hawaii has a United States district court.
The Territory was without the forms of local government common to the United States until 1905, when the Territorial legislature divided it into five counties 1 without, however, giving to them the usual powers of taxation.
The cession was made soon afterward by the territorial government.
Another public charity of Hawaii is the general free dispensary maintained by the territorial government at Honolulu.
The territorial legislature of 1907 established the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts of the Territory of Hawaii, and also founded a public library.
Long before Constantine we find her employing it in aid of the most distant churches, Territorial as far afield as Cappadocia and Arabia.
During the quarrels between the papacy and the Byzantine Empire her domains in lower Italy and Sicily also disappeared as time went on, and the territorial possessions of the Roman Church were concentrated in the neighbourhood of Rome.
Dividing what the irreconcilables of the Hildebrandine party considered as an indissoluble whole, they made a sharp distinction between the property of the Church and the Church itself, between the political and territorial power of the bishops and their religious authority, and between the feudal investiture which confers lands and jurisdiction and the spiritual investiture which confers ecclesiastical rights.
The history of the papacy from 1590 to 1870 falls into four main periods: (i) 1590-1648; territorial expansion, definitely checked by the peace of Westphalia; (2) 1648-1789; waning prestige, financial embarrassments, futile reforms; (3) 1789-1814; revolution and Napoleonic reorganization; (4) 1814-1870; restoration and centralization.
The good relations with France were but a truce, for the Bourbon powers became so mighty in the 18th century that they practically ignored the territorial interests of the papacy.
In September 1791 France annexed Avignon and the Venaissin, thus removing for ever that territorial pawn with whose threatened loss the French monarchs had for centuries disciplined their popes.
According to Prince Bismarck's own account of the matter, as given in his Gedanken and Erinnerungen, these negotiations were initiated by the chancellor, who, between the 5th and 9th of November 1870, entertained pourparlers with Archbishop Ledochowski on the question of the territorial interests of the pope.
The note of the pope to Rampolla of the 8th of October 1895, in consequence of the celebrations on the 10th of September, declared, in terms more decided than any that had until then been uttered, that the papacy required a territorial sovereignty in order to ensure its full independence, and that its interests were therefore incompatible with the existence of the kingdom of Italy as then constituted.
A territorial dispute with Connecticut over the Wyoming Valley was settled in favour of Pennsylvania in 1782 by a court of arbitration appointed by the Continental Congress.
The Penns lost their governmental rights in 1776, and three years later their territorial interests were vested in the commonwealth in return for a grant of £120,000 and the guarantee of titles to private estates held in severalty.
00,000 (subsequently reduced to one-third of this sum); and no foreign power was to receive any concession in Tibet, territorial or mercantile, or to concern itself with the government of the country.
The Anglo-Russian convention of 1907 determined the following conditions with respect to Tibet - the recognition of the suzerain rights of China and the territorial and administrative integrity of the country; that no official representative at Lhasa should be appointed either by England or by Russia, and that no concessions for railways, mines, &c., should be sought by either power.
The state constitution adopted in 1802 followed the enabling act in accepting this line, but made the proviso that if it should not intersect Lake Erie east of the mouth of the Miami river, then the northern boundary should be a line from the southern end of Lake Michigan to the most northern cape of Maumee Bay and thence to the Territorial line, and to the Pennsylvania line.
Becket lent himself entirely to his master's ambitions, which at this time centred round schemes of territorial aggrandizement.
And in their indifference to the distinctions of race and nationality they merely accommodated themselves to the spirit which had become characteristic of chivalry itself, already recognized, like the church, as a universal institution which knit together the whole warrior caste of Christendom into one great fraternity irrespective alike of feudal subordination and territorial boundaries.
The Poles proved even more difficult to satisfy than was anticipated; but finally a compromise was come to whereby the territorial settlement was postponed till after the death of John III.; and Sigismund was duly crowned at Cracow on the 27th of December 1587.
In some few cases (notably India and Japan) a regular territorial hierarchy has been established, just as in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.
The efforts of the dukes to increase their power and to give unity to the duchy had met with a fair measure of success; but they were soon vitiated by partitions among different members of the family which for 250 years made the history of Bavaria little more than a dejune chronicle of territorial divisions bringing war and weakness in Division their train.
In 1803, accordingly, in the territorial rearrangements consequent on Napoleon's suppression of the ecclesiastical states, and of many free cities of the Empire, Bavaria received the bishoprics of Wurzburg, Bamberg, Augsburg and Freisingen, part of that of Passau, the territories of twelve abbeys, and seventeen cities and villages, the whole forming a compact territory which more than compensated for the loss of her outlying provinces on the Rhine.'
At the congress of Aix (1818) the question of the Baden succession was settled in favour of the Hochberg line, without the compensation stipulated for in the treaty of Munich; and by the treaty of Frankfurt, signed on behalf of the four great powers on the 10th of July 1819, the territorial questions at issue between Bavaria and Austria were settled, in spite of the protests of the former, in the general sense of the arrangement made at Vienna.
The uti possidetis as regards territorial possession was recog nized.
The union of the Dutch and Belgian provinces, like so many of the territorial arrangements of the Congress of Vienna, was an attempt to create a strong state out of diverse Difference and jarring elements.
The donation made by Constantine to various churches of Rome of numerous estates belonging to the patrimonium Caesaris in the neighbourhood of Rome was of great historical importance, as being the origin of the territorial dominion of the papacy.
The election took place on the 4th of June, when 152 votes out of 196, four being absent, determined that Leopold should be proclaimed king of the Belgians, under the express condition that he "would accept the constitution and swear to maintain the national independence and territorial integrity."
The banks open for business in 1904 were the Mercantile Bank, the Territorial Bank, the Bank of Los Rios & Co., and the Agricultural Bank: the last named has a capital of 20 7,59 0, advanced by the government, and lends money to the agricultural and industrial classes.
The territorial power of the archbishops was already great when, in 1180, on the partition of the Saxon duchy, the duchy of Westphalia was assigned to them.
It remained a portion of Sindhia's dominions till 1860-1861, when, in consequence of certain territorial arrangements, the town and surrounding estates were ceded to the British government.
The title is German emperor, not emperor of Germany, being intended to show that the Kaiser is but primus inter pares in a confederation o.f territorial sovereigns; his authority as territorial sovereign (Landesherr) extends over Prussia, not over GermaAy.
education, sanitary administration, police) are regarded as falling under the sphere of the central government, which either administers, them directly or by means of territorial delegations consisting either of individuals or of groups of individuals.
In the Protestant states the ecclesiastical authority remains purely territorial, and the sovereign remains effective head of the established church.
Fine A rts.Perhaps the chief advantage which Germany has derived from the survival of separate territorial sovereignties within the empire has been the decentralization of culture.
Voluntary enlistments of men who desired to become non-commissioned officers were most frequent in the provinces of the old Prussian monarchy, but in Berlin itself and in Westphalia the enlistments fell far short of the number of non-commissioned officers required for the territorial regiments.
This class was subject only to the emperor, but its members lacked the territorial possessions which gave power to the princes; they were ~ kI partly deprived of their employment owing to the suppression of private wars, and they had suffered rising.
The general result was that the power of the territorial lords became greater than eve-r, although in some cases, especially in Tirol and in Baden, the condition of the peasants was somewhat improved.
His prime object was, however, to secure for himself a great territorial position, possibly that of king of Bohemia, and it is obvious that his aims and ambitions were diametrically opposed to the ends desired by Ferdinand and by his Spanish and Bavarian allies.
The country suffered enormous territorial losses by the war.
In spite of the clamour of the mediatized princes for the restoration of their liberties, no attempt was made to reverse the essential changes in the territorial disposition of Germany made during the revolutionary epoch.
Of the 300 odd territorial sovereignties under the Holy Empire only 39 survived, and these were readjusted on the traditional principles of compensations, rectification of frontiers and balance of power.
For the military and administrative service of the army the Dual Monarchy is divided into 16 military territorial districts (15 of which correspond to the 15 army corps) and 108 supplementary districts (105 for the army, and 3 for the navy).
The outcome of the long struggle with Prussia, which in 1866 finally broke the spell, and the proclamation of the German empire in 1871 left the title of emperor of Austria stripped of everything but a purely territorial significance.
It was left for his brother Ferdinand, a ruler of consummate wisdom (1556-1564) " to establish the modern Habsburg-Austrian empire with its exclusive territorial interests, its administrative experiments, its intricacies of religion and of race."
(1637-1657) was forced to yield Alsace to France, to grant territorial supremacy, including the right of making The peace alliances, to the states of the Empire, and to acknowof West- ledge the concurrent jurisdiction of the imperial phalia, chamber and the Aulic council.
historic rights of the Bohemian as of the Hungarian crown, and in 1865 the constitution of 1861 had been superseded, while the territorial diets remained.
The fishery along the coasts of Denmark is of some importance both on account of the supply of food obtained thereby for the population of the country, and on account of the export; but the good fishing grounds, not far from the Danish coast, particularly in the North Sea, are mostly worked by the fishing vessels of other nations, which are so numerous that the Danish government is obliged to keep gun-boats stationed there in order to prevent encroachments on territorial waters.
While the territorial expansion of Sweden in the near future was a matter of necessity, Denmark had not only attained, but even exceeded, her natural limits.
Denmark was offered an alliance, the complete restitution of her fleet after the war, a guarantee of all her possessions, compensation for all expenses, and even territorial aggrandizement.
It marked the emergence of the Church of England from that insularity to which what may be called the territorial principles of the Reformation had condemned her.
The Greek word &ocicnats, from meaning "administration," came to be applied to the territorial circumscription in which administration was exercised.
Thus Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, complains that not only his metropolitanate (dioecesis) but his bishopric (parochia) is divided between two realms under two kings; and this inconvenient overlapping of jurisdictions remained, in fact, very common in Europe until the readjustments of national boundaries by the territorial settlements of the 19th century.
No territorial changes within the Peninsula followed the Crimean War; but the continuance of the weakened authority of the Porte tended indirectly to the independent development of the various nationalities.
He felt that the institution was morally wrong, but held that Congress could not interfere with it in the states in which it existed, and ought not to hinder the natural tendency toward territorial expansion through a fear that the evil would spread.
He was appointed territorial governor of Kansas in the spring of 1857 by President Buchanan, but in November of the same year resigned in disgust, owing to his opposition to the Lecompton Constitution.
Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet as secretary for war, and was the author of the important scheme for the reorganization of the British army, by which the militia and the volunteer forces were replaced by a single territorial force.
The excessive size of the properties may to some extent be accounted for by the fact that most of the surface is so mountainous and unproductive as to be unsuitable for division into smaller estates, but two other causes have also co-operated, namely, first, the wide territorial authority of such Lowland families as the Scotts and Douglases, and such Highland clans as the Campbells of Argyll and Breadalbane, and the Murrays of Athol and the duke of Sutherland; and secondly, the stricter law of entail introduced in 1685.
The Irish church has paid more reverence to St Patricius than to Palladius (373-463), and the church of St Patricius, himself a figure as important as obscure, certainly abounded in bishops; according to Angus the Culdee there were 1071, but these cannot have been bishops with territorial sees, and the heads of monasteries were more potent personages.
Where Anglo-Normans obtained lands in Moray and Renfrewshire, there seems to have been no displacement of the population: though a FitzAlan was dominant in Renfrewshire, the " good men," or gentry, still bore Gaelic names, till territorial names - " of " this or that place - came into use.
The Galapagos Islands were declared a dependency of the province of Guayas in 1885, but are practically independent and constitute a second territory under the administration of a jefe territorial appointed by the national executive.
Illinois has been governed under four constitutions, a Territorial constitution of 1812, and three State constitutions of 1818, 1848 and 1870 (subsequently amended).
In 1812, by permission of Congress, a representative assembly was chosen, a Territorial constitution was adopted, and the Territorial delegate in Congress was elected directly by the people.
Throughout the Territorial period there was conflict between French and English land claims. In 1804 Congress established land offices at Kaskaskia and Vincennes to examine existing claims and to eliminate conflict with future grants; in 1812 new offices were established at Shawneetown and Edwardsville for the sale of public lands; and in 1816 more than 500,000 acres were sold.
American Governors Of Illinois Territorial.
Smith in The St Clair Papers (Cincinnati, 1882), and the Territorial Records of Illinois (" Publications of the State Historical Library," No.
The province furnishes no men for the Spanish peninsular army, but its annual conscription provides men for the local territorial militia, composed of regiments of infantry, squadrons of mounted rifles and companies of garrison artillery - about 5000 men all told.
The emperor declared through his commissioners that he abolished "by his imperial and absolute authority" the clause in the ordinance of 1526 on which the Lutherans had relied when they began to organize their territorial churches.
In 1191 it bought up the territorial claims of the marquesses Del Carretto.
This division bore bitter fruit in the reign of Pharisees Alexander Jannaeus (104-78 B.C.), who by a standing army achieved a territorial expansion which was little to the mind of the Pharisees.
The Pallavas appear, like the Mahrattas in later times, to have imposed tribute on the territorial governments of the country.
But Ahmad Shah had no ambition to found a dynasty of his own, nor were the British in Bengal yet ready for territorial conquest.
Territorial ambition combined with the spirit of proselytism and with the greed of commerce to fill all Portuguese minds with the dream of a mighty Oriental empire.
In the far East the Dutch ruled without a rival, and gradually expelled the Portuguese from almost all their territorial possessions.
During this first period of their dealings with India the aims of the British were purely those of traders, without any aspirations to military power or territorial aggrandizement; but in the period that followed, the gradual decay of the Mogul empire from within, and the consequent anarchy, forced the English to take up arms in their own defence, and triumphing over one enemy after another they found themselves at last in the place of the Moguls.
The political history of the British in India begins in the 18th century with the French wars in the Carnatic. The British at Fort St George and the French at Pondicherry for many years traded side by side without either active rivalry or territorial ambition.
First, he sought to acquire the substance, though not the name, of territorial power, by using the authority of the Mogul emperor for so much as he wished, and for no more; and, secondly, he desired to purify the company's service by prohibiting illicit gains, and at the same time guaranteeing a reasonable remuneration from honest sources.
In especial, they dominated over the British settlement of Bombay on the western coast, which was the last of the three presidencies to feel the lust of territorial ambition.
The system thus organized in Bengal was afterwards extended to Madras and Bombay, when those presidencies also acquired territorial sovereignty.
This greatly extended the British territorial influence in western India, but led directly to the second Mahratta war, for neither Sindhia nor the raja of Nagpur would tolerate this abandonment of Mahratta independence.
That year also saw British administration extended to the Berars, or the assigned districts which the nizam of Hyderabad was induced to cede as a territorial guarantee for the subsidies which he perpetually kept in arrear.
A clause in the state constitution prohibited any justice of the Supreme Court from holding any other post save that of delegate to Congress on a "special occasion," but in November 1778 the legislature pronounced the secession of what is now the state of Vermont from the jurisdiction of New Hampshire and New York to be such an occasion, and sent Jay to Congress charged with the duty of securing a settlement of the territorial claims of his state.
In 1884 Great Britain, which up to that time had steadily refused to acknowledge that Portugal possessed territorial rights north of Ambriz, concluded a treaty recognizing Portuguese sovereignty over both banks of the lower Congo; but the treaty, meeting with opposition in England and Germany, was not ratified.
(bishop from 1000 to 1025)destroyed the castle of the Franconian house at Worms, built the cathedral and laid the foundations of the subsequent territorial power of the see.
GEORGE LOCKHART (1673-1731), of Carnwath, Scottish writer and politician, was a member of a Lanarkshire family tracing descent from Sir Simon Locard (the name being originally territorial, de Loch Ard), who is said to have accompanied Sir James Douglas on his expedition to the East with the heart of Bruce, which relic, according to Froissart, Locard brought home from Spain when Douglas fell in battle against the Moors, and buried in Melrose Abbey; this incident was the origin of the "man's heart within a fetterlock" borne on the Lockhart shield, which in turn perhaps led to the altered spelling of the surname.
The completion of the Suez Canal led Italy as well as Great Britain and France to seek territorial rights on the Red Sea coasts.
BASILICATA, a territorial division of Italy, now known as the province of Potenza, which formed a part of the ancient Lucania.
Ricci Armani (two brigades, three battalions of Alpini, with several weak battalions of territorial Militia).
right down upon the Val Terragnolo, backed by a territorial Militia regiment in Col Santo and two Alpini battalions holding the Borcola Pass.
A third infantry brigade and two brigades of territorial Militia lay in immediate reserve.
In all Pecori-Giraldi had at his immediate disposal 130 regular battalions, even battalions of Customs Guards and 45 battalions of territorial Militia, the latter at very low strength and of small fighting value.
By the 13th and 14th centuries the title had become purely territorial, and implied no necessary overlordship over counts and other nobles, who existed side by side with the dukes as tenants-in-chief of the crown.
Whenever the crown got the better of the feudal spirit of independence, as in France or Naples, it sank from being a sovereign title to a mere social distinction, implying no political power, and not necessarily any territorial influence.
In France the title duke at one time implied vast territorial power, as with the dukes of Burgundy, Normandy, Aquitaine and Brittany, who asserted a practical independence against the crown, though it was not till the 12th century that the title duke was definitely regarded as superior to others.
In any case the strengthening of the royal power gradually sapped the significance of the title, until on the eve of the Revolution it implied no more than high rank and probably territorial wealth.
The first settlement by Europeans in Arkansas was made in 1686 by the French at Arkansas Post (later the residence of the French and Spanish governors, important as a trading post in the earlier days of the, American occupation, and the first territorial capital, 1819-1820).
The questions of the conduct of territorial affairs do not seem to have been contested systematically on national party lines until about 1825.
The following is a list of the territorial and state governors of Arkansas: - Territorial.
The territorial results of the war of 1898 between the United States and Spain are registered in the treaty of 1899, and those of the Russo-Japanese War in the treaty of Portsmouth of 1905.
But the economic decay and consequent loss of political influence among both imperial and territorial towns must be chiefly ascribed to inner causes.
The Constitution, which continued the Territorial provision of full suffrage for women, met the approval of Congress, and on the 10th of July 1890 Wyoming was formally admitted as a state.
Governors Of Wyoming Territorial.
This was granted, and subsequently the British North Borneo Company, which was formed in May 1882, took over, in spite of some diplomatic protests on the part of the Dutch and Spanish governments, all the sovereign and territorial rights ceded by the original grants, and proceeded under its charter to organize the administration of the territory.
The company subsequently acquired further sovereign and territorial rights from the sultan of Brunei and his chiefs in addition to some which had already been obtained at the time of the formation of the company.
In March 1898 arrangements were made whereby the sultan of Brunei ceded to the company all his sovereign and territorial rights to the districts situated to the north of the Padas river which up to that time had been retained by him.
The territorial legislature of Wisconsin met here from 1836 to 1838 and that of Iowa from 1838 to 1840.
The basis of the organization of the Church is territorial, the world being mapped out into dioceses or, in countries where the Roman Church is not well developed - e.g.
Thenceforward there was no more thought of territorial aggrandisement.
Leo was absolutely convinced that a territorial sovereignty was required to ensure the moral independence of the papacy; and he believed that the new Italian kingdom was a mushroom growth, that might fall in pieces at any moment.
At that time the house of Albret had attained considerable territorial importance, due in great part to the liberal grants which it had obtained from successive kings of France.
The public school system of Colorado dates from 1861, when a school law was passed by the Territorial legislation; this law was superseded by that of 1876, which with subsequent amendments is still in force.
According as one regards the Louisiana purchase as including or not including Texas to the Rio Grande (in the territorial meaning of the state of Texas of 1845), one may say that all of Colorado east of the meridian of the head of the Rio Grande, or only that north of the Arkansas and east of the meridian of its head, passed to the United States in 1803.
Then there was the Kansas territorial government also, and under this a full county organization was maintained.
Some, such as the first charter of Denver, were later re-enacted under the legal territorial government, organized by the United States in February 1861.
The governors of Colorado have been as follows: - Territorial.
The one overshadowing issue of the time, however, was territorial expansion.
The distribution was also unfair as between the different territorial divisions.
A special irrigation commission was appointed in 1897, and in 1905 the legislature created the office of Territorial irrigation engineer.
The executive officers until 1911 were a governor and a Territorial secretary appointed by the President of the United States, and a treasurer, auditor, superintendent of public instruction, adjutant-general, commissioner of public lands and other administrative officials appointed by the governor.
Here he organized a civil government and compiled a code of laws, some of which are still in force, thus exceeding his instructions and ignoring the territorial claims of Texas, out of which had grown the war.
But finally a regular Territorial form of government, provided by Congress by an act of the 13th of December 1850 (a part of the Compromise of 1850), was formally inaugurated on the 3rd of March 1851.
This " territorial principle " the church has steadily kept in view ever since.
The laws of Howel Dda throw a flood of interesting light upon the ancient customs and ideas of early medieval Wales, but as their standard of justice is founded on a tribal arid not a territorial system of society, it is easy to understand the antipathy with which the Normans subsequently came to regard this famous code.
On the 3rd of December 1836 the territorial legislature in session at Belmont, after a protracted and acrimonious debate, determined, largely through Doty's influence, to make Madison the permanent capital.
The forces of the British Crown may be classed as (a) the regular, or general service, army, together with the Indian army; and (b) the home territorial force; while there are also certain forces controlled by the governments of the various selfgoverning dominions.
The home government raises, pays and controls the regular army, its reserves, the territorial force, and some few details such as the militia of the smaller possessions, Indian native battalions employed on imperial service out of India, &c. But the cost of that portion of the regular army which is in India is borne by the Indian government, which is not the case with the regulars serving in other colonies or in the dominions.
The principles upon which the reorganization of1905-1908was based are: (a) that in peace the army at home must be maintained at such an effective standard that all necessary drafts for the army abroad shall be forthcoming, without undue depletion of the army at home; (b) the home army on mobilization for service should be brought up to war strength by the recall of reservists in sufficient, but not too great, numbers; (c) the wastage of a campaign shall be made good by drafts partly from the remaining army reserve, but above all from the militia, now converted into the special reserve; and (d) the volunteers and yeomanry, reorganized into the territorial force, shall be responsible, with little regular help, for the defence of the home country, thus freeing the regular army at home for general service.
Thus the pivot of the Haldane system is the organization of the Territorial Force as a completely self-contained army.
Affiliated to the territorial force are officers' training corps, cadets, "veteran reserves," and some of the other organizations mentioned below, the Haldane scheme having as its express object the utilization of every sort of contribution to national defence, whether combatant or non-combatant, on a voluntary basis.
The conditions of enlistment and reserve in the territorial force are a four years' engagement (former yeomen and volunteers being however allowed to extend for one year at a time if they desire to do so), within each year a consecutive training in camp of 14-18 days and a number of "drills" (attendances at company and battalion parades) that varies with the branch and the year of service.
Establishment and Strength (April I, 1910) The Territorial Force is enlisted to serve at home, but individuals and whole corps may volunteer for service abroad in war if called upon.
But in accordance both with the growing tendency to separate command and administration and with the desire to enlist local sympathies and utilize local resources, "associations," partly of civilian, partly of military members, were formed in every county and charged by statute with all matters relating to the enlistment, service and discharge of the county's quota in the force, finance (other than pay, &c. in camp), buildings, ownership of regimental property, &c. To these duties of county associations are added that of supervising and administering cadet corps of all sorts (other than officers' training corps), and that of providing the extra horses required on mobilization, not only by the territorial force, but by the expeditionary force as well.
The object to be attained as laid down was twofold; (a) complete organization of the territorial forces of each dominion or colony; (b) evolution of contingents of colonial general-service troops with which the dominion governments might assist the army of Great Britain in wars outside the immediate borders of each dominion.
This range forms, in a measure, a natural boundary between Sweden and Norway from the extreme north to the north of Svealand, the central of the three main territorial divisions of Sweden (Norrland, Svealand and Gotaland); though this boundary is not so well markd that the political frontier may follow it throughout.
The distribution of provinces and loin between the three main territorial divisions, Norrland (northern), Svealand (central) and Gdtaland (southern) is also indicated.
Emund, who was given the name Slemme, had territorial disputes with Denmark in the early part of his reign.
A new race of politicians was springing up. Since 1719, when the influence of the few great territorial families had been merged in a multitude of needy gentlemen, the first estate had become the nursery and afterwards the stronghold of an opposition at once noble and democratic which found its natural leaders in such men as Count Carl Gyllenborg and Count Carl Gustaf Tessin.
There are also indications that in the ancient kingdom of Mercia the tithing was originally a district and not a mere association of persons; but in Northumbria it is doubtful whether the system of frankpledge and tithing, either personal or territorial, was ever established.
If, as seems likely, the territorial tithing is older than the personal, each territorial hundred (q.v.) was probably divided into ten tithings.
Its sanction is required for all territorial changes, for the alienation of state property, for the granting of concessions, for the contracting of loans, for the construction of roads and railways, for the ratification of treaties, &c. There was to be a senate of 60 members of whom 3d were to be appointed to represent the shah and 30 to be elected on behalf of the national council, 15 of each class being from Teheran and 15 from the provinces (the senate, however, was not immediately formed).
It still consisted, however, of levies from the retinue of the magnates led by their territorial lords; and, although these troops would stream in at the beginning of a war, they could not be kept permanently together.
Persias great aim was to recover in the north-west, as in the northeast of her empire, the geographical limits obtained for her by the Safawid kings; and this was no easy matter when she had to contend with a strong European power whose territorial limits touched her own.
It was a period of territorial expansion, during which the empire was the strongest power in Europe.
Though most of the remaining years of Gaiseric's life were passed in war, plunder rather than territorial conquest seems to have been the object of his expeditions.
He can perform no official act when beyond the territorial limits of the Union, but he can appoint a deputy to act for him during temporary absences.
The circumstances of the time, such as the decay of Greek city-life, the foundation of large territorial states under absolute Greek rulers which followed upon Alexander's conquests, and afterwards the rise of the world-empire of Rome, aided to develop the leading idea of Zeno's There he had anticipated a state without family life, without law courts or coins, without schools or temples, in which all differences of nationality would be merged in the common brotherhood of man.
and in so doing recognized the fact that his country was cornmitted to a policy of territorial aggrandisement.
In 1889 a resolution unanimously adopted by both chambers invited the ministry, of which Jose de Castro was president and Barros Gomes foreign minister, to press forward the territorial claims of Portugal in East and Central Africa.
Lawrence, was founded by agents of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company in July 1854, and during the territorial period was the political centre of the free-state cause and the principal point against which the assaults of the pro-slavery party were directed.
A town association was organized in September 1854 before any Territorial government had been established.
In 1855 and again in 1857 the pro-slavery Territorial legislature passed an Act giving Lawrence a charter, but the people of Lawrence would not recognize that "bogus" government, and on the 13th of July 1857, after an application to the Topeka free-state legislature for a charter had been denied, adopted a city charter of their own.
Governor Walker proclaimed this rebellion against the United States, appeared before the town in command of 400 United States dragoons and declared it under martial law; as perfect order prevailed, and there was no overt resistance to Territorial law, the troops were withdrawn after a few weeks by order of President Buchanan, and in February 1858 the legislature passed an Act legalizing the city charter of July 1857.
This was the most distressing episode in all the turbulence of territorial days and border warfare in Kansas.
After the free-state men gained control of the Territorial legislature in 1857 the legislature regularly adjourned from Lecompton, the legal capital, to Lawrence, which was practically the capital until the choice of Topeka under the Wyandotte constitution.
The military forces of the republic in 1905 included 2890 regulars and an enrolled force of 80,000 men, divided into a first reserve of 30,000, a second reserve of 40,000, and 10,000 territorial guards.
On 6th February 1873 Bolivia entered upon a secret agreement with Peru, the ostensible object of which was the preservation of their territorial integrity and their mutual defence against exterior aggression.
After the 7th century the name Suebi is practically only applied to the Alamannic Suebi (Schwaben), with whom it remains a territorial designation in Wurttemberg and Bavaria until the present day.
In 1906 the Indian population was estimated as being 14% of the whole population of Arizona, and that they are singularly lawabiding is argued from the fact that in the same year the Indians furnished only 3% of the convicts in the territorial prison.
From the beginning she had a territorial legislature.
The receipts of the territorial treasury for the year ending on the 30th of June 1907 were $687,386, and the disbursements for the same period were $601,568.
The first juvenile reform school, called the Territorial Industrial school, was opened in 1903 at Benson.
The territorial prison, formerly at Yuma, was abandoned for a modern building at Florence, Pinal county; and a hospital for the insane is 3 m.
Meanwhile a convention at Tucson in 1856 sent a delegate to Congress and petitioned for independent territorial government.
A convention held in April 1860 at Tucson undertook to " ordain and establish," of its own motion, a provisional constitution until Congress should " organize a territorial government."
The territorial capital was first at Prescott (1863-1867), then at Tucson (1867-1877), again at Prescott (1877-1889), and finally, at Phoenix (since 1889).
Agitation for statehood became prominent in territorial politics for some years.
Later inquirers, including Leo, Troya and Hegel, have found that the supposition does not tally with a whole series of facts, which point to a Lombard territorial law ignoring completely any parallel Roman and personal law, to a great restriction of full civil rights among the Romans, analogous to the condition of the rayah under the Turks, and to a reduction of the Roman occupiers to a class of half-free "aldii," holding immovable tenancies under lords of superior race and privilege, and subject to the sacrifice either of the third part of their holdings or the third part of the produce.
The legislation of the Lombard kings, in form a territorial and not a personal law, shows no signs of a disposition either to depress or to favour the Romans, but only the purpose to maintain, in a rough fashion, strict order and discipline impartially among all their subjects.
The constitution provides that the rate of taxation shall never exceed to mills for each dollar of assessed valuation, that when the taxable property amounts to $50,000,000 the members of the territorial legislature were deprived of their seats as ineligible.
of the thirty-third parallel, his jurisdiction then being the greatest in extent ever exercised by a territorial official in the United States.
In the following year Harrison held another conference at Detroit with these tribes in order to settle their future territorial relations with the United States.
He was the first territorial delegate in the Congress of the United States and was the author of the first step in the development of the country's later homestead policy; the first presidential candidate to be selected upon the ground of " expediency " alone; and the first president to die in office.
He further established the power of the crown over the Gothic nobles, who were beginning to grow into territorial lords.
Seward and his contemptuous reference to the territorial portion of Clay's compromise measures as the " Omnibus Bill."
Bantam contains five native regencies or territorial divisions, namely, Serang, Anjer, Pandeglang, Charingin, Lebak.
By another clause in this treaty the Company was permitted to establish a mint, the visible sign in India of territorial sovereignty, and the first coin, still bearing the name of the Delhi emperor, was issued on the igth of August 1757.
It was first incorporated by the Territorial legislature in 1855; a new charter was obtained in 1881; and in 1908 the city adopted the commission plan of government.
Leavenworth was, in Territorial days and until after 1880, the largest and most thriving commercial city of the state, and rivalled Kansas City, Missouri, which, however, finally got the better of it in the struggle for railway facilities.
grant conferred upon Berkeley and Carteret all the territorial rights which the royal charter had conferred upon the duke of York; but whether or not the rights of government went with these soon became a vexed question.
The principal territorial divisions of England, as of Wales, Scotland and Ireland, are the counties, of which England comprises 40.
Section IX., on Territorial Divisions, indicates the departures from the ancient county boundaries made for certain purposes of administration.
2 The following table is therefore given to show (I) the percentage of ' The figures are for Registration Counties (see classification of Territorial Divisions, below).
Apart from this district, large quantities of iron and steel are produced in the manufacturing areas of Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire, Territorial Divisions) and here, as in the Black Country, are found certain centres especially noted for the production of an individual class of goods, such as Sheffield for its cutlery.
All in all, the government has proved itself without power to protect the most valuable industries of the district, and for many years there has been talk of a regular territorial government.
Spanish expeditions in 1774 and 1775 visited the south-eastern coast and laid a foundation for subsequent territorial claims, one incident of which were the Nootka Sound seizures of 1789.
What the idea of a protectorate excludes, and the idea of annexation, on the other hand, would include, is that absolute ownership which was signified by the word dominium in Roman law, and which, though not quite satisfactorily, is sometimes described as ` territorial sovereignty.'
Cape Porpoise to Casco, and in issuing which the Council for New England had granted governmental as well as territorial rights.
provided for their co-operation in maintaining "the political and territorial status quo in Ethiopia."
The state assumed the Territorial debt of $700,000, and has added to it a bonded indebtedness of $200,000; the bonds, formerly 5%, have been refunded at 31 and 3%.
from Corydon, the early territorial capital.
In the following year it was resolved that the basis of representation should be neither personal (as in the Anglican Church Congress) nor denominational, but territorial.
This territorial arrangement eliminated all sectarian distinctions, and also the possibility of committing the different churches as such to any particular policy.
It was not, however, till late in the 11th century that his successors adopted the style "Hollandensis comes" as p y their territorial designation (it is found for the first time on a seal of Dirk V.
Every citizen capable of bearing arms must serve from his 30th to his 36th year in the second section, or territorial militia, which musters in spring for shooting-practice and in the autumn for field manoeuvres.
A large region was sunken, enormous fissures were opened in the earth, the surface soil was displaced 3 In 1804, the District of Louisiana, in the administrative system of the Territory of Indiana; in 1805, an independent government, renamed the Territory of Louisiana; in 1812, the Territory of Missouri; in 1816, another grade of territorial government.
Her border counties furnished the bogus citizens who invaded Kansas to carry the first territorial elections, and soon guerrilla forays back and forth gave over the border to a carnival of crime and plunder.
1885-1887-1887-18891889-1893-1893-18971897-1901-1901-19051905-1909 1909 The Governors of Missouri since 1804 have been as follow: - Territorial Period.
(902943), a man absolutely devoid of scruples, considerably increased the territorial power of the house of Vermandois, and kept the lawful king of France, the unlucky Charles the Simple, prisoner for six years.
Territorial Divisions and Towns.-Previously to 1903 the republic was divided into nine departments, which were then reduced to eight by the secession of Panama.
3,000,000 1,400,000 360,000 200,000 40,000 by the municipal council of the territorial capital.
Some of the Russian, or PolishRussian, princely families are of great importance - e.g.the Czartoryskis,the Swiatopolk-Czetwertynskis,or the Russian 1 Furst may or may not be a sovereign or territorial title, but it is only borne by the head of the family, e.g.
The title Prinz von Preussen, therefore, excludes any idea of territorial sovereignty, whereas the correct German rendering of that of prince of Wales, which originally at least implied such sovereignty, would be Fiirst von Wales.
" On the other hand, the insular complacency of many Englishmen is apt to regard all German princes with a certain contempt, whereas the title is in Germany sometimes associated with sovereign power, sometimes with vast territorial possessions, and always with high social position.
In October 1880 the fall of the Tricoupi ministry restored him to power, when he resumed his warlike policy, but repeated appeals to the courts of Europe yielded little practical result, and Koumoundouros was obliged to reduce his territorial demands and to accept the limited cessions in Thessaly and Epirus, which were carried out in July 1881.
Territorial Waters >>
Although President Polk immediately urged the formation of a territorial government for Oregon, the bill introduced for this purpose was held up in the Senate on account of the opposition of Southern leaders, who were seeking to maintain the abstract principle that slavery could not be constitutionally prohibited in any territory of the United States, although they had no hope of Oregon ever becoming slave territory.
Indian outbreaks, however, which began in 1847, compelled Congress to take measures for the defence of the inhabitants, and on the 14th of August 1848 a bill was enacted providing a territorial government.
The new state was at first Democratic in politics, and the southern faction of the Democratic party in 1860 made a bid for its support by nominating as their candidate for vice-president, on the ticket with John C. Breckinridge, Joseph Lane (1801-1881), then a senator from Oregon and previously its territorial governor.
..1845-1849Under the Territorial Government.
Cadenhead, Sketch of the Territorial History of the Burgh of Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1876); W.
In this country the Church had not been centralized round a principal see which would have produced unity in canon law as in other things; even the political territorial divisions had been very unstable.
No Brehon had any fixed territorial jurisdiction.
The Ddl-Criche (= territorial assembly), held at Uisneach in Westmeath, was a gathering for political and quasi-legislative purposes.
Governors Of Indiana Territorial.
Arthur St Clair (North-West Territory) John Gibson, Territorial Secretary (acting) William Henry Harrison.
John Gibson, Territorial Secretary (acting) Thomas Posey State.
Black walnut was common in the river valleys in Territorial days.
The life of all of these save the last two goes back to Territorial days; but the importance of Fort Scott, like that of Galena and Pittsburg, is due to the development of the mineral counties in the southeast.