How to use Terrestrial in a sentence
Only one terrestrial planet is known to have an active hydrosphere, Earth.
The ball represented the terrestrial globe and the stick in his other hand a scepter.
Nature possesses three great educational or developmental schools - terrestrial, aquatic and aerial life.
Within the subject of biology, Kyle focuses specifically on terrestrial sciences.
Steven Spielberg's movie, "E.T." is about an alien that comes into contact and makes friends with terrestrial beings.Advertisement
Terrestrial orchids are beautiful, and well worth cultivation among hardy flowers.
A competing food of equally high quality is Purina Aquamax, which is considered a well-made meal for aquatic and most terrestrial turtles (including box turtles).
Scorpio, being a terrestrial animal, fertilizes by copulation.
Still, your options for what types of music to listen to are far more varied than terrestrial radio, and the niche topics are often more specific.
The chief and almost the only use of dung, he thinks, is to divide the earth, to dissolve " this terrestrial matter, which affords nutriment to the mouths of vegetable roots "; and this can be done more completely by tillage.Advertisement
All have an osphradium, except the Auriculidae, which are terrestrial, and it is situated outside the pallial cavity in those forms in which water is not admitted into the lung.
The series of paired spiracles on most of the trunk-segments is well displayed, as a rule, in terrestrial larvae - caterpillars and the grubs of most beetles, for example.
Young resembling adults; terrestrial throughout life.
Includes the bugs, terrestrial and aquatic.
The Hexapoda, being aerial, terrestrial and fresh-water animals, are but occasionally preserved in stratified rocks, and our knowledge of extinct members of the class is therefore fragmentary, while the description, as insects, of various obscure fossils, which are perhaps not even Arthropods, has not tended to the advancement of this branch of zoology.Advertisement
As a rule terrestrial spiders guard the cocoon in the permanent burrow, as in the trap-door spiders, or in the silken retreat which acts as a temporary nursery, as in the Salticidae.
When concealment is no longer possible terrestrial species, like the Lycosidae, dart swiftly to the nearest shelter afforded by crevices in the soil, stones, fallen leaves or logs of wood, while those that live in bushes, like the Argyopidae, drop straight to the ground and lie hidden in the earth or in the fallen vegetation beneath.
In several families of spiders, but principally in those like the Clubionidae and Salticidae, which are terrestrial in habits, there are species which not only live amongst ants, but so closely resemble them in their shape, size, colour and actions that it requires a practised eye to distinguish the Arachnid from the insect.
Since the adoption of an aquatic mode of life by Desis and Argyroneta involves no increased facilities in getting food, and merely substitutes for ordinary terrestrial enemies fishes and crustaceans in the former case, and fishes, amphibians, and insectivorous water-insects in the latter, the supposition is justified that the change in environment is due to the unremitting persecution of Pompilidae and Ichneumonidae, which would not venture to pursue their prey beneath the water's surface.
The earlier supporters of the organic theory held that it was a product of the natural distillation of coal or carbonaceous matter; but though in a few instances volcanic intrusions appear to have converted coal or allied substances into oil, it seems that terrestrial vegetation does not generally give rise to petroleum.Advertisement
In England the word "snail" in popular language is associated with Gasteropods which inhabit land or fresh water, and which possess large conspicuous spiral shells; terrestrial Gasteropods, in which the shell is rudimentary and concealed, are distinguished as "slugs."
The latter are terrestrial and occur mostly near the seashore.
But there are a considerable number of snails, both terrestrial and aquatic, which are not Pulmonates.
A diagnosis covering all the Ratitae (struthio, rhea, casuarius, dromaeus, apteryx and the allied fossils dinornis and aepyornis) would be as follows - (i) terrestrial birds without keel to the sternum, absolutely flightless; (ii) quadrate bone with a single proximal articulating knob; (iii) coracoid and scapula fused together and forming an open angle; (iv) normally without a pygostyle; (v) with an incisura ischiadica; (vi) rhamphotheca compound; (vii) without apteria or bare spaces in the plumage; (viii) with a complete copulatory organ, moved by skeletal muscles.
On the other hand a map drawn on the surface of a sphere representing a terrestrial globe will prove true to nature, for it possesses, in combination, the qualities which the ingenuity of no mathematician has hitherto succeeded in imparting to a projection intended for a map of some extent, namely, equivalence of areas of distances and angles.Advertisement
Terrestrial globes, however, are not referred to.
The birds of the genus Leucosticte seem to be more terrestrial in their habit than those of Linota, perhaps from their having been chiefly observed where trees are scarce; but it is possible that the mutual relationship of the two groups is more apparent than real.
In the end much inorganic nitrogen salts must be added to the sea both in the above way and as the result of the putrefaction of the dead substance of terrestrial animals and plants.
To be consistent with the terminology adopted in Britain, it is necessary to regard the pole which is geographically north as being the south pole of the terrestrial magnet, and that which is geographically south as the north pole; in practice however the names assigned to the terrestrial magnetic poles correspond with their geographical situations.
The crural glands, which occur in many terrestrial Arthropods, are epidermal in origin and totally distinct from the coxal glands.
The mouth is relatively smaller in Scorpio than in Limulus - in fact is minute, as it is in all the terrestrial Arachnida which suck the juices of either animals or plants.
In Limulus Lankester found (15) the spermatozoa to possess active flagelliform " tails," and to resemble very closely those of Scorpio which, as are those of most terrestrial Arthropoda, are actively motile.
In other words, the Malpighian tubes of the terrestrial Arachnida are homoplastic with those of Hexapoda and Myriapoda, and not homogenetic with them.
The most important general change which has affected the structure of the nomomeristic Arachnida in the course of their historic development is the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial life.
The Eu-arachnida are divided into two grades with reference to the condition of the respiratory organs as adapted to aquatic or terrestrial life.
In southern Brazil, on the other hand, in Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, &c., the beds of this period are of terrestrial origin, containing coal seams and remains of plants.
It is noteworthy, also, for the large number of species having arboreal habits, the density and extent of the Amazon forests favouring their development rather than the development of those of terrestrial habits.
One can imagine the interest and astonishment with which the great Greek would have been filled had some unduly precocious disciple shown to him the red-blood-system of the marine terrestrial Annelids; the red blood of Planorbis, of Apus cancriformis, and of the Mediterranean razor shell, Solen legumen.
It is probable that the first collection of astronomical observations and terrestrial omens was made for a library established by Sargon.
They are covered by marine Jurassic beds and they in turn by Cretaceous coal-bearing, terrestrial deposits, resembling those of New Zealand.
Typical spiny squirrels differ from true squirrels in being completely terrestrial in their habits, and live either in clefts or holes of rocks, or in burrows which they dig themselves.
He says it can also be applied to terrestrial objects, though he only used it for the sun.
They feed chiefly on terrestrial vertebrates.
The 1300 to 1400 species contain terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic forms, many of which are highly specialized.
They comprise about 300 species of terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic forms, and as a group they are almost cosmopolitan, including Madagascar, but excepting new Zealand.
Long-tailed, terrestrial and arboreal forms. The tree-snakes are mostly green above with the under parts white or yellow.
Accidents are rarely caused by them, because they are extremely shy and swim away on the least alarm; but, when surprised in the submarine cavities forming their natural retreats, they will, like any other poisonous terrestrial snake, dart at the disturbing object; and, when out of the water, they attempt to bite every object near them, even turning round to wound their own bodies.
They include terrestrial, semi-aquatic and burrowing types; none of them with any signs of degradation; on the contrary they belong to the most highly organized of snakes.
It is only necessary here to mention one anomalous form, Enoicyla pusilla, in which the mature female is wingless and the larva is terrestrial, living in moss or decayed leaves.
Kwei; and in the series of 12, denominated terrestrial signs, 1.
All the existing members of the group are eminently adapted for a terrestrial life, and in the main for a vegetable diet.
The order is, with few exceptions, terrestrial or aerial in habit.
No group of terrestrial insects escapes their attacks - even larvae boring in wood are detected by ichneumon flies with excessively long ovipositors.
This tribe includes some eighteen families of terrestrial, arboreal and marsh-haunting bugs, as well as those aquatic Heteroptera that live on the surface-film of water.
Ramsden's dioptric micrometer consists of a divided lens placed in the conjugate focus of the innermost lens of the erecting eye-tube of a terrestrial telescope.
A great circle can be drawn upon a terrestrial globe in such a way as to divide it into two hemispheres, one of which contains the greatest amount of land and the other the greatest amount of sea of any possible hemispheres.
In the Sciuridae the two main bones (tibia and fibula) of the lower half of the leg are quite separate, the tail is round and hairy, and the habits are arboreal and terrestrial.
The second type of Cretaceous is a terrestrial formation, and is important as it contains the rich coal seams of Greymouth, Westport and Seddonville, which yield a high quality of steam coal.
He claims recognition as an independent a priori propounder of the "First Law of Thermodynamics," but more especially as having early and ably applied that law to the explanation of many remarkable phenomena, both cosmical and terrestrial.
It thus appears that if the amplitude of vibration could be as much as 1 o_2 of the wave-length, the aether would be an excessively rare medium with very slight elasticity; and yet it would be capable of transmitting the supply of solar energy on which all terrestrial activity depends.
It has in fact been found, with the very great precision of which optical experiment is capable, that all terrestrial optical phenomenareflexion, refraction, polarization linear and circular, diffraction - are entirely unaffected by the direction of the earth's motion, while the same result has recently been extended to electrostatic forces; and this is our main experimental clue.
As, however, our terrestrial optical apparatus is now all in motion along with the matter, we must dealt .with the rays relative to the moving system, and to these also Fermat's principle clearly applies; thus V+ (lu'--mv'-Fnw') is here the velocity of radiation in the direction of the ray, but relative to the moving material system.
It is, however, in complete accordance with a view that would make the aether near the earth fully partake in its orbital motion - a view which the null effect of convection on all terrestrial optical and electrical phenomena also strongly suggests.
We may now, as is somewhat the more natural course in the terrestrial application, take axes (x,y,z) which move with the matter; but the current must be invariably defined by the flux across surfaces fixed in space, so that we may say that relation (i) refers to a circuit fixed in space, while (ii) refers to one moving with the matter.
Their habits are strictly terrestrial.
In habits some are partially arboreal, others wholly terrestrial, and a few more or less aquatic. Among the latter, the most remarkable are the fish-eating rats (Ichthyomys) of North-western South America, which frequent streams and feed on small fish.
He has observed that in young specimens of Siren lacertina (the larva is still unknown) the gills are rudimentary and functionless, and that it is only in large adult specimens that they are fully developed in structure and function; he therefore concludes that the sirens are the descendants of a terrestrial type of batrachians, which passed through a metamorphosis like the other members of their class, but that more recently they have adopted a permanently aquatic life, and have resumed their branchiae by reversion.
Becoming interested in terrestrial magnetism he made many observations of magnetic intensity and declination in various parts of Sweden, and was charged by the Stockholm Academy of Sciences with the task, not completed till shortly before his death, of working out the magnetic data obtained by the Swedish frigate "Eugenie" on her voyage round the world in 1851-1853.
The family, comprising some 200 species, with about 30 genera, shows great diversity of form; the terrestrial members are mostly flatbodied, the arboreal more laterally compressed and often with a very long tail.
According to the very varied habits, their external appearance varies within wide limits, there being amongst the 300 species, with 50 genera, arboreal, terrestrial, burrowing and semi-aquatic forms, and even one semi-marine kind.
They all are terrestrial and zoophagous.
For example, among the land vertebrates the feet (associated with the structure of the limbs and trunk) may take one of many lines of adaptation to different media or habitat, either aquatic, terrestrial, arboreal or aerial; while the teeth (associated with the structure of the skull and jaws) also may take one of many lines of adaptation to different kinds of food, whether herbivorous, insectivorous or carnivorous.
In the Jurassic period there were no less than six orders of reptiles which independently abandoned terrestrial life and acquired more or less perfect adaptation to sea life.
In external form Trilobites are not unlike Isopod Crustaceans, especially the terrestrial species commonly called "woodlice"; and until the nature of their appendages was known, it was thought by some authorities that the two groups might be related.
He clearly perceived the significant analogy between terrestrial gravity and the force exerted in the solar system, and by the ingenious device of a circular pendulum illustrated the composite character of the planetary movements.
In part, at least, it is equivalent in time of origin to the Chemung formation; but the latter is of marine origin, while the Catskill formation appears to be of terrestrial origin.
The Mauch Chunk series (shale and sandstone) is now believed to be largely of terrestrial origin.
The dominantly terrestrial formations of the eastern half of the country are in contrast with the marine formations of the west.
Some of the Permian beds of this region are marine, while others are of terrestrial origin.
Perhaps the most remarkable feature of the palaeontology of the system is its paucity of fossils, especially in those parts of the system, such as the Red Beds, which are of terrestrial origin.
They are often known as the Newark series, and seem to be chiefly, if not wholly, of terrestrial origin.
In the first two of these positions, the formations show by their fossils that they are of terrestrial origin in some places, and partly of terrestrial and partly of marine origin in others.
They consist, in most parts of the country, of unconsolidated sediments, consisting of gravel, sand, clay, &c., together with large quantities of tuff, volcanic agglomerate, &c. Some of the sedimentary formations are of marine, some of brackish water, and some of terrestrial origin.
Terrestrial sedimentation was, indeed, a great feature of the Tertiary.
The brackish water formations occur in some parts of the same general areas, while the terrestrial formations are found in and about the western mountains.
The terrestrial Miocene formations of the western part of the country are similar in kind, and, in a general way, in distribution, to the Eocene of the same region.
Most of the fossils of the bess are shells of terrestrial gastropods, but bones of land mammals are also found in not a few places.
In astronomy, the "celestial equator" is the name given to the great circle in which the plane of the terrestrial equator intersects the celestial sphere; it is consequently equidistant from the celestial poles.
The "magnetic equator" is an imaginary line encircling the earth, along which the vertical component of the earth's magnetic force is zero; it nearly coincides with the terrestrial equator.
The simple bodies which are the matter of the rest are not terrestrial earth, water, air, fire, and a different celestial aether, but whatever elementary bodies natural science, starting anew from mechanics and chemistry, may determine to be the matter of all other bodies whatever.
The manuscript residue includes papers on atmospheric refraction (dated 1755), on the motion of Mars as affected by the perturbations of Jupiter and the Earth (1756), and on terrestrial magnetism (1760 and 1762).
It was always the prayer that the soul (bai) should be able to revisit the corpse (khat), and some inscriptions show an expectation of the body itself being revivified, "the mouth speaking," "the legs walking," and everything conforming with its previous terrestrial life.
Some are littoral, living between tide-marks; others are found at very various depths, up to 2800 fathoms. A few species have invaded the fresh waters, while the pulmonate and terrestrial Gastropods are distributed over the whole surface of the land in all latitudes and to a height of 15,000 ft.
Rodents may be characterized as terrestrial, or in some cases arboreal or aquatic, placental mammals of small or medium size, with a milk and a permanent series of teeth, plantigrade or partially plantigrade, and generally five-toed, clawed (rarely nailed or semi hoofed) feet, clavicles or collar-bones (occasionally imperfect or rudimentary), no canine teeth, and a single pair of lower incisors, opposed by only one similar and functional pair in the upper jaw.
Rodents include by far the greater number of species, and have the widest distribution, of any of the orders of terrestrial mammals, being in fact cosmopolitan, although more abundant in some parts, as in South America, which may be considered their headquarters, than in others, as in Australasia and Madagascar, where they are represented only by members of the mouse-group, or Myoidea.
Sewellels are medium-sized terrestrial rodents, with no postorbital process to the skull, which is depressed in form, and rootless cheek-teeth, among which the premolars number I, the first in the upper jaw being very small.
The majority of these rodents, many of which are of large size, are terrestrial, but a few are burrowing, others arboreal and two or three aquatic.
The Old World porcupines, constituting the family Hystricidae, are terrestrial, stoutly built rodents, with limbs of subequal length in front and behind, and the skin covered with strong spines.
The members of both Coelogenys and Dasyprocta are terrestrial in their habits, and have the foreand hind-limbs subequal, hoof-like claws,.
The African cane-rats, Thryonomys, are large terrestrial rodents, ranging from the centre of the continent to the Cape, easily recognized by their deeply fluted incisors.
All are terrestrial, and in many cases burrowing, in their habits, and some of them are of extreme fleetness.
The forms of these flocculi show that all sun-spots are vortical in nature, and are probably analogous to terrestrial cyclones or tornadoes.
The observing telescope is of the ordinary terrestrial form.
But Newton had already discovered beforehand in the mechanics of terrestrial bodies that gravitation constantly causes similar facts on the earth, and did not derive that cause from any logical ground beyond experience, any more than he did the third law of motion.
For a description of the method of using the Fox circle for observations at sea consult the Admiralty Manual of Scientific Inquiry, p. 116, while a description of the most recent form of the circle, known as the Lloyd-Creak pattern, will be found in Terrestrial Magnetism, 1901, 6, p. 119.
Bauer in Terrestrial Magnetism, 1906, II, p. 78.
Hence, however carefully a compass may be placed and subsequently compensated, the mariner has no safety without constantly observing the bearings of the sun, stars or distant terrestrial objects, to ascertain its deviation.
The more typical members of the genus are terrestrial in their habits, and their cheek-teeth have nearly the same pattern as in rhinoceroses; while the interval between the upper incisors is less than the width of the teeth; and the lower incisors are only slightly notched at the cutting edge.
In 1609 and 1619 Kepler published his new laws of planetary motion, which were subsequently shown by Newton to agree with the results obtained by experiment for the motion of terrestrial bodies.
Masses of terrestrial bodies are generally compared by weighing; this is found by experiment to give a correct result, but it is applicable only in the neighbourhood of the earth.
It should be noted that, within a limited range of application to terrestrial mechanics, the most convenient way of attacking the question of the relations of forces to the physical statics.
At the same time he thought of the possibility of terrestrial gravity extending to the moon, and made a calculation with regard to it.
Some years later he succeeded in showing that Kepler's elliptic orbit for planetary motion agreed with the assumed law of attraction; he also completed the co-ordination with terrestrial gravity by his investigation of the attractions of homogeneous spherical bodies.
In the meantime some confirmation of the law has been obtained from terrestrial experiments, and observations of double stars tend to indicate for it a wider if not universal range.
The earth, which is commonly employed as a base for terrestrial motions, is not a very close approximation to being a Newtonian base.
Differences of acceleration due to the attractions of the sun and moon are not important for terrestrial systems on a small scale, and can usually be ignored, but their effect (in combination with the rotation of the earth) is very apparent in the case of the ocean tides.
The first king and his six successors are known as the seven celestial khri; the next series consists of six kings known as the earthly legs; and they were followed by eight terrestrial lde.
They present a strong family likeness which is not found in any other terrestrial vertebrated animals with exception of some lizards and possibly Caecilians amongst the Amphibia.
In arctic regions lichens form by far the largest portion of the vegetation, occurring everywhere on the ground and on rocks, and fruiting freely; while terrestrial species of Cladonia and Stereocaulon are seen in the greatest luxuriance and abundance spreading over extensive tracts almost to the entire exclusion of other vegetation.
This interesting animal, though a member of the Amphibia, is terrestrial and viviparous.
In such an exploration of the sun's atmosphere it might be anticipated that definite currents, or some evidences of atmospheric circulation analogous to those familiar in terrestrial meteorology, would be discovered.
Beautiful terrestrial orchids, requiring to be planted in peat soil, in a cool and rather shady situation.
Some were probably fluviatile in habit (Loxomnaa,Anthracosaurus,Ophiderpeton); others may have been terrestrial (Dendrerpeton, Hylerpeton).
When truly adjusted the theodolite measures the horizontal angle between any two objects, however much they may differ in altitude, as the pole star and any terrestrial object.
In works of art he is represented as carrying the heavens or the terrestrial globe.
It is thoroughly terrestrial, selecting for its retreat in the daytime holes made by small mammals, or interstices between stones.
The genera Brachypteracias and Atelornis present fewer structural differences from the rollers, and perhaps may be rightly placed with them; but the species of the latter have long tarsi, and are believed to be of terrestrial habit, which rollers generally certainly are not.
Hence his religious feeling and theological speculation demanded their realization in a kingdom of God coextensive with man's nature, terrestrial history and human society; and thus his theological system became a Theologische Ethik, as he entitled one of his books (3 vols., 18 451848).
Men are the result of a primal war in heaven, when hosts of angels incited by Satan or Lucifer to revolt were driven out, and were imprisoned in terrestrial bodies created for them by the adversary.
The connexion between aurora and earth magnetic disturbances renders it practically certain that if a 26-day or similar period exists in the one phenomenon it exists also in the other, and of the two terrestrial magnetism is probably the element least affected by external complications, such as the action of moonlight.
Relations to Magnetic Storms. - That there is an intimate connexion between aurora when visible in temperate latitudes and terrestrial magnetism is hardly open to doubt.
Some Chlorophyceae are terrestrial in habit, usually growing on a damp substratum, however.
A few algae approach the ordinary terrestrial plants in their capacity to live in a sub-aerial habitat subject only to such occasional supplies of water as is afforded by the rainfall.
There are no gigantic dominant masses obviously due to special terrestrial disturbance.
During and since the deposition of the rocks that underlie them the tract has been the scene of repeated terrestrial disturbances.
The earliest rain that fell upon these ridges would run off them, first in transverse watercourses down each short slope, and then in longitudinal depressions wherever such had been formed during the terrestrial disturbance.
The line of permanent snow is much higher on the plateau side in both ranges, the precipitation being greater on the outer sides - those facing the forested lowlands - and the terrestrial radiation being greater from the barren surfaces of the plateau.
The Pliocene consists entirely of freshwater and terrestrial deposits, which were probably laid down at the foot of the rising hills and on the floors of the intervening valleys.
In 1696 he was, although a zealous Tory, appointed deputy comptroller of the mint at Chester, and (August 19, 1698) he received a commission as captain of the "Paramour Pink" for the purpose of making extensive observations on the conditions of terrestrial magnetism.
For instance, in the history of mechanics it was first inferred from some that all terrestrial bodies gravitate, and then from these as some that all ponderable bodies, terrestrial and celestial, gravitate.
Really, we first experience that particular causes have particular effects; then induce that causes similar to those have effects similar to these; finally, deduce that when a particular cause of the kind occurs it has a particular effect of the kind by synthetic deduction, and that when a particular effect of the kind occurs it has a particular cause of the kind by analytic deduction with a convertible premise, as when Newton from planetary motions, like terrestrial motions, analytically deduced a centripetal force to the sun like centripetal forces to the earth.
The name " California " was taken from Ordonez de Montalvo's romance of chivalry Las Sergas de Esplandian (Madrid, 15 ro), in which is told of black Amazons ruling an island of this name " to the right of the Indies, very near the quarter of the terrestrial paradise."
In Mexico the half-serpent Ahuizotl dragged into its pool hapless passers-by; however, their souls were supposed to go to the terrestrial paradise - see on this idea, Rohde, ii.
Cady, Terrestrial Magnetism, 1904, 9, 69, describing a declination magnetograph in which the record is obtained by means of a pen acting on a moving strip of paper, so that the curve can be consulted at all times to see whether a disturbance is in progress.
That a wood-louse and a land-crab are alike Malacostracans, and that they have by different paths alike become adapted to terrestrial life, are facts which even a philosopher might condescend to notice.
A final proof of its vigorous vitality at this period may be found in the numerous inventions of its inhabitants, which include watches, at first called "Nuremberg eggs," the air-gun, gun-locks, the terrestrial and celestial globes, the composition now called brass, and the art of wire-drawing.
Forbes was especially interested in questions of heat, meteorology, and terrestrial magnetism, and it was to these that Stewart also mainly devoted himself.
In 1859 he was appointed director of Kew Observatory, and there naturally became interested in problems of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism.
He was the author of several successful textbooks of science, and also of the article on "Terrestrial Magnetism" in the ninth edition of this Encyclopaedia.
It is true that most terrestrial animals are restricted to countries not possessing a great range of temperature or very diversified climates, but there is reason to believe that this is due to quite a different set of causes, such as the presence of enemies or deficiency of appropriate food.
The Tertiary beds include both marine and terrestrial deposits, and appear to be chiefly of Miocene and Pliocene age.
The insect life of these strangely associated regions is likewise greatly restricted by adverse climatic conditions, a considerable part of the northern desert being absolutely barren of animal and vegetable life, while the climate of Tierra del Fuego and the southern coast is highly unfavourable to terrestrial animal life, for which reason comparatively few species are to be found.
Flowering plants include numerous species of terrestrial orchids, the socalled arum lily (Richardia Africana), common in low-lying moist land, and the white everlasting flower, found abundantly in some regions of Cape Colony.
The herbaceous tropical and semi-tropical vegetation likewise by degrees disappears, the Scitamineae, epiphytal and terrestrial Orchideae, Araceae, Cyrtandraceae and Begoniae only occur in small numbers in Kumaon, and scarcely extend west of the Sutlej.
The Jurassic deposits are partly marine and partly fresh-water or terrestrial, including beds of lignite.
The eastern ranges of the Bolivian Andes are formed of Palaeozoic rocks with granitic and other intrusions; the Western Cordillera consists chiefly of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds, together with the lavas and ashes of the great volcanoes; while the intervening plateau is covered by freshwater and terrestrial deposits through which rise ridges of Palaeozoic rock and of a series of red sandstones and gypsiferous marls of somewhat uncertain age (probably, in part at least, Cretaceous).
The name must have been given derisively, as the barren coasts of Lower California could not have suggested the proximity of a "terrestrial paradise."
A terrestrial habitat is less common, but the widely-distributed land Isopoda or woodlice and the land-crabs of tropical regions have solved the problem of adaptation to a subaerial life.
In some of the terrestrial Isopoda or woodlice (Oniscoidea) the abdominal appendages have ramified tubular invaginations of the integument, filled with air and resembling the tracheae of insects.
A few cases are known in which the developing embryos are nourished by a special secretion while in the brood-chamber of the mother (Cladocera, terrestrial Isopoda).
The terrestrial city, whose eternity had been the theme of pagan history, had just fallen before Alaric's Goths.
It is remarkable that all the insectivorous plants agree in inhabiting damp heaths, bogs, marshes and similar situations where water is abundant, but where they are not brought into contact with the plenteous supply of inorganic nitrogenous food as are the roots of terrestrial plants.
The results vary between 1.89 and 2.22, and the variation appears to be solar, not terrestrial.
The sun's distance is the indispensable link which connects terrestrial measures with all celestial ones, those of the moon alone excepted; hence the exceptional pains taken to deter mine it.
At length the day dawned which, according to the prophecies, was to usher in the terrestrial paradise.
Aldrovandi in De animalibus insectis (1602) almost contemporaneously distinguished between "terrestrial insects," including woodlice, earthworms and slugs, and "aquatic insects," comprising annelids and starfishes.
They feed on seeds, fruits, insects, lizards, &c.; and while some of the species are largely terrestrial, the Barbary ape is wholly so.
In point of bodily size mammals present a greater range of variation than is exhibited by any other living terrestrial animals, the extremes in this respect being displayed by the African elephant on the one hand and certain species of shrewmice (whose head and body scarcely exceed an inch and a half in length) on the other.
The position of such glands on the lower portions of the limbs is plainly favourable to a recognitiontaint being left in the tracks of terrestrial animals; and antelopes have been observed deliberately to rub the secretion from their face-glands on tree-trunks.
Salivary glands, of which the most constant are the parotid and the submaxillary, are always present in terrestrial mammals.
In all the groups which are at present arboreal, the palaeontological evidence goes to show that their ancestors were likewise so; while since, in the case of modern terrestrial forms, the structure of the wrist and ankle joints tends to approximate to the arboreal type, as we recede in time, the available evidence, so far as it goes, is in favour of Dr Matthew's contention.
As regards terrestrial mammals (with which alone we are at present concerned), one of the most striking features in their distribution is their practical absence from oceanic islands; the only species found in such localities being either small forms which might have been carried on floating timber, or such as have been introduced by human agency.
The Rodentia have a wider geographical range than any other order of terrestrial mammals, being, as already mentioned, represented by numerous members of the mouse-tribe (Muridae) even in Australasia.
Although Adams's researches on Neptune were those which attracted widest notice, the work he subsequently performed in relation to gravitational astronomy and terrestrial magnetism was not less remarkable.
The determination of the constants in Gauss's theory of terrestrial magnetism occupied him at intervals for over forty years.
The great anteater is terrestrial in habits, not burrowing underground like armadillos.
Nusku-Girru is the symbol of the heavenly as well as of the terrestrial fire.
In each case the data rest on an ultimate basis, undemonstrable, indeed, to any one who denies them (even if he be called mad for doing so), except by the continuous process of working out their own proofs, and showing their consistency with, or necessity in, the scheme of things terrestrial on the one hand, or the mind and happiness of man on the other.
Erect and creeping terrestrial plants and (From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik.) FIG.
The single genus (Isoetes) contains about fifty, mostly aquatic, species, though a few are amphibious or terrestrial.
Many of the species inhabit situations in which the air is constantly moist, especially in the tropics; some are terrestrial; others, some of which are very minute, are epiphytic on tree-stems. A single solid central cylinder is found in the rhizome.
It is a noteworthy fact that other tubes in these same terrestrial Arthropoda - namely, the ducts of glands - are similarly strengthened by a chitinous cuticle, and that a spiral or annular thickening of the cuticle is developed in them also.
Tubes of renal excretory function in a like position occur in most terrestrial Arthropoda - viz.
Such renal caecal tubes seem to be readily evolved from either metenteron or proctodaeum when the conditions of the out-wash of nitrogenous waste-products are changed by the transference from aquatic to terrestrial life.
The absence of such renal caeca in Limulus and their presence in the terrestrial Arachnida is precisely on a parallel with their absence in aquatic Crustacea and their presence in the feebly branchiate Amphipoda.
Terrestrial forms with small-jointed legs formed by adaptation of a single ramus of the appendage.
No tracheate Crustacea are known, but some terrestrial Isopoda develop pulmonary in-sinkings of the integument.
Our general conclusion from a survey of the Arthropoda amounts to this, that whilst Peripatus, the Diplopoda, and the Arachnida represent terrestrial offshoots from successive lower grades of primitive aquatic Arthropoda which are extinct, the Crustacea alone present a fairly full series of representatives leading upwards from unspecialized forms. The latter were not very far removed from the aquatic ancestors (Trilobites) of the Arachnida, but differed essentially from them by the higher specialization of the head.
On the other hand, the facts that the Hexapoda and the Chilopoda have triprosthomerous heads, that the Hexapoda have the same total number of somites as the nomomeristic Crustacea, and the same number of opisthomeres in the head as the more terrestrial Crustacea, together with the same adaptation of the form of important appendages in corresponding somites, and that the compound eyes of both Crustacea and Hexapoda are extremely specialized and elaborate in structure and identical in that structure, all lead to the suggestion that the Hexapoda, and with them, at no distant point, the Chilopoda, have branched off from the Crustacean main stem as specialized terrestrial lines of descent.
Baboons are for the most part large terrestrial monkeys with short or medium-sized tails, and long naked dog-like muzzles, in the truncated extremity of which are pierced the nostrils.
Among these subjects were the transit of Mercury, the Aurora Borealis, the figure of the earth, the observation of the fixed stars, the inequalities in terrestrial gravitation, the application of mathematics to the theory of the telescope, the limits of certainty in astronomical observations, the solid of greatest attraction, the cycloid, the logistic curve, the theory of comets, the tides, the law of continuity, the double refraction micrometer, various problems of spherical trigonometry, &c. In 1742 he was consulted, with other men of science, by the pope, Benedict XIV., as to the best means of securing the stability of the dome of St Peter's, Rome, in which a crack had been discovered.
Over the upper surface was stretched a white-dressed reindeer skin, and at the corners (so to speak) hung a variety of charms - tufts of wool, bones, teeth, claws, &c. The area was divided into several spaces, often into three, one for the celestial gods, one for the terrestrial and one for man.
These suggestions took practical shape by a decree of the National Assembly in 1790 appointing a committee to consider the suitability of adopting either the length of the seconds pendulum, a fraction of the length of the equator or a fraction of the quadrant of the terrestrial meridian..
This plane intersects the earth's surface in the terrestrial equator.
On the side of this sphere opposite to the North Celestial is the South Pole, invisible in the Northern Terrestrial Hemisphere but visible in the Southern one.
Francis Bacon's prescient dream, however, of a living astronomy by which the physical laws governing terrestrial relations should be extended to the highest heavens, had long to wait for realization.
It consisted, first, in the identification, by strict numerical comparisons, of terrestrial gravity with the mutual attraction of the heavenly bodies; secondly, in the following out of its mechanical consequences throughout the solar system.
Euler devised in 1753 a new method, that of the " variation of parameters," for their investigation, and applied it to unravel some of the earth's irregularities in a memoir crowned by the French Academy in 1756; while in 1757, Clairault estimated the masses of the moon and Venus by their respective disturbing effects upon terrestrial movements.
Again, since the constant of aberration defines the ratio between the velocity of light and the earth's orbital speed, the span of the terrestrial circuit, in other words, the distance of the sun, is immediately deducible from known values of the first two quantities.
Rowland (1848-1901) in 1882, about forty terrestrial elements have been identified in the sun.
There ensued a general classification of the stars by Secchi into four leading types, distinguished by diversities of spectral pattern; and the recognition by Huggins of a considerable number of terrestrial elements as present in stellar atmospheres.
It cannot be stated with the same definiteness that we can assign heights to our terrestrial mountains, because there is no fixed sea-level on the moon to which elevations can be referred.
Evidence is also accumulating to show that the sun and stars are radio-active bodies, and that emanations proceeding from the sun, and reaching the earth, have important relations to the phenomena of Terrestrial Magnetism and the Aurora.
In the deposits of a much more remote era than those already spoken of - the Jurassic - the bones of some enormous terrestrial lizards have been brought to light, belonging to Sauropodous Dinosaurs of the genera Bothriospondylus and Titanosaurus, and to a Theropod of the genus Megalosaurus.
He also wrote or edited various Chinese works on geography, the celestial and terrestrial spheres, geometry and arithmetic. And the detailed history of the mission was drawn out by him, which after his death was brought home by P. Nicolas Trigault, and published at Augsburg, and later in a complete form at Lyons under the name De Expeditione Christiana apud Sinas Suscepta, ab Soc. Jesu, Ex P. Mat.
The ebb and flow of the tides were, he asserted, a visible proof of the terrestrial double movement, since they resulted from inequalities in the absolute velocities through space of the various parts of the earth's surface, due to its rotation.
More valid instances of the anticipation of modern discoveries may be found in his prevision that a small annual parallax would eventually be found for some of the fixed stars, and that extra-Saturnian planets would at some future time be ascertained to exist, and in his conviction that light travels with a measurable, although, in relation to terrestrial distances, infinite velocity.
Some of the species are thoroughly aquatic and have fully webbed toes, others are terrestrial, except during the breeding season, others are adapted for burrowing, by means of the much-enlarged and sharp-edged tubercle at the base of the inner toe, whilst not a few have the tips of the digits dilated into disks by which they are able to climb on trees.
The result is a variability of terrestrial latitudes generally.
The evidence for terrestrial Silurian vegetation is still dubious; apart from some obscure North American specimens, the true nature of which is not established, Potonie has described well-characterized Pteridophytes (such as the fern-like Sphenopteridium and Bothrodendron among Lycopods) from supposed Silurian strata in North Germany; the horizon, however, appears to be open to much doubt, and the specimens agree so nearly with some from the Lower Carboniferous as to render their Silurian age difficult of credence.
The high development of the terrestrial flora in Devonian times renders it probable that land-plants existed far back in the Silurian ages, or still earlier.
Other newts, and many salamanders, whether terrestrial or aquatic, pair, the male embracing the female about the fore limbs or in the pelvic region, and the males of such forms are invariably devoid of ornamental secondary sexual characters; but in spite of this amplexation the same mode of fecundation by means of a spermatophore is resorted to, although it may happen that the contents of the spermatophore are absorbed direct from the cloaca of the male.
The Capuchin Antonius Maria Schyrlaus (Schyrl) de Rheita (1597-1660) described in 1645 the construction of double terrestrial telescopes.
He also carried on extensive researches in the theory of magnetism; and it is interesting that in connexion with his observations in terrestrial magnetism he not only employed an early form of mirror galvanometer, but also, about 1833, devised a system of electromagnetic telegraphy, by which a distance of some 9000 ft.
The simple altazimuth mount allows vertical and horizontal movements for quick astro and terrestrial pointing.
Hot terrestrial anurans are particularly at risk from problems of water loss, as well as gaining water.
Abstract Fossil evidence of terrestrial vascular plant life and terrestrial arthropods exists from the Silurian.
The living space of the oceans is about 168 times that of the terrestrial biome.
First, we present an overview of the simulated climate and global mean changes in the terrestrial biosphere.
The policy implications of the missing sink being located in the terrestrial biota are discussed.
Allowance is made for lower production budgets, and previous terrestrial broadcast is not a requirement.
Indeed, will today's terrestrial TV channels transfer to the mobile device?
So terrestrial latitude would have to be 63 north for a lunar standstill north to be truly circumpolar today.
There is little money for development and consequently these cameras have lagged behind their terrestrial counterparts.
The group includes the only true terrestrial crustaceans, the woodlice, which no longer need to return to water in order to breed.
Research Interests Research interests include African terrestrial ecology, particularly rain forest ecology.
Yet, soil is the basic medium and driver for all terrestrial ecosystems.
They are great for terrestrial use as well and can be fitted with image erectors or star diagonals as required.
Insects occur in all possible terrestrial habitats including freshwater, deserts and Polar Regions.
Invasive organisms, pests and diseases threaten food and agricultural systems and critical terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems and environmental services.
On the ninth day after leaving Yokohama, Phileas Fogg had traversed exactly one half of the terrestrial globe.
There is a real prospect is that by 2100 there will be little if any natural terrestrial habitat left.
Twain uses the voice of an exiled angel, temporarily in terrestrial residence, to describe the utter insanity of human kind.
For Terrestrial Planet Finder, five spacecraft, flying in formation about one kilometer apart, will function as an optical interferometer.
We will also collect terrestrial invertebrates by hand ashore.
Use of hands and feet of three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) during climbing and terrestrial locomotion.
In April 1839, being the obvious choice James Clark Ross was appointed to command the expedition investigating terrestrial magnetism in Antarctica.
The compass revealed nothing of the nature of terrestrial magnetism to the medieval thinker.
Possible applications to observations in the terrestrial magnetosphere are discussed.
Compared with many terrestrial mammals, little is known of cetacean natural history.
Terrestrial mammals such as sheep, stone marten and man have also been recorded as having been infected with EBLVs.
The impact of millions to billions of carbonaceous meteorites in the early solar system may have replenished the water supply on the terrestrial planets.
The BBC had originally promised an educational channel on its digital terrestrial multiplex.
Understanding Mercury, and the forces that have shaped it, is fundamental to understanding the terrestrial planets and their evolution.
The same thing happened to a French savant among the mountains of Spain, when he was measuring the terrestrial meridian.
The site provides an overview of CO2 sequestration covering capture and separation; geological, ocean and terrestrial sequestration; and advanced concepts.
Caltech have a Virtual Planetary Laboratory aimed at reproducing possible spectral signatures to help the Terrestrial Planet Finder program.
Terrestrial habitat associated with the breeding areas is quarry spoil, early successional vegetation and surrounding pasture.
Any quality series the terrestrial stations do get is often squandered.
Survival School has worked with a vast range of companies on programs which have been shown on cable, satellite and terrestrial television.
Kids don't play cricket these days at school, without it on terrestrial telly, what chance do they have to be inspired!
The land side doesn't have to be as elaborate as in the ' terrestrial terrarium ' .
Channel 4 is the only terrestrial broadcaster to have received no support - yet.
So congratulations are in order for the ECB ensuring that next years Tests aren't going to be on terrestrial.
In the wild killies eat mainly terrestrial insects, aquatic insects larvae and crustaceans.
Saltmarsh represents a transition from sand and mudflats to truly terrestrial vegetation.
The Pygmy hippo spends less time in the water being largely terrestrial in comparison to the amphibious ways of its larger relative.
The immediate surrounding area included terrestrial, freshwater and coastal habitats.
The modeling work at APL goes back thirty years for the terrestrial thermosphere.
It's utter tripe to suggest that terrestrial channels are driving digital take-up even for Freeview.
If you watch terrestrial TV, go get one immediately!
How long do muscle fibers need to be in terrestrial vertebrates?
However, she also came to believe that these landscape effigies formed part of a larger design, and very possibly a terrestrial zodiac.
Vogel of Potsdam introduced the method of photographing stellar and terrestrial spectra on the same plate, and in this way obtained an immense advance in the ease and precision of observation.
Vogel and his successors employed one or other form of measuring machine, provided with a microscope having single or close parallel webs which could be successively pointed on the photographed lines of the star spectrum and the lines of the terrestrial spectrum.
To derive the stellar velocity in the line of sight relative to the observer it was then necessary to assume that the normal wave-lengths of the stellar and terrestrial spectra are accurately known.
While chemistry rests in the acceptance of ultimate heterogeneous elements, the vortex-theory assumed uniform matter through the universe, and reduced cosmical physics to the same principles as regulate terrestrial phenomena.
They were then arboreal; but they speedily entered upon a rapid, although short-lived, course of evolution, during which leaping terrestrial forms like the kangaroos were developed.
The Lower Devonian beds are in the main terrestrial, or coarse littoral deposits, and volcanic rocks.
The Upper Carboniferous period was in the main terrestrial, and during it were laid down the coal-seams of New South Wales; they are best developed in the basin of the Hunter river, and they extend southward, covered by Mesozoic deposits, beyond Sydney.
In Victoria, Tasmania, northern New South Wales and Queensland, there are Jurassic terrestrial deposits, containing the coal seams of Victoria, of the Clarence basin of north-eastern New South Wales, and of the Ipswich series in Queensland; the same beds range far inland on the western slopes of the east Australian highlands in New South Wales and Queensland and they occur, with coal-seams, at Leigh's Creek, at the northern foot of the South Australian highlands.
Other terrestrial marsupials are the wombat (Phascolomys), a large, clumsy, burrowing animal, not unlike a pig, which attains a weight of from 60 to 100 lb; the bandicoot (Perameles), a rat-like creature whose depredations annoy the agriculturist; the native cat (Dasyurus), noted robber of the poultry yard; the Tasmanian wolf (Thylacinus), which preys on large game; and the recently discovered Notoryctes, a small animal which burrows like a mole in the desert of the interior.
It is generally tubular in form, but in some species two forms are produced on the same plant, lower or terrestrial goblet-shaped pitchers and upper suspended pitchers retaining the more primitive more or less tubular form; in a few species a third form - funnelor cornucopia-shaped pitchers - occurs in the upper part.
A study of the development of the pitcher, especially in the young pitchers of seedling plants, shows that the inflated portion is a development of the midrib of the leaf, while the wings, which are especially well represented in the terrestrial type of pitcher, represent the upper portion of the leaf-blade which has become separated from the lower portion by the tendril; the lid is regarded as representing two leaflets which have become fused.
They occur in all parts of the world and are mostly aquatic, though sometimes terrestrial, in habit.
Wallace's studies of island life, and the work of many different observers on local races of animals and plants, marine, fluviatile and terrestrial, have brought about a conception of segregation as apart from differences of environment as being one of the factors in the differentiation of living forms.
The plant-body (thallus) is always small and normally lives in very damp air, so that the demands of terrestrial life are at a minimum.
We may note the universal Li occurrence on the lower surface of the thallus of fixing ver and absorbing rhizoids in accordance with the terrestrial Worts.
The features of histological structure seen in the Bryophytic series are such as we should expect to be developed in response to the exigencies of increasing adaptation to terrestrial life on soil, and of increasing size of the plant-body.
In the terrestrial plants it differs in the subterranean and subaerial parts, being in the former preeminently absorptive, and in the latter protectiveprovision at the same time being made for the gaseous interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide necessary for respiration and feeding.
Physiological and Morphological Di,fferentiation.The first indication of this differentiation in the vegetative body of the plant can be seen not only in the terrestrial green plants which have been particularly referred to, but also in the bulkier seaweeds.
The importance of this provision in the case of aquatic vascular plants of sturdy bulk is even greater than in that of terrestrial organisms, as their environment offers considerable obstacles to the renewal of the air in their interior.
Those which are only partially submerged bear stomata on their exposed portions, so that their environment approximates towards that of a terrestrial plant, but the communication even in their case is much less easy and complete, so that they need amuchlarger reservoir of air in their interior.
Transpiration.In the case of terrestrial plants, the continual renewal of the water contained in the vacuoles of the protoplasts demands a copious and continuous evaporation.
Other characteristic features of the flora are the abundance of Compositae, Asclepiadeae, and petaloid Monocotyledons generally, but especially Orchideae (terrestrial species predominating) and Iridaceae.
The evolutionary idea has revolutionized and unified geography as it did biology, breaking down the old hard-and-fast partitions between the various departments, and substituting the study of the nature and influence of actual terrestrial environments for the earlier motive, the discovery and exploration of new lands.
While the theory of the sphere was being elaborated the efforts of practical geographers were steadily directed towards ascertaining the outline and configuration of the oekumene, or habitable F i tting the world, the only portion of the terrestrial surface known oekumene to the ancients and to the medieval peoples, and still to the retaining a shadow of its old monopoly of geographical sphere.
Varenius does not treat of special geography, but gives a scheme for it under three heads- (i) Terrestrial, including position, outline, boundaries, mountains, mines, woods and deserts, waters, fertility and fruits, and living creatures; (2) Celestial, including appearance of the heavens and the climate; (3) Human, but this was added out of deference to popular usage.
The " tetrahedral theory " brought forward by Lowthian Green,' that the form of the earth is a spheroid based on a regular tetrahedron, is more serviceable, because it accounts for three very interesting facts of the terrestrial plan - (1) the antipodal position of continents and ocean basins; (2) the tri angular outline of the continents; and (3) the excess of sea in the southern hemisphere.
Originally terrestrial groups have taken to an entirely aquatic life, and vice versa; others, originally endowed with the power of flight,.
The same might be said of the magnificent Lissochilus roseus, a terrestrial orchid, growing to 7 ft.
In correlation with their heavy build and the frequent loss of the power of flight, many beetles are terrestrial rather than aerial in habit, though a large proportion of the order can fly well.
This terrible intermezzo was no longer terrestrial, but was a cosmic and universal crisis in which the Messiah would emerge victorious from the final conflict with the heathen and demonic powers.
Its situation near the northern frontier recommended it to the Tatar invaders as a convenient centre for their power, and its peculiarly fortunate position as regards the supernatural terrestrial influences pertaining to it has inclined succeeding Chinese monarchs to accept it as the seat of their courts.
He showed that in the spectra of the fixed stars many of the dark lines were different from those of the solar spectrum, whilst other wellknown solar lines were wanting; and he concluded that it was not by any action of the terrestrial atmosphere upon the light passing through it that the lines were produced.
Its fine-grained, unstratified silt contains the remains of many terrestrial animals, including fifteen mammals.
Salep, still used in the Levant, consists of the dried tubers of a terrestrial orchid, and contains a relatively large amount of nutritious matter.
Neottiineae, including 90 genera, also terrestrial, contains thirteen more or less widely distributed tropical or subtropical subtribes, some of which extend into temperate zones; one, Cephalanthereae, which includes our British genera Cephalanthera and Epipactis is chiefly north temperate.
Liparidinae, 9 genera, terrestrial, two, Malaxis and Corallorhiza, are British.
Freshwater and terrestrial deposits of Mesozoic age occur in many places, and the conclusion is irresistible that the greater part of this area has been land since the close of the Palaeozoic era.
In the same way the entire absence of any marine fossils in the peninsula of India, excepting near its borders, and the presence of the terrestrial and freshwater deposits of the Gondwana series, representing the whole of the geological scale from the top of the Carboniferous to the top of the Jurassic, show that this region also has been land since the Carboniferous period.
They are divisible into the Haplodrili or Archiannelida, the Polychaeta containing the marine worms, the Oligochaeta or terrestrial and fresh-water annelids (see Earthworm), the Hirudinea or leeches (see Leech), and a small group of parasitic worms, the 11-Tyzostomida (q.v.).
As is very frequently the case with marine forms, as compared with their fresh-water and terrestrial allies, the Polychaeta differ from the Oligochaeta and Hirudinea in possessing a free living B FIG.
As a rule - to which, however, there are exceptions - the clitellum consists of two cr three segments only in the small aquatic Oligochaeta, while in the terrestrial forms it is as a general rule, to which again there are exceptions, a more extensive, sometimes much more extensive, region.
Commonly among the terrestrial forms there is a gizzard, or two gizzards, or a larger number, in the oesophageal region.
The classifications of Adolf Eduard, Grube and Claparede separated into two subdivisions the aquatic and the terrestrial forms. This scheme, opposed by many, has been reinstated by Sedgwick.
No ctenidium, pallial cavity transformed into a lung; aperture of shell circular; terrestrial.
Terrestrial and usually littoral; genital duct monaulic, the penis being connected with the aperture by an open or closed groove; shell with a prominent spire, the internal partitions often absorbed and the aperture denticulated.
Among travellers Eudoxus of Cyzicus occupies a foremost rank, since, between 115-87 B.C. he visited India and the east coast of Africa, which subsequently he attempted in vain to circumnavigate by Celestial globes were made much earlier than terrestrial ones.
Archimedes, the famous mathematician, had a celestial globe of glass, in the centre of which was a small terrestrial globe.
The Arabians are not known to have produced a terrestrial globe, but several of their celestial globes are to be found in our collections.
Globes, both celestial and terrestrial, became popular after the discovery of America.
Weigel (1696) produced a hollow celestial globe in copper, having a small terrestrial globe in its centre.
Useful instructions have been furnished by Carl Barus (Terrestrial Magnetism, 1897, 2, II) for the preparation of magnets calculated to withstand the effects of time, percussion and ordinary temperature variations.
The valuable work of Gauss on magnetic theory and measurements, especially in relation to terrestrial magnetism, was published in his Intensitas vis magneticae terrestris, 1833, and in memoirs communicated to the Resultate aus den Beobachtungen des magnetischen Vereins, 1838 and 1839, which, with others, are contained in vol.
Though the aquatic members of a class of animals are in some instances derived from terrestrial forms, the usual transition is from an aquatic ancestry to more recent land-living forms. There is no doubt, from a consideration of the facts of structure, that the aquatic water-breathing Arachnids, represented in the past by the Eurypterines and to-day by the sole survivor Limulus, have preceded the terrestrial air-breathing forms of that group. Hence we see at once that the better-known Arachnida form a series, leading from Limulus-like aquatic creatures through scorpions, spiders and harvest-men, to the degenerate Acari or mites.
To assist his lectures on astronomy he constructed elaborate globes of the terrestrial and celestial spheres, on which the course of the planets was marked; for facilitating arithmetical and perhaps geometrical processes he constructed an abacus with twenty-seven divisions and a thousand counters of horn.
In Xerus itself, which is represented by the terrestrial African spiny squirrels, the ears are short, there are only two teats, and flat spines are mingled with the fur; while the skull, and more especially the frontals, is elongated, with a very short post-orbital process, and the crowns of the molars are taller than usual (see Spiny Squirrel).
The African cane-rats, Thryonomys (or Aulacodus), are large terrestrial rodents, ranging from the centre of the continent to the Cape, easily recognized by their deeply fluted incisors (see Co yp u).
Most of the solar vortices indicate clockwise rotation in the southern hemisphere and counter-clockwise rotation in the northern, as in the case of terrestrial cyclones.
The elements which are actually measured when determining the value of the earth's field are usually the declination, the dip and the horizontal component (see Terrestrial magnetism).
Between these two extremes is every conceivable gradation, embracing aquatic and terrestrial herbs, creeping, erect or climbing in habit, shrubs and trees, and representing a much greater variety than is to be found in the other subdivision of seed-plants, the Gymnosperms.
The method originally used by Huggins, who first conceived and proved the possibility of measuring stellar velocities in the line of sight, was to measure with a filar micrometer the displacement of some well-known line in a stellar spectrum relative to the corresponding line of a terrestrial spectrum.
There also occurs a peculiar genus of lizards with two species, the one marine, the other terrestrial.
Terrestrial things arise through a confluence of heat, which issues from the heavens, and cold, which comes from the earth.
By means of this process the bodies of the solar system separate themselves, and the order of cosmic evolution is repeated in that of terrestrial evolution.
Further, no theory of calciolous and calcifugous plants can be regarded as satisfactory which fails to account for the fact that both kinds of plants occur among aquatic as well as among terrestrial plants.
Forms adapted to terrestrial life and to aerial respiration occur in various divisions of Gastropods, and do not constitute a single homogeneous group. Thus the Helicinidae, which are terrestrial, are now placed among the Aspidobranchia.
The very large assemblage of forms coming under this order comprises the most highly developed predaceous sea-snails, numerous vegetarian species, a considerable number of freshwater and some terrestrial forms. The partial dissection of a male specimen of the common periwinkle, Littorina littoralis, drawn in fig.
Euthyneurous Gastropoda, probably derived from ancestral forms similar to the Tectibranchiate Opisthobranchia by adaptation to a terrestrial life.
The terrestrial Streptoneura (represented in England by the common genus Cyclostoma) FIG.
The adaptation of the Pulmonata to terrestrial life has entailed little modification of the internal organization.