Termed sentence example

termed
  • He justly termed his father "the father of the Translators," but Samuel's own method surpassed his father's in lucidity and fidelity to the original.

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  • Although this plant is popularly termed the "meadow mushroom," it never as a rule grows in meadows.

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  • Having nominally become king in 1799, that prince created the estate of Ile-Jourdain a duchy, under the title of Avaray, in favour of the comte d'Avaray,, whom he termed his "liberator."

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  • Each family, or family group, had a dual organization which has been termed (i) the Social, (2) the Local.

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  • It is officially termed the Preanger Regencies, of which there are five, covering the several administrative divisions.

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  • These naval victories were followed by a further military alliance with France against Spain, termed the treaty of Paris (the 23rd of March 1657).

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  • On the 25th of lvIarch the Remonstrance, now termed the Petition and Advice, and including a new scheme of government, was passed by a majority of 123 to 62 in spite of the opposition of the officers; and on the 31st it was presented to Cromwell in the Banqueting House at Whitehall whence Charles I.

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  • There are also certain liabilities or debts which, for the convenience of the remedy, have been made to appear as though they sprang from contract, and are sometimes termed quasi-contracts.

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  • Such a plasmodium bears, on its periphery, groups of rounded projections of protoplasm termed end-organs.

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  • This area was termed " a bow " as early as the 8th century B.C., but the usage was much earlier.

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  • After the " final splice," as it is termed, between these ends has been made, the bight, made fast to a slip rope, is lowered overboard, the slip rope cut, and the cable allowed to sink by its own weight to its resting-place on the sea bed.

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  • Repeaters (or translators, as they are sometimes termed) are in Great Britain only used on fast-speed circuits; they are in no case found necessary on circuits worked by hand, or at " key speed " as it is called.

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  • The next step of importance was the introduction of what was termed the " Standard board."

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  • A circuit which serves more than one subscriber is termed a " party line."

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  • This area is termed the "conducting" area, as distinguished from the lower or "detentive" gland-bearing area.

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  • The Apennines (q.v.), as has been already mentioned, here traverse the whole breadth of Italy, cutting off the peninsula properly so termed from the broader mass of Northern Italy by a continuous barrier of considerable breadth, though of far inferior elevation to that of the Alps The Ligurian Apennines may be considered as taking their rise in the neighborhood of Savona, where a pass of very moderate elevation connects them with the Maritime Alps, of which they are in fact only a continuation.

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  • This projecting tract, which may be termed the "heel" or "spur" of Southern Italy, in conjunction with the great promontory of Calabria, forms the deep Gulf of Taranto, about 70 m.

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  • The eighth region, termed Gallia Cispadana, comprised the southern portion of Cisalpine Gaul, and was bounded on the north (as its name implied) by the river Padus or P0, from above Placentia to its mouth.

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  • Just below the crown of tentacles, however, the body widens out to form a " head," termed the hydranth (a), containing a stomach-like dilatation of the digestive cavity.

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  • When the nematocyst is completely developed, the cnidoblast passes outwards so as to occupy a superficial position in the ectoderm, and a delicate protoplasmic process of sensory nature, termed the cnidocil (cn) projects from the cnidoblast like a fine hair or cilium.

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  • The sub-umbrella invariably shows a velum as an inwardly projecting ridge or rim at its margin, within the circle .of tentacles; hence the medusae of this sub-class are termed craspedote.

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  • The sense-cells form, in the first place, a diffuse system of scattered sensory cells, as in the polyp, developed chiefly on the manubrium, the tentacles and the margin of the umbrella, where they form a sensory ciliated epithelium covering the nerve-centres; in the second place, the sense-cells are concentrated to form definite sense-organs, situated always at the margin of the umbrella, hence often termed " marginal bodies."

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  • It is marked by the formation in the bud of a characteristic structure termed the entocodon (Knospenkern, Glockenkern).

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  • Hence the alternation is of the type termed metagenesis.

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  • Hence the Trachylinae are termed " hypogenetic " medusae to contrast them with the metagenetic Leptolinae.

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  • The living tissues at the surface are cut off from the underlying dead portions by horizontal partitions termed tabulae, which are formed successively as the coenosteum increases in age and size.

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  • If the coenosteum of Millepora be broken across, each pore-canal (perhaps better termed a polypcanal) is seen to be interrupted by a series of transverse partitions, representing successive periods of growth with separation from the underlying dead portions.

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  • The tentaculocysts are implanted round the margins of the lobes of the umbrella and may be supported by prolongations of the ectodermal rim termed otoporpae (Gehorspangen).

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  • The coenosarc may consist of a single elongated tube or stolon, forming the stem or axis of the cormus on which, usually, the appendages are arranged in groups termed cormidia; or it may take the form of a compact mass of ramifying, anastomosing tubes, in which case the cormus as a whole has a compact form and cormidia are not distinguishable.

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  • The cormus is always differentiated into two parts; an upper portion termed the nectosome, in which the appendages are locomotor or hydrostatic in function, that is to say, serve for swimming or floating; and a lower portion termed the siphosome, bearing appendages which are nutritive, reproductive or simply protective in function.

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  • The siphons have been compared to the manubrium of a medusa-individual, or to polyps, and hence are sometimes termed gastrozoids.

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  • If a distal pore or aperture is present, it is excretory in function; suck varieties have been termed " cystons " by Haeckel.

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  • The various types of appendages described in the foregoing may be arranged in groups termed cormidia.

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  • The ersaeome (Calycophorida), made up of the same appendages as the preceding type but with the addition of a nectocalyx; when free termed Ersaea.

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  • The Auronectae are peculiar deep-sea forms, little known except from Haeckel's descriptions, in which the large pneumatophore has a peculiar duct, termed the aurophore, placed on its lower side in the midst of a circle of swimming-bells.

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  • Such a condition has been termed, with regard to the group of animals or plants the organs of which are being studied, archecentric. The possession of the character in the archecentric condition in (say) two of the members of the group does not indicate that these two members are more nearly related to one another than they are to other members of the group; the archecentric condition is part of the common heritage of all the members of the group, and may be retained by any.

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  • Such modified conditions have been termed apocentric. It is obvious that the mere apocentricity of a character can be no guide to the affinities of its possessor.

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  • With reference to any particular group of forms such a new centre of modification may be termed a metacentre, and it is plain that the archecentre of the whole group is a metacentre of the larger group cf which the group under consideration is a branch.

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  • A form of apocentricity extremely common and often perplexing may be termed pseudocentric; in such a condition there is an apparent simplicity that tive anatomy.

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  • The plant world falls into two great divisions, the higher or flowering plants (Phanerogams), characterized by the formation of a seed, and the lower or flowerless plants (Cryptogams), in which no seed is formed but the plants are disseminated by means of unicellular bodies termed spores.

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  • Every plant is thus found to be composed of a number of these protoplasmic units, or, as they may preferably be termed, proloplasts, all of which are at first exactly alike in appearance and in properties.

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  • It has been ascertained that in many cases this decomposition is effected by the secretion of an enzyme, which has been termed zymase.

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  • The stimulating particles, whether starch grains in all cases, or other particles as well, have been termed sic tolitlis.

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  • In many cases the swellings on leaves are minute, and may be termed puslulese.g.

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  • From the phytogeographical standpoint, ecology is frequently termed ecological plant geography.

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  • Hygrophytes.Living, as these plants do, under medium conditions as regards soil, moisture and climate, they exhibit no characters which are markedly xerophytic or hydrophytic. Hence, such plants are frequently termed mesophytes.

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  • Such plants have been termed scioplfytes.

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  • Calcicole and Calcifuge Species.Plants which invariably inhabit calcareous soils are sometimes termed calcicoles; calcifuge species are those which are found rarely or never on such soils.

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  • The evidence which has thus been briefly summarized, points unmistakably to the conclusion that existing vegetation originated in the northern hemisphere and under climatic conditions corresponding to what would now be termed sub-tropical.

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  • He further found that there was an element which he termed boreal in a more intense degree, which amounted to about a fifteenth of the whole flora.

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  • If the continuous, unbroken, horizontal extent of land in a continent is termed its trunk,' and the portions cut up by inlets or channels of the sea into islands and peninsulas the limbs, it is possible to compare the continents in an instructive manner.

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  • The extension of a trough or basin penetrating the land or an elevation is termed an " embayment " when wide, and a " gully " when long and narrow; and the deepest part of a depression is termed a " deep."

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  • A depression of small extent when steep-sided is termed a " caldron," and a long narrow depression crossing a part of the continental border is termed a " furrow."

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  • An elevation of great extent which rises at a very gentle angle from a surrounding depression is termed a " rise," one which is relatively narrow and steep-sided a " ridge," and one which is approximately equal in length and breadth but steep-sided a " plateau," whether it springs direct from a depression or from a rise.

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  • The highest point of an elevation is termed a " height," if it does not form an island or one of the minor forms.

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  • These facts have led some naturalists to include the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions in one, termed Holarctic, and to suggest transitional regions, such as the Sonoran, between North and South America, and the Mediterranean, between Europe and Africa, or to create sub-regions, such as Madagascar and New Zealand.

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  • Henslow for coprolites; they were afterwards termed by Buckland "pseudo-coprolites."

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  • Some of his early Mantuan works are in that apartment of the Castello which is termed the Camera degli Sposi - full compositions in fresco, including various portraits of the Gonzaga family, and some figures of genii, &c. In 1488 he went to Rome at the request of Pope Innocent VIII., to paint the frescoes in the chapel of the Belvedere in the Vatican; the marquis of Mantua (Federigo) created him a cavaliere before his departure.

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  • If the viscous variety be rapidly cooled, or the more highly heated mass be poured into water, an elastic substance is obtained, termed plastic sulphur.

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  • Numerous salts, termed sulphites, are known.

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  • Any single effort in apologetics may be termed " an apology."

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  • By the peace of Jassy, signed in January 1792, she retained Ochakov and the coast between the Bug and the Dniester, and she secured certain privileges for the Danubian principalities, but the Turks remained in Constantinople, and the realization of the famous Greek project, as it was termed, had to be indefinitely postponed.

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  • Finding that the walls of autocracy could not be overturned by blasts of revolutionary trumpets in the periodical press and in clandestinely printed seditious proclamations, the young enthusiasts determined to seek the support of the masses, or, as they termed it, " to go in among the people " (idti v narod).

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  • Occasionally on a double-track railway one platform placed between the tracks serves both of them; this " island " arrangement, as it is termed, has the advantage that more tracks can be readily added without disturbance of existing buildings, but when it is adopted the exit from the trains is at the opposite side to that which is usual, and accidents have happened through passengers alighting at the usual side without noticing the absence of a platform.

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  • This originated in America, where it is termed the " Consolidation."

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  • Occasionally the American eight-coupled type has a bogie instead of a single leading axle (4-8-0), and is then termed a " Twelve-wheeler," or " Mastodon."

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  • Certain extremely aberrant Diptera, which, in consequence of the adoption of a parasitic mode of life, have undergone great structural modification, are further remarkable for their peculiar mode of reproduction, on account of which the families composing the group are often termed Pupipara.

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  • The Pupipara are also termed Eproboscidea (although they actually possess a well-developed and functional proboscis), and by some dipterists the Eproboscidea are regarded as a suborder .and contrasted as such with the rest of the Diptera, which are styled the suborder Proboscidea.

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  • At the same time he was reported to have been the first monarch who established a naval power, and acquired what was termed by the Greeks the Thalassocracy, or dominion of the sea.

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  • The Jews of Babylonia, after the fall of the first temple, were termed by Jeremiah and Ezekiel the people of the "Exile."

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  • Turks and Mongols alike were doubtless included under the term Scyth by the ancients, and as Tatars by more modern writers, insomuch that the Turkish dynasty at Delhi, founded by Baber, is usually termed the Mogul dynasty, although there can be no distinction traced between the terms Mogul and Mongol.

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  • This is the vascular or haemal system (formerly and unnecessarily termed pseudhaemal).

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  • Such cells are termed "drain pipe" cells.

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  • The whole organ, having, as is thought but not known, this double origin, is termed a nephromixium.

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  • Typically, the parapodium consists of two processes of the body on each side, each of which bears a bundle of setae; these two divisions of the "limb" are termed.

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  • In some Syllids this posterior region separates off from the rest, producing a new head; thus a process of fission occurs which has been termed schizogamy.

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  • The anteriorly-opening and usually very large nephridia are not uncommon, and have been termed "peptonephridia."

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  • There are, however, in the Eudrilidae, as already mentioned, sacs envolving the ovaries which bore their own way to the exterior, and thus may be termed coelomoducts.

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  • While the oviducts always open directly on to the exterior, it is the rule for the sperm ducts to open on to the exterior near to or through certain terminal chambers, which have been variously termed atrium and prostate, or spermiducal gland.

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  • Associated with these glands are frequently to be found bundles or pairs of long and variously modified setae which are termed penial setae,to distinguish them from other setae sometimes but not always associated with rather similarglandswhich are found anteriorly to these, and often in the immediate neighbourhood of the spermathecae; the latter are spoken of as genital setae.

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  • The large sacs which have been termed vagina are suggestive of the large coelomic spermathecae in Eudrilids, a comparison which needs, however, embryological data, not at present forthcoming, for its justification.

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  • In the Konkan there are some superior proprietors termed Khots.

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  • The area withdrawn from corn-growing is not to be found under the head of what are termed " green crops."

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  • During the whole time the animal is living the feeder has to pay what has been termed the " life tax " - that is, so much of the food has to go to the maintenance of the animal as a living organism, independently of that which may be undergoing conversion into what will subsequently be available in the form of beef or mutton.

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  • The sections provided for cattle are properly restricted to what may be termed the beef breeds; in the catalogue order they are Devon, South Devon, Hereford, Shorthorn, Sussex, Red Polled, Aberdeen-Angus, Galloway, Welsh, Highland, Cross-bred, Kerry and Dexter, and Small Cross-bred.

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  • The competition thus constitutes what is termed a " block test," and it is instructive in affording the opportunity of seeing the quality of the carcases furnished by the several animals, and in particular the relative proportion and distribution of fat and lean meat.

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  • On account of their position they were termed by him the " capito-pedal orifices," being placed near the junction of head and foot.

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  • They are termed pallial gills.

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  • The fins of Pteropods are now interpreted as the expanded lateral margins of the foot, termed parapodia, not homologous with the siphonof Cephalopods which is formed from epipodia.

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  • The treaty of Tilsit, then, far from being merely a European event, was an event of the first importance in what may be termed the Welt-politik of Napoleon.

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  • As has been stated, the first of this series of anatomical descriptions appeared in the fourth volume of his work, published in 1838, but they were continued until its completion with the fifth volume in the following year, and the whole was incorporated into what may be termed its second edition, The Birds of America, which appeared between 1840 and 1844.

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  • The area of the complete curve is 2a 2, and the length of any arc may be expressed in the form f(1 - x 4) - i dx, an elliptic integral sometimes termed the lemniscatic integral.

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  • Thus in January the futures quoted will be January (technically termed " current," " present month " or near month," " futures "), January-February, " February-March, March-April, April-May, May-June, June-July, July-August, and perhaps two or three more.

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  • For pharmaceutical purposes crude petroleum is no longer generally used by civilized races, though the product vaseline is largely employed in this way, and emulsions of petroleum have been administered internally in various pectoral complaints; while the volatile product termed rhigolene has been largely used as a local anaesthetic.

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  • Two lateral, shallow pits occur on the side of the body about the level of the hinder end of the proboscis in some species of the genus Carinella, which are termed side-organs.

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  • It is the type of the family Octodontidae, the members of which - collectively termed octodonts - are exclusively Central and South American.

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  • Tamsui (called Tansui by the Japanese) is usually termed Hobe by foreigners.

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  • Marine Gasteropods are occasionally termed "sea-snails," and the compounds "pond-snails," "river-snails," "water-snails" are in common use.

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  • The festival is certainly an agricultural one, and is so termed in the Pentateuch.

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  • This quinta essentia had been speculated upon by the Greeks, some regarding it as immaterial or aethereal, andothers as material; and a school of philosophers termed alchemists arose who attempted the isolation of this essence.

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  • Those elements which are disengaged at the negative pole are termed electro-positive, or positive, or basylous elements, whilst those disengaged at the positive pole are termed electro-negative, or negative, or chlorous elements.

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  • If an acid contains oxygen it is termed an oxyacid.

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  • Groups of two or more atoms like SO 2 and OH, which are capable of playing the part of elementary atoms (that is to say, which can be transferred from compound to compound), are termed compound radicals, the elementary atoms being simple radicals.

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  • The combination, as it is ordinarily termed, of chlorine with hydrogen, and the displacement of iodine in potassium iodide by the action of chlorine, may be cited as examples; if these reactions are represented, as such reactions very commonly are, by equations which merely express the relative weights of the bodies which enter into reaction, and of the products, thus Cl = HC1 Hydrogen.

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  • According to Gerhardt, the process of substitution consisted of the union of two residues to fo- m a unitary whole; these residues, previously termed " compound radicals," are atomic complexes which remain over from the interaction of two compounds.

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  • There also exists an extensive class of compounds termed the " heterocyclic series " - these compounds are derived from ring systems containing atoms other than carbon; this class is more generally allied to the aromatic series than to the aliphatic.

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  • These last two compounds are termed unsaturated, whereas ethane is saturated.

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  • We derived this substance from ethane by introducing a meth y l group; hence it may be termed " methylethane."

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  • An important class of compounds, termed amines (q.v.), results from the condensation of alcohols with ammonia, water being eliminated between the alcoholic hydroxyl group and a hydrogen atom of the ammonia.

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  • Benzo-ortho-diazines exist in two structural forms, cinnolin and phthalazine; benzo-meta-diazines are known as quinazolines; benzo-para-diazines are termed quinoxalines; the dibenzo-compounds are named phenazines, this last group including many valuable dyestuffs - indulines, safranines, &c. In addition to the types of compounds enumerated above we may also notice purin, tropine and the terpenes.

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  • This factor is termed the valency.

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  • Lehmann and (2) polymorphs in which the transformation proceeds in one direction only - termed " monotropic."

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  • From the biological point of view the reference of certain modes of behaviour, termed instinctive, to faculties of mind for which "instinct" is the generic term is scarcely satisfactory; from the psychological point of view the phrase "without necessary knowledge of the relation between the means employed and the end attained" is ambiguous.

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  • Assignats were so termed, as representing land assigned to the holders.

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  • He never married, thus further fulfilling his policy of what one of his essayist-biographers has termed "indulgence in fine renouncements."

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  • The taxes are collected by means of the mukhtars, termed for this purpose kabz-i-mal (receiver of treasure), and under the supervision of gendarmes specially named, termed tahsildar (collectors).

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  • Much valuable information is to into three periods, which may be termed respectively the pre-classical, the classical and the post-classical.

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  • Haji Khalifa, frequently termed Katib Chelebi, was one of the most famous men of letters whom Turkey has produced.

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  • The family service, termed Hagada shel Pesach, includes a description of the Exodus with a running commentary, and is begun by the youngest son of the house asking the father the reason for the difference in Passover customs.

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  • But this is not yet perfect, although it has all the form of a perfect insect and is capable of flight; it is what is variously termed a "pseudimago," "sub-imago" or "pro-imago."

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  • Albumoses and peptones are obtained by peptic digestion, the latter being termed pepticpeptones; tryptic digestion also produces peptones.

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  • These substances are combinations of one or more albumins with a radical of an essentially different nature, termed by Kossel a " prosthetic group."

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  • Napoleon, with the Russian War in prospect, had early in the year withdrawn 30,000 men from Spain; and Wellington had begun to carry on what he termed a war of "magazines."

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  • Wellington, convinced that no effort to bridge below Bayonne would be expected, decided to attempt it there, and collected at St Jean Pied de Port and Passages a large number of country vessels (termed chasse-marees).

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  • In the vegetable kingdom glucose occurs, always in admixture with fructose, in many fruits, especially grapes, cherries, bananas, &c.; and in combination, generally with phenols and aldehydes belonging to the aromatic series, it forms an extensive class of compounds termed glucosides.

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  • The liquid is now run into neutralizing tanks containing sodium carbonate, and, after settling, the supernatant liquid, termed "light liquor," is run through bag filters and then on to bone-char filters, which have been previously used for the "heavy liquor."

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  • The ventral valve is usually the larger, and in many genera, such as Terebratula and Rhynchonella, has a prominent beak or umbo, with a circular or otherwise shaped foramen at or near its extremity, partly bounded by one or two plates, termed a deltidium.

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  • Two other pairs have been termed divaricators by Hancock, or cardinal muscles (" muscles diducteurs " of Gratiolet), and have for function the opening of the valves.

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  • Either before or just after turning, the mantle develops a larval shell termed the protegulum, and when this is completed the larva is termed the Phylembryo.

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  • Arithmetical groups, connected with the theory of quadratic forms and other branches of the theory of numbers, which are termed "discontinuous," and infinite groups connected with differential forms and equations, came into existence, and also particular linear and higher transformations connected with analysis and geometry.

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  • This determinant and that associated with Aik are termed corresponding determinants.

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  • In particular the square of a determinant is a deter minant of the same order (b 11 b 22 b 33 ...b nn) such that bik = b ki; it is for this reason termed symmetrical.

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  • R is a function of the coefficients which is called the " resultant " or " eliminant " of the k equations, and the process by which it is obtained is termed " elimination."

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  • This partition is termed the specification of the separation.

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  • All symmetric functions are expressible in terms of the quantities ap g in a rational integral form; from this property they are termed elementary functions; further they are said to be single-unitary since each part of the partition denoting ap q involves but a single unit.

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  • If the form, sometimes termed a quantic, be equated to zero the n+I coefficients are equivalent to but n, since one can be made unity by division and the equation is to be regarded as one for the determination of the ratio of the variables.

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  • By solving the equations of transformation we obtain rE1 = a22x1 - a12x1, r = - a21x1 + allx2, aua12 where r = I = anon-anon; a21 a22 r is termed the determinant of substitution or modulus of transformation; we assure x 1, x 2 to be independents, so that r must differ from zero.

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  • Such quantics have been termed by Cayley multipartite.

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  • There also exist functions, which involve both sets of variables as well as the coefficients of u, possessing a like property; such have been termed mixed concomitants, and they, like contravariants, may appertain as well to a system of forms as to a single form.

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  • During the Roman period the ancient Carthaginians of Phoenician origin and the bastard population termed by ancient authors Libyo-Phoenicians, like the modern Maltese, invariably formed the predominant population of the towns on the littoral, and retained the Punic language until the 6th century of the Christian era.

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  • The compass needle is a little steel magnet balanced upon a pivot; one end of the needle, which always bears a distinguishing mark, points approximately, but not in general exactly, to the north,' the vertical plane through the direction of the needle being termed the magnetic meridian.

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  • Those substances which are attracted, or rather which tend, like iron, to move from weaker to stronger parts of the magnetic field, are termed paramagnetic; those which are repelled, or tend to move from stronger to weaker parts of the field, are termed diamagnetic. Between the ferromagnetics and the paramagnetics there is an enormous gap. The maximum magnetic susceptibility of iron is half a million times greater than that of liquid oxygen, one of the strongest paramagnetic substances known.

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  • Magnetization is usually regarded as the direct effect of the resultant magnetic force, which is therefore often termed the magnetizing force.

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  • Villari in 1868 that the magnetic susceptibility of an iron wire was increased by stretching when the magnetization was below a certain value, but diminished when that value was exceeded; this phenomenon has been termed by Lord Kelvin, who discovered it independently, the " Villari reversal," the value of the magnetization for which stretching by a given load produces no effect being known as the " Villari critical point " for that load.

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  • The tranverse electromotive force is equal to KCH/D, where C is the current, H the strength of the field, D the thickness of the metal, and K a constant which has been termed the rotatory power, or rotational coefficient.

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  • Hence in performing a cycle there is a waste of energy corresponding to what has been termed hysteresis-loss.

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  • The greatest of Gilbert's discoveries was that the globe of the earth was magnetic and a magnet; the evidence by which he supported this view was derived chiefly from ingenious experiments made with a spherical lodestone or lerrella, as he termed it, and from his original observation that an iron bar could be magnetized by the earth's force.

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  • Each such unit is termed an "ommatidium."

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  • They are all termed the brotherhood of the rao or Bhayad, and supposed to be his hereditary advisers, and their possessions are divided among their male children.

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  • The naval strength of the republic consisted in 1906 of a collection of armoured and wooden vessels of various ages and types of construction, of which three armoured vessels (including the two designed for coast defence), four protected cruisers, five destroyers and torpedo-cruisers, and half a dozen torpedo boats represented what may be termed the effective fighting force.

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  • This was the beginning of a determined struggle for supremacy, carried on for many years, between the different classes of citizens, locally termed ordini or monti - the lower classes striving to grasp the reins of government, the higher classes already in office striving to keep all power in their own hands, or to divide it in proportion to the relative strength of each monte.

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  • The name l'arte magiore, the greater art, is designed to distinguish it from l'arte minore, the lesser art, a term which he applied to the modern arithmetic. His second variant, la regula de la cosa, the rule of the thing or unknown quantity, appears to have been in common use in Italy, and the word cosa was preserved for several centuries in the forms toss or algebra, cossic or algebraic, cossist or algebraist, &c. Other Italian writers termed it the Regula rei et census, the rule of the thing and the product, or the root and the square.

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  • Although Pell had nothing to do with the solution, posterity has termed the equation Pell's Equation, or Problem, when more rightly it should be the Hindu Problem, in recognition of the mathematical attainments of the Brahmans.

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  • It cannot be said that previously to Darwin there had been any very profound study of teleology, but it had been the delight of a certain type of mind - that of the lovers of nature or naturalists par excellence, as they were sometimes termed - to watch the habits of living animals and plants, and to point out the remarkable ways in which the structure of each variety of organic life was adapted to the special circumstances of life of the variety or species.

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  • The whole " system " or scheme of classification was termed a genealogical tree (Stammbaum); the main branches were termed " phyla," their branchings " sub-phyla "; the great branches of the sub-phyla were termed " cladi," and the " cladi " divided into " classes," these into sub-classes, these into legions, legions into orders, orders into sub-orders, suborders into tribes, tribes into families, families into genera, genera into species.

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  • The terms used for indicating groups are " Phylum " for the large diverging branches of the genealogical tree as introduced by Haeckel, each Phylum bears secondary branches which are termed " classes," classes again branch or divide into orders, orders into families, families into genera, genera into species.

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  • Various hydrates have been described, but they cannot be formed by precipitating a uranyl salt with an alkali, this reagent giving rise to salts termed uranates.

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  • The biological sciences are those which deal with the phenomena manifested by living matter; and though it is customary and convenient to group apart such of these phenomena as are termed mental, and such of them as are exhibited by men in society, under the heads of psychology and sociology, yet it must be allowed that no natural boundary separates the subject matter of the latter sciences from that of biology.

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  • The alluvial extracted, which in the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago carries from 5 to 60 lb of tinstone (or "black tin," as it is termed by Cornish miners) to the cubic yard of gravel, is washed in various simple sluicing appliances, by which the lighter clay, sand and stones are removed and tinstone is left behind comparatively pure, containing usually 65 to 75% of metallic tin (chemically pure tinstone contains 78.7%).

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  • Lode tin, as tinstone derived from primary deposits is often termed, is mined in the ordinary method, the very hard gangue in which it occurs necessitating a liberal use of explosives.

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  • Stannic Chloride, SnC1 4, named by Andreas Libavius in 1605 Spiritus argenti vivi sublimate from its preparation by distilling tin or its amalgam with corrosive sublimate, and afterwards termed Spiritus fumans Libavii, is obtained by passing dry chlorine over granulated tin contained in a retort; the tetrachloride distils over as a heavy liquid, from which the excess of chlorine is easily removed by shaking with a small quantity of tin filings and re-distilling.

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  • In early works it is sometimes termed Cidade dos Reis (City of the Kings).

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  • In 1850 Prussia, realizing from the breakdown of her mobilization for the war then impending with Austria that success was impossible, submitted to the Austrian demands, but her statesmen saw from the first that the "surrender of Olmiitz," as it was termed, rendered eventual war with Austria "a military necessity."

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  • The name ether appears to have been applied to the drug only since the times of Frobenius, who in 1730 termed it spiritus aethereus or vini vitriolatus.

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  • It wastes in the disease known as " myxoedema," and the above product gathers in the tissues, in that disease, to such an extent as to give rise to what has been termed a " solid oedema."

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  • This physiological wasting is termed senile atrophy.

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  • Whenever these conditions are infringed his powers of resistance to disease are lessened, and certain tendencies begin to show themselves, which are generally termed constitutional.

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  • They supposed that it was accompanied by a peculiar hyaline thickening of the arterial wall, usually of the tunica intima, and hence they termed the supposed diseased state " arterio-capillary fibrosis," and gave the fibrous substance the name " hyaline-fibroid."

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  • In the mucinoid conditions, usually termed "mucoid " and " colloid " degenerations, we have closely allied substances which, like the normal mucins of the body, belong to the glucoproteids, and have in common similar physical characters.

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  • Both agree in having nothing that can be termed a metamorphosis; they are active from the time of their exit from the egg to their death, gradually increasing in size, and undergoing several moults or changes of skin.

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  • Mile of Warsaw in 1828, who termed it a "hydrostatic air-pump without cylinders, taps, lids or stoppers," this is attained by using, both for the inlet and the outlet, vertical capillary glass tubes, soldered, the former to somewhere near the bottom, the latter to the top of the vessel.

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  • Fluids again are divided into two classes, termed a liquid and a gas, of which water and air are the chief examples.

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  • This double method of writing words arises from the circumstance that the cuneiform syllabary is of non-Semitic origin, the system being derived from the non-Semitic settlers of the Euphrates valley, commonly termed Sumerians (or Sumero-Akkadians), to whom, as the earlier settlers, the origin of the cuneiform script is due.

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  • Dulaurier published from a Parisian Sahidic MS., subjoining a French translation, what is termed a fragment of the apocryphal revelations of St Bartholomew (Fragment des revelations apocryphes de Saint Barthelemy, &c., Paris, 1835), and of the history of the religious communities founded by St Pachomius.

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  • There are three principal systems of pruning vines, termed the long-rod, the short-rod and the spur systems, and good crops have been obtained by each of them.

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  • Carvajal may be termed the founder of the Anglo-Jewish community.

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  • Generally speaking, soils containing from 30 to 50% of clay and 50 to 60% of sand with an adequate amount of vegetable residues prove the most useful for ordinary farm and garden crops; such blends are known as " loams," those in which clay predominates being termed clay loalns, and those in which the sand predominates sandy roams. " Stiff clays " contain over 50% of clay; " light sands " have less than to %.

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  • Most of the material termed " sand " in such analyses consists of particles ranging in diameter from .5 to.

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  • This power of " fixing nitrogen," as it is termed, is apparently not possessed by higher green plants.

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  • These are found to contain large numbers of a bacterium termed Bacillus radicicola or Pseudomonas radicicola.

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  • The resulting white product is termed calcium oxide lime, burnt lime, quicklime, cob lime, or caustic lime.

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  • Many thousands of acres of low-lying peaty and sandy land adjoining the tidal rivers which flow into the Humber have been improved by a process termed " warping."

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  • These distilling vessels are called retorts if they are supported only at the ends, and the furnace using them is termed a Belgian furnace.

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  • It seems very probable that the fourscore thousand hewers employed by Solomon for cutting timber did not confine their operations simply to what would now be termed cedars and fir-trees.

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  • If the substance operated upon be practically pure to start with, or the product of distillation be nearly of constant composition, the operation is termed "purification by distillation" or "rectification"; the latter term is particularly used in the spirit industry.

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  • If a complex mixture be operated upon, and a separation effected by collecting the distillates in several portions, the operation is termed "fractional distillation."

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  • This variation is termed "distillation under reduced pressure or in a vacuum."

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  • The vaporization of a substance below its normal boiling-point can also be effected by blowing in steam or some other vapour; this operation is termed "distillation with steam."

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  • Above this "separator" is a reflux condenser, termed the "cooler," maintained at the correct temperature so that only the more volatile component passes to the receiver.

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  • The modern distilling plant consists of two main parts termed the evaporator and condenser; in addition there must be a boiler (sometimes steam is run off the main boilers, but this practice has several disadvantages), pumps for circulating cold water in the condenser and for supplying salt water to the evaporator, and a filter through which the aerated water passes.

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  • They radiate from a point within the Sickle of Leo and are termed Leonids.

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  • With him the unit is termed "digitus"; when multiplied by ten it becomes the "articulus"; while the combination of the articulus and the digitus is the "numeras compositus."

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  • Lagrange realized its powers and termed it " le principal fondement du calcul erentiel."

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  • The chief festival in Bengal - sometimes termed the Christmas of Bengal - celebrates the goddess's birth in the sixth Hindu month (parts of September and October).

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  • It is the seat of the provincial government of the two Hu or Hu-kwang, as these provinces are collectively termed,.

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  • The visceral mass was accordingly termed the "polypide" and the body-wall which contains it the "zooecium."

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  • It is regarded as a modified zooecium, the polypide of which has become vestigial, although it is commonly represented by a sense-organ, bearing tactile hairs, situated on what may be termed the palate.

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  • This traditional conservatism survived in the statement, which, while it caused vehement discussion when the book appeared, was yet not so much characteristic of the man as of the school in which he had been trained, that " in no intelligible sense can any one who denies the supernatural origin of the religion of Christ be termed a Christian," which term, he explained, was used not as " a name of praise," but simply as " a designation of belief."

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  • Defoe's Review (1704-1713) dealt chiefly with politics and commerce, but the introduction in it of what its editor fittingly termed the "scandalous club " was another step nearer the papers of Steele and the periodical essayists, the first attempts to create an organized popular opinion in matters of taste and manners.

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  • Of foremost importance are the reactions termed the malonic acid and the aceto-acetic ester syntheses; these are discussed under their own headings.

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  • All these mixtures when solidified may fairly be termed alloys.'

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  • From 464 to 486 he governed that part of Gaul which lies between the Maas, the Scheldt and the Seine, and was termed "king of the Romans" by the German invaders, Franks, Burgundians and Visigoths, who already occupied the rest of Gaul.

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  • After the Revolution of 1688, he commanded 1 The bird, however, does not inhabit Iceland, and the language to which the name belongs would perhaps be more correctly termed Old Teutonic. From this word is said to come the French Freux.

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  • The stream issues through a nozzle, termed a " monitor " or " giant," which is fitted with a ball and socket joint, so that the direction of the jet may be varied through considerable angles by simply moving a handle.

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  • The solution may be directly precipitated with copper, the copper passing into solution as copper sulphate, and the silver separating as a mud, termed " cement silvers" Or the silver sulphate may be separated from the solution by cooling and dilution, and then mixed with iron clippings, the interaction being accompanied with a considerable evolution of heat.

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  • The head of the Foreign Office is termed principal secretary of state for foreign affairs and his office dates from 1782.

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  • The cathedral, dedicated to San Cataldo, an Irish bishop, dating from the 11th century, has externally some remains of Saracenic Gothic; internally it has been completely modernized, and the shrine of the patron saint has been termed "an orgy of rococo."

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  • Bismuth tetroxide, Bi 2 O 4, sometimes termed bismuth bismuthate, is obtained by melting bismuth trioxide with potash, or by igniting bismuth trioxide with potash and potassium chlorate.

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  • From these plants active principles termed aloins are extracted by water.

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  • It is not, however, precisely known how they distributed their months of thirty and twenty-nine days, or, as they termed them, great and small moons.

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  • Hartig's character drawn from the trochanter - whether of two segments or undivided - the groups being termed respectively Ditrocha and Monotrocha.

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  • The simplicity, moderate accuracy, and adaptability of this method to every class of substance which can be vaporized entitles it to rank as one of the most potent methods in analytical chemistry; its invention is indissolubly connected with the name of Victor Meyer, being termed "Meyer's method" to the exclusion of his other original methods.

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  • The word is also used of the body of tenants attending a manorial court, or of the court in a court baron (consisting of the tenants that do homage and make inquiries and presentments, termed a homage jury).

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  • These forms are termed the stock-mothers; they creep into the buds of the vine, and, as these develop intofthe young leaves, insert their proboscis into the upper side.

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  • It gives rise to salts, termed the tantalates.

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  • The science is termed talassografia by the Italians, and attempts have been made without success to introduce the name " thalassography."

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  • The extension of a basin or trough stretching towards the continent is termed an embayment when relatively wide and a gully when narrow.

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  • The deepest part of a depression is termed a deep, and the highest part of an elevation when not reaching the surface a height.

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  • Curve B shows the typical distribution of temperature in an enclosed sea, in this case the Sulu Basin of the Malay Sea, where from the level of the barrier to the bottom the temperature remains uniform or homothermic. Curve C shows a typical summer condition in the polar seas, where layers of sea-water at different temperatures are superimposed, the arrangement from the surface to 200 fathoms is termed FIG.

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  • In autumn the enclosed seas of high latitudes frequently present a thermal stratification in which a warm middle layer is sandwiched between a cold upper layer and a cold mass below, the arrangement being termed mesothermic (thaos, middle).

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  • Such formations, termed toross by the Russians, may extend under water, according to Makaroff's investigations, to at least an equal depth.

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  • The district is not unjustly termed "the garden of New Zealand."

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  • The operations by which the coal is reached and laid out for removal are known as " winning," the actual working or extraction of the coal being termed " getting."

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  • Generators with devices for regulating and stopping at will the action going on are generally termed "automatic."

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  • It is to be noticed that each number is the sum of the numbers immediately 35 above and to the left of it; and 35 that the numbers along a line, termed a base, which cuts off an equal number of units along the top row and column are the co efficients in the binomial expansion of (I+x) r - 1, where r represents the number of units cut off.

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  • The doctrine that matter can be divided into, or regarded as composed of, discrete particles (termed " atoms " by early writers, and " molecules " by modern ones) has at all times played an important part in metaphysics and natural science.

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  • Mayow perceived the similarity of the processes of respiration and combustion, and showed that one constituent of the atmosphere, which he termed spiritus nitro-aereus, was essential to combustion and life, and that the second constituent, which he termed spiritus nitri acidi, inhibited combustion and life.

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  • In the middle of July he was chosen as one of the committee to prepare a draft of a constitution; and in the session of the Assembly which Mirabeau termed the orgie of the abolition of privileges (4th of August) he intervened in favour of discrimination and justice.

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  • It is thus styled in a charter granted by Henry VIII., but by Elizabeth's time the town was invariably termed Aberystwyth in all documents.

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  • But all attempts to procure a royal charter for Plymouth Colony were unsuccessful, and in 1691 it was annexed to the Colony of Massachusetts Bay under what is termed the Provincial Charter.

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  • The two last (also called Pagi or Poggy) are sometimes termed the Nassau Islands.

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  • Water vapour is always present; the amount is determined by instruments termed hygrometers.

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  • Wellington's position at nightfall was very different, and can hardly be termed safe or even satisfactory.

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  • When the attrition is carried further, so that the grain is reduced to small round pellets, it is termed " pearl barley."

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  • In these chapters pre-eminently appears that element of "discretion," as St Gregory calls it, or humanism as it would now be termed, which without doubt has.

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  • Glauber (De natura salium, 1658), who prepared it by the action of oil of vitriol or sulphuric acid on common salt, and, ascribing to it many medicinal virtues, termed it sal mirabile Glauberi.

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  • This change of direction is termed refraction, and takes place, no doubt, according to the same laws as does the refraction of light, viz.

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  • It further follows, as in the analogous case of light, that there is a certain angle termed the critical angle, whose sine is found by dividing the less by the greater velocity, such that all rays of sound meeting the surface separating two different bodies will not pass onward, but suffer total reflection back into the first body, if the.

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  • The interval between and 44 = 44 - -- 8 01 is termed a " comma," and is so small that the same note on an instrument may serve for both.

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  • This note is f sharp, and the interval t is termed a sharp.

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  • This is termed the equal temperament scale, and it is obviously only an approach to the diatonic scale.

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  • V i brat i ons thus excited are termed forced vibrations, and their amplitude is greater the more nearly the period of the applied force approaches that of the system when vibrating freely.

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  • The points A, B, C, D are termed " nodes," and the points half-way between them " loops."

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  • The first mode of vibration gives the " fundamental tone," and the succeeding modes are termed " overtones."

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  • This is termed the " end correction."

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  • The second is termed by Helmholtz the difference tone, and the third the summation tone.

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  • These combination tones will in turn react on the pressure and produce new combination tones with the original tones, or with each other, and such tones may be termed of the second, third, &c., order.

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  • According to Heron and Geminus they were discussed under the name spire by Perseus (c. 200-100 B.C.), their sections were termed spiral sections, and are probably the same as the hippopede of Eudoxus.

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  • The surface and solid traced by the revolution of the lesser segment of a circle is termed a "spindle."

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  • Long bridges of several spans are often termed " viaducts," and bridges carrying canals are termed " aqueducts," though this term is sometimes used for waterways which have no bridge structure.

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  • This may be termed the statical breaking strength.

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  • Let t be the statical breaking strength of a bar, loaded once gradually up to fracture (t = breaking load divided by original area of section); u the breaking strength of a bar loaded and unloaded an indefinitely great number of times, the stress varying from u to o alternately (this is termed the primitive strength); and, lastly, let s be the breaking strength of a bar subjected to an indefinitely great number of repetitions of stresses equal and opposite in sign (tension and thrust), so that the stress ranges alternately from s to -s.

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  • This is termed the vibration strength.

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  • Then w e may be termed the uniform load per ft.

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  • The shaded rectangles represent the distribution of shear due to the load at C, while no may be termed the datum line of shear.

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  • When boiled, the body becomes of a brownish colour and on this account the species is sometimes termed the "brown shrimp."

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  • The oils so obtained are termed "steamed-liver oils."

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  • Sheerness lies at the mouth of the Medway, a narrow branch of which cuts off a tongue of land termed the Isle of Grain lying opposite Sheerness.

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  • What may be termed the ancestral Appalachian system was formed during the post-carboniferous revolution, though certain of its elements had been previously outlined, and perhaps at different dates.

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  • It is divided by whin-dykes into the Little Causeway, the Middle Causeway or "Honeycomb," as it is locally termed, and the Larger or Grand Causeway.

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  • He was the founder of what has been termed the "science of Judaism," the critical investigation of Jewish literature, hymnology and ritual.

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  • The drift plains also contain numerous shallow hollows, locally termed " pots and kettles," which receive the drainage of their vicinity and form sloughs.

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  • Priestley in 1774 and was termed by him "alkaline air."

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  • Since the time when the church of eastern Syria had decided, in opposition to the church of the Empire, to cling to the ancient views of Syrian theologians - therefore also to the teaching and person of Nestorius - her relations were broken off with the church in western Syria and in Greek and Latin countries; but the power of Nestorian, or, as it was termed, Chaldaic Christianity, was not thereby diminished.

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  • To these three characters the Hydrozoa add a fourth which is distinctive of the subdivision of the Coelenterata termed the Cnidaria; that is to say, they always possess peculiar stinging organs known as nettle-cells, or nematocysts (Cnidae), each produced in a cell forming an integral part of the animal's tissues.

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  • This very characteristic larva is termed a planula, but though very uniform externally, the planulae of different species, or of the same species at different periods, do not always represent the same stage of embryonic development internally.

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  • It should be added that the process of development, the gastrulation as it is termed, may be shortened by the immigration of cells taking place C From Balfour, after Kowalewsky.

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  • They surround a region which is termed the peristome, and which contains in the centre the blastopore, which becomes the adult mouth.

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  • Between the ectoderm and endoderm a gelatinous supporting layer, termed the mesogloea, makes its appearance.

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  • The gastrula has now become an actinula, which may be termed the distinctive larva of the Cnidaria, and doubtless represents in a transitory manner the common ancestor of the group. In no case known, however, does the actinula become the adult, sexually mature individual, but always undergoes further modifications, whereby it develops into either a polyp or a medusa.

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  • Adolf Dygasinski writes clever village tales of the "kail-yard" school, as it has been sometimes termed in England.

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  • The flower is termed proterandrous or proterogynous according as anthers or stigmas mature first.

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  • Spontaneous self-pollination is rendered impossible in some homogamous flowers in consequence of the relative position of the anthers and stigma - this condition has been termed herkogamy.

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  • Flowers which are closed at the time of maturity of anthers and stigmas are termed cleistogamous.

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  • The Romans knew the constellation as Arctos or Ursa; the Arabians termed the quadrilateral, formed by the four stars a, 0, y, b, Na'sh, a bier, whence it is sometimes known as Feretrum majus.

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  • In practical work, the low resistances take the form of certain strips of metal which have on them two pairs of terminals, one termed " current terminals," and the other " potential terminals."

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  • It has been,not inaptly termed the Hymn-book of the second Temple.

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  • Eichhorn who has, not without reason, been termed the " founder of modern Old Testament criticism."

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  • In the meantime Chalmers applied himself with great diligence and assiduity to the investigation of the history and establishment of the English colonies in North America; and enjoying free access to the state papers and other documents preserved among what were then termed the plantation records, he became possessed of much important information.

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  • Distanced though he may have been by Raphael, Francia is rightly regarded as the greatest painter of the earlier Bolognese school, and hardly to be surpassed as representing the art termed "antico-moderno," or of the "quattrocento."

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  • In 1826 the society finally resolved that its fundamental law be fully and distinctly recognized as excluding the circulation "of those Books, or parts of Books, which are usually termed Apocryphal."

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  • Hence the philosophy which arose at Athens was what may fairly be termed scholasticism.

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  • Napier's logarithms are not the logarithms now termed Napierian or hyperbolic, that is to say, logarithms to the base e where e= 2.7182818 ...; the relation between N (a sine) and L its logarithm, as defined in the Canonis Descriptio, being N=10 7 e L/Ip7, so that (ignoring the factors re, the effect of which is to render sines and logarithms integral to 7 figures), the base is C".

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  • This law of recapitulation, subsequently termed the " biogenetic law " by Ernest Haeckel, was the greatest philosophic contribution of this period, and proved to be not only one of the bulwarks of the evolution theory but one of the most important principles in the method of palaeontology.

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  • This definitely directed evolution, or development in a few determinable directions, has since been termed " orthogenetic evolution," and is recognized by all workers in invertebrate palaeontology and phylogeny as fundamental because the facts of invertebrate palaeontology admit of no other interpretation.

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  • He personally sought to demonstrate such origin, first, in the existence of a specific internal growth force, which he termed bathmic force, and second in the direct inheritance of acquired mechanical modifications of, the teeth and feet.

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  • Such gradations, termed " mutations " by Waagen, are distinguished, as observed, in single characters; they are the xx.

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  • Thus both invertebrate and vertebrate palaeontologists have reached independently the conclusion that the evolution of groups is not continuously at a uniform rate, but that there are, especially in the beginnings of new phyla or at the time of acquisition of new organs, sudden variations in the rate of evolution which have been termed variously " rhythmic," "pulsating," " efflorescent," "intermittent " and even " explosive " (Deperet).

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  • From the stomach, canals arise termed the radial canals (r.c.); typically four in number, they run in a radial direction to the edge 2 For other variations of the medusa, often of importance for systematic classification, see Hydromedusae and Scyphomedusae.

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  • The sense-organs are always situated at the margin of the unbrella and may be distinguished from the morphological point of view into two categories, according as they are, or are not, derived from modifications of tentacles; in the former case they are termed tentaculocysts.

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  • The cuticle may be locally or generally hardened, in the latter case being termed a lorica.

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  • The thin-walled eggs are often termed "summer-eggs," the fertilized ones "winter" or "ephippial" eggs (by parity with the phyllopod Entomostraca, q.v.).

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  • The finer kinds, after the more shrubby or ill-grown rods, termed Ragged, have been rejected, are peeled or buffed.

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  • The mid-region of the body, composed of jointed segments, is followed by a larger or smaller region consisting of fused segments and termed the pygidium or caudal shield, which in some cases is as large as the head-shield itself, in other cases much smaller.

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  • The word is used loosely, especially by Hindu authors, to designate all the tribes which from time to time invaded India from the north, much as all the tribes who invaded China are indiscriminately termed Tatars.

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  • At this period they have, in fact, what may be termed a " pseudo-Herpetomonadine " aspect.

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  • Ross (49), regarding the parasites as a quite different kind of Sporozoan, termed them Leishmania; and Wright named his variety from tropical ulcers Helcosoma tropicum.

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  • In many parts of the world it is held that the human body is the seat of more than one soul; in the island of Nias four are distinguished, the shadow and the intelligence, which die with the body, a tutelary spirit, termed begoe, and a second which is carried on the head.

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  • An entirely different class of ideas, also termed animistic, is the belief in the world soul, held by Plato, Schelling and others.

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  • One may admit that, strictly speaking, the latter at the age of about thirty-five or forty could still be called and that Paul might conceivably have termed him still his But the counsels addressed to him seem rather out of place when one recollects the position which he occupied.

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  • The later Western Manichaeans termed those portions of light which are scattered throughout the world - in its elements and organisms - awaiting their deliverance, the Jesus patibilis.

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  • Canterbury, Ely, Norwich, &c., where the archbishop or bishop occupied the abbot's place, the superior of the monastery being termed prior.

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  • The "outer school," to the north of the convent area, contains a large schoolroom divided across the middle by a screen or partition, and surrounded by fourteen little rooms, termed the dwellings of the scholars.

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  • The curve itself is sometimes termed the " circumference."

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  • The line AB is termed the " radical axis."

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  • This problem, also termed the " Apollonian problem," was demonstrated with the aid of conic sections by Apollonius in his book on Contacts or Tangencies; geometrical solutions involving the conic sections were also given by Adrianus Romanus, Vieta, Newton and others.

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  • The shell-bearing forms belonging to this group which were known to Linnaeus were placed by him (in 1748) in the third order of his class Vermes under the name " Testacea," whilst the Echinoderms, Hydroids and Annelids, with the naked Mollusca, formed his second order termed " Zoophyta."

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  • Ten years later he replaced the name " Zoophyta " by " Mollusca," which was thus in the first instance applied, not to the Mollusca at present so termed, but to a group consisting chiefly of other organisms. Gradually, however, the term Mollusca became used to include those Mollusca formerly placed among the " Testacea," as well as the naked Mollusca.

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  • Subsequently 6 they were termed Bryozoa by Ehrenberg (1831).

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  • In common with all other Coelomata, the Mollusca have the mouth and first part of the alimentary canal which leads into the met-enteron formed by a special invagination of the outer layer of the primitive body-wall, not to be confounded with that which often, but not always, accompanies the antecedent formation of the archenteron; this invagination is termed the stomodaeum.

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  • It is termed the " velum," and is frequently drawn out (From Balfour, after Bobretzky.) FIG.

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  • For some purposes - making of gauzes, crapes, flour-bolting cloth and for what is termed " souples " - the silk is not scoured, and for silks to be dyed certain dark colours half-scouring is practised.

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  • Hence for the rain to centrally traverse the tube, this must be inclined at an angle BAD to the vertical; this angle is conveniently termed the aberration due to these two motions.

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  • By suitably replacing the ocular of the observing telescope in an angular vision spectroscope by a photographic camera, it is possible to photograph spectra; such instruments are termed spectrographs.

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  • Thus Krochmal may be called the originator of the idea of the mission of the Jewish people, "cultural Zionism" as it has more recently been termed.

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  • The time recorded by the mean sun is termed mean-solar or clock time; it is regular as distinct from the non-uniform solar or sun-dial time.

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  • Kalakaua was now no longer satisfied with being merely king of Hawaii, but aspired to what was termed the " Primacy of the Pacific."

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  • The combination of card, needles and cap is generally termed "the card"; on the continent of Europe it is called the "rose."

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  • But they also penetrate to waters which may be termed inland, as the Bosporus, where they are known to the French-speaking part of the population as rimes damnees, it being held by the Turks that they are animated by condemned human souls.

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  • Following Euclid, a right angle is formed by a straight line standing upon another straight line so as to make the adjacent angles equal; any angle less than a right angle is termed an acute angle, and any angle greater than a right angle an obtuse angle.

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  • The angle between two planes is termed dihedral, between three trihedral, between any number more than three polyhedral.

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  • The soil cannot, as a rule, be termed rich, although some parts are fertile and produce cereals, vegetables, beetroot and fruit.

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  • Solidification of the first kind may be termed "setting," that of the second "coagulation."

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  • The term labrum is used in zoology, of a lip or lip-like part; in entomology it is applied specifically to the upper lip of an insect, the lower lip being termed labium.

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  • Custom has to some extent restricted its use to inorganic chemistry; the corresponding property of organic compounds being generally termed isomerism.

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  • Hence the resemblances belonging to the first category are commonly termed "Batesian mimicry," and those belonging to the second category " Mullerian mimicry," or more properly " Mullerian resemblance."

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  • This phenomenon is termed " aggressive mimicry " as opposed to the Batesian and Mullerian phenomena, which are termed " protective mimicry."

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  • Such characters have been termed by Professor Poulton " aposematic."

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  • Finally, the likeness of an edible species to a warningly coloured inedible one in the same locality is termed " pseudaposematic," in allusion to the pretentiousness or falsity of the warning signal.

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  • The green (or blue-green) cells were termed gonidia by Wallroth, who looked upon them as asexual reproductive cells, but when it was later realized that they were not reproductive elements they were considered as mere outgrowths of the hyphae of the thallus which had developed chlorophyll.

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  • Lecideine apothecia, which are not black, but otherwise variously coloured, are termed biatorine.

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  • The so-called chrysophanic acid found in Xanthoria (Physcia) parietina is not an acid but a quinone and is better termed physcion.

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  • Molten cryolite dissolves roughly 30% of its weight of pure alumina, so that when ready for treatment the solution contains about the same proportion of what may be termed "available" aluminium as does the fused double chloride of aluminium and sodium