Praying she hadn't missed some term of the deal, she waited for his reaction.
I'm sure there's a Latin term for it.
I asked, confirming my lack of faith in the couple's long term relationship.
Who was it that used the term 'mature male'?
Tuition, for instance, is an important item in the term bill, while for the far more valuable education which he gets by associating with the most cultivated of his contemporaries no charge is made.
She thinks he was even the mayor for a term, way back before the war.
But this latter term of office was destined to be even shorter than his former one had been.
"It's a ski term," Dean informed her.
The guests of longer term, the three remaining Dawkinses and Brandon Westlake, were all absent.
It was a term that they had used as children, and it took her back to a simpler time.
Thus the 12-hour term has a much greater uniformity than the 24-hour term.
The minute insects included in it, which haunt blossoms and leaves, are fairly well known to gardeners by the name Thrips, a generic term used by Linnaeus for the four species of the group which he had examined and relegated to the order Hemiptera.
The doctor says long term, it looks good.
There's a new term floating around; crystal ball search warrant.
He mentioned the term kidnapping, but of course being the saint he is he wouldn't press charges against his wife who according to him was just temporarily disturbed.
Long term, this hurts nations more than expropriation has helped them.
The proper term is 'gay'.
And don't use the term, mentally disturbed.
He writes how in Europe when there is a problem, people turn to the government to solve it, but in America, they form what he calls "voluntary associations"—what we might term charities and nonprofits.
If there had been a shred of doubt in her mind about who had sent him, it would have been erased with that term for a mountain lion.
It was in long term parking at Logan just as you guessed.
Where I come from the term is "thievery," but believe it or not, they don't call it that.
I've spent a lifetime looking at long term implications.
But with a strange want of delicacy, to use the mildest term, she made love at the same time to a young Venetian doctor whom she had called in, by name Pagello.
Long term, we will be better off manufacturing our food as opposed to growing it.
The 24-hour term is very variable both as regards its amplitude and its phase angle (and so [[Table Iv]].
I don't know if the sun will shine on a long term relationship but Betsy is pleased to baby sit Molly while the romance dance is orchestrated.
From the foregoing it will be seen that the term fermentation has now a much wider significance than when it was applied to such changes as the decomposition of must or wort with the production of carbon dioxide and alcohol.
The 12-hour term is much less variable, especially as regards its phase angle; its amplitude shows distinct maxima near the equinoxes.
The classic term "camelopard," probably introduced when these animals were brought from North Africa to the Roman amphitheatre, has fallen into complete disuse.
THYSANOPTERA (Oiaavos, a fringe, and 7rTepbv, a wing), a term used in zoological classification for a small order of the class Hexapoda.
The county supervision of public schools is vested in a county superintendent, who is elected for a term of four years.
Most people would not term that welfare, which has become a loaded phrase associated with the state making a payment to individuals.
A person of very high standing in our Brotherhood has made application for you to be received into our Order before the usual term and has proposed to me to be your sponsor.
In Persian Yauna was the generic term for Greeks.'
Then he added, with an unsuccessful attempt at levity, "Doesn't this prove I'm looking at our marriage as a long term relationship?"
She'd like to kill the...she used a term very uncommon to her usual vocabulary.
His long term of service in the House, his leadership of his party on its floor, his candidacy for the speakership, and his recent election to the United States Senate, marked him out as the available man.
The term Thysanoptera was first used by the Irish entomologist A.
A new election must be called to fill the vacancy unless the unexpired term is less than one year.
The Senate is composed (1910) of thirty members, chosen from fifteen districts for a term of four years, but one half the membership retires biennially.
Firefly is a term popularly used for certain tropical American click-beetles (Pyrophorus), due to their power of emitting light.
A third radical method of redistribution is called land reform, which is actually a polite term for taking land from one person and giving it to another.
Martha was unable to get by her natural compassion of the moment and look at a long term goal.
Dean spent the afternoon busying himself with the chores of Bird Song, partially out of guilt for having dumped the morning duties on Fred and in part to take his mind off the ever-present feeling he'd caused long term or, heaven forbid, permanent damage to his seven-month marriage.
Except at Karasjok, where the diurnal changes seem somewhat irregular, the relative amplitude of the 12-hour term is considerably greater in summer than in winter.
Other officers are the clerk of the county court, elected for six years, the sheriff, who also acts as tax-collector and treasurer, the prosecuting attorney, one or two assessors, the surveyor of lands and the superintendent of free schools, all elected for the term of four years; the sheriff may not serve two consecutive full terms. In addition there are boards appointed or elected by various authorities and charged with specific duties.
The state supervision is vested in a state superintendent, who is elected for a term of four years.
David and Cynthia Dean had experienced little success in trying to secure a more formal arrangement for long term custody of Martha, managing only undocumented assignment as temporary foster parents.
When I use a term like factory farm, I am envisioning not what these things are now but what they will be.
A term, "techno-utopian," is often applied to people who believe a technology will bring about a perfect world.
Beat Fitzgerald in the election and then start your term of office chasing down some ancient murder if you want.
At midwinter the 24-hour term is the largest, but near midsummer it is small compared to the 12-hour term.
It will not be welfare (or, at least depending on how you define the term, it will not be perceived as welfare).
Chauveau points to the reduction in the 12-hour term as compared to the 24-hour term on the Eiffel Tower, and infers the practical disappearance of the former at no great height.
For each school district there is a board of education consisting of a president and two commissioners, each elected for a term of four years, one commissioner every two years.
The term properly implies a clear polytheistic conception of gods in contrast with men, while it recognizes that some men cross the dividing line.
One of the Keene campgrounds proved to be a mobile home park with no short term visitors.
Thirdly it was impossible, because the military term "to cut off" has no meaning.
Scarcity, or what we term scarcity, is a technological problem as well. 4.
It often left them partially paralyzed, in wheelchairs or iron lungs (a term that's now all but forgotten and will likely send younger readers to Wikipedia).
But it was the first time he had heard Weyrother's name, or even the term "dispositions."
Nationalism, in my use of the term, is being an uncritical fan of your country.
"Robot" is a term almost one hundred years old, created in fiction before becoming a reality.
Anywhere, in the short term?
To take on this bastion takes balls, to use a crude term, unless there was a highly valuable prize as a reward.
This Julie-Howie business can't work, at least not in the long term.
And then there was the baby she and Alex had lost before it reached full term.
I mean long term.
Drunk is a relative term.
I don't think anyone really knows, but bison is the correct term.
There must be something capable of reflecting light in the wider sense of that term.
The Latin term is consecratio, which of course has a variety of senses, including simple burial.
Boissier, La Religion romaine; Renier, Inscriptions d'Algiers, 2510.) The Greek term Apotheosis, probably a coinage of the Hellenistic epoch, becomes more nearly technical for the deification of dead emperors.
Most Christians on this ground repudiate the application of the term to the worship of Jesus Christ.
The term was, however,, particularly applied, in O.E., to a gallows or cross, especially to the Holy Cross on which Christ was crucified, the sense in which the word survives.
Hastings was named in the act as governor-general for a term of five years.
His original term of five years would have expired in 1778; but it was annually prolonged by special act of parliament until his voluntary resignation.
At last, when he was reduced to actual destitution, it was arranged that the East India Company should grant him an annuity of 4000 for a term of years, with 90,000 paid down in advance.
An, matter, 'coii, life), in philosophy, a term applied to any system which explains all life, whether physical or mental, as ultimately derived from matter ("cosmic matter," Weldstoff).
long, but the term is sometimes used historically in a broader sense to include all of the territory in the N.E.
For, as the medieval Portuguese stated, it is merely a generic term for the capital of any considerable chief, and it has been applied even by them to several distinct places.
This usage, coupled with the existence of a distinct term in Gaelic for the wild species, leaves little doubt that the word "cat" properly denotes only the domesticated species.
This is confirmed by the employment in Byzantine Greek of the term thTros or ioirra to designate domesticated cats brought from Egypt.
In this way we, as it were, bring the causal or primal term and its remotest dependent immediately together, and raise a derivative knowledge into one which is primary and intuitive.
These form what we term spots in the sun.
The term is used in this general sense in certain rubrics of the English Book of Common Prayer, in which it is applied equally to rectors and vicars as to perpetual curates.
The term "curate" in the present day is almost exclusively used to signify a clergyman who is assistant to a rector or vicar, by whom he is employed and paid; and a clerk in deacon's orders is competent to be licensed by a bishop to the office of such assistant curate.
The strict distinction between nimbus and aureole is not commonly maintained, and the latter term is most frequently used to denote the radiance round the heads of saints, angels or persons of the Godhead.
The term tertia minore, or inferiore, is used by Praetorius to describe a low pitch, often preferred in England and the Netherlands, in Italy and in some parts of Germany.
But he was a profoundly interested observer of affairs at home and among 1 The Assyrian term abubu is used of the great primeval deluge (in the Gilgamesh epic), and also of the local floods common in the country.
HEATHEN, a term originally applied to all persons or races who did not hold the Jewish or Christian belief, thus including Mahommedans.
the people of the pagus or village, applied to the dwellers in the country where the worship of the old gods still lingered, when the people of the towns were Christians (but see Pagan for a more tenable explanation of that term).
A.) Fleche (French for "arrow"), the term generally used in French architecture for a spire, but more especially employed to designate the timber spire covered with lead, which was erected over the intersection of the roofs over nave and transepts; sometimes these were small and unimportant, but in cathedrals they were occasionally of large dimensions, as in the fleche of Notre-Dame, Paris, where it is nearly ioo ft.
METHODISM, a term' denoting the religious organizations which trace their origin to the evangelistic teaching of John Wesley.
A "methodist" is one who follows a "method," the term being applied not only to the Wesleyan body, but earlier to the Amyraldists, and in the 17th century to certain Roman Catholic apologists.
He takes precedence, Primus inter pares, of all the members, and is recognized as the official head of the Church during his term of office.
Their peculiar business is expressed by the term" ruling elders."20 II.
Here we see the germs of Mendelssohn's Pragmatism, to use the now current term.
This university was founded in 1621 and the university of Buenos Aires in 1821, but although Bonpland and some other European scientists were members of the faculty of Buenos Aires in its early years, neither there nor at Cordoba was any marked attention given to the natural sciences until President Sarmiento (official term, 1868-1874) initiated scientific instruction at the university of Cordoba under the eminent German naturalist, Dr Hermann Burmeister (1807-1892), and founded the National Observatory at Cordoba and placed it under the direction of ' There are two distinct statistical offices compiling immigration returns and their totals do not agree, owing in part to the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo.
The legislative power is vested in a congress of two chambers - the senate, composed of 30 members (two from each province and two from the capital), elected by the provincial legislatures and by a special body of electors in the capital for a term of nine years; and the chamber of deputies, of 120 members (1906), elected for four years by direct vote of the people, one deputy for every 33,000 inhabitants.
His term of office is six years, and neither he nor the vice-president is eligible for the next presidential term.
The service is not popular, and it is recruited by means of conscription from the national guard, the term of service being two years.
In 1868 the term of General Mitre came to an end, and Doctor Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, a native of San Juan, was quietly elected to succeed him.
Unfortunately the last two years of Roca's term of office were marked by two grave errors, which subsequently caused widespread suffering and distress throughout the country.
The second was the nomination of Dr Miguel Juarez Celman for the presidential term commencing in October 1886.
It is little wonder that, in these circumstances, the choice of a successor to Pellegrini, whose term of office expired in 1892, should have been felt to possess peculiar importance.
Obstruction met his well-meant efforts to promote the general good, and before twelve months of the presidential term had run public affairs were at a deadlock.
He died amidst general regret in March 1906, and was succeeded by Dr. Alcorta for the remaining years of his term.
The term sailor is used in a very wide sense and includes all persons earning their living by navigation on the sea, or in the harbours or roadsteads, or on salt lakes or canals within the maritime domain of the state, or on rivers and canals as far as the tide goes up or sea-going ships can pass.
The same term is applied to the acts passed by the state legislatures for correcting and redistributing the representation of the counties.
The term is also applied to the descendants of the Diadochi, the successors of Alexander the Great.
It is, however, less liable to cause confusion, and in many other ways more convenient to employ the better known term Marsupialia in both senses.
The exact meaning of these features is not clear, but if it be remembered (a) that the Levites of post-exilic literature represent only the result of a long and intricate development, (b) that the name "Levite," in the later stages at least, was extended to include all priestly servants, and (c) that the priesthoods, in tending to become hereditary, included priests who were Levites by adoption and not by descent, it will be recognized that the examination of the evidence for the earlier stages cannot confine itself to those narratives where the specific term alone occurs.
The term has been more plausibly identified with l-v-' (fern.
Many days are indicated in the calendar as nubattu, a term which signifies rest, pause, and especially a god's connubial rest with his consort goddess.
"Gynaeconitis" is the term given by Procopius to the space reserved for women in the Eastern Church, and this separation of the sexes was maintained in the early Christian churches where there were separate entrances and accommodation for the men and women, the latter being placed in the triforium gallery, or, in its absence, either on one side of the church, the men being on the other, or occasionally in the aisles, the nave being occupied by the men.
Girls, too, were scarred at puberty and had teeth knocked out, &c. The ceremonies - known to the Whites under the native generic term for initiatory rites, Bora - were much the same throughout Australia.
The Senate was to consist of the same number of members (not less than six) for each state, the term of service being six years, but subject to an arrangement that half the number would retire every three years.
1 3p6xcv-ros, shortest, and Xpovos, time), a term invented by John Bernoulli in 1694 to denote the curve along which a body passes from one fixed point to another in the shortest time.
Thus, 1 - x would represent the operation of selecting all things in the world except horned things, that is, all not horned things, and (1 - x) (1 - y) would give us all things neither horned nor sheep. By the use of such symbols propositions could be reduced to the form of equations, and the syllogistic conclusion from two premises was obtained by eliminating the middle term according to ordinary algebraic rules.
During his term of office he aided Publius Clodius in bringing about the exile of Cicero.
The pre-Socratics may be classed as naïve materialists in this sense; though, as at that early period the contrast between matter and spirit had not been' fully realized and matter was credited with properties that belong to life, it is usual to apply the term hylozoism to the earliest stage of Greek metaphysical theory.
The highest form of the doctrine is scientific materialism, by which term is meant the doctrine so commonly adopted by the physicist, zoologist and biologist.
Laws were also passed during his term putting obstacles in the way of recovering fugitive slaves.
Seward gradually regained his health, and remained in the cabinet of President Johnson until the expiration of his term in 1869.
From 1851 to 1861 he was one of the editors and owners of the Albany Evening Journal, and during his father's term at the head of the State Department he was assistant secretary of state.
sessiliflora in the New Forest, has been adopted by foresters as a general term for this kind of oak; it seems to be the most prevalent form in Germany and in the south of Europe.
He was a member of the Missouri Constitutional Convention of 1820, and was elected to the state House of Representatives in 1820 and to the state Senate in 1822, serving one term in each house.
That the term was also applied to parts of Arabia is evident from Gen.
Toller) describes a thegn as "one engaged in a king's or a queen's service, whether in the household or in the country," and adds, "the word in this case seems gradually to acquire a technical meaning, and to become a term denoting a class, containing, however, several degrees."
chiche beau, with same meaning), the term in Italy from the 17th century onwards for a dangler about women.
E14/YyaCa; Ev, in, €pyov, work), in physical science, a term which may be defined as accumulated mechanical work, which, however, may be only partially available for use.
The narrower term "orchestration" is applied to the instrumentation of orchestral music. Since the most obvious differences of timbre are in those of various instruments, the art which blends and contrasts timbre is most easily discussed as the treatment of instruments; but we must use this term with philosophic breadth and allow it to include voices.
Machines used for lifting only are not called cranes, but winches, lifts or hoists, while the term elevator or conveyor is commonly given to appliances which continuously, not in separate loads, move materials like grain or coal in a vertical, horizontal or diagonal direction.
There was no property qualification nor does the term appear to be racial.
The term came in time to mean " a beggar " and with that meaning has passed through Aramaic and Hebrew into many modern languages; but though the Code does not regard him as necessarily poor, he may have been landless.
The Code enacted that if the landlord would re-enter before the term was up, he must remit a fair proportion of the rent.
Faraday's term " electrode," literally " a way (650s) for electricity to travel along," might be well applied to designate the insulated conductor along which the electric messenger is despatched.
init.) between the'Os/3poi of, say, Herodotus and the language of Iguviuin, of which we may now offer some description, using the term Umbrian strictly in this sense.
The term " telephony " was first used by Philipp Reis of Friedrichsdorf, in a lecture delivered before the Physical Society of Frankfort in 1861.1 But, although this lecture and Reis's subsequent work received considerable notice, little progress was made until the subject was taken up between 1874 and 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell, a native of Edinburgh, then resident in Boston, Mass., U.S.A. Bell, like Reis, employed electricity for the reproduction of sounds; but he attacked the problem in a totally different manner.
The line of circuit passed through the secondary of the induction coil I to the line, from that to the telephone T at the receiving station, 'See Journal of the Telegraph, New York, April 1877; Philadelphia Times, 9th July 1877; and Scientific American, August 181 This term was used by Wheatstone in 1827 for an acoustic apparatus intended to convert very feeble into audible sounds; see his Scientific Papers, p. 32.
The cultivation of oranges, lemons and their congeners (collectively designated in Italian by the term agrumi) is of comparatively modern date, the introduction of the Citrus Bigarcidia being probably due to the Arabs.
Other cities where the ceramic industries keep their ground are Pesaro, Gubbio, Faenza (whose name long ago became the distinctive term for the finer kind of potters work in France, falence), Savona and Albissola, Turin, Mondovi, Cuneo, Castellamonte, Milan, Brescia, Sassuolo, Imola, Rimini, Perugia, Castelli, &c. In all these the older styles, by which these places became famous in the IthI8th centuries, have been revived.
Under present regulations the term of liability is divided into nine years in the Active Army and Reserve (three or two years with the colors) four in the Mobile MilitIa and six in the Territorial Militia.
Taking the term Italy to comprise the whole peninsula with the northern region as far as the Alps, we must first distinguish the tribe or tribes which spoke Indo-European languages from those who did not.
At first, indeed, the term was apparently confined to the regions of the central and southern districts, exclusive of Cisalpine Gaul and the whole tract north of the Apennines, and this continued to be the official or definite signification of the name down to the end of the republic. But the natural limits of Italy are so clearly marked that the name came to be generally employed as a geographical term at a much earlier period.
Thus we already find Polybius repeatedly applying it in this wider signification to the whole country, as far as the fOot of the Alps; and it is evident from many passages in the Latin writers that this was the familiar use of the term in the days of Cicero and Caesar.
As such it was assigned to Julius Caesar, together with Transalpine Gaul, and it was not till he crossed the Rubicon that he entered Italy in the strict sense of the term.
The first region comprised Latium (in the more extended sense of the term, as including the land of the Volsci, Hernici and Aurunci), together with Campania and the district of the Picentini.
The sixth region was formed by Umbria, in the more extended sense of the term, as including the Ager Gallicus, along the coast of the Adriatic from the Aesis to the Ariminus, and separated from Etruria on the west by the Tiber.
There is good reason to believe that, when the term popolo occurs, it refers to this body and not to the whole mass of the population.
By dint of expedients he gradually overcame the chronic deficit, and, owing to the normal increase of revenue, ended his term of office with the announcement of a surplus of some 720,000.
Though brief, Cairolis term of office was momentous in regard to foreign affairs.
The most successful feature of Crispis term of office was his strict maintenance of Order and the suppression of Radical and Irredentist agitation.
Shortly afterwards his term of office was brought to a close by the failure of an attempt to secure for Italy a coaling station at Sanmen and a sphere of influence in China; but his policy of active participation in Chinese affairs was continued in a modified form by his successor, the Marquis Visconti Venosta, who, entering the reconstructed Pelloux cabinet in May 1899, retained the portfolio of foreign affairs in the ensuing Saracco administration, and secured the despatch of an Italian expedition, 2000 strong, to aid in repressing the Chinese outbreak and in protecting Italian interests in the Far East (July 1900).
But here he used the term " real " somewhat unguardedly, for in his Defence he asserts a real presence, but defines it as exclusively a spiritual presence; and he repudiates the idea that the bread and wine were " bare tokens."
The neuter term brahma is used in the Rigveda both in the abstract sense of "devotion, worship," and in the concrete sense of "devotional rite, prayer, hymn."
Whilst the masculine term brahmana (nom.
This latter definition seems on the whole the more probable one, and it certainly would fit exactly the character of the writings to which the term relates.
It will thus be seen that the term brahmanam applies not only to complete treatises of an exegetic nature, but also to single comments on particular texts or rites of which such a work would be made up.
The term has had several changes of meaning.
[It is not clear that Bacon is the first to use the term in the now accepted sense; but he and Theophilus Raynaudus, S.
Wallace's Gifford Lecture, 6 chap. i., may also be consulted; but Wallace does not distinguish the unusual sense which the term bears as applied to Raymond's book.
At this point we must also call to mind the wide currency given to the term theology by Abelard, and his editors or copyists.
" Deist," or sometimes " theist " in sense (I), or Naturalist, is a term of reprobation with English 18th-century apologists, but not " Natural Religion."
- We do not pretend that Law of Nature - the jurist's term, not of course that of inductive science - is strictly a synonym for theism.
" Philosophy of religion " is the modern term.
The term is borrowed from Sight, of all the physical senses the one which most rapidly instructs the mind.
Indeed, there is a further implication, when the term intuition is borrowed for mental vision; you see at a glance that things must be so.
He became principal of the government college at Lahore in 1864, and there originated the term "Dardistan" for a portion of the mountains on the north-west frontier, which was subsequently recognized to be a purely artificial distinction.
Ray Lankester's term, homoplasy, has passed into currency as designating such cases where different genetic material has been pressed by similar conditions into similar moulds.
It was the Paris building that gave rise to the generic use of the term for a building where a nation's illustrious dead rest.
The penalties which the spiritual court could inflict, in the period between the edict of Milan and c. 854, were properly excommunication whether generally or as exclusion from the sacraments for a term of months or years or till the day of death and (in the case of clerics) suspension or deposition.
equivalent reQaapa?coo-n) (now superseded by the term p roTEta " the fast"), are derived from the Sunday which was the fortieth day before Easter, as Quinquagesima and Sexagesima are the fiftieth and sixtieth, Quadragesima being until the 7th century the capul jejunii or first day of the fast.
Dana, and now commonly used in scientific writings as a specific term for the real Prussian amber.
PHARMACY, a term which in the original Greek form signified the use of any kind of drug (46p,uaKov), potion or spell, and hence also poison and witchcraft.
yOXv13Sos, lead, and was originally employed to denote many substances containing or resembling lead; ultimately the term was applied to graphite and to molybdenum sulphide.
TADPOLE, a term often, but wrongly, applied indiscriminately to all Batrachian larvae.
In describing tadpoles, the term "body" is therefore used as meaning head and body.
a, without, and Rropos, passage), a biological term meaning imperforate, or not porous: there is a group of corals called Aporosa.
Vertebres) also used the term, as when he spoke of the Medusae as radiata medusaria et anomala; but he preferred the term Radiaria, under which he included Echinodermata and Medusae.
Cuvier's term in its wide extension, however, passed into general use; but, as the anatomy of the different forms became more fully known, the difficulty of including them under the common designation made itself increasingly obvious.
Milne-Edwards removed the Polyzoa; the group was soon further thinned by the exclusion of the Protozoa on the one hand and the Entozoa on the other; while in 1848 Leuckart and Frey clearly distinguished the Coelenterata from the Echinodermata as a separate sub-kingdom, thus condemning the usage by which the term still continued to be applied to these two groups at least.
In 18J5, however, Owen included under Lamarck's term Radiaria the Echinodermata, Anthozoa, Acalepha and Hydrozoa, while Agassiz also clung to the term Radiata as including Echinodermata, Acalepha and Polypi, regarding their separation into Coelenterata and Echinodermata as "an exaggeration of their anatomical differences" (Essay on Classification, London, 1859).
These attempts, however, to perpetuate the usage were finally discredited by Huxley's important Lectures on Comparative Anatomy (1864), in which the term was finally abolished, and the "radiate mob" finally distributed among the Echinodermata, Polyzoa, Vermes (Platyhelminthes), Coelenterata and Protozoa.
In the most generally used sense, a plant is a member of the lower or vegetable order of living organized things; the term is also popularly applied to the smaller herbaceous plants, thus excluding trees and shrubs.
In the following sections the botanical sense of the word is followed, the term being used generally as opposed to animals.
The term Cryptogam is archaic, implying a hidden method of reproduction as compared with the obvious method represented by the flower of the Phanerogam; with the aid of a good microscope it is, however, easier to follow the process of fertilization.
The term Anatomy, originally employed in biological science to denote a description of the facts of structure revealed on cutting up an organism, whether with or without the aid of lenses for the purposes of magnification, is restricted in the present article, in accordance with a common modern use, to those facts of internal structure not concerned with the constitution of the individual cell, the structural unit of which the plant is composed.
The use of the term to mean the individualized nucleated mass of living protoplasm, which, whether with or without a limiting membrane, primitively forms the proximate histological element of the body of every organism, dates from the second quarter of the i9th century.
The term parenchyma is applied to tissues whose cells are isodiametric or cylin.drical in shape, prosenchyma tissues consisting of long narrow cells, with pointed ends.
The surface layer of the root, sometimes included under tht term epidermis, is fundamentally different from the epidermis of the stem.
This is a morphological term given to the particular~ type of hydrom found in both Pteridophytes and Phanerogams, together with the parenchyma or stereom, or both, included within the boundaries of the hydrom tissue strand.
For this reason a stem in which as pot ystelic, the term stele being transferr~d from the primary I central cylinder of the i~xis and applied to the vascular strands just described.
In this use the term loses, of course, its morphoI logical value, and it is better to call such a segment of a broken-up I stele a meristele, the whole solenostele with overlapping leaf-gaps being called a dictyostele.
Up to very recently the original absorption and subsequent treatment of the carbon dioxide and the compounds of nitrogen has been called by the same term.
As this is not the incorporation of either into the living sobstance, but is only its manufacture into the complex substances which we find in the plant, it seems preferable to limit the term assimilation to the processes by which foods are actually taken into the protoplasm.
The second, which is usually included in the term, is the increase of such accessories of living substance as are necessary for its well-being.
No sharp line can be drawn between these diseases and some of the preceding, inasmuch as it often depends on the external conditions whether necrosis is a dry-rot, in the sense I employ the term here, or a wet-rot, when it would come under the preceding category.
Following SchrOter1 (Flahault and SchrOter, 1910: 24), the term autecology may be used for the study of the habitat conditions in relation to the single species, and the term synecology for this study in relation to plant communities.
Flahault and Schroter,2 in defining the term habitat, appear to exclude all geographical factors.
Schimper used the term xerophytes to include plants which live in soils which are physiologically dry, and the term hygrophytes those which live in soils which are physiologically wet or damp. Schimper recognized that the two classes are connected by transitional forms, and that it is useless to attempt to give the matter a statistical basis.
Eremophytes.Under this term, are placed plants of deserts rid steppes.
The term oxyloiyte is open to the obiection that some peaty waters are alkaline, id not acidic as the term implies.
The term morphology, which was introduced into science by Goethe (1817), designates, in the first place, the study of the form and composition of the body and of the parts of which the body may consist; secondly, the relations of the parts of the same body; thirdly, the comparison of the bodies or parts of the bodies of plants of different kinds; fourthly, the study of the development of the body and of its parts (ontogeny); fifthly, the investigation of the historical origin and descent of the body and its parts (phylogeny); and, lastly, the consideration of the relation of the parts of the body to their various functions, a study that is known as organography.
Further, it has been found convenient to designate the leaf-bearing stem as a whole by the term shoot, so that the body may, as Sachs suggested, be primarily analysed into shoot and root.
The word metamorphosis cannot, in fact, be used any longer in its original sense, for the change which it implied does not normally occur in ontogeny, and in phylogeny the idea is more accurately expressed by the term differentiation.
The French term "quillon," apparently formed from quille, ninepin, is applied to the projecting arms or cross guards of the hilt of a sword.
Again, the practical engineers who are building aeroplanes, and those who are making practical tests by actual flight in those machines, cannot be called "researchers"; that term should be confined to the members, for example, of the scientific committee appointed by the British Government in 1909 to make investigations regarding aerial construction and navigation.
Further, the term is particularly used of a course of post-graduate study at a university, for which many universities have provided special Research Studentships or Fellowships.
Aristotle defined the temperate zone as extending from the tropic to the arctic circle, but there is some uncertainty as to the precise meaning he gave to the term " arctic circle."
term which appears to have been introduced by Linnaeus, and was reinvented as a substitute for the cosmography of the middle ages by Professor Huxley.
Although the term has since been limited by some writers to one particular part of the subject, it seems best to maintain the original and literal meaning.
been made to arrive at a definite international agreement on this subject, and certain terms suggested by a committee were adopted by the Eighth International Geographical Congress at New York in 1904.4 The forms of the ocean floor include the " shelf," or shallow sea margin, the " depression," a general term applied to all submarine hollows, and the " elevation."
If land forms may be compared to organs, the part they serve in the economy of the earth may, without straining the term, be characterized as functions.
The only other important term which requires to be noted here is talweg, a word introduced from the German into French and English, and meaning the deepest line along the valley, which is necessarily occupied by a stream unless the valley is dry.
Early in 1683, however, through the influence of the king's mistress, the duchess of Portsmouth, Sunderland regained his place as secretary for the northern department, the chief feature of his term of office being his rivalry with his brotherin-law, George Savile, marquess of Halifax.
The term coprolites has been made to include all kinds of phosphatic nodules employed as manures, such, for example, as those obtained from the Coralline and the Red Crag of Suffolk.
The government of the university is vested in a board of trustees appointed by the governor of the state for a term of seven years.
The term " lumbar " vertebrae is inapplicable to birds.
(C) Arctogaea is Huxley's well-chosen term for all the rest of the world (including the Nearctic, Palaearctic, Indian and Ethiopian regions of P. L.
Faunistically, although not geographically, the Nearctic and Palaearctic areas must form the two subdivisions of one great unit, for which the " Holarctic region " is now the generally accepted term.
Dilemmist is also a term used to translate Vaibhashikas, the name of a Buddhist school of philosophy.
RUMINANTIA, a term employed by Cuvier to include all the existing artiodactyle ruminating ungulate mammals now classed under the groups Pecora, Tylopoda and Tragulina.
word meaning "some," "so many"), a term generally occurring in the phrase "aliquot part," and meaning that one quantity is exactly divisible into another; thus 3 is an aliquot part of 6.
1 The Christian Church, warned perhaps by the words of Christ, appears at first to have avoided a similar use of the term, while St Paul, St Peter and St John speak of their converts as spiritual children (1 Cor.
For a comprehensive use of the term "ecclesiastical writers" he has the authority of Jerome, who enumerates among them 4 such heresiarchs or leaders of schism as Tatian, Bardaisan, Novatus, Donatus, Photinus and Eunomius.
5 The term patres apostolici is due to the patristic scholars of the 17th century: see Lightfoot, St Clement of Rome, i.
Seven other lectures were delivered during the first three weeks of the Lent term of 1842.
The line is traced through biblical teachers to Ezra, the first of the Sopherim or scribes, who handed on the charge to the "men of the Great Synagogue," a much-discussed term for a body or succession of teachers inaugurated by Ezra.
The term Midrash, however, more commonly implies agada, i.e.
The term seems to have originated with J.
Begriff), in philosophy, a term applied to a general idea derived from and considered apart from the particulars observed by the senses.
The psychic process by which a concept is affirmed is called "Conception," a term which is often loosely used in a concrete sense for "Concept" itself.
Some psychologists prefer to restrict the term to the narrower use which excludes all mental states in which particulars are cognized, even though the universal be present also.
The term is thus applied to a metal bar, slender in proportion to its length, used as a tie, brace or connecting shaft between different parts, of a machine.
During his term of office he appeared in a case before the United States Supreme Court, where his knowledge of civil law so strongly impressed Edward Livingston, the secretary of state, who was himself an admirer of Roman Law, that he urged Legare to devote himself to the study of this subject with the hope that he might influence American law toward the spirit and philosophy and even the forms and processes of Roman jurisprudence.
His second term was marked by premonitions of further disorder.
In the Russian Orthodox Church the term "ambo" is used of the semicircular steps leading to the platform in front of the iconostasis, but in cathedrals the bishop has an ambo in the centre of the church.
But nobility is not necessarily a political term; the distinction which it implies may be accompanied by political privileges or it may not.
The term "flora" is used in botany collectively for the plantgrowth of a district; similarly "fauna" is used collectively for the animals.
Strictly speaking, however, the term ant-lion applies to the larval form, which has been known scientifically for over two hundred years, on account of its peculiar and forbidding appearance and its skilful and unique manner of entrapping prey by means of a pitfall.
The president is now elected for a term of four years.
THOLOS (06Xos), the term given in Greek architecture to a circular building, with or without a peristyle; the earliest examples are those of the beehive tombs at Mycenae and in other parts of Greece, which were covered by domes built in horizontal courses of masonry.
the Church or Communion of Brethren; and this is really the correct translation of their later term, Unitas fratrum.
Whilst Sennar has never been held to extend westward of the White Nile, the term has often been used to embrace "the Island of Meroe," i.e.
The forest vegetation, largely confined to the "Isle of Isles" and the southern uplands, includes the Adansonia (baobab), which in the Fazogli district attains gigantic proportions, the tamarind, of which bread is made, the deleb palm, several valuable gum trees (whence the term Sennari often applied in Egypt to gumarabic), some dyewoods, ebony, ironwood and many varieties of acacia.
COLEOPTERA, a term used in zoological classification for the true beetles which form one of the best-marked and most natural of the orders into which the class Hexapoda (or Insecta) has been divided.
Aristotle's term was adopted by Linnaeus (1758), and has been universally used by zoologists.
2d, 3 c) is always "free," the legs, wings and other appendages not being 1 Instar is a convenient term suggested by D.
In many countries, such as Germany and Russia, the term has retained its original meaning of an officer on the personal staff, and is the designation of personal aides-de-camp to the sovereign.
A nearer view will reveal the rich chestnut of the mantle and upper wing-coverts, and the combination of colours thus exhibited suggests the term "tortoise-shell" often applied to it - the quill-feathers being mostly of a dark brown and its lower parts pure white.
a term used in biology, &c., for subjects having only one exponent, for example a genus containing only one species.
The origin of the term " Russia " has been much disputed.
The word parliament may, however, be used as a convenient term, failing a better.
The justices of the peace, who must be landowners' or (in towns) persons of moderate property, are elected by the municipal dumas in the towns, and by the zemstvos Justices in the country districts, for a term of three years.
The system of obligatory military service for all, introduced in 1874, has been maintained, but the six years' term of service has Army.
The term by which this subjection is commonly designated, the Mongol or Tatar yoke, suggests ideas of terrible oppression, Character but in reality these barbarous invaders from the Far of Tatar East were not such cruel, oppressive taskmasters as rule.
From the earliest times the term tsar - a contraction of the word Caesar - had been applied to the kings in Biblical history and the Byzantine emperors, and Ivan III.
However that may be, it must be confessed even by Slavophils that he dragged his countrymen, more by force than by persuasion, from the paths of traditional routine and pushed them along with all his might on the broad road of progress in the modern sense of the term.
Peter had endeavoured to import from western Europe the essentials of good government and such of the useful arts as were required for the development of the natural resources of the country; Catherine did likewise, but she did not restrict herself to purely utilitarian aims in the narrower sense of the term.
In 1895 the term was first publicly employed by M.
In the complimentary speeches delivered by the president of the French Republic and the tsar, France and Russia were referred to as allies, and the term " nations alliees " was afterwards repeatedly used on occasions of a similar kind.
i) was known as the plate-rail, tramway-plate or barrowway-plate - names which are preserved in the modern term " platelayer " applied to the men who lay and maintain the permanent way of a railway.
It extended the meaning of the term " railroad " to include switches, spurs and terminal facilities, and the term " transportation " to include private cars, and all collateral services, such as refrigeration, elevation and storage.
The American railways do not have to face this situation; but, after a long term of years, when they were allowed to do much as they pleased, they have now been brought sharply to book by almost every form of constituted authority to be found in the states, and they are suffering from increased taxation, from direct service requirements, and from a general tendency on the part of regulating authorities to reduce rates and to make it impossible to increase them.
R.) Locomotive Power The term " power " is used in technical sense to mean the rate at which work is done against a resistance, and is measured in units of energy expended per unit of time.
The term light railways is somewhat vague and indefinite, and therefore to give a precise definition of its significance is not an easy matter.
No adequate definition is to be found even in the British statute-book; for although g parliament has on different occasions passed acts dealing with such railways both in Great Britain and Ireland, it has not inserted in any of them a clear and sufficient statement of what it intends shall be understood by the term, as distinguished from an ordinary railway.
Since the passing of the Light Railways Act of 1896, which did not apply to Ireland, it is possible to give a formal definition by saying that a light railway is one constructed under the provisions of that act; but it must be noted that the commissioners appointed under that act have authorized many lines which in their physical characteristics are indistinguishable from street tramways constructed under the Tramways Act, and to these the term light railways would certainly not be applied in ordinary parlance.
SPIRITUALISM, a term used by philosophical writers to denote the opposite of materialism, and also used in a narrower sense to describe the belief that the spiritual world manifests itself by producing in the physical world effects inexplicable by the known laws of nature.
By this definition the term sacrifice is extended to cover the inanimate offering which is consumed by fire, broken or otherwise rendered useless for the purpose of human life.
The bread and wine are designated by all the names by which sacrifices are designated (sacrificia, hostiae, libamina, and at least once sacrificium placationis), and the act of offering them by the ordinary term for offering a sacrifice (immolatio).
Among the measures and events distinguishing his term as president were the following: The meeting of the Pan-American Congress at Washington; the passage of the McKinley Tariff Bill and of the Sherman Silver Bill of 1890; the suppressing of the Louisiana Lottery; the enlargement of the navy; further advance in civil service reform; the convocation by the United States of an international monetary conference; the establishment of commercial reciprocity with many countries of America and Europe; the peaceful settlement of a controversy with Chile; the negotiation of a Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, which, however, before its ratification, his successor withdrew from the Senate; the settlement of difficulties with Germany concerning the Samoan Islands, and the adjustment by arbitration with Great Britain of the Bering Sea fur-seal question.
Thus the term Savaii itself, originally Savaiki, is supposed to have been carried by the Samoan wanderers over the ocean to Tahiti, New Zealand, the Marquesas and Sandwich groups, where it still survives in such variant forms as Havaii, Hawaiki, Havaiki and Hawaii.
(3) The Tell el-Amarna inscriptions indicate that the term Elohim might even be applied in abject homage to an Egyptian monarch as the use of the term ilani in this connexion obviously implies.3 The religion of the Arabian tribes in the days of Mahomet, of which a picture is presented to us by Wellhausen in his Remains of Arabic Heathendom, furnishes some suggestive indications of the religion that prevailed in nomadic Israel before as well as during the lifetime of Moses.
13) in which ElOhim is the term which is applied to departed spirits.
15), but the ecstatic and orgiastic dervish who was meshuggah or " frenzied," a term which was constantly applied to him from the days of Elisha to those of Jeremiah (2 Kings ix.
26 it is regarded as a term of reproach).
This is not the place to enter into the prolonged controversy as to the real significance of this term, whether it signifies the nation Israel or the righteous community only, or finally an idealized prophetic individual who, like the prophet Jeremiah, was destined to suffer for the well-being of his people.
But this term (literally the chief priest) was already in use during the regal period to designate the head priest of an important sanctuary such as Jerusalem (2 Kings xii.
Two years were " loosely defined as the term of his absence," which he exceeded by half a year - returning June 1765.
He continued to reside at Avignon despite the arguments of envoys and the verses of Petrarch, but threw a sop to the Romans by reducing the Jubilee term from one hundred years to fifty.
in length and only a few inches deep. Such bodies often become nothing but vast sheets of liquid mud, and are called " mud lakes," a term most frequently applied to the sloughs fed by Quinn's river.
The striking use of the term Snµjrpaot in the sense of " the dead " may be noted in this connexion.
Entering at Cambridge in 1850, he spent a term or two at Peterhouse, but afterwards migrated to Trinity.
(2) A legal term meaning an offer for acceptance, particularly an offer in money for the satisfaction of a debt or liability or an offer to pay or deliver T ' '- Tench.
The term is also applied specifically to an offer to do a specified piece of work or to supply certain goods for a certain sum or at a certain rate or to purchase goods at a certain rate.
In Austria, whoever commits blasphemy by speech or writing is liable to imprisonment for any term from six months up to ten years, according to the seriousness of the offence.
After so many years the commentators had lost the key to this unusual term, and only knew that in common Greek "myrmex" meant an ant.
The term is also sometimes applied to the written minutes of a meeting or assembly.
DIPTERA (Sis, double, 7rTEpa, wings), a term (first employed in its modern sense by Linnaeus, Fauna Suecica, 1st ed., 1746, p. 306) used in zoological classification for one of the Orders into which the Hexapoda, or Insecta, are divided.
In addition to this it should be noticed that the term " Jew " (originally Yehudi), in spite of its wider application, means properly " man of Judah," i.e.
The extension of the term " Judah " (cf.
Pilate inaugurated his term of office by ordering his troops to enter Jerusalem at night and to take their standards with them.
Little more than half a century after the overthrow of the Jewish nationality, the Mishnah was practically completed, and by this code of rabbinic law - and law is here a term which includes the social, moral and religious as well as the ritual and legal phases of human activity - the Jewish people were organized into a community, living more or less autonomously under the Sanhedrin or Synedrium and its officials.
A favourite form of tolerance was to grant a permit to the Jews to remain in the state for a limited term of years; their continuance beyond the specified time was illegal and they were therefore subject to sudden banishment.
In medieval ecclesiastical usage the term might be applied to almost any person having ecclesiastical authority; it was very commonly given to the more dignified clergy of a cathedral church, but often also to ordinary priests charged with the cure of souls and, in the early days of monasticism, to monastic superiors, even to superiors of convents of women.
The term occurs very frequently in the Rule of St Benedict and other early monastic rules.
In the Church of England the term prelate has been since the Reformation applied only to archbishops and bishops.
Musta`riba], a general term for persons not Arab by race who have assimilated themselves to the Arabs.
In modern usage this term is loosely used for a personal ruler enjoying extraordinary and extra-constitutional power.
speaks for some writer to record, is to be distinguished) - has been assisted by the historical use of the term, in ancient times, for an extraordinary magistrate in the Roman commonwealth.
ROUNDHEAD, a term applied to the adherents of the parliamentary party in England during the great Civil War.
they who were looked upon as servants to the king being then called ` Cavaliers,' and the other of the rabble contemned and despised under the name of ` Roundheads.'" Baxter ascribes the origin of the term to a remark made by Queen Henrietta Maria at the trial of Strafford; referring to Pym, she asked who the roundheaded man was.
Under the constitution of 1890 the governor, with the consent of the senate, appoints supreme court judges for a term of nine years, and circuit and chancery judges for four years.
On the 4th of November the term for which Guion had been elected as a senator expired and he was succeeded in the governorship by Whitfield, elected by the senate to be its president.
It was naturally a term of respectful address from early times; thus St Augustine (Epist.
Under an amendment of 1835 he was elected for two years by popular vote of electors for members of the House of Commons, and no man was eligible to serve for more than four years in any term of six years.
There is a supreme court consisting of a chief justice and four associates, elected by popular vote for eight years, and a superior or circuit court, composed of sixteen judges elected by the people in each of sixteen districts for a term of eight years.
-% for the first six years and at 7% for the remainder of the term.
Six out of sixteen governors or deputy-governors were driven from office between 1674 and 1712, and there were two uprisings which have been deemed worthy of the term rebellion.
barcaruola, a boat-song), properly a musical term for the songs sung by the Venetian gondoliers, and hence for an instrumental or vocal composition, generally in 6-8 time, written in imitation of their characteristic rhythm.
The term mysticism is indeed often extended by popular usage and philosophical partisanship to the whole activity of the post-Kantian idealists.
Hamann (1730-1788), the term mysticism may be fitly applied.
The word Orchis is used in a special sense to denote a particular genus of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae); very frequently, also, it is employed in a more general way to indicate any member of that large and very interesting group. It will be convenient here to use the word Orchis as applying to that particular genus which gives its name to the order or family, and to employ the term "orchid" in the less precise sense.
These segments spring apparently from the top of the ovary - the real explanation, however, being that the end of the flower-stalk or "thalamus," as it grows, becomes dilated into a sort of cup or tube enclosing and indeed closely adhering to the ovary, so that the latter organ appears to be beneath the perianth instead of above it as in a lily, an appearance which has given origin to the term "inferior ovary."
clericatus), a collective term signifying in English strictly the body of "clerks," i.e.
Turks and Mongols alike were doubtless included under the term Scyth by the ancients, and as Tatars by more modern writers, insomuch that the Turkish dynasty at Delhi, founded by Baber, is usually termed the Mogul dynasty, although there can be no distinction traced between the terms Mogul and Mongol.
BONE BED, a term loosely used by geologists when speaking generally of any stratum or deposit which contains bones of whatever kind.
For these latter, the term coelomoducts might well be reserved.
Hence the term is applied to states in which the supreme authority is vested in a single person, the monarch, who in his own right is the permanent head of the state.
Perhaps the most important act of his second term was obtaining the release of Kossuth and other Hungarian refugees who had fled to Turkey, and whose surrender had been demanded by the Austrian government.
Pessimism, therefore, depends upon the individual point of view, and the term is frequently used merely in a condemnatory sense by hostile critics.
before Khammurabi, Anu was regarded as the god of the heavens and his name became in fact synonymous with the heavens, so that in some cases it is doubtful whether, under the term, the god or the heavens is meant.
The commissioner of the revenue is appointed for a term of four years by the judge of the corporation court.
Three justices of the peace are elected from each ward for a term of two years.
Leases for a term of years, however, were not uncommon; but the want of capital rendered it impossible for the tenantry to attempt any spirited improvements.
The enlargement of farms, and in Scotland the letting of them under leases for a considerable term of years, continued to be a marked feature in the agricultural progress of the country until the end of the century, and is to be regarded both as a cause and a consequence of that progress.
In the period 18 751905 the extreme areas returned as " permanent pasture "-a term which, it should be clearly understood, does not include heath or mountain land, of which there are in Great Britain alone about 13 million acres used for grazing-were 23,772,602 acres in 1875, and 28,865,373 acres in 1905.
Hence ius Quiritium in Roman law is full Roman citizenship. Subsequently the term lost the military associations due to the original conception of the people as a body of warriors, and was applied (sometimes in a deprecatory sense, cf.
At the close of his term he retired to his home at Edgefield, South Carolina, where he died on the 25th of January 1869.
Leasing-making - a Scottish term for seditious language - was to be sternly punished.
FIR, the Scandinavian name originally given to the Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris), but at present not infrequently employed as a general term for the whole of the true conifers (Abietineae); in a more exact sense, it has been transferred to the "spruce" and "silver firs," the genera Picea and A bies of most modern botanists.
There is no reason in the actual significance of the word why the term " proboscis " should be applied to an alternately introversible and eversible tube connected with an animal's body, and yet such is a very customary use of the term.
" Parthians," a term transferred by Firdousi to the heroes of the old Iranian legend.
AEGEAN CIVILIZATION, the general term for the prehistoric civilization, previously called "Mycenaean" because its existence was first brought to popular notice by Heinrich Schliemann's excavations at Mycenae in 1876.
Schists in the common acceptance of that term are really highly crystalline rocks; fissile slates, shales or sandstones, in which the original sedimentary structures are little modified by recrystallization, are not included in this group by English petrologists, though the French schistes and the German Schiefer are used to designate also rocks of these types.
The phyllites (q.v.) form a middle term between this group and the slates; they consist usually of quartz, white mica and chlorite, and have much of the foliation and schistosity of the mica-schists.
These qualities were particularly manifested at a later period - as, for example, during his term as president.
For the class of the true insects included in this phylum, Linnaeus's old term Insecta, first used in a restricted sense by M.
In specialized biting insects, such as beetles (Coleo C ptera), the labium tends to become a hard transverse plate bearing the pair of palps, a median structure - known as the ligula - formed of the conjoined laciniae, and a pair of small rounded processes - the reduced galeae - often called the " paraglossae," a term better avoided since it has been applied also to the maxillulae of Aptera, entirety different structures.
or " vertex," the compound eyes and the front divisions of the genae are formed by the cephalic lobes of the embryo (belonging membrane analogous to the amnion of higher Vertebrates andto the ocular segment), while the mandibular and maxillary segments known by the same term.
Such a young insect is a larva - a term used by zoologists for young animals generally that are decidedly unlike their parents.
The term nymph is applied by many writers on the Hexapoda to all young forms of insects that are not sufficiently unlike their parents to be called larvae.
Such excessive multiplication of the larger taxonomic divisions shows an imperfect sense of proportion, for if the term " class " be allowed its usual zoological value, no student can fail to recognize that the Hexapoda form a single welldefined class, from which few entomologists would wish to exclude even the Apterygogenea.
the Apterygogenea of Brauer and others, though we prefer the shorter term Apterygota) - is rendered improbable from the fact that existing Apterygota are related to Exopterygota, not to Endopterygota, and by the knowledge that has been gained as to the morphology and development of wings, which suggest that - if we may so phrase it - were an apterygotous insect gradually to develop wings, it would be on the exopterygotous system.
More than this, he seems to be the earliest ornithologist, perhaps the earliest zoologist, to conceive the idea of each genus possessing what is now called a " type " - though such_a term does not occur in his work; and, in like manner, without declaring it in so many words, he indicated unmistakably the existence of subgenera - all this being effected by the skilful use of names.
These views he shared more or less with Vigors and Swainson, and to them attention will be immediately especially invited, while consideration of the scheme gradually developed from 1831 onward by Charles Lucien Bonaparte, and still not without its influence, is deferred until we come to treat of the rise and progress of what we may term the reformed school of ornithology.
Its chief drawback is that it does not give any more reference to the authority for a generic term than the name of its inventor and the year of its application, though of course more precise information would have at least doubled the size of the book.
The success it gained was doubtless due in some degree to the difficulty which most men had in comprehending it, for it was enwrapped in alluring mystery, but more to the confidence with which it was announced as being the long-looked-for key to the wonders of creation, since its promoters did not hesitate to term it the discovery of " the Natural System," though they condescended, by way of explanation to less exalted intellects than their own, to allow it the more moderate appellation of the Circular or, Quinary System.
Essential or inhering (formae inhaerentes) in the objects themselves are only substance, quantity, quality and relation in the stricter sense of that term.
Parker in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal asiatique, Revue numismatique, Asiatic Quarterly, &c. (C. EL.) EPI, the French architectural term for a light finial, generally of metal, but sometimes of terra-cotta, e forming the termination of a spire or the angle of a roof.
The governor is elected in November of even-numbered years for a term of two years.
Especially prominent in Europe, classical, medieval and modern, and in East Asia, is the spirit of the lake, river, spring, or well, often conceived as human, but also in the form of a bull or horse; the term Old Nick may refer to the water-horse Nok.
In Easter term 1510 he went to Oxford, where Foxe says he was entered of Magdalen Hall.
The term " Catholic " does not occur in the old Roman symbol; but Professor Loofs includes it in his reconstruction, based on typical phrases in common use at the time of the ante-Nicene creeds of the East.
But the appeal to the verbally inspired Bible was stronger than that to a church hopelessly divided; the Bible, and not the consent of the universal church, became the touchstone of the reformed orthodoxy; in the nomenclature of the time, " evangelical " arose in contradistinction to " Catholic," while, in popular parlance, the " protest " of the Reformers against the " corruptions of Rome " led to the invention of the term " Protestant," which, though nowhere assumed in the official titles of the older reformed churches, was early used as a generic term to include them all.
Clearly, then, the exact meaning of the term varies according to those who use it and those to whom it is applied.
An isolated use of the word " catholic " as a secular legal term survives in Scots law; a catholic creditor is one whose debt is secured over several or over all of the subjects belonging to the debtor.
It provided for municipal elections in January; for the election of a mayor for four years; for his recall at the end of two years if a majority of the registered voters so vote in the state election in November in the second year of his term; for the summary removal for cause by the mayor of any department head or other of his appointees; for a city council of one chamber of nine members, elected at large each for three years; for nomination by petition; for a permanent finance commission appointed by the governor; for the confirmation of the mayor's appointments by the state civil service commission; for the mayor's preparation of the annual budget (in which items may be reduced but not increased by the council), and for his absolute veto of appropriations except for school use.
The proper names and the names of deities, while partly Aramaic, are also in part unmistakably Arabic: it is suggestive that a purely Arabic term (fand, NSI.
PSOROSPERMIASIS, the medical term for a disease caused by the animal parasites known as psorosperms or gregarinidae, found in the liver, kidneys and ureters.
Though nominalism is properly a medieval theory, the tendency has passed over into modern philosophy: the term "nominalist" is often applied to thinkers of the empirical, sensationalist school, of whom J.
TRANSUBSTANTIATION, the term adopted by the Roman Catholic Church to express her teaching on the subject of the conversion of the Bread and Wine into the Body and Blood of Christ in the Eucharist.
These early schools, which consist chiefly of one-year and two-year-old fishes, yield sometimes enormous catches, whilst in other years they escape the drift-nets altogether, passing them, for some hitherto Unexplained reason, at a greater depth than that to which the nets reach, 1 The term "Spanish mackerel" is applied in America to Cybium maculatum.
At common la .w a lease for a term of years (other than a lease by a corporation) might be made by parol.
But under the Statute of Frauds (1677), ss., 1, 2) leases, except those the term of which does not exceed three years, and in which the reserved rent is equal to two-thirds at least of the improved value of the premises, were required to be in writing signed by the parties or their lawfully authorized agents; and, under the Real Property Act 1845, a lease required by law to be in writing is void unless made by deed.
The Statute of Frauds also prohibits an action from being brought upon any agreement for a lease, for any term, unless such agreement is in writing and signed by the party to be charged therewith or by some agent lawfully authorized by him.
- A lease for life must be made by deed, and the term may be the life of the lessee and the life or lives of some other person or persons, and in the latter case either for their joint lives or for the life of the survivor; also for the lives of the lessee himself and of some other person or persons, and this constitutes a single estate.
for a term of years.
Here the tenancy ends on the expiry of the prescribed term, without notice to quit or any other formality.
The component parts of a lease are the parties, the recitals (when necessary) setting out such matters as the title of the lessor; the demise or actual letting (the word " demise " is ordinarily used, but any term indicating an express intention to make a present letting is sufficient); the parcels in which the extent of the premises demised is stated; the habendum (which defines the commencement and the term of the lease), the reddendum or reservation of rent, and the covenants and conditions.
Leases frequently contain a covenant by the lessee to bear and pay rates, taxes, assessments and other " impositions " or " charges," or " duties " or " outgoings," or " burdens " (except property tax) imposed upon the demised premises during the term.
This obligation makes the landlord responsible for any lawful eviction of the tenant during the term, but not for wrongful eviction unless he is himself the wrongdoer or has expressly made himself responsible for evictions of all kinds.
(iv.) Covenants by the tenants to insure the premises and keep them insured are also common; and if the premises are left uninsured for the smallest portion of the term, though there is no damage by fire, the covenant is broken.
The principal mode of voluntary alteration is an assignment either by the tenant of his term or by the landlord of his reversion.
" Attornment," or the agreement by a tenant to become tenant to a new landlord, is a term now often used to indicate an acknowledgment of the existence of the relationship of landlord and tenant.
Tenancy is dissolved by the expiry of the term for which it was created, or by forfeiture of the tenant's interest on the ground of the breach of some condition by the tenant and re-entry by the landlord.
(3) A similar right is very generally recognized by custom in tenants whose term expires in the ordinary way.
Such customary tenant right only arises at the expiration of the lease, and on the substantial performance of the covenants; and is forfeited if the tenant abandons his tenancy during the term.
This enactment applies to leases of agricultural subjects, houses, mills, fisheries and whatever is fundo annexum; provided that (a) the lease, when for more than one year, must be in writing, (b) it must be definite as to subject, rent (which may consist of money, grain or services, if the reddendum is not illusory) and term of duration, (c) possession must follow on the lease.
The rent stipulated for must not be illusory, and must fairly represent the value of the subjects leased, and the term of the lease must not be excessive (as to rent generally, see Rent).
A lease granted to a tenant by name will pass, on his death during the subsistence of the term to his heir-at-law, even if the lease contains no destination to heirs.
In the case of urban leases, however, ejectment (q.v.) - called in Scots Law " removing " - will not be authorized unless the tenant received 4 0 days' warning before the term of removal.
Sometimes the term of payment is before the crop is reaped, sometimes after.
The general rule with regard to " waygoing crops " on arable farms is that the tenant is entitled to reap the crop sown before the term of removal (whether or not that be the natural termination of the lease), the right of exclusive possession being his during seed time.
- Under these leases, the term of which is usually 99 and sometimes 999 years, the tenant is to a certain extent in the position of a fee simple proprietor, except that his right is terminable, and that he can only exercise such rights of ownership as are conferred on him either by statute or by the terms of his lease.
A lease terminates at the expiration of the prescribed term.
A verbal lease is deemed to be for the term necessary to enable the lessee to gather in all the produce, thus for a year in the case of a meadow or vineyard; in the case of lands leased in tillage, where they are divided into shifts or seasons, for as many years as there are shifts (Art.
1827-1830); (iv.) the term " cheptel " is also improperly applied to a contract by which cattle are given to be housed and fed - here the lessor retains the ownership, but has only the profit of the calves (Art.
The term, however, is somewhat elastic in its current use, and students of centipedes and spiders are often reckoned among the entomologists.
The term " futures " is used broadly and narrowly: broadly it is a generic term denoting " futures " in the Futures.
The latter are not " real " purchases in the sense given to that term above, but fictitious because delivery of the cotton is not desired.
The term is particularly associated with the supernatural factors in Christianity.
occasio, an event), in philosophy, a term applied to that theory of the relation between matter and mind which postulates the intervention of God to bring about in the one a change which corresponds to a similar change in the other.
In 1914 he defeated Foraker in the Republican primaries as candidate for the U.S. Senate, and was elected with a majority of 10o,000 for the term of 1915-21; but his friendship with Foraker remained unabated.
Here the application of the term is limited to the liquid which is so important an article of commerce, though references will also be made to natural gas which accompanies petroleum.
By analogy the term "crusade" is also given to any campaign undertaken in the same spirit.
Some three or four months before the term fixed by Urban II., in April and May 1096, five divisions of pauperes had already collected.
Our concern lies with the first kind of Crusade, and with the other three only so far as they bear on the first, and as they illustrate the immense widening which the term "Crusade" now underwent - a widening accompanied by its inevitable corollary of shallowness of motive and degradation of impulse.
Generally the ethnic term, Syrians, came to mean in antiquity the Semiti peoples domiciled outside the Mesopotamian and Arabian areas: but neither in pre-Greek nor in Greek times had the word Syria any very precise geographical significance, various lands, which we include under it, retaining their distinctive status, e.g.
Its most important feature, when compared with the previous constitution of 1868, is its provision for the choice of state officials other than the governor (who was previously chosen by election) by elections instead of by the governor's appointment, but the governor, who serves for four years and is not eligible for the next succeeding term, still appoints the circuit judges, the state' attorneys for each judicial circuit and the county commissioners; he may fill certain vacancies and may suspend, and with the Senate remove officers not liable to impeachment..
There is no penitentiary; the convicts are hired to the one highest bidder who contracts for their labour, and who undertakes, moreover, to lease all other persons convicted during the term of the lease, and sub-leases the prisoners.
The book, as it stands, is a collection of the discourses, observations and aphorisms of a sage called Koheleth, a term the precise meaning of which is not certain.
As to the meaning of the Hebrew term olam in iii.
As it is rich in specific expressions for the various aspects of certain ideas, it is requisite to employ always the most appropriate term suited to the particular aspect.
santap, to eat (of a raja) instead of makan; beradu, to sleep, instead of tidor; gring, unwell, instead of sakit; mangkat, to die, instead of mati, &c. The use is different as regards the term Jawi as applied to the Malay language.
FAKIR (from Arabic faqir, " poor"), a term equivalent to Dervish or Mahommedan religious mendicant, but which has come to be specially applied to the Hindu devotees and ascetics of India.
16 seq.) a further advance was marked, and the use of the term "Baal" was felt to be dangerous to true religion.
Thus there gradually grew up a tendency to avoid the term, and in accordance with the idea of Ex.
in GENTILE the English Bible, the term generally applied to those who were not of the Jewish race.
The chloro-bromide and bromide of silver were also included under this term until they were distinguished chemically in 1841 and 1842, and described under the names embolite and bromargyrite (or bromyrite) respectively; the chloride then came to be distinguished as chlorargyrite, though the name cerargyrite is often now applied to this alone.
Pegs, new, and ALOos, stone), a term employed first by Lord Avebury and since generally accepted, for the period of highly finished and polished stone implements, in contrast with the rude workmanship of those of the earlier Stone Age (Palaeolithic).
At the end of his term he became a judge of the peace, but after the parliamentary coup d'etat of the 3 oth of Prairial of the year VIII.
After 1876, however, he returned to the Democratic party, and from January to March 1877 served out in Congress the unexpired term of Smith Ely, elected mayor of New York City.
The governor is appointed by the president of the United States with the advice and consent of the Senate for a term of four years, and associated with the governor is an executive council consisting of the secretary, treasurer, auditor, attorney-general, commissioner of the interior, commissioner of education, and five other members, all appointed in the same manner and for the same term as the governor.
The term "water-snails" includes the whole of the remaining sub-order of the Pulmonata, namely, the Basommatophora, in which the eyes are sessile, with the exception of the Auriculidae.
granted murage for seven years, the term being extended in 1400.
7) Amalek is mentioned among the enemies of Israel - just as Greek writers of the 6th century of this era applied the old term Scythians to the Goths (Noldeke), - and the traditional hostility between Saul and Amalek is reflected still later in the book of Esther where Haman the Agagite is pitted against Mordecai the Benjamite.
Then, as in the case of the equites, the term was subsequently extended to include all those who possessed the property qualification that would have entitled them to serve as tribuni aerarii.
Huxley; hence his term Dromaeognathae for the Crypturi.
Hist., iv., Boston, 1885) applied this term in a new wider sense to all the Ratitae, and recently W.
But when the properties of the elements are carefully contrasted together it is found that no strict line of demarcation can be drawn dividing them into two classes; and if they are arranged in a series, those which are most closely allied in properties being placed next to each other, it is observed that there is a more or less regular alteration in properties from term to term in the series.
Thus, the equation 2112+02 =2H20 not only represents that certain definite weights of hydrogen and oxygen furnish a certain definite weight of the compound which we term water, but that if the water in the state of gas, the hydrogen and the oxygen are all measured at the same temperature and pressure, the volume occupied by the oxygen is only half that occupied by the hydrogen, whilst the resulting water-gas will only occupy the same volume as the hydrogen.
In 1845 a further contribution to the study of allotropy was made by Anton Schrotter, who investigated the transformations of yellow and red phosphorus, phenomena previously noticed by Berzelius, the inventor of the term " allotropy."
The term allotropy has also been applied to inorganic compounds, identical in composition, but assuming different crystallographic forms. Mercuric oxide, sulphide and iodide; arsenic trioxide; titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide may be cited as examples.
The importance of ascertaining the proximate composition of bodies was clearly realized by Otto Tachenius; but the first systematic investigator was Robert Boyle, to whom we owe the introduction of the term analysis.
Unfortunately, the term normal is sometimes given to solutions which are strictly decinormal; for example, iodine, sodium thiosulphate, &c. In technical analysis, where a solution is used for one process only, it may be prepared so that I cc. is equal to.
He suggests that the term " quinone " theory be abandoned, and replaced by the Umlagerungs theory, since this term implies some intermolecular rearrangement, and does not connote simply benzenoid compounds as does " quinonoid."
Mitscherlich, in the case of the acid phosphate and acid arsenate of potassium, KH 2 P(As)04, who adopted the term isomorphism, and regarded phosphorus and arsenic as isomorphously related elements.
II, instead of Paul's usual term "Satan"); "his holy apostles and prophets" (iii.
During the latter period of his term of office he was on a very unsatisfactory footing with the young king George III., who gradually came to feel a kind of horror of the interminable persistency of his conversation, and whom he endeavoured to make use of as the mere puppet of the ministry.
" Geography," in the sense in which he uses the term, signifies the delineation of the known world, in the shape of a map, while chorography carries out the same objects in fuller detail, with regard to a particular country.
Later references to them probably indicate that the term was.
The term "day star" (so rendered in the Revised Version) was used poetically by Isaiah for the king of Babylon: "How art thou fallen from heaven, 0 Lucifer, son of the morning!
The term is specially used of the period of 1000 years during which Christ, as has been believed, would return to govern the earth in person.
The etymology of the word is unknown; "hound" represents the common Teutonic term (Ger.
A term for the tail, applied to a setter.
A term applied to soft coat.
The offices known to the Quaker body are: (1) that of minister (the term " office " is not strictly applicable, see above as to " recording "); (2) of elder, whose duty it is " to encourage and help young ministers, and advise others as they, in the wisdom of God, see occasion "; (3) of overseer, to whom is especially entrusted that duty of Christian care for and interest in one another which Quakers recognize as obligatory in all the members of a church.
In 1874 he was successful as a Democratic candidate, serving one term (1875-1877).
He retired at the close of his term (1891) and died at Waltham on the 1st of September 1894.
At the expiry of the first term fixed by this decree, Martin V.
PYRAMIDION (diminutive of "pyramid"), an architectural term for the copper-gilt casing covering the apex of an obelisk, and generally extended to its upper termination of pyramidical form.
trepidare, to tremble), a term meaning, in general, fear or trembling, but used technically in astronomy for an imagined slow oscillation of the ecliptic, having a period of 7000 years, introduced by the Arabian astronomers to explain a supposed variation in the precession of the equinoxes.
In January 1815 Portuguese subjects were prohibited from prosecuting the trade north of the equator, and the term after which the traffic should be everywhere unlawful was fixed to end on the 21st of January 1823, but was afterwards extended to February 1830; England paid £300,000 as a compensation to the Portuguese.
They were, however, bound to serve the owners of their mothers for a term of 21 years.
The nature of the engagements to go and work on the plantations was not fully explained to them, and they were hired for periods exceeding the legal term.
The term "herb" is also used of those herbaceous plants, which possess certain properties, and are used for medicinal purposes, for flavouring or garnishing in cooking, and also for perfumes.
The original term, catacumbae, however, had no connexion with sepulture, but was simply the name of a particular locality in the environs of Rome.
This extension of the term to Christian burial-vaults generally dates from the 9th century, and obtained gradual currency through the Christian world.
instinctus, from instinguere, to incite, impel) as employed in general literature and the term "instinct" as used in scientific discourse.
But in any scientific discussion the term instinct must be used within narrower limits, and hence it is necessary that the term should be defined.
Romanes in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica runs as follows: "Instinct is a generic term comprising all those faculties of mind which lead to the conscious performance of actions that are.
From the biological point of view the reference of certain modes of behaviour, termed instinctive, to faculties of mind for which "instinct" is the generic term is scarcely satisfactory; from the psychological point of view the phrase "without necessary knowledge of the relation between the means employed and the end attained" is ambiguous.
The first group, which he regards as instinctive in the strict acceptance of the term, seem exactly to correspond to those which fall under the definition given above.
By using the term instinctive in both its strict and its wider significance, Wasmann includes under it the whole range of animal behaviour.
Instinctive in the popular sense, it does not fall within the narrower definition of the term; it is more conveniently described as innate.
The term primarily denotes " reception " and then " doctrines received by tradition."
Old Semitic philosophy was a science not of ontology in the modern sense of the term, but of practical life.
The five judges of the supreme court of the state are elected by the people for a term of twelve years.
In the administration of the ancien regime the term "prefect" was not employed; practically the only case in which it occurs was in the organization of the establishment of institutions opened by the religious orders, in which there was generally a "prefect of the studies" (prefet des etudes).
In the year VIII., in the discussion of the law of the 28th Pluviose, no reason was stated for the choice of this term.
paOiµarLK1), sc. TEXvn or E7rio'7-)µ17; from AecO a, "learning" or "science"), the general term for the various applications of mathematical thought, the traditional field of which is number and quantity.
Indeed, mathematicians now reserve "continuity" as the term for the latter kind of continuity; the mere property of having an infinite number of terms between any two terms is called "compactness."
In the same year he accompanied his pupil to Cambridge, and resided with him as governor, in term time, for the next four years.
The revision of the whole military system was undertaken in 1910, especially as regards enrolment and promotion of officers, but, as things then stood, the term of service was twenty years (from the age of 20 to the age of 40), for all Ottoman male subjects: active service (muasaff) nine years, of which three with the colours (nizam), in the case of infantry, four in the case of cavalry and artillery; six and five respectively in the reserve (ikhtiat); Landwehr (redif) nine years; territorial (mustahfiz) two years.
Up to 1908 the personnel was found by yearly drafts of two to three thousand men from army recruits designated by the minister of war; the term of service was 12 years, of which 5 were in the first line, 3 in the reserve, 4 in the coastguard.
In 1857 an interior loan of 150,000 purses in bonds (esham-i-mumtaze), repayable in three years and bearing 8% interest, was raised; the term of repayment was, however, prolonged indefinitely.
In the same year another series of bonds (hazin g tahvili), bearing 6% interest, and repayable in 1861, was issued; in 1861 the term of reimbursement was prolonged until 1875.
Under the old commercial treaties which lapsed about 1890 - but which have been maintained " provisionally " in force until one or other of the great powers consents to set a term to the negotiation of fresh treaties - an ad valorem duty of 8% was imposed on all articles imported into the Turkish empire.
If he has no goods which may be seized, he may be summarily imprisoned for a term not exceeding 91 days: two imprisonments for the same debt are not permitted.
The term "between the evenings" (Lev.
Fibonacci's series is a sequence of numbers such that any term is the sum of the two preceding terms; also known as Lame series.
for a berry), a term in botany applied to such fruits as the blackberry or raspberry, composed of small seedlike berries, and also to those berries themselves, or to grapestones.
The reputation which he had gained in the physical sciences soon caused him to be raised to the position of rector of the university (for the first term of the year 1313).
But in 304, Fabius Rullianus limited them to the four city tribes, and from that time the term meant a man degraded from a higher (country) to a lower (city) tribe, but not deprived of the right of voting or of serving in the army.
a v, portrait, image), generally any image or portrait-figure, but specially the term applied to the representations in the Eastern Church of sacred personages, whether in painting or sculpture, and particularly to the small metal plaques in archaic Byzantine style, venerated by the adherents of the Greek Church.
DURBAR, a term in India for a court or levee, from the Persian durbar.
On account of the presence and mode of origin (from the gut-wall) of this organ Bateson introduced the term hemichorda as a phyletic name for the class Enteropneusta.
As the proboscis-gut appears to have undoubtedly skeletal properties, and as it also has topographical relations with the mouth, it has been designated in English by the non-committal term stomochord.
29 sqq.) - that is, with the south Palestinian clans with which the term "Levites" appears to be closely connected.
The earliest mention in history of the name Franks is the entry on the Tabula Peutingeriana, at least if we assume that the term " et Franci " is not a later emendation.
The forces between the ions of a strongly dissociated solution will thus be considerable at a dilution which makes forces between undissociated molecules quite insensible, and at the concentrations necessary to test Ostwald's formula an electrolyte will be far from dilute in the thermodynamic sense of the term, which implies no appreciable intermolecular or interionic forces.
The fact that the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation is found to apply also indicates that the lead accumulator is approximately reversible in the thermodynamic sense of the term.
This restriction of the term has some historical justification: in the First Prayer Book of Edward VI.
the word "vestment" is used as synonymous with but one liturgical garment - the chasuble, the "mass vestment" par excellence; in the Prayer Book of 1559 "vestments" are eliminated altogether, "ornaments" being substituted as a more comprehensive term.
In England red vestments are worn at the mass (of the Holy Spirit) attended by the Roman Catholic judges and barristers at the opening of term, the so-called "Red Mass."
2 It has been argued that the term "vestment" covers all these.
those in Essays on Ceremonial, p. 246) are quite inconclusive, as ` vestment ' is often a convertible term with ' chasuble '; and it does not seem to be at all conclusively established that ' vestment ' with ' alb ' mentioned separately, and ' cope ' given as an alternative, in a document with the precision and directive force of a Rubric, means more than the actual chasuble."
advena), a stranger or sojourner, a term now practically restricted to converts from one religion to another.
In English history the system of appanages never played any great part, and the term is now properly applied only to the appanages of the crown: the duchy of Cornwall, assigned to the king's eldest son at birth, or on his father's accession to the crown, and the duchy of Lancaster.
In support of their views they appealed to scripture and to the Western Fathers, who had used the term "adoption" as synonymous with "assumption" in the orthodox sense; and especially to Christ's fraternal relation to Christians - the brother of God's adopted sons.
The mineral was probably included with selenite under Pliny's term lapis specularis.
The pro-deltidium, a term introduced by Hall and Clarke, signifies a small embryonic plate originating on the dorsal side of the body.
The American use of the term deltidium for the structure which Europeans call the pseudo-deltidium makes for confusion.
In 1828 Van Buren was elected governor of New York for the term beginning on the 1st of January 1829, and resigned his seat in the Senate.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.