How to use Tenure in a sentence
It is impossible here to deal with the systems of land tenure in force in other countries.
His short tenure of this office calls for no remark.
After five years' tenure of office the grand vizier died and was succeeded by his son, Ahmed Kuprili.
As their tenure of power grew firmer, they advanced dynastic claims, assumed titles, and took the style of petty sovereigns.
Dean, who'd been on the force for their entire tenure, was used to their early morning bickering and paid no attention.Advertisement
This, with the exception of a brief tenure of Cremona (1499-1512), formed her permanent territory down to the fall of the republic. Her frontiers now ran from the seacoast near Monfalcone, following the line of the Carnic and Julian and Raetian Alps to the Adda, down the course of that river till it joins the Po, and thence along the line of the Po back to the sea.
His tenure of office lasted two years, and was marked by the drafting of a temporary constitution which should give representative institutions to the Transvaal until such time as it should be safe to concede responsible government.
Thirteen years previously the government had endeavoured to secure greater fixity and permanence of tenure by providing that at least twelve years must elapse between every two redistributions of the land belonging to a mir amongst those entitled to share in it.'
The last public work in which he engaged was the starting of the Land Tenure Reform Association.
By a law of Anastasius, at the end of the 5th century, a colonus who had voluntarily come into an estate was by a tenure of thirty years for ever attached to it.Advertisement
This means was found in the precarium tenure.
A year later he was appointed professor of natural philosophy in Edinburgh University, in succession to Sir John Leslie and in competition with Sir David Brewster, and during his tenure of that office, which he did not give up till 1860, he not only proved himself an active and efficient teacher, but also did much to improve the internal conditions of the university.
With regard to tenure, 74.7% of the farms were operated by their owners, 15.2% by part owners and 7.2% by share tenants.
In English law chivalry meant the tenure of land by knights' service.
Besides the abolition of tests, effected by the act of 1871, many of the reforms there suggested, such as the revival of the faculties, the reorganization of the professoriate, the abolition of celibacy as a condition of the tenure of fellowships, and the combination of the colleges for lecturing purposes, were incorporated in the act of 1877, or subsequently adopted by the university.Advertisement
He actually opposed the Irish Poor Law, as encouraging a communistic spirit; he declared a movement against rent a crime; and, though he had a strong sympathy with the Irish peasant, and advocated a reform of his precarious tenure, it is difficult to imagine that he could have approved the cardinal principle of the Irish Land Act of 1881, the judicial adjustment of rent by the state.
The He is appointed by the crown, and his tenure of office Supreme is five years.
At the same time the possible hardships, as regards the cultivator, of this absolute right of property vested in the owner have been anticipated by the recognition of occupancy rights or fixity of tenure, under certain conditions.
But no detailed record of tenant-right was inserted in the settlement papers, and, as a matter of fact, the cultivators lost rather than gained in security of tenure.
The modern " survey tenure," as it is called, dates from 1838, when it was first introduced into one of the tdlukas of Poona district, and it has since been gradually extended over the greater part of the presidency.Advertisement
His policy of annexing each native state on the death of its ruler without natural heirs produced a general feeling of insecurity of tenure among the, princes, and gave offence to the.
There was one exception to this harsh treatment of villeins, namely, the rustic tenantry in manors of ancient demesne, that is, in estates which had belonged to the crown before the Conquest, had a standing-ground even against their lords as regards the tenure of their plots and the fixity of their services.
Heriot, the surrender of the best horse or ox, is also considered as the common incident of villein tenure, although, of course, its very name proves its intimate connexion with the outfit of soldiers (here-geatu).
Instead of managing the land by the constant repetition of the same processes, by a customary immobility of tenure and service, by communalistic restrictions on private enterprise and will, local society began to try improvements, to escape from the bounds of champion farming.
Thus, behind the screen of the normal shares a number of small tenancies arise which run their economic concerns independently from the cumbersome arrangements of tenure and service, and, needless to add, all these tenancies are burdened with money rents.Advertisement
When, however, Lord North became premier in 1770, Conway resigned from the cabinet and was appointed to the command of the royal regiment of horse guards; and in 1772 he became governor of Jersey, the island being twice invaded by the French during his tenure of command.
The crofter enjoys a perpetual tenure subject to the fulfilment of certain conditions as to payment of rent, non-assignment of tenancy, &c., and to defeasance at his own option on giving one year's notice to the landlord.
In 1603 "the MacWilliam Oughter," Theobald Bourke, similarly resigned his territory in Mayo, and received it back to hold by English tenure.
Feudalism could not be established, however, until the great of the land had adopted them for themselves, and had begun to enter the clientage of others and to hold lands by the precarium tenure.
It could most easily make them useful to gain the influence and support which it needed, and to provide for the public functions which fell to its share, by employing the precarium tenure.Advertisement
In the course of a long period characterized by a weak central government, it was not difficult to enlarge the rights which the lord thus obtained, to exclude even the king's personal authority from the immunity, and to translate the duties and payments which the tenant had once owed to the state into obligations which he owed to his lord, even finally into incidents of his tenure.
There forms of personal commendation did develop, certain forms of dependent land tenure came into use.
Under this head may be enumerated also the financial duties of the vassal, though these were not regarded by the feudal law as of the nature of the tenure, i.e.
Frequently did great lay lords, as in this case, hold lands by feudal tenure of ecclesiastics.
Petersburg unattended, but also great lack of faith in the existing order, since, having discovered that through an irregularity his pay depended on the Privy Purse, he caused it to be charged to the Treasury as the first act of his tenure of office.Advertisement
To tie the president's hands Congress had passed the Tenure of Office Act, forbidding the president to remove any cabinet officer without the consent of the Senate; but in August 1867 President Johnson suspended Secretary Stanton and appointed Grant secretary of war ad interim until the pleasure of the Senate should be ascertained.
During the fifty years since Crawford's Tenure of Office Act was passed in 1820, the country had been growing more and more familiar with the spectacle of corruption in high places.
Gladstone alienated considerable masses of English opinion by his efforts to reform the tenure of Irish land, and provoked the Irish people by his attempts to establish social order and to repress crime.
The remainder of his life may be divided into four portions - his opposition to Pitt during the session of 1784; his parliamentary activity till his secession in 1797; his retirement till 1800; his return to activity and his short tenure of office before his death in 1806.
He was always in favour of the abolition of the slave trade (which he actually effected during his short tenure of office in 1806), of the repeal of the Test Acts, and of concessions to the Roman Catholics, both in Great Britain and in Ireland.Advertisement
As president he was punctilious in the discharge of his duties, ready to give help and encouragement to artists young and old, and his tenure of the office was marked by some wise and liberal reforms. He frequently went abroad, generally to Italy, where he was well known and appreciated.
Asquith, then Chancellor of the Exchequer, as his parliamentary secretary, and continued in that position when his chief succeeded to the premiership. Early in 'giro he was appointed Under-Secretary for India, at a time when Lord Morley's tenure of the Secretaryship of State for India was drawing to a close.
The next summer, however, on Mr. Austen Chamberlain's resignation owing to the Mesopotamia report, he returned to the India Office as Secretary of State and began a tenure of that post which will always be memorable in Indian annals.
But his chief claim to political remembrance is based on his tenure, from 1900 to 1905 (after 1902 as a Cabinet minister), of the office of Chief Secretary for Ireland.
No official receives a salary; he has certain districts made over to him, and he may get what he can out of them; a certain portion of his gains he is compelled to send to the durbar; and the more he extorts and the more he sends to his superior, the longer his tenure of office is likely to be."Advertisement
But his negotiations yielded no definite result; and every other means of obtaining redress and security proving unsuccessful, the Assam Dwars were wrested from the Bhutias, and the British government consented to pay to Bhutan a sum of £l000 per annum as compensation for the resumption of their tenure, during the good behaviour of the Bhutias.
He moved that the title of pater patriae should be bestowed upon Augustus, and yet resigned the appointment of praefect of the city after six days' tenure of office, because it was opposed to his ideas of constitutionalism.
But the precarious tenure of their possession had been deeply impressed on them by the disasters and humiliations they had undergone in these districts during the reign of Domitian.
The exhibitions in the arena were perhaps at their zenith during his tenure of power.
There were at first murmurings among his clergy against what they deemed his harsh control, but his real kindness soon made itself felt, and, during the sixteen years of his tenure of the see, his sound and vigorous rule dissipated the prejudices against him, so that when, on the death of Dr John Jackson in 1885, he was translated to London, the appointment gave general satisfaction.Advertisement
During his tenure of the latter chair he distinguished himself by observations on the lymphatics.
His tenure of the bishopric was troubled not only by domestic bereavements but also by barbaric invasions of the country (in repelling which he proved himself a capable military organizer) and by conflicts with the prefect Andronicus, whom he excommunicated for interfering with the Church's right of asylum.
There were special privileges surrounding tenancies of these lands, such as freedom from tolls and duties, exemption from danegeld and amercement, from sitting on juries, &c. Hence, the phrase "ancient demesne" came to be applied to the tenure by which the lands were held.
But during his tenure of office he, too, had to resort to strong measures in repressing some serious disorders in various parts of Italy, and thus he lost the favour of the Socialists.
In 1891 the tenure of members of the legislative council or nominated Upper House,.
In 1892 a new form of land tenure was introduced, under which large areas of crown lands were leased for 999 years, at an unchanging rent of 4% on the prairie value.
In 33 he was chosen aedile and signalized his tenure of office by effecting great improvements in the city of Rome, restoring and building aqueducts, enlarging and cleansing the sewers, and constructing baths and porticos, and laying out gardens.
The two great political issues of the time were the secularization of the clergy reserves in Ontario, and the abolition of seigniorial tenure in Quebec. Both of these reforms Macdonald long opposed, but when successive elections had proved that they were sup ported by public opinion, he brought about a coalition of Conservatives and moderate reformers for the purpose of carrying them.
During the tenure of his appointment with Count Morzin he married the daughter of a Viennese hairdresser named Keller, who had befriended him in his days of poverty, but the marriage turned out ill and he was shortly afterwards separated from his wife, though he continued to support her until her death in 1 Boo.
It was believed to be of English origin, and the long tenure of Gascony and Guienne by the English certainly provided abundant opportunity for the introduction of English colonists.
In 1827 he obtained a seat in the supreme council, and in March 1835, after he had acted as the first governor of the proposed new presidency of Agra, he provisionally succeeded Lord William Bentinck in the governor-generalship. During his brief tenure of office (it lasted only for one year) he carried out several important measures, including that for the liberation of the press, which, while almost universally popular, complicated his relations with the directors at home to such an extent that he resigned the service of the Company in 1838.
In contrast to this complete industrial occupation, the French territory was held by a small and very scattered population, its extent and openness adding materially to the difficulties of a disputed tenure.
His reign is a period of some importance in the legislative history of Scotland, as measures were passed with regard to the tenure of land, the reformation of the coinage, and the protection of the poor, while the organization for the administration of justice was greatly improved.
This culture-system worked fairly during Van den Bosch's tenure of office, but gave rise to many abuses between 1833 and 1844, involving, as it did, a combination of the metayer and corvee systems.
His censorship - which he retained for five years, in spite of the lex Aemilia which limited the tenure of that office to eighteen months - was remarkable for the actual or attempted achievement of several great constitutional changes.
In view of the fact that Poland was the most defenceless country in Europe, with no natural boundaries, and constantly exposed to attacks from every quarter, it was not unreasonable to expect even this patriotic sacrifice from the privileged classes, who held at least two-thirds of the land by military tenure.
The most memorable name, however, among the scholars of this century is that of Eustathius, whose philological studies at Constantinople preceded his tenure of the archbishopric of Thessalonica (1175-1192).
In England, it was a tenure whereby houses or tenements in an ancient borough were held of the king or other person as lord at a certain rent.
Since the Conveyancing (Scotland) Act 1874, there is, however, not much distinction between burgage tenure and free holding.
Tenure by burgage was subject to a variety of customs, the principal of which was Borough-English.
The colonization of Algeria by the French has been greatly hampered by the system of land tenure which they found in force.
Amongst the Arabs, lands were either held in common by a whole tribe, under a tenure known as the arch or sabegha, or sometimes, especially in the towns, under a modified form of freehold (melk) by the family.
This Saturninus was the middle one of the three governors of Syria named above, and as his successor Varus must have arrived by the middle of 6 B.C. at latest (for coins of Varus are extant of the twenty-fifth year of the era of Actium), his own tenure must have fallen about 8 and 7 B.C., and his census cannot be placed later than 7 or 7-6 B.C. The independence of Tertullian's information about this census is guaranteed by the mere fact of his knowledge of the governor's name; and if there was a census about that date, it would be unreasonable not to identify it with St Luke's census of the Nativity.
Thus the point that Josephus catalogues the events of Felix's procuratorship under Nero cannot be pressed to bring down Felix's tenure as far as 60 or 61, but it does seem to exclude as early a termination as 56, or even 57.
When the tenure of the religious colleges - formerly filled up by co-optation - was submitted to popular election, a change effected by a lex Domitia of 104 B.C., a new type of comitia was devised for this purpose.
Barillas (1845-1907) proclaimed his intention of establishing a silver currency, and gained, to a great extent, the sympathy of the German and British residents; he had been the sole Guatemalan president who had not sought to prolong his own tenure of office.
However, these bureaus are seldom well manned, because salaries and tenure of office are seldom such as to induce able men to offer themselves, while the places are often given as rewards for political service.
Thus the udal succession and mode of land tenure (or, that is, absolute freehold as distinguished from feudal tenure) still obtain to some extent, and the remaining udallers hold their lands and pass them on without written title.
Land was leased by military tenure, and until 1 739 grants were made only in male tail and alienations were forbidden.
For all that, St Celestine, during his brief tenure of the papacy, tried to spread his ideas among the Benedictines, and induced the monks of Monte Cassino to adopt his idea of the monastic life instead of St Benedict's; for this purpose fifty Celestine monks were introduced into Monte Cassino, but on Celestine's abdication of the papacy the project fortunately was at once abandoned.
On the 2nd of March 1867 Congress passed over the president's veto the Tenure of Office Act, prohibiting the president from dismissing from office without the consent of the Senate any officer appointed by and with the advice and consent of that body, and in addition a section was inserted in the army appropriation bill of this session designed to subordinate the president to the Senate and the general-in-chief of the army in military matters.
Stanton and other members of his cabinet and General Grant became hostile to him, the president attempted to remove Stanton without regard to the Tenure of Office Act, and, finally, to get rid of the president, Congress in 1868 (February-May) made an attempt to impeach and remove him, his disregard of the Tenure of Office Act being the principal charge against him.
Catholic emancipation was the great act of Wellington's ministry; in other respects his tenure of office was not marked by much success.
To have been married a second time disqualified for ordination, or for continued tenure of the office of bishop. In all the action of the church unanimity was considered to be necessary; if any member differed in opinion from the rest, he must either surrender his judgment to that of the church, or be shut out from its communion.
The tenure by which lands were held before 1838 was strictly feudal, resembling that of Germany in the 11th century, and lands were sometimes enfeoffed to the seventh degree.
The common form of land tenure is the colonia perpetua, by which the landlord grants a lease to the tenant and his heirs for ever, in return for a rent, payable in kind, and fixed at a certain proportion of the produce.
During the next session he acted vigorously in opposition, but his conduct was always viewed with distrust by his new associates, and his attacks on the ministry of Lord North grew less and less animated in proportion to its apparent fixity of tenure.
The resignation of Pitt on the question of Catholic emancipation (1801) put an end to Wedderburn's tenure of the Lord Chancellorship, for, much to his surprise, no place was found for him in Addington's cabinet.
He had already taken orders, and in 1835 began his eighteen years' tenure of the vicarage of Wymeswold in Leicestershire, from which seclusion the twicerepeated offer of a colonial bishopric failed to draw him.
At the same time the government's tenure of office was obviously drawing to its close; the usual interpretation of the Septennial Act involved a dissolution either in 1905 or 1906, and the government whips found increased difficulty in keeping a majority at Westminster, since neither the pronounced Chamberlainites nor the convinced free-trade Unionists showed any zeal, and a large number of the uncertain Unionists did not intend to stand again for parliament.
But his wide range of knowledge and interests, his intellectual finesse, his personal hold over his supporters, his statesmanlike grasp upon imperial problems and his oratorical ability, had been proved to a remarkable degree; and in foreign affairs his tenure of power had been conspicuously successful.
It appears also in the tenure of land, and according to Tacitus the tribal armies were drawn up by kindreds.
During the whole tenure of office the Marquis di San Giuliano was an ardent believer in the Triple Affiance, on which he thought that Italy's foreign policy should be based, and attached the greatest importance to a good understanding with Austria, an attitude not calculated to win him popularity in many circles; under his guidance consequently Italy opposed Serbia's desire for a port on the Adriatic and Greece's aspirations in Epirus, and supported the policy of creating an independent Albanian State.
Becoming prominent among the Whigs, Dowdeswell was made chancellor of the exchequer in 1765 under the marquess of Rockingham, and his short tenure of this position appears to have been a successful one, he being in Lecky's words "a good financier, but nothing more."
His tenure of the command was, however,.
Baius, however, was not disturbed in the tenure of his professorship, and even became chancellor of Louvain in 1575.
It may be regarded in the first place as a mode or variety of feudal tenure, in the second place as a personal attribute or dignity, and in the third place as a scheme of manners or social arrangements.
The testimony of Domesday also establishes the existence in the reign of Edward the Confessor of what Stubbs describes as a " large class " of landholders who had commended themselves to some lord, and he regards it as doubtful whether their tenure had not already assumed a really feudal character.
It was thus established that pay, the love of enterprise and the prospect of plunder - if we leave zeal for the sacred cause which they had espoused for the moment out of sight - were quite as useful for the purpose of enlisting troops and keeping them together as the tenure of land and the solemnities of homage and fealty.
On the Continent, however, there are several recorded examples of bannerets who had an hereditary claim to that honour and its attendant privileges on the ground of the nature of their feudal tenure.'
But it is clear that from a comparatively early period bannerets whose claims were founded on personal distinction rather than on feudal tenure gradually came to the front, and much the same process of substitution appears to have gone on in their case as that which we have marked in the case of simple knights.
He also advocated the Freedmen's Bureau bills and the Tenure of Office Act, and went beyond Congress in favouring the confiscation of the property of the Confederate States and "of the real estate of 70,000 rebels who own above 200 acres each, together with the lands of their several states," for the benefit of the freedmen and loyal whites and to reimburse, it was said, the sufferers from Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania, during which Stevens's own ironworks at Chambersburg had been destroyed.
Traditionally, the monarchy after the death of Codrus (?1068 B.C.) gave place to the life archon whose tenure of office was limited afterwards to ten years and then to one year.
On Parma's death (3rd of December 1592) the archduke Ernest of Austria was appointed governorgeneral, but he died after a short tenure of office (20th of February 1 595) and was at the beginning of 1596 succeeded by his younger brother the cardinal archduke Albert.
The lord lieutenant and his chief secretary continued to be appointed by the English ministers; their tenure of office depended on the vicissitudes of English, not Irish, party politics; the royal prerogative was exercised in Ireland on the advice of English ministers.
His friend and master, after about two years' tenure of the earldom of Devonshire, died of the plague in June 1628, and the affairs of the family were so disordered financially that the widowed countess was left with the task of righting them in the boyhood of the third earl.
Germanicus Caesar, during his tenure of the command of the Roman armies on the Rhine, made repeated attempts to recover the Roman position in northern Germany and exact vengeance for the death of Varus, but without real success, and after his recall the Rhine formed for the greater part of its course the boundary of the Empire.
Generally there remains to them the control of education and Teligiontheir most important dutypolice, all questions connected with land tenure, local government, the raising of direct taxes, and, in the larger states, the management of railways.
He had not even consulted Hohenwart, to whose assistance he owed his long tenure of power.
The company, during its tenure of administrative power under the charter, had organized its territories south of the confluence, into trading districts, over each of which there.
Sir Percy Girouard devoted much attention to land tenure, probably the most important of the questions concerning imperial policy in West Africa.
This exclusion of the European land speculator and denial of the right to buy and sell land and of freehold tenure was held by all the authorities to be essential for the moral and material welfare of the inhabitants of a land where the duty of the white man is mainly that of administration and his material advantages lie in trade.
Its essential defect was what might be called insecurity of tenure.
The independent tenure of the land by a vast number of small farmers, who are their own masters, gives an air of carelessness, almost of truculence, to the well-to-do Danish peasants.
The monarchy, now dominant, and far wealthier than before, rested upon the support of the great nobles, many of whom held their lands by feudal tenure, and constituted the royal Raad, or council.
Not only were the magnates sharply reminded that they held their lands on military tenure, but the towns were also made to contribute both men and ships, and peasant levies, especially archers, were recruited from every parish.
A commission appointed in 1757 worked zealously for the repeal of many agricultural abuses; and several great landed proprietors introduced hereditary leaseholds, and abolished the servile tenure.
He effected some reforms and economies during his tenure of this office, but, unable to carry out all his wishes, became chief secretary for Ireland in March 1833.
The Latin tenure of Constantinople lasted only 57 years; the imperial city was recaptured in 1261 by Michael VIII.
He expressed disapproval of the Tenure of Office Act, making the consent of the Senate necessary for the removal of civil officers, and drafted the supplementary act on Reconstruction, passed over the president's veto on the 19th of July 1867.
In 1459 Ralph, Lord Greystock, is said to have granted a charter, no longer extant, to his tenants in the manor, and in 1674 the freeholders, "borough-holders" and copyholders, of Wem brought an action against Daniel Wicherley, then lord of the manor, for the establishment of customs and privileges chiefly connected with the tenure of their lands and tenements, which was decided in their favour.
During his tenure of office (in 53) he dismissed the charge brought by the Jews against the apostle Paul (Acts xviii.).
After the Norman Conquest, England would have subjugated the Celts and held Scotland by a tenure less precarious and disputed than they possessed in the western island.
Through this contact with and actual tenure of English lands arose the various so-called " submissions " of kings of Scotland to the English crown.
Malcolm thus set the example of advance to the western system of royal successions, while in Crinan's lay tenure of the abbacy of Dunkeld we see the habit of appropriating ecclesiastical revenues which again became so common about a century before the Reformation.
His charters to landowners and burghs (charters not being novel in Scotland, but now more lavishly conferred) substituted written documents for the unwritten customs of Celtic tenure, and converted the under kings of provinces into earls of the king, while vice-comites, or sheriffs, administered local justice in the king's name, though Celtic custom still prevailed, under a thin veneer of law, in the Celtic regions, as in Galloway.
His tenure of the deanery of Westminster was memorable in many ways.
On Richard Cromwell's accession he was reappointed a commissioner of the Great Seal, and had considerable influence during the former's short tenure of power.
President Moreno was eventually assassinated at Quito, in August 1875, and Dr Borrero was elected to the presidency, but his tenure of power was short.
The final year of Plaza's tenure of office was marked by a still stronger measure, all the property of the church being declared to be national property, and let to the highest bidders.
It was now the tenure of office that conferred distinction.
The prevailing form of tenure is that of owners, 60 7% of the farms being so operated in 190o; but during the decade1890-1900the number of farms cultivated by cash tenants increased 30.8%, and the number by share tenants 24.5%, while the increase of cultivation by owners was only I %.
Owing to historical reasons, the system of land tenure is not uniform.
Hence, during the Spanish tenure, the history of Nicaragua is merged in that of the surrounding region.
They regularly held office for a year; only in the transition period between the republic and the empire was their tenure of office sometimes limited to a few months.
Each was an independent establishment controlled entirely by its own abbot and apparently divided into two sections, one priestly and the other lay and even marriedAt St Andrews about the year lioo there were thirteen Culdeesholding office by hereditary tenure and paying more regard tQ their own prosperity and aggrandizement than to the services of the church or the needs of the populace.
After assisting the minister in his wiselyconceived but unavailing schemes of reform during the brief period of his tenure of office, Du Pont shared his dismissal and retired to Gatinais, in the neighbourhood of Nemours, where he employed himself in agricultural improvements.
The same year in which burst this ecclesiastical storm saw the close of Keble's tenure of the professorship of poetry, and thenceforward he was seen hut rarely in Oxford.
During his tenure of this office, which lasted until 1888, he carried out a large amount of work in connexion with the chemistry of explosives.
As regards tenure, 90.6% of the farms in 1900 were operated by owners, 2.2% by cash tenants, and 7.2% by share tenants.
His course seemed perfectly prosperous and secure, when a slight storm arising opened his eyes to the frailty of the tenure by which he held his position.
Royal commissions dealing with questions peculiar to Wales have been issued from time to time, notably of recent years, in the Welsh Land Tenure Commission of 1893, and the Welsh Church Commission of 1906 (see History).
The old Welsh land tenure by gavelkind was, however, still permitted to remain in force amongst the natives of all Wales, whilst it was henceforth arranged to administer justice in the eight counties by special royal judges, and in the Marches by the officers appointed by the various lords-marchers according to the terms of their tenure.
At the same time all ancient Welsh laws and customs, which were at variance with the recognized law of England, were now declared illegal, and Cymric land tenure by gavelkind, which had been respected by Edward I., was expressly abolished and its place taken by the ordinary practice of primogeniture.
In his second tenure lie carried through (1880) the abolition of the grist tax, to take effect in 1884.
A large proportion of the army expenditure was formerly defrayed by a system of military tenure on certain lands.
This peculiar system of military tenure (indelningsverket) originated in the 17th century, when certain landowners were exempt from other military obligations if they provided and maintained armed men.
Thus there was the rusthall tenure, under which the tenants, instead of paying rent, were obliged to equip and maintain a cavalry soldier and horse, while the knektkallarer supplied duly equipped foot soldiers.
During the latters tenure of office an agreement was concluded between the Persian and British governments regarding the British telegraph settlement at Jask, and the telegraph conventions of 1868 and I872 relative to telegraphic communication between Europe and India through Persia, in force until the 1st of January 1895, were prolonged until the 31st of January 1905 by two conventions dated the 3rd of July f887.
His brief tenure of the state portfolio, which terminated on the 22nd of July 1850, soon after Taylor's death, was notable chiefly for the negotiation with the British minister, Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer, of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
A letter of Bede to the archbishop Ecgbert of York may be interpreted to apply to this kind of tenure.
But the tenure of office thus granted did not prove of long duration.
Near Rochford the Lawless or Whispering Court, a remarkable survival of unknown origin, is held by a manorial tenure on the Wednesday following Michaelmas Day, beginning at midnight.
Though the authority of the courts had been strengthened by the Petition of Right and the act of 1640, it was still rendered insufficient by reason of the insecurity of judicial tenure, the fact that only the chancellor (a political as well as a legal officer) and the court of king's bench had undoubted right to issue the writ, and the inability or hesitation of the competent judges to issue the writ except during the legal term, which did not cover more than half the year.
The effect of the act was to impose upon the judges under severe sanction the duty of protecting personal liberty in the case of criminal charges and of securing speedy trial upon such charges when legally framed; and the improvement of their tenure of office at the revolution, coupled with the veto put by the Bill of Rights on excessive bail, gave the judicature the independence and authority necessary to enable them to keep the executive within the law and to restrain administrative development of the scope or penalties of the criminal law; and this power of the judiciary to control the executive, coupled with the limitations on the right to set up "act of state" as an excuse for infringing individual liberty is the special characteristic of English constitutional law.
As this tenure is very ancient, though modified in 1832 and 1867, the value of such holdings has been greatly enhanced with the improvement of the land and the decline in the purchasing power of currency.
Next came the series of ordinances regulating the tenure of the Parlement, those of 1278, 1291, 1296 and 1308, and the institution was regularized.
After three years' tenure of office Jason was supplanted by the Benjamite Menelaus, who disowned Judaism entirely.
In 1896 Dr Severo Alonso became president, and during his tenure of office diplomatic relations were resumed with Great Britain, Senor Aramayo being sent to London as minister plenipotentiary in July 1897.
His one great object was first to gain office, and then to make his tenure of office secure by conciliating the favour of the king.
It may be questioned, indeed, whether even had his powers been unimpaired he could have carried out any decided policy on any question with a cabinet representing interests so various and conflicting; but, as it happened, he was incapacitated physically and mentally during nearly the whole period of his tenure of office.
Cultivation by owners is the prevailing form of tenure, 91.3% of the farms being so operated in 1900 (2.3% by cash tenants and 6.4% by share tenants).
In spite of powerful pressure the paper currency was not increased a dollar during his tenure of the office.
The court of claims eventually decided in favour of the owners of Scrivelsby on the ground that Scrivelsby was held in grand serjeanty, that is, that its tenure was dependent on rendering a special service, in this case the championship.
During his ten years' tenure of the finance ministry he nearly doubled the revenues of the empire, but at the same time he made for himself, by his policy and his personal characteristics, host of enemies.
Under the act of 1888 existing clerks of the peace became clerks of the councils of their counties, holding office by the same tenure as formerly, except in the county of London, where the offices were separated.
The salaries of the medical officer of health and inspectors of nuisances are, as to one moiety thereof, paid out of " the exchequer contribution account " by the county council, if they are appointed in accordance with the requirements of the Local Government Board as to qualification, appointment, duties, salary and tenure of office.
In 1639 he procured for his province a royal charter modelled after that of Maryland, which invested him with the feudal tenure of a county palatine and vice-regal powers of government.
The fact that the International Association of the Congo had no admitted status as a sovereign power rendered the tenure of its acquisition somewhat precarious, and induced King Leopold to make determined efforts to secure for his enterprise a recognized position.
He threw himself eagerly into the prosecution of the war in Spain, yet his tenure of office ended in resignation in circumstances which left him under deep discredit.
His tenure of power was, however, very brief.
In this way fixity of tenure and service was aimed at and to a certain degree enforced by the state.
The weak governments which took the place of imperial authority were not able to maintain the strict discipline and the stress of judicial power which would have been necessary to guarantee the tenure and status of the serfs.
The result was that he gained many converts, while the number of Jesuits in England increased during his tenure of office from three to forty.
The Rumanian system of land tenure dates from 1864, when most of the land was held in large estates, owned privately, or by the state or by monasteries.
The new ministry during their four years' tenure of office passed several useful measures through parliament.
The chief causes of the agrarian insurrection in March 1907 have been outlined above (under Land Tenure).
Under the constitution of 1886 the judges of the higher courts were appointed for life, but the reforms of 1905 changed their tenure to five years for the supreme court and four years for the superior courts, the judges being eligible for re-appointment.
His tenure of the presidency was extended to a term of ten years from the 1st of January 1905, and the restriction as to re-election at the end of that term was withdrawn, other alterations being made in the constitution with the effect of placing General Reyes really in the position of a dictator.
In consequence of the Norman Conquest and of the formation of the common law the tenure was developed into the lowest form of freehold.
Legal protection in the public courts for the tenure and services deemed certain, appear as its characteristic feature in contrast to villainage.
The Old English origins of the tenure are still apparent even at this time in the shape of some of its incidents, especially in the absence of feudal wardship and marriage.
Customs of succession were also peculiar in many cases of socage tenure, and the feudal rule of primogeniture was not generally enforced.
The history of the century and a half that follows is very obscure; short-lived Saka dynasties succeeded one another until, about 388, the country was conquered by the Guptas of Magadha, who kept a precarious tenure of it till about 470, when their empire was destroyed by the White Huns, or Ephthalites, who, after breaking the power of Persia and assailing the Kushan kingdom of Kabul, poured into India, conquered Sind, and established their dominion as far south as the Nerbudda.
William Lamb (as Lord Melbourne then was) joined the opposition under Fox, of whom he was an ardent admirer; but his Liberal tendencies were never decided, and he not infrequently supported Lord Liverpool during that statesman's long tenure of office.
Hence this tenure could not be legally entered into by a free clansman without the permission of his fine.
Nevertheless, his nephew and heir male was summoned as a baron from 1421, apparently by reason of his tenure of the castle and its lands.
At the Restoration, George, Lord Berkeley, who had been one of the commissioners to invite Charles II.'s return from the Hague, petitioned for a higher place in parliament, claiming a barony by right of tenure before 1295, but his claim was silenced by his advancement on September 11, 1679, to be viscount of Dursley and earl of Berkeley.
Under the will of his father, Colonel William Berkeley, the eldest illegitimate son, had the castle and estates, and on the failure of his claim to the earldom he demanded a writ of summons as a baron by reason of his tenure of the castle.
No judgment was given in the matter, the king in council having declared in 1669 that baronies by tenure were "not in being and so not fit to be revived."
Burke's first tenure of office was very brief.
But the tenure of high office at that date was limited to Christians, and there is no evidence in the writings of Macrobius that he was a Christian.
But the tenure of his seat for Launceston was brought to an end by the dissolution of the parliament in 1865, and he did not again offer himself to the constituency.
Appeal to parliament resulted in the Dissenters' Chapels Act (1844), which secures that, so far as trusts do not specify doctrines, twenty-five years tenure legitimates existing usage.
During his tenure of office he delivered a course of lectures on grammar, which has come down to us in the shape of notes taken by his pupils.
During his second tenure of this office he removed the courts of justice from London to York, but they were soon brought back to the metropolis.
The Athenian tenure of the Thracian Chersonese partly depended for its security on the good-will of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes.
Escheat is also an incident of copyhold tenure.
His tenure of office was very short, for on the 4th of May 1664 he allowed himself to be entrapped into an ambush by the Moors, who carried on incessant irregular warfare against the English garrison, and was killed, together with nineteen officers and nearly five hundred men of his garrison.
The plan of settling Leix and Offaly by dividing the country between colonists and natives holding by English tenure failed, owing to the unconquerable love of the people for their own customs. But resistance gradually grew fainter, and we hear little of the O'Connors after this.
Only Protestant freeholders had votes, which encouraged leases for lives, about the worst kind of tenure, and the object of each proprietor was to control as many votes as possible.
P P Y known as the "Three F's" - free sale, fixity of tenure and fair rents.
The native laws respecting land tenure have been improved by the adoption of a method of registration based on the Torrens system.
It was held in feudal tenure from the patriarch of Aquileia by the bishop of Pola, and afterwards, in 1139, by the counts of Duino, who retained it till the end of the 14th century.
Political ambition was restricted to the tenure of the municipal magistracies, culminating in the offices of nomophylax, ephor and patronomus.
It has increased in wealth and education, and owing to a good system of land tenure the peasantry are among the most prosperous in Italy.
The seizure of Lincoln by Stephen in 1141 was accompanied with fearful butchery and devastation, and by an accord at Stamford William of Roumare received Kirton in Lindsey, and his tenure of Gainsborough Castle was confirmed.
The Arabs at first were content to take a fifth of the land to constitute the public domain, or khoms, out of which fiefs held on military tenure were provided for the chiefs of the conquering army.
He arranged with the king to moot a series of financial projects the acceptance of which by His Majesty would have implied a long tenure of office for the Conservatives, and so Alphonso XII.
During his tenure of office he did much to give the Sudanese the benefit of a just and considerate government.
Mr Chamberlain's tenure of the office of colonial secretary between 18 9 5 and 1900 must always be regarded as a turningpoint in the history of the relations between the British colonies and the mother country.
During his tenure of this chair he published two volumes of a Course of Mathematics - the first, entitled Elements of Geometry, Geometrical Analysis and Plane Trigonometry, in 1809, and the second, Geometry of Curve Lines, in 1813; the third volume, on Descriptive Geometry and the Theory of Solids was never completed.
In English legal history, "ancient" tenure or demesne refers to what was crown property in the time of Edward the Confessor or William the Conqueror.
Other evidences of the transition in agricultural life are that in Tolland and Windham counties the value of farm buildings exceeded that of farm land, that in Middlesex and Fairfield counties the acreage as well as the value of the farms declined, that native farm labour and ownership were being replaced by foreign labour and ownership; while dependent land tenure is insignificant, 87% of the farms being worked by their owners.
Andre had Wynn's patience and manner, though she sensed more genuine warmth in the man before her than she had during the tenure of her friendship with Wynn.
His tenure of that Office was not universally admired.
How much did Walpole's long tenure of office contribute to the stability of the Hanoverian dynasty?
He rattles off a list of tasks entrusted to him during his tenure.
The Department is composed of 19 tenure track faculty, several adjunct faculty and approximately 60 graduate students.
The principal legal basis for landownership is the land tenure system which, in Scotland, remains feudal.
The ryots have fixity of tenure, at a rent fixed for the term of each settlement.
Even where the holder has not acquired this fixity of tenure, the terms of occupation have often been fixed and invariable.
Both incoming professors will be expected to assume the headship at some point in their tenure of the posts.
Never during his tenure has he been allowed to spin along the mountain parkland of his own adopted hometown.
Traditional leases have been replaced by relatively short licenses rather than monthly, or even hourly, tenure.
Social housing contains a higher proportion of fuel-poor households than any other tenure.
The tenure of the property is declared, which will usually be either freehold, leasehold or commonhold.
Last year I had been present during the annual review of associate professors for tenure.
In particular, we examined differences between owners and social renters that might explain observed tenure differences in health.
Blair can afford to think short-term, his tenure at Number 10 is limited by the next General Election.
In a few places where the moor is not under crofting tenure, the local estate may manage it for grouse shooting.
Most houses and flats are owned on ' feudal tenure ' .
Formerly held in customary tenure of the earl of Thanet by the yearly rent of 6d.
They are directly elected by the electorate rather than by councilors in the majority group and have a four-year tenure.
The former Illinois congressman said he is proud of his five-year tenure at the Pentagon.
Desire for mixed tenure There has been strong support in government for mixing tenure on newly built housing estates.
His two-year tenure as boss of HMRC has not been without controversy.
Developer attitudes Developers vary in their approach to mixed tenure development; many would prefer there to be no tenure mix.
The 1922 Law of Property Act finally abolished copyhold tenure.
Their property was probably held by burgage tenure and they paid a higher rate of tax than others.
The Halifax College site to the south of the Heslington West campus has a leasehold tenure.
Farmers cannot maintain their soil in areas affected by civil conflict or insecure land tenure.
The zadruga system of land tenure was artificially kept in existence (see Servia).
The tenure of land from the crown "as of the manor of East Greenwich" became at this time a recognized formula, and occurs in a succession of American colonial charters from those of Virginia in 1606, 1609 and 1612 to that of New Jersey in 1674.
While occupied with work on committees and in administration he pressed forward several schemes of reform, including a large measure of law reform prepared by a commission presided over by Matthew Hale, and the settlement of the church; but very little was accomplished by the parliament, which seemed to be almost exclusively taken up with the maintenance and increase of its own powers; and Cromwell's dissatisfaction, and that of the army which increased every day, was intensified by the knowledge that the parliament, instead of dissolving for a new election, was seeking to perpetuate its tenure of power.
In this is proclaimed the doctrine of the one church founded upon the apostle Peter, whose "tangible bond is her one united episcopate, an apostleship universal yet only one - the authority of every bishop perfect in itself and independent, yet not forming with all the others a mere agglomeration of powers, but being a tenure upon a totality like that of a shareholder in some joint property."
But during his tenure of power all the magistrates of the people were regarded as his subordinates; and it was even held that the right of assistance (auxilium), furnished by the tribunes of the plebs to members of the citizen body, should not be effectively exercised when the state was under this type of martial law.
Churchill's tenure of the presidency of the Board of Trade, from April 1908, was marked by the production of a scheme in the autumn of that year for the setting up of a court of arbitration in labour disputes, consisting of three persons nominated by the Board, respectively from panels of employers, workmen and " persons of eminence and impartiality."
In Roman Law, the relationship of landlord and tenant arose from the contract of letting and hiring (locatio conductio), and existed also with special incidents, under the forms of tenure known as emphyteusis - the long lease of Roman law - and precarium, or tenancy at will (see Roman Law).
Phillimore, whose tenure of office covered the whole period of the queen's reign till the creation of the High Court of Justice, the valuable assistance rendered by the nautical assessors from the Trinity House, the great increase of shipping, especially of steam shipping, and the number and gravity of cases of collision, salvage and damage to cargo, restored the activity of the court and made it one of the most important tribunals of the country.
A revolt of the Hungarian Protestants, in consequence of the persecuting policy of the house of Habsburg, now led to a renewal of the war between Turkey and Austria, due in part to the overweening ambition of Kuprili's successor, Kara Mustafa, who desired to immortalize his tenure of office by some great exploit, and who cherished dreams of founding for himself a western Moslem Empire.
Long after Edwin's conquest the lowland continued to be debatable territory held by uncertain tenure, but at length it was to a large extent settled anew by Anglo-Saxon and Norman colonists under Malcolm Canmore and his sons.
This demesne land, originally held at the will of the lord, in course of time came to acquire fixity of tenure, and developed into the modern copyhold (see MANOR).
Selim profited by the respite to abolish the military tenure of fiefs; he introduced salutary reforms into the administration, especially in the fiscal department, sought by well-considered plans to extend the spread of education, and engaged foreign officers as instructors, by whom a small corps of new troops called nizam-i-jedid were collected and drilled.
The office of vizier, which spread from the Arabs to the Persians, Turks, Mongols, and other Oriental peoples, arose under the first Abbasid caliphs (see Mahommedan Institutions, and Caliphate, C § I) and took shape during its tenure by the Barmecides.
He held this office jointly or solely until his death; in 1577 when Smith died, Dr Thomas Wilson was associated with Walsingham; after Wilson's death in 1581 Walsingham was sole secretary until July 1586, when Davison began his brief and ill-fated seven months' tenure of the office.
Sir Henry Sydney, during his first viceroyalty, after making efforts to improve communications between Dublin and Connaught in 1566, arranged for the shiring of that province, and Mayo was made shire ground, taking its name from the monastery of Maio or Mageo, which was the seat of a bishop. Even after this period the MacWilliams continued to exercise very great authority, which was regularized in 1603, when "the MacWilliam Oughter," Theobald Bourke, surrendered his lands and received them back, to hold them by English tenure, with the title of Viscount Mayo (see Burgh, De).
Continued agitation to this effect resulted in an agreement in 452 B.C. between patricians and plebeians that decemvirs should be appointed to draw up a code, that during their tenure of office all other magistracies should be in abeyance, that they should not be subject to appeal, but that they should be bound to maintain the laws which guaranteed by religious sanctions the rights of the plebs.
This is effected by the recognition of copyhold tenure (see Copyhold) .
Security of tenure is worth a lot these days. In time of ill-health a teacher can receive full pay for six months.
Tenure diversification is an important element in the development of sustainable communities.
Housing tenure in the center of the housing estate is unbalanced.
The Fellow may teach elsewhere during tenure of the Fellowship only with the express permission of the Director.
This joint tenure of the office appears to be unique in English history.
The maximum tenure of a scholarship is normally three years and the value of the award is reviewed annually.
Towards the end of his tenure on The Fresh Prince of Bel Air, Smith turned his attention to the silver screen.
There is no doubt that the troubled Rodman will clamor for the spotlight, just as he did during his tenure on the show.
Reverse mortgages can also be set up as a term monthly amount, a monthly tenure, or a combination of any of these.
During his tenure on the show, his primary love interest was the vivacious and attractive nurse Bobbie Spencer, played by actress Jackie Zeman.
Davidson began her tenure as Kristen Blake in 1993, originally a heroine, Kristen gradually became a villainess.
Genie Francis began her tenure as the beloved Laura Webber Baldwin Spencer in 1976 at the tender age of 14.
Actor vacations and short tenure visits are also documented.
During his tenure, he fathered a child with soap vixen Heather, faced the betrayal of his wife with his brother and learned that Doctor Steve Hardy was his real father.
Jack Abbott has done some fairly awful things during his tenure in Genoa City, but his good looks, charm and soulful eyes have caused more than a few hearts to swoon.
Steve Burton began his tenure on General Hospital as Jason Quartermaine, the illegitimate child of Dr. Alan Quartermaine and his mistress Susan Moore.
Phillippe quickly followed up his daytime tenure with several popular movies in a row including I Know What You Did Last Summer and Cruel Intentions.
Kathy Brier began her tenure on One Life to Live in 2002 in the role of Marcie Walsh.
Kassie DePaiva began her tenure on daytime as Chelsea Reardon on Guiding Light.
At the end of the OC's tenure, Ryan wants to reunite with Taylor and looks to help a troubled boy as Sandy helped him.
Anthony Geary, for example, who began his tenure as globe trotting adventurer Luke Spencer in the 70s and earned many Daytime Emmy award nominations and won the most Daytime Emmys for Lead Actor.
She began her tenure as Nancy on April 2, 1956 and although she left the show briefly and has been dropped to recurring status once in the early 80s, she's played Nancy Hughes for more than 50 years.
Donna Beck's true love remained Chuck Tyler for her entire tenure on All My Children, despite other marriages to both Palmer Cortlandt and Benny Sago.
The brunette stunner's extensive tenure on the popular ABC soap has made her an icon in Hollywood, and she is often referred to as the "face of daytime television."
During her tenure on the show, Budig was paired with some of the show's hottest actors, including Josh Duhamel (who played Leo du Pres) and Cameron Mathison (Ryan Lavery).
Though they would be hooked up with multiple other characters during their tenure, they share a child and constantly return to each other.
Throughout his tenure on the ABC drama, Canary has appeared on Broadway in various roles and performed in regional theater and one man plays.
The two greatest relationships in Greenlee Smythe's tenure in Pine Valley were her love affairs with Leo du Pres and Ryan Lavery.
After his tenure as the Salem Strangler, Coleman went on to appear as Steven Carrington on Dynasty as well as multiple other projects including HRG on Heroes.
Burton portrayed Peyton Sawyer, Lucas' love interest, for the length of their tenure in Tree Hill.
In 1987, Jess Walton began her tenure as Jill Foster Abbott on the top-rated daytime drama The Young and the Restless.
During her tenure on Y& R, Davidson played out the controversial storyline wherein Ashley aborted lover Victor Newman's child when she believed he needed to be with wife Nikki.
Eileen Davidson began her tenure on the NBC daytime drama as heroine Kristen Blake, but under the show's writers, Eileen Davidson also played Susan Banks (a Kristen look alike) as well as Sister Mary Moira, Thomas and Penelope.
Throughout his tenure in Genoa City, Victor Newman and Jack Abbott clashed time and again.
During her tenure, soap operas achieved their zenith in popularity, particularly her coupling with co-star Anthony Geary, the actor who portrays Luke Spencer on the show.
I appreciate the professional opportunities afforded to me during my tenure here and have enjoyed the time that I spent working for (name of company).
I enjoy working with the company and believe my contributions to the excellence of its chocolate line as the head of the Chocolate Division have ensured profitable growth over the past twenty years of my tenure with you.
Previous healthcare reform efforts by Hilary Clinton during her husband's White House tenure had failed, and there was no clear accepted solution to help these millions of families.
In 1502 Warham was consecrated bishop of London and became keeper of the great seal, but his tenure of both these offices was short, as in 1504 he became lord chancellor and archbishop of Canterbury.
Wade was appointed to the post of collector in the first instance, and after a short tenure of office was succeeded by Mr II.
There are traces of burgage tenure at Horsham in 1210, and it was called a borough in 1236.
During the first six years of federation there were five ministries; the tenure of office under the threeyearly system was naturally uncertain, and this uncertainty was reflected in the proposals of whatever ministry was in office.
Propositions to establish the judiciary on a more permanent tenure were also voted down in 1814, 1822, 1857 and 1870, and the state still elects its judges for two years' terms. On its own suggestion, the council of censors was abolished in 1870 and the present method of amending the constitution was adopted.
Gardens or plantations were let in the same ways and under the same conditions; but for dategroves four years' free tenure was allowed.
If undoubtedly held in frankalmoign or " free alms," by a " spiritual " tenure only, the claim of jurisdiction for the ecclesiastical forum seems to have been at first conceded.
Then, if the tenure were found free alms, the plea was to be heard in the court Christian.
His tenure of office was marked by an increased zeal for missions in Protestant lands, and by the removal of the society's headquarters from Rome to Fiesole near Florence in 1870.
A condition of tenure attached to this chair was that the holder should propose mathematical questions for solution, and should resign in favour of any person who solved them better than himself; but, notwithstanding this, Roberval was able to keep the chair till his death, which occurred at Paris on the 27th of October 1675.
This land, held in direct tenure from Jehovah, their sovereign, was in theory inalienable.
No description of estate or tenure has been exempted.
The reform of land tenure in Ireland, the representation of women, the reduction of the national debt, the reform of London government, the abrogation of the Declaration of Paris, were among the topics on which he spoke with marked effect.
He retired into private life, heavily burdened with debts incurred during his tenure of office and narrowly escaping arrest even before he quitted Whitehall.
Thus his name is associated with the Fines and Recoveries Abolition Act 1833; the Inheritance Act 1833; the Dower Act 1833; the Real Property Limitation Act 1833; the Wills Act 1837; one of the Copyhold Tenure Acts 1841; and the Judgments Act 1838.
At the expiration of his tenure of the provincialship, he retired to the Dominican convent at Lisbon, where he lived till his death on the last day of 1588.
During his thirty-eight years tenure of the see 67 new churches, 32 convents and nearly 200 mission schools were built.
Care was taken that the natives enjoyed security of land tenure - though ownership remained with the State - and the right to dispose of their own labour freely.
When the government of the state had entered into feudalism, and the king was as much senior as king; when the vassal relationship was recognized as a proper and legal foundation of public duties; when the two separate sides of early feudalism were united as the almost universal rule, so that a man received a fief because he owed a vassal's duties, or looked at in the other and finally prevailing way, that he owed a vassal's duties because he had received a fief; and finally, when the old idea of the temporary character of the precarium tenure was lost sight of, and the right of the vassal's heir to receive his father's holding was recognized as the general rule - then the feudal system may be called full grown.
In this manner the feudal tenure of land began to prevail in almost all parts of Germany, and the elaborate social system which became known as feudalism was gradually built up. The dukes became virtually independent, and when Louis the Child died in 911, the royal authority existed in name only.
We know that in feudal law there ran a standing contrast between tenure by custom - villein tenure - and tenure by contract - free tenure.
The tenure of the duke's office was for life.
It was here that Strummer was able to fully explore his interests in world music, which he began to explore near the end of the Clash's tenure.
During his tenure with the Clash, Headon got addicted to heroin, and it proved to be a habit he couldn't kick.
During his tenure, Mike Rowe sold over $100 million in fake diamonds.
Owens' tenure with the 49ers started out successfully, but when quarterback Steve Young was injured in Owens' third season, their fortune began to change.
She's also feminine and strong, and has had a number of relationships during her tenure in Star Fleet, notably with a trill symbiot who, in the course of their romance, is forced to switch hosts, leaving its male host for a female one.
Faith returned in the fourth season to swap bodies with Buffy and during her tenure in Buffy's body she discovers the simple joy of friends and family.
Snape's Headmaster Portrait Will Hang at Hogwarts - Severus Snape's short tenure as Hogwart's headmaster will not be forgotten.
Prior to his tenure as the multi-species medical specialist, Dr. Phlox, Billingsley appeared on a wide variety of shows including The Practice, Felicity, Profiler, The Pretender, X-Files, Judging Amy and more.
The Protector and the council together were given a life tenure of office, with a large army and a settled revenue sufficient for public needs in time of peace; while the clauses relating to religion "are remarkable as laying down for the first time with authority a principle of toleration," 2 though this toleration did not apply to Roman Catholics and Anglicans.
In Emilia both mezzadria and lease tenure are widely diffused in the provinces of Ferrara, Reggio and Parma; but other special forms of contract exist, known as the famiglio da spesa, boaria, braccianti obbligati and braccianti disobbligati.
Much good work was done by the Republicans during their brief tenure of power,but it soon came to an endowing to the course of events which favored a reaction against France.
The next demand was for greater fixity of tenure and more regular promotion, as well as for the recognition by the companies of the railwaymens union.
After three months' tenure of this office he was returned by the department to the Constituent Assembly, where he voted with the Mountain, and brought forward the celebrated motion for the abolition of the presidential office.