Similar tendencies are found amongst his followers.
About the same time, having shown too open sympathy with the revolutionary or reforming tendencies of 1848, he was for; olitical reasons obliged to leave Berlin and retire to the seclusion of Wiirzburg, the medical school of which profited enormously by his labours as professor of pathological anatomy, and secured a wide extension of its reputation.
The only difference to be reckoned with may be in recent tendencies of solo vocalists to sing for effect, and so to extend the compass of the voice upwards.
The powers of a deity with the sociopathic tendencies of a mass murderer?
2 The Kabbalah itself is but an extreme and remarkable development of certain forms of thought which had never been absent from Judaism; it is bound up with earlier tendencies to mysticism, with man's inherent striving to enter into communion with the Deity.
The Pythagorean theory of numbers, Neoplatonic ideas of emanation, the Logos, the personified Wisdom, Gnosticism - these and many other features combine to show the antiquity of tendencies which, clad in other shapes, are already found in the old pre-Christian Oriental religions.
Jewish orthodoxy found itself attacked by the more revolutionary aspects of mysticism and its tendencies to alter established customs. While the medieval scholasticism denied the possibility of knowing anything unattainable by reason, the spirit of the Kabbalah held that the Deity could be realized, and it sought to bridge the gulf.
1 Jewish theosophy, then, with its good and evil tendencies, and with its varied results, may thus claim to have played no unimportant part in the history of European scholarship and thought.
Partly because of political and social divisions thus revealed, conspiracies being rife in the decade 1820-1830, and partly as preparation for the defence against Mexico and Colombia, who throughout these same years were threatening the island with invasion, the captains-general, in 1825, received the powers above referred to; which became, as time passed, monstrously in disaccord with the general tendencies of colonial government and with increasing liberties in Spain, but continued to be the spiritual basis of Spanish rule in the island.
Law's mystic tendencies divorced him from the practical minded Wesley, but in spite of occasional wild fancies the books are worth reading.
At the Reformation two tendencies became apparent.
Moreover, there is no denying that the new Nominalism not only represents the love of reality and the spirit of induction, but also contains in itself the germs of that empiricism and:sensualism so frequentlyassociated with the former tendencies.
Its object was to resist the anti-clerical tendencies of the Liberals, and for this purpose it appealed to the " nationalities " against the dominant Magyar parties, the due enforcement of the Law of Equal Rights of Nationalities (1868) forming a main item of its programme.
Among Hungarian novels we may distinguish four dominant genres or tendencies.
Moreover the collapse of Tsarism had deprived Mr. Pasic of his strongest support abroad, and forced him to abandon his narrowly Orthodox basis and bring his policy more into line with modern democratic tendencies.
General Tendencies Since Darwin Darwin may be said to have founded the science of bionomics, and at the same time to have given new stimulus and new direction to morphography, physiology, and plasmology, by uniting them as contributories to one common biological doctrine-the doctrine of organic evolution-itself but a part of the wider doctrine of universal evolution based on the laws of physics and chemistry.
Its first beginnings are seen in the imitative tendencies of animals by which the young of one generation acquire some of the habits of their parents, and by which gregarious and social animals acquire a community of procedure ensuring the advantage of the group. " Taboo," the systematic imposition by the community of restrictions upon the conduct of the individual, is one of its earliest manifestations in primitive man and can be observed even in animal communities.
He was the founder and head of the Evangelical Union established to combat the aggressive tendencies of the Roman Catholics.
4 Two' conflicting tendencies were constantly at work, and reached their climax in the middle ages.
Whilst it can hardly be allowed that Xenophanes, so far from denying, actually affirms a plurality of gods, it must be conceded to Freudenthal that Xenophanes's polemic was directed against the anthropomorphic tendencies and the mythological details of the contemporary polytheism rather than against the polytheistic principle, and that, apart from the treatise De Melisso Xenophane et Gorgia, now generally discredited, there is no direct evidence to prove him a consistent monotheist.
In the course of this year an attempt was made to turn out of the royal employment all those who were suspected of Huguenot tendencies.
We see it exemplified in plant life in circumstances which are unnatural to the life of the plant, and the prevalence of certain constitutional tendencies among the inhabitants of crowded cities bears evidence to the same law.
Whenever these conditions are infringed his powers of resistance to disease are lessened, and certain tendencies begin to show themselves, which are generally termed constitutional.
The tendencies to disease are in great part hereditary.
drill-bones) may develop in a soft tissue with no natural bone-forming tendencies, as a result of interrupted pressure, or a fatty tumour may arise in the midst of the natural subcutaneous fat in the same circumstances.
Created secular prelate, he was sent as apostolic delegate to Viterbo, where he early manifested his reactionary tendencies in an attempt to stamp out Liberalism.
In Sicily also the Oriental tendencies of Frederick Barbarossa and Frederick II.
and the revolution of 1688 were national crimes; it exists to study the history of the Stuarts, to oppose all democratic tendencies, and in general to maintain the theory that kingship is independent of all parliamentary authority and popular approval.
50.) Here we have essentially a dualistic principle, which, though it can largely be accounted for by the interaction of certain inner tendencies and outward sorrowful experience on the part of Judaism, may ultimately be derived from Mazdean influences.
Hence we shall not be surprised to find that the two tendencies are fully represented in primitive Christianity, and, still more strange as it may appear, that New Testament apocalyptic found a more ready hearing amid the stress and storm of the 1st century than the prophetic side of Christianity, and that the type of the forerunner on the side of its declared asceticism appealed more readily to primitive Christianity than that of Him who came "eating and drinking," declaring both worlds good and both God's.
The whole constitution of the republic, although of very democratic tendencies, seemed designed to promote civil strife and weaken the central power.
Gratian's Decretum mirrors two tendencies, the church legislation with its growingly less extended application, and the wide meaning as in Justinian's Code, owing to the revival of Roman law in the 11th century.
The War of Independence had started conflicting tendencies in men's minds.
Filangieri was a very distinguished soldier, and a man of great ability; although he changed sides several times he became really attached to the Bourbon dynasty, which he hoped to save by freeing it from its reactionary tendencies and infusing a new spirit into it.
His policy was to crush all tendencies to independence in Germany, and this led him to grant the stem-duchies to his relatives, and afterwards to ally himself with the church.
The July Revolution led to no disturbances in Baden; but the new grand-duke from the first showed liberal tendencies.
of First Principles) Spencer in a way admits this, but introduces fresh difficulties as to its relation to" Evolution.."If the two processes go on together both are tendencies, and whether there is on the whole progress or not will depend on their relative strength; neither can be universal, nor the" law "of cosmic existence, unless its coexisting rival is regarded as essentially secondary.
Karamsin brought out in 1802 the V'yestnik Evropi, an important review with Liberal tendencies.
Afterwards, the creator and the mother-egg became respectively the sun and the moon, represented by the Inca priest-king and his wife, the supposed descendants of Manco Capac. 11 Dualistic tendencies were also developed.
Personality is the essence of his Epodes; in the Satires it is used merely as illustrative of general tendencies.
The attention of the porte was called to these tendencies in 1892 and again in 1902, on the appointments of new governors.
Subsequently he studied in Berlin, especially under Trendelenburg, whose ethical tendencies and historical treatment of philosophy greatly attracted him.
His pacific tendencies were shown by his systematic opposition to all bellicose excitement, by his maintaining M.
It was natural that warning voices should then be raised in the Church against secular tendencies, that the wellknown counsels about the imitation of Christ should be held up in their literal strictness before worldly Christians.
These evil tendencies in the popular presentation of Christianity undoubtedly begot in Shaftesbury's mind a certain amount of repugnance and contempt to some of the doctrines of Christianity itself; and, cultivating, almost of set purpose, his sense of the ridiculous, he was too apt to assume towards such doctrines and their teachers a tone of raillery.
The Unionist party, both in Ireland and in England, became suspicious of the tendencies of his administration, and he was driven to resignation.
After the battle of Leuctra the philo-Laconian party was expelled with Mantineian help. Tegea henceforth took an active part in the revival of the Arcadian League and the prosecution of the war in alliance with Thebes against Sparta (371-362), and the ultimate defection of Mantineia confirmed it in its federalist tendencies.
After some time his Lutheran tendencies exposed him to the anger of the authorities, who were of the Reformed Church.
The correspondence is extant and gives us the means of observing the principles and tendencies of the emperor as a civil governor.
The king's intention was, no doubt, to secure himself and the prince against the unruly nobles, though the queen's Roman Catholic tendencies were probably another reason for his decision.
was elected to the Holy See and began his reign with apparently Liberal and nationalist tendencies, Farini returned to Italy and was appointed secretary-general to G.
But there were strong Italian nationalists and anti-Austrian tendencies among the younger nobles and army officers, and the Carbonari and other revolutionary societies had made much progress.
This bill was indignantly rejected, and, instigated by Jon Sigurasson, another was demanded of far more liberal tendencies.
For that purpose Delessart sent Talleyrand, well known for his Anglophil tendencies, to London, but in the unofficial or semiofficial capacity which was rendered necessary by the decree of the Constituent Assembly referred to above.
Under this title are generally included certain strongly marked tendencies in literature, science and art, which took their rise in the ancient Egyptian city of Alexandria.
In Italy and Spain, on the other hand, the rulers, who continued loyal to the pope, found little difficulty in suppressing any tendencies of revolt on the part of the few converts to the new doctrines.
The French monarchy, as we have seen, had usually succeeded in holding its own against the centralizing tendencies of the pope.
The modern scholar as he reviews the period of the Protestant Revolt looks naturally, but generally in vain, for those rationalistic tendencies which become so clear in the Soc latter part of the 17th century.
There seems in fact nothing to prevent us from holding that while natural laws express the average tendencies of multitudes they give no clue to the movement of individuals.
His ascetic tendencies are exhibited in the Moralia and Regulae, ethical manuals for use in the world and the cloister respectively.
His grandfather, Lewis Morris (1671-1746), inherited this in his political views, he distrusted the democratic tendencies of the Whigs, but a firm belief in the justice of the American cause led him to join their ranks.
These specific differences revealed different religious tendencies,' the one type being more warmly Evangelical, the other more " rational " and congenial in temper with 18th-century Deism.
Devout Moslems became alarmed at the tendencies of the Committee; at the free-thinking professions of members and their general rejection of the Prophet; still more at the innovations advocated in Turkish customs and in the Mahommedan faith.
The popes encouraged these centralizing tendencies; and in 1339 Benedict XII.
Gradually the dispute pervaded all classes of society, and the religious questions became entangled with political issues; the partisans of the house of Orange espoused the cause of the stricter Calvinism, whereas the bourgeois oligarchy of republican tendencies, led by Oldenbarnevelt and Hugo Grotius, stood for Arminianism.
In his antipathy to Christianity, which appears to him barbaric and superstitious, he gives himself up to the scepticism and satire of a man of the world through which he comes in contact with Epicurean tendencies."
The book's character results from the continuous operation of four great tendencies.
But when allowance is made for all the above tendencies of the late post-exilic age, there remains a certain amount of additional matter in Chronicles which may have been derived from relatively old sources.
These tendencies in contemporary opinion favoured the renovation of the Roman Catholic Church.
Yet they do not really add much to what is there already, and they have the drawbacks of pseudonymity; they lack concrete and personal qualities; they are general expressions of tendencies which we cannot well locate or measure, save by means of the Apostolic Fathers themselves or of their earliest Catholic successors.
was credited with strong anti-German Slavophil tendencies.
In Geneva especially his religious views and tendencies were turned in the direction of mysticism.
In Berlin Spener was held in high honour, though the tendencies of the court and the government officials were rather rationalistic than pietistic. The university of Halle was founded under his influence in 1694.
His presentations of character and motives, whether truthful or not, are undeniably fine; but his doctrine that there should be "no theorizing" about history tended to narrow his survey, and consequently he sometimes, as in his remarks on the foreign policy of Elizabeth, seems to misapprehend the tendencies of a period on which he is writing.
In a synod which met in 430, he decided in favour of the epithet 1 At Alexandria the mystic and allegorical tendency prevailed, at Antioch the practical and historical, and these tendencies showed themselves in different methods of study, exegesis and presentation of doctrine.
A strong advocate of Lutheran doctrine, and author of the Syngramma Suevicum (October 21, 1525), which set forth Luther's doctrine of the Eucharist, he was free from the persecuting tendencies of the age.
Old-fashioned in most of his views, he disliked the tendencies alike of the Methodists and other revivalists and of the rationalizing dissenters, yet he had a good word for Priestley and Theophilus Lindsey.
His ecclesiastical career began somewhat unpromisingly, for he was censured by Archbishop Whitgift for Romanist tendencies in a sermon which he preached against predestination in 1584.
It became - to quote Professor Kattenbusch - the "secular" designation of the adherents of the Reformation, the shibboleth of the "liberal" ecclesiastical and theological tendencies.
Originally of Liberal tendencies, he developed from 1837 onwards ultramontane opinions, founded in 1852 the Catholic group which in 1861 took the name of the Centre party (Centrum) and became one of its most conspicuous orators.
Two tendencies appeared in the thought of the primitive Church, the one to regard Christianity as a law given by God for the government of men's lives, with the promise of a blessed immortality as a reward for its observance; the other to view it as a means by which the corrupt and mortal nature of man is transformed, so that he becomes a spiritual and holy being.
The two tendencies were not always mutually exclusive, but the one or the other was predominant in every case.
The tendencies which they represented had been present when the middle ages were yet at their height; but the papacy, while at the zenith of its power, had succeeded in crushing the attacks made upon the creed of the Church by its most dangerous foes, the dualistic Cathari.
Two other tendencies were also manifest during the last few decades before the war: a movement among the intellectual classes, and to some extent among workers also, towards a non-ecclesiastical religious life; and an " Away from Rome " movement which in one aspect helped to recruit the ranks of Free Thought and on the other hand resulted in a growth of the Protestant churches.
To the more recent tendencies of contemporary philosophical thought the way was opened up by Thomas G.
Its liberal tendencies caused him to be accused of unsound views, and a most exhaustive report prepared by the Lancashire College committee was followed by numerous pamphlets for and against.
Neither a turbulent minority, nor the neglect of an absentee king; neither the revival of separatist tendencies in Lithuania, nor the outbreaks of aristocratic lawlessness in Poland, could do more than shake the superstructure of the imposing edifice.
A strongly centralized government had ever been Poland's greatest need, and Casimir the Great had striven successfully against all centrifugal tendencies.
He held fast to the great idea of the catholicity of the English Church, to that conception of it which regards it as a branch of the whole Christian church, and emphasizes its historical continuity and identity from the time of the apostles, but here again his policy was at fault; for his despotic administration not only excited and exaggerated the tendencies to separatism and independentism which finally prevailed, but excluded large bodies of faithful churchmen from communion with their church and from their country.
This "Puttkammer regime" was intensely unpopular; it was attacked in the Reichstag not only by Radicals like Richter and Rickert, but by National Liberals like Bennigsen, and when the emperor Frederick III., whose Liberal tendencies were notorious, succeeded to the throne, it was clear that it could not last.
This is the consummation towards which events had been steadily moving - not at first consciously, for it was some time before the tendencies at work were consciously realized - but ending at last in the complete equation of Old Testament and New, and in the bracketing together of both as the first and second volumes of a single Bible.
They were not an outcome of the dominant tendencies of the time, but they arose rather in spite of them, in the simplest way, just from the practical needs of the moment.
This is not the place to notice the course of Jewish literary activity in Palestine or Alexandria, whether along the more rigid lines of Pharisaic legalism (the development of the canonical " priestly " law), or the popular and less scholastic phases, which recall the earlier apocalyptical tendencies of the Old Testament and were cultivated alike by early Jewish and Christian writers.
To sum up, it may be said that the Wealth of Nations certainly operated powerfully through the harmony of its critical side with the tendencies of the half-century which followed its publication to the assertion of personal freedom and "natural rights."
Troppau was founded in the 13th century; but almost its only claim to historical mention is the fact that in 1820 the monarchs of Austria, Russia and Prussia met here to deliberate on the tendencies of the Neapolitan revolution.
The conception of a resurrection of the body, of a further existence for the body after death, was unattainable by almost all of the Gnostics, with the possible exception of a few Gnostic sects dominated by Judaeo-Christian tendencies.
The Gnostic religion also anticipated other tendencies.
A similar fear helped to keep down the tendencies inspired by French revolutionary literature, though plots occurred against the viceroy Branciforte in 1798 and 1799.
The revolutions of 1830 strengthened Frederick William in his reactionary tendencies; the question of the constitution was indefinitely shelved; and in 1831 Prussian troops concentrated on the frontier helped the task of the Russians in reducing the military rising in Poland.
The transcriber was in all probability a certain Murdoch Nisbet, who also showed his reforming tendencies by adding to it a rendering of Luther's Prologue to the New Testament.4 2 See Foxe, Acts and Monuments, iv.
His intellectual sympathies united him closely with some of the most active literary tendencies of the time.
It is probable that the first of these forms is the primary one and the second in most cases a development from it due to (i.) the influence of other individual cults, (ii.) anthropomorphic tendencies, (iii.) the influence of chieftainship, hereditary and otherwise, (iv.) annual sacrifice of the sacred animal and mystical ideas connected therewith, (v.) syncretism, due either to unity of function or to a philosophic unification, (vi.) the desire to do honour to the species in the person of one of its members, and possibly other less easily traceable causes.
Although he strictly limited his prophetic pretensions to the estimate of tendencies and probabilities, his forecasts were none the less in demand.
Here Paul, being dead, yet speaks through Timothy to the local Christians who are exposed to such mischievous tendencies in their environment.
At the instance of the emperor Justinian he adopted the proposition unus de Trinitate passus est in carne as a test of the orthodoxy of certain Scythian monks accused of Nestorian tendencies.
Among the more important features of the marine life of the period were (1) the great development of the molluscs, especially of cephalopods; (2) theabundanceoflargebrachiopods; (3) theaberrant tendencies of the trilobites; (4) the profusion of corals; and (5) the abundance, size and peculiar forms of the fishes.
This is a modern democratic tax, and there are similar tendencies in other taxes.
All these tendencies, although strongest in municipal finances, are general.
His policy followed extreme lines in the sense of furthering the Workmen's and Soldiers' Councils system, while at the same time he manifested a Bavarian particularism of his own in his efforts to maintain his conceptions of republican government in conjunction with the Councils in Bavaria as against the centralizing tendencies of the Berlin policy.
Meanwhile Howe, convinced of the impossibility of effecting separation, and fearing disloyal tendencies which had manifested themselves in some of its advocates, entered into negotiations with Dr Tupper in London, and later with the Dominion government, for better financial terms than those originally arranged for Nova Scotia in the federal system.
Although he was classed in Canada as a Liberal, his tendencies would in England have been considered strongly conservative; an individualist rather than a collectivist, he opposed the intrusion of the state into the sphere of private enterprise, and showed no sympathy with the movement for state operation of railways, telegraphs and telephones, or with any kindred proposal looking to the extension of the obligations of the central government.
Within this period also falls that evangelical and legal reaction against the political and secular tendencies of the church which is known as Montanism.
In the hands of Baha the aims of the sect became much more practical and ethical, and the wilder pantheistic tendencies and metaphysical hair-splittings of the early Balls almost disappeared.
These tendencies had been fostered by his tutor Zhukovsky, the amiable humanitarian poet, who had made the Russian public acquainted with the literature of the German romantic school, and they remained with him all through life, though they did not prevent him from being severe in his official position when he believed severity to be necessary.
The government, in accordance with this view, had encouraged scientific studies until it discovered to its astonishment that there was some mysterious connexion between natural science and revolutionary tendencies.
The movement gradually assumed the form of terrorism, and aimed at the assassination of prominent officials, and even of the emperor himself, and the natural result was that the reactionary tendencies of the government were strengthened.
For some years he was busy travelling in the Levant in the interests of his order, but a perusal of Calvin's Institutes revived his heretical tendencies, and he was condemned to be burnt.
Even Grotius, who reduced the tendencies existing in his time to a sort of orderly expression, addressed himself to the law of war as the positive part of international jurisprudence and dealt only with peace as its negative alternative.
(3) Ambitious potentates again may seek to deflect popular tendencies into channels more satisfactory for their dynasty.
Though cherishing a strong antipathy to the received ecclesiastical formulas, Irving's great aim was to revive the antique style of thought and sentiment which had hardened into these formulas, and by this means to supplant the new influences, the accidental and temporary moral shortcomings of which he detected with instinctive certainty, but whose profound and real tendencies were utterly beyond the reach of his conjecture.
In raising More to that eminent position, the king had not merely considered his professional distinction but had counted upon his avowed liberal and reforming tendencies.
- Besides these direct instances of materialism, there are philosophers to whom the scientific tendencies of the age have given a materialistic tendency.
But, in spite of these materialistic tendencies, he followed Hume in reducing matter and everything knowable to phenomena of consciousness; and, supposing that nothing is knowable beyond phenomena, concluded that we can neither affirm nor deny that anything exists beyond, but ought to take up an attitude which the ancient sceptics called Aphasia, but he dubbed by the new name of Agnosticism.
All these materialistic tendencies seem to have one explanation.
Yet the wave of reaction which soon overwhelmed the freer tendencies of the first reformers, brought back the old view until the revival of biblical criticism more than a century ago.
The struggle between these conflicting tendencies soon began.
Altered circumstances and tendencies of opinion called for a policy of conciliation.
In spite of his instincts for dominion and the ardour of his temperament, he made no attempt to shake off the French yoke, and did not decide on hostilities with France until Philip the Fair and his legists attempted to change the character of the kingship, emphasized its lay tendencies, and exerted themselves to gratify the desire for political and financial independence which was shared by the French nation and many other European peoples.
The growth of national kingdoms, the anti-clerical tendencies of the emancipated middle classes, the competition of lay imperialisms, and all the other elements of resistance which had been encountered by the papacy in its progress and had at first tended only to shackle it, now presented an insurmountable barrier.
The fundamental motive for his proceedings at that period was not nepotistic tendencies - which doubtless played their part, but only a secondary one - but his.
But, though illuminated by the rays of art, and loaded with the exuberant panegyrics of humanists and poets, the reign of the first Medicean pontiff, by its unbounded devotion to purely secular tendencies and its comparative neglect of the Church herself proved disastrous for the See of St Peter.
The once exiled dynasties the conscientiously re-established the legitimate Church, and both conservative powers made common cause against revolutionary tendencies.
They brought its existing tendencies into greater relief, set before it new aims and diverted it into new channels.
The development of the last decade of the 19th century had clearly shown that the educated bourgeoisie, the tiers Nat, in whose hands the supreme power had since 1848 become vested throughout Europe, was either entirely lost to the Church or, at all events, indifferent to what were called Ultramontane tendencies.
Whilst not openly repelling the tendencies of the Jesuits, Leo yet showed himself well disposed towards, and even amenable to, views of a diametri- The Papacy cally opposite kind; and as soon as the Vatican and the threw itself into the arms of France, and bade fare Modern well to the idea of a national Italy, the policy of Democracy.
He took as his secretary of state Cardinal Raphael p us x Merry del Val, a Spaniard of English birth and educa tion, well versed in diplomacy, but of well-known ultramontane tendencies.
To many minds the papacy thus came to represent a unifying principle, as opposed to the disruptive tendencies of Liberalism and Nationalism, and the papal monarchy came to be surrounded with a new halo, as in some sort realizing that ideal of a " federation of the world " after which the age was dimly feeling.
So far as politics are concerned this sentiment was practically confined to certain classes, which saw their traditional advantages threatened by the revolutionary tendencies of the times; and the alliance between the throne and the altar, by confusing the interests of the papacy with those of political parties, tended - as Leo XIII.
divided between antagonistic tendencies, were ceasing to speak with a certain voice.
The fact that the Vatican presents a great force hostile to and obstructive of certain characteristic tendencies of modern life and thought has; necessarily raised up a powerful opposition even in countries traditionally Catholic. France no longer deserves the title of eldest daughter of the Church; the Catholicism of Italy is largely superficial; even Spain has shown signs of restiveness.
Soon his discourses exercised a potent influence on learned and unlearned alike; and, although he restricted himself, as indeed was principally his custom through life, to the inculcation of practical righteousness, and the censure of clamant abuses, a rumour of his heretical tendencies reached the bishop of Ely, who resolved to become unexpectedly one of his audience.
At Herrnhut there were conflicting tendencies, doctrinal and practical extravagances, and the organization of the brethren was very defective.
87); his court was famed for its luxury; and the extent to which phil-Hellenic tendencies prevailed at this time in Sidon is shown by the royal sarcophagi, noble specimens of Greek art, which have been excavated in the necropolis of the city.
When (c. 360) Basil formed his monastery in the neighbourhood of Neocaesarea in Pontus, he deliberately set himself against these tendencies.
His writings are described by Harnack as a curious mixture of Catholic orthodoxy and unconscious tendencies to Protestantism; their most noticeable point is the great importance they attach to the fact of sin, both original and actual.
The Roman Church, which is dominant throughout the continent, has been engaged in serious struggles with the anti-religious tendencies of the Republican governments, and L'Annee de l'Eglise makes no mention of missions among the Indians.
He was succeeded by Karl Freiherr von Schrenk auf Notzing (1806-1884), an official of Liberal tendencies who had been Bavarian representative in the diet of the Confederation.
Towards 1840 a new congregation calling itself the Christian Reformed Church (Christelijke Gereformeerde Kerk) arose as a protest against the government and the modern tendencies of the Reformed Church; and for the same reason those who had founded the Free University of Amsterdam (1880) formed themselves in 1886 into an independent body called the Nederlandsche Gereformeerde Kerk.
He imparted a life and impulse to prevailing tendencies, helping on the construction of the system hereafter to be completed in Scholasticism.
Subsequently, when the Protestant hierarchy was forcibly established in Sweden, matters were much complicated by the absolutist tendencies of Gustavus.
Charles of Lorraine thoroughly identified himself with the best interests of the country, and was the champion of its liberties, and though he had at times to make a stand against the imperialistic tendencies of the chancellor Kaunitz, he was able to rely on the steady support of the empress, who appreciated the wise and liberal policy of her brother-in-law.
Edouard Smits (1789-1852) showed romantic tendencies in his tragedies of Marie de Bourgogne (1823), Elfrida (1825), and Jeanne de Flandre (1828).
Nevin (q.v.) became its president, and with Philip Schaff founded the Mercersburg theology, which lost to the Church many who objected to Nevin's (and Schaff's) Romanizing tendencies.
He joined it that he might, if possible, counteract the growth of the sectaries in that field, and maintain the cause of constitutional government in opposition to the republican tendencies of the time.
They carry still further the tendencies that differentiate the friars from the monks; and in particular, in order to be more free in devoting themselves to their special works, the orders of regular clerks have commonly given up the choral celebration of the canonical office, which had been maintained by the friars.
,uovaa"Tucos, living alone, µovos), a system of living which owes its origin to those tendencies of the human soul which are summed up in the terms " asceticism " and " mysticism."
These two tendencies may well be said to be general instincts of humanity; because, though not always called into activity, they are always liable to be evoked, and in all ages and among all races they frequently have asserted themselves.
The conservative tendencies of the Chinese people have prevented them adopting the modern methods of extensive cultivation based on scientific principles, and the manipulation of crops by machinery in place of hand labour.
The tribal dukes had all disappeared, and their duchies were split up into districts ruled by counts (q.v),whose tendencies to independence the emperor tried to check by the visits of the missi dominici.
The tendencies of the tribe to independence wen crushed as their ancient popular assemblies were discouraged and the liberty of the freemen was curtailed owing to the exigencies of military service, while the power of the church was rarely directed to the highest ends.
Beneath an outward gloss of refinement these nobles were, as a class, coarse and selfish, and they made it their chief object to promote their own interests by fostering absolutist tendencies.
In Bavaria a chamber elected about the same time as that of Prussia was rather less docile; but the government shared to the full the absolutist tendencies of the day, and energetically combated the party which stood up for law and the constitution.
In the first meetings it appeared that there were strong opposing tendencies within the party which for the first time could be brought to public discussion.
The Military Bill had offended the prejudices of conservative military critics; the British treaty had alienated the colonial party; the commercial treaties had only been carried by the help of Poles, Radicals and Socialists; but it was just these parties who were the most easily oflended by the general tendencies of the internal legislation, as shown in.
Two positions on which he repeatedly insisted have taken a firm hold - first, that it is of the essence of a church to be comprehensive of various views and tendencies, and that a national church especially should seek to represent all the elements of the life of the nation; secondly, that subscription to a creed can bind no one to all its details, but only to the sum and substance, or the spirit, of the symbol.
The standpoint is that of the peculiar Judaizing or Ebonite Christianity due to persistence among Christians of the tendencies known among pre-Christian Jews as Essene.
In particular it had in view persons of culture, as most apt to be swayed by the philosophical tendencies in the sphere of religion prevalent in that age, the age of neoPlatonism.
Like Schleiermacher he combined with the keenest logical faculty an intensely religious spirit, while his philosophical tendencies were in sympathy rather with Hegel than with Schleiermacher, and theosophic mysticism was more congenial to him than the abstractions of Spinoza, to whom Schleiermacher owed so much.
Germanism had so far served as the basis of the Austrian system, not as a national ideal, but because " it formed a sort of unnational mediating, and common element among the contradictory and clamorous racial tendencies."
The Young Czechs could not take their place; their Radical and anti-clerical tendencies alarmed the Feudalists and Clericalists who formed so large a part of the Right; they attacked the alliance with Germany; they made public demonstration of their French sympathies; they entered into communication with other Slav races, especially the Serbs of Hungary and Bosnia; they demanded universal suffrage, and occasionally supported the German Radicals in their opposition to the Clerical parties, especially in educational matters; under their influence disorder increased in Bohemia, a secret society called the Umladina (an imitation of the Servian society of that name) was discovered, and stringent measures had to be taken to preserve order.
In Athens the Hellenic genius was focussed, its tendencies drawn together and combined; nor was it a circumstance of small moment that the Attic dialect attained, for prose, a classical authority; for if Hellenism was to be propagated in the world at large, it was obviously convenient that it should have some one definite form of speech to be its medium.
Written records were few at the time when the pantheon was built up, so that the process of construction cannot be followed historically from stage to stage; but it is possible by arguing backwards from the later facts to discern the main tendencies at work, and the principal elementary cults that served as the materials.
The goal towards which these tendencies verged was monotheism; and though this goal was only once, and then quite ephemerally, reached, still the monotheistic idea was at most periods, so to speak, in the air.
The fate of Parga created intense feeling at the time in England, and was cited by Liberals as a crowning instance of the perfidy of the government and of Castlereagh's subservience to reactionary tendencies abroad.
The rising national feeling in Germany also stimulated the separatist tendencies of the of the duchies; and "Schleswig-Holsteinism," as it now began to be called, evoked in Denmark the counter-movement known as Eiderdansk-politik, i.e.
But the National Liberals triumphed at the general election; fear of reactionary tendencies finally induced the Radicals to accede to the wishes of the majority; and on the 5th of June 1849 the new constitution received the royal sanction.
He had no sympathy with John's high-church tendencies on the one hand, and he sturdily resisted all the king's endeavours to restrict his authority as duke of Sodermanland (Sudermania) on the other.
He had steadily to oppose Sigismund's reactionary tendencies; he had also to curb the nobility, which he did with cruel rigour.
He shared many of the chief intellectual tendencies of his age, having no feeling for the highest aspirations of human nature, but submitting all things to a searching critical analysis.
In other respects, too, the United States departed from its old individualistic tendencies, as in instituting the draft, regulating food, raising huge loans, observing meatless days and sending an army of 2,000,000 to fight in Europe.
Outside the English-writing world, identical or kindred tendencies are represented in France by Leroy, Poincare, Bergson, Milhaud, Blondel, Duhem, Wilbois, Pradines; in Germany by Mach, Ostwald, Simmel, Jerusalem, Goldscheid, Jacoby; in Italy by Papini, Prezzolini, Vailati, Troiano.
These contradictory tendencies remained with him through life, revealed in the fluctuations of his policy and influencing through him the fate of the world.
puzzled powers were, in fact, the more inclined to be suspicious in view of other, and seemingly inconsistent, tendencies of the emperor, which yet seemed all to point to a like disquieting conclusion.
A religion which subdues to itself a race with strongly marked individuality is always influenced in cultus and dogma by the previous views and tendencies of that race, to which it must in some measure accommodate itself.
During the first seven or eight years of his settled life in his native city from 1495, he betrays a conflict of artistic tendencies as well as no small sense of spiritual strain and strife.
While unequivocally rejecting the accepted creeds, and so scandalizing even liberal theologians, he was still more hostile to simply sceptical and materialist tendencies.
To a later generation it will probably appear that, whatever the exaggerations and the misconceptions to which he was led, his vehement attacks at least called attention to rather grave limitations and defects in the current beliefs and social tendencies of the time.
It is the grasping, the craving, still existing at the death of the one body that causes the new set of Skandhas, that is, the new body with its mental tendencies and capacities, to arise.
It is from this time that we discern two distinct tendencies in the viking people.
He insisted on a poetical interpretation of the Church's liturgy; and while strenuously maintaining her Divine commission to teach faith and morals, he regarded the Church as in other respects a learner; and he advocated a policy of conciliation with the world, and an alliance with the best tendencies of contemporary thought.
He had himself strong artistic tendencies, though his numerous poems show but little proof of this, and as a patron of the arts he proved himself as great as any who had ever occupied a German throne, and more than a mere dilettante.
He was also an unfailing supporter of contemporary painting, in so far as it responded to his romantic tendencies, and he gave a fresh impulse to the arts of working in metal and glass.
Both in theory and practice it here seemed to supply precisely the counteractive to prevailing tendencies towards empiricism and individualism that was required.
The balance of power moves now to Israel and now to Judah, and tendencies to internal disintegration are illustrated by the dynastic changes in Israel and by the revolts and intrigues in both states.
With The Indian government the relations of the Sokotri have occasionally been strained, owing to their -iratical tendencies.
The two men and the fate of the parties they led are understandable only by regarding one as the leader of reaction, the other as in line with the American tendencies.
Their social tendencies are distinctly communistic; property is often owned by the family in common, and a man can call upon the services of his fellow villagers for certain purposes, as the building of a house.
The old patrician council left the city to appeal to the Hansa and to the imperial authorities, while a new council with democratic tendencies, elected chiefly from the gilds, took their place.
Again, as the Socratics - Plato himself, when he established himself at the Academy, being no exception - were, like their master, educators rather than philosophers, and in their teaching laid especial stress upon discussion, they, too, were doubtless regarded as sophists, not by Isocrates only, but by their contemporaries in general; and it may be conjectured that the disputatious tendencies of the Megarian school made it all the more difficult for Plato and others to secure a proper appreciation of the difference between dialectic, or discussion with a view to the discovery of truth, and eristic, or discussion with a view to victory.
Nearly all men of high caste, and many of them recruited from Oudh, they dreaded tendencies which they deemed to be denationalizing, and they knew at first hand what annexation meant.
Ferdinand was impatient of Austrian influence, but on the death of his first wife, Cristina of Savoy, he married Maria Theresa of Austria, who encouraged him in his reactionary tendencies and brought him closer to Austria.
But the small number of fathers who attended at the latter town, and above all, the disquieting tendencies whin began to make themselves felt there, induced the pope to force on a dissolution of the synod.
In 1866 he displayed considerable personal courage and energy in quelling an insurrection of separatist and reactionary tendencies.
Since the days of Ali there had been two tendencies among the Shiites.
It has been held in various forms. In its extreme form it maintains that the individual is absolutely free to chose this or that action indifferently (the liberum arbitrium indifferentiae), but most libertarians admit that acquired tendencies, environment and the like, exercise control in a greater or less degree.
General Tendencies Of Modern Logic There are several grounds for hope in the logic of our day.
Prominent both as an administrator and as a lawgiver, the king by his vigorous rule did much to destroy the tendencies to independence which existed in the Highlands and Islands; but, on the other hand, his rash conduct at Flodden brought much misery upon his kingdom.
The histories of all the great religious and philosophic movements show them as developments of an evolutionary process, arriving at their accepted dogmas through long periods of contention between numerous tendencies.
The reaction against the inevitable tendencies towards mitigation and relaxation led to a number of reforms that produced upwards of twenty different congregations within the order, each governed by a vicar-general, who was subject to the general of the order.
These tendencies both princes and lesser nobles naturally tried to thwart, and the mediate towns or Landstddte were finally brought to stricter subjection, at least in the greater principalities such as Austria and Brandenburg.
protective tendencies of the time.
As a result, cult and organization and code hardened, forming a shell which proved strong enough to resist all disintegrating tendencies.
This examination of diametrically opposed tendencies resulted in several different theories.
The author of the Hipparchus is evidently influenced by the anti-democratical tendencies in which he only followed Plato.
The actual proportion of the total population of India (294 millions) included under the name of "Hindus" has been computed in the census report for 1901 at something like 70% (206 millions); the remaining 30% being made up partly of the followers of foreign creeds, such as Mahommedans, Parsees, Christians and Jews, partly of the votaries of indigenous forms of belief which have at various times separated from the main stock, and developed into independent systems, such as Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism; and partly of isolated hill and jungle tribes, such as the Santals, Bhils (Bhilla) and Kols, whose crude animistic tendencies have hitherto kept them, either wholly or for the most part, outside the pale of the Brahmanical community.
In the midst of these conflicting tendencies, an attempt was made, about the latter part of the 8th century, by the distinguished Malabar theologian and philosopher Sankara Acharya to restore the Brahmanical creed to ?'
Though there is hardly a sect which has not contributed its share to the element of religious mendicancy and asceticism so prevalent in India, it is in connexion with the Siva-cult that these tendencies have been most extensively cultivated.
Whilst the Saiva philosophers do not approve of the notion of incarnations, as being derogatory to the dignity of the deity, the Brahmans have nevertheless thought fit to adopt it as apparently a convenient expedient for bringing certain tendencies of popular worship within the pale of their system, and probably also for counteracting the Buddhist doctrines; and for this purpose Vishnu would obviously offer himself as the most attractive figure in the Brahmanical trinity.
The peculiar conciliatory tendencies of Kabir were carried on with even greater zeal from the latter part of the 15th century by one of his followers, Nanak Shah, the promulgator of the creed of the Nanak Shahis or Sikhs - i.e.
Whilst originally more akin in its principles to the Moslem faith, the sect seems latterly to have shown tendencies towards drifting back to the Hindu pale.
In the forms of worship favoured by votaries of these creeds the emotional and erotic elements are allowed yet freer scope than in those that preceded them; and, as an effective auxiliary to these tendencies, the use of the vernacular dialects in prayers and hymns of praise takes an important part in the religious service.
Chaitanya's movement, being chiefly directed against the vile practices of the Saktas, then very prevalent in Bengal, was doubtless prompted by the best and purest of intentions; but his own doctrine of divine, though all too human, love was, like that of Vallabha, by no means free from corruptive tendencies, - yet, how far these tendencies have worked their way, who would say?
He died in London, at the house of his son-in-law, on the 22nd of August 1752, leaving a memoir (3 vols., 1749-1750) which deserves more attention than it has received, both for its characteristic individuality and as a storehouse of curious anecdotes and illustrations of the religious and moral tendencies of the age.
The forces underlying the movement may differ from time to time in their respective intensity, and, in highly exceptional cases, may approach equilibrium, their natural tendencies being interrupted by special causes, but the instances of general decline are confined to wild and comparatively small communities brought into contact with alien and more civilized races.
The exceptional cases are, first, Ireland and Norway, with their emigrating tendencies; then Spain, where the returns have probably to be discounted for improved registration, and France, where the population is all but stationary.
Examples of all the above tendencies may be gleaned from the returns of the countries named in the table, though space does not admit of their exhibtion.
During the forty-five years of Elizabeth's reign, however, only about 180 persons suffered death 3 - less than half the number of those whom the Catholic zeal 1 For a criticism of the modern tendencies of the Roman Catholic Church from an outside point of view see Ultramontanism.
Within the Catholic body itself there was even at this time a more or less pronounced anti-Roman movement, a reflection of the Gallican and Febronian tendencies on the continent of Europe, and the " Catholic Committee," consisting for the most part of influential laymen, which had been formed to negotiate with the government, was prepared to go a long 1 This declaration, which denounced the mass as " idolatrous and superstitious," was taken by all office-bearers, including bishops on taking their seats in the House of Lords, until the Relief Act of 1829.
It must be added that their writings, like every other product of the Renaissance, except its purest poetry and art, exhibit a hybrid between medieval and modern tendencies.
Both, too, were spiritual and elastic tendencies toward progress, ideals rather than solid organisms.
Instead of empire and church, the sun and moon of the medieval system, a federation of peoples, separate in type and divergent in interests, yet bound together by common tendencies, common culture and common efforts, came into existence.
Calhoun himself now perceived that the North and the South represented diverse tendencies.
Following the repeal of the Sherman Law and other acts and tendencies unfavourable to silver coinage in 1893 and thereafter, the silver question became the dominant issue in politics, resulting in the success of the Populist-Democratic fusion party in three successive elections, and permanently and greatly altering prior party organizations.
Popular feeling had been excited by the political conflict, advanced tendencies had declared themselves, and when the new diet met it proceeded as explained above to remodel the constitution, on the basis of universal suffrage, with freedom of the press, speech, meeting and association.
The British moralists who wrote with political prepossessions are interesting, not merely as contributors to speculation, but as exponents of spiritual tendencies which were expressed practically in the political agitations of their times.
The church has greatly increased of late years in width of view and liberality of sentiment, and shelters various tendencies of thought.
It is no calamity that natural procrastination, or the clamour caused by his candid treatment of atheism and by certain heretical tendencies detected by orthodox criticism in his view of the Trinity, made Cudworth leave the work unfinished.
His policy was strongly national in opposition to the marked Normanizing tendencies of the king.
This conflict of tendencies continued, and Bebel came to be regarded as the chief exponent of the traditional views of the orthodox Marxist party.
The Talmud outlived the reactionary tendencies of the Qaraites (q.v.) and of the Kabbalah, and fortunately, since these movements, important though they undoubtedly were for the evolution of thought, had not within them the power to be of lasting benefit to the rank and file of the community.
"The conflict," he wrote, "such as it is, is one of opinion and tendencies, not of persons; it is the result of mental and moral necessities created by the antitheses with which the Church is wrestling in this period of transition."
In this sentence we find interest of all kinds blended together, and the natural economic tendencies directly counteracted by the moral and religious law.
Subsequently matters were much complicated by the absolutist tendencies of Gustavus.
The Riksdag refused to sanction his favourite project of a reform of the Swedish army on the Prussian model, for which he laboured all his life, partly from motives of economy, partly from an apprehension of the king's martial tendencies.
But, in its efforts to extend its power over the Greek states, it was bound to make use of the tendencies which aimed at the unification of Greece for the struggle against Persia: and this ideal demand it dared not reject.
Moreover, the promotion of Greek civilization and city life had created numerous local centres, with separate interests and centrifugal tendencies, struggling to attain complete independence, and perpetually forcing new concessions from the empire.
These tendencies taken together explain the radical weakness of the Parthian Empire.
Marcion alone perceived their decisive religious importance, and with them confronted the legalizing, and in this sense judaizing, tendencies of his Christian contemporaries.
To these conflicting tendencies were probably due his self-contradictions on the problem of original sin and the conflicting claims of feeling and reason.
Before the revolution of July he had been deprived of his office for his liberal tendencies, and had been elected deputy for Evreux.
But the fact that Irenaeus thought of him as Polycarp's contemporary and "a man of the old time" (apXaaos avilp), together with the affinity between the religious tendencies described in Papias's Preface (as quoted by Eusebius) and those reflected in the Epistles of Polycarp and Ignatius, all point to his having flourished in the first quarter of the 2nd century.
The opposite tendencies, to allow to the individual responsibility and freedom, and to demand of him obedience to law, are both features of the system; but in virtue even of the freedom which belongs to him rational, he must recognize the society of rational beings of which he is a member, and subordinate his own ends to the ends and needs of this society.
The first stage is the eradication of vicious habits: evil tendencies are to be corrected, and a guard kept on the corrupt propensities of the reason.
It was the genius of Prince Henry the Navigator (q.v.) that co-ordinated and utilized all these tendencies towards expansion.
In order to understand the apparently sudden collapse of Portuguese power in1578-1580it is necessary to examine certain facts and tendencies which from the first rendered a catastrophe inevitable.
The Reformation never reached Portugal, but even here the critical tendencies which elsewhere preceded Reform, were already at work.
Joao; in Patria he evoked in a series of dramatic scenes and lashed with satire the kings of the Braganza dynasty, and in Os Simples he interprets in sonorous stanzas the life of country-folk by the light of his powerful imagination and pantheistic tendencies.
His Orleanist tendencies and his objections to the republic were strong, and though he at first supported Tillers, he afterwards became a leader of the opposition to the president.
Undoubtedly the sympathies of Rutilius were with those who during this period dissented from and, when they could, opposed the general tendencies of the imperial policy.
In 1848 he was elected Gonfaloniere of Florence, but resigned on account of the anti-Liberal tendencies of the grand duke.
These testimonies were called forth mainly by the protest of Greek theologians against Jesuitism on the one hand, and against the reforming tendencies of the patriarch Cyril Lucaris on the other.
It is said that Rabelais met and quarrelled with Joachim du Bellay the poet at Rome, and with Ronsard at Meudon and elsewhere, that this caused a breach between him and the Pleiade, that he satirized its classicizing tendencies in the episode of the Limousin scholar, and that Ronsard after his death avenged himself by a libellous epitaph.
The alarm was greater, as theology was still unreconciled with the Darwinian theory; and Clifford was regarded as a dangerous champion of the antispiritual tendencies then imputed to modern science.
Germany was, in his opinion, the neighbour whose aggressive tendencies had to be specially resisted.
In politics he ardently sympathized with the progressive tendencies of his time, and he was among the earliest and most effective of the political poets who prepared the way for the outbreak of 1848.
The climate was more temperate and the soil more fertile than that of New England; but there were similar small farms and no marked tendencies towards the plantation system of the southern colonies.
In 1854 he opened a theological college at Cuddesdon, which was afterwards the subject of some controversy on account of its alleged Romanist tendencies.
On the death of Iskandar's successor in 1641, the Widow was placed on the throne; and as a female reign favoured the oligarchical tendencies of the Malay chiefs, three more queens were allowed to reign successively.
His treatment is exhaustive and philosophical, taking in, along with political and constitutional history, the changes in religion, thought and sentiment during his period, their causes and their tendencies.
The church of St John, however, is an interesting example of the junction of Gothic traditions with Renaissance tendencies in architecture.
There ethical and religious tendencies got the upper hand.
Sincai worked for nearly forty years at his monumental History of Rumania, which the Hungarian censor did not allow to be printed on account of its nationalist and anti-Magyar tendencies.
Lazar was appointed teacher at the St Sava school of Bucharest, where he spread the new doctrine of the Latin origin of the Rumanians; Latinizing tendencies were, however, not yet imported into the language.
Their views were due to a reaction against three main tendencies in contemporary English thought: the sacerdotalism of Laud and his followers, the obscurantist sectaries and, most important of all, the doctrines of Hobbes.
Among defeated amendments that are indicative of socio-political tendencies was one (1896) to authorize cities of a population of 30,000 or more to purchase, erect or maintain waterworks or lighting plants.
ARYA SAMAJ, a Hindu religious association with reforming tendencies, which was founded by a Guzerati Brahman named Dayanand Saraswati.
Heppe and Ritschl - have included under it nearly all religious tendencies amongst Protestants of the last three centuries in the direction of a more serious cultivation of personal piety than that prevalent in the various established churches.
Docetic tendencies ' Not a distinct sect, but a continuous type of Christology.
Now when this is done, two tendencies will at once show themselves: (a) This "customary law" will at once become more definite: the very fact of putting it into writing will involve an effort after logical completeness.
Dictionaries: Durand de Maillane, Dictionnaire canonique (Paris, 1786), re-edited by Andre under the title, Cours alphabeti ue et me'thodique de droit canonique, and by Wagner (Paris, 1894), has Gallican tendencies; Ferraris, Prompta bibliotheca canonica, &c., several new and enlarged editions; the best is that of Migne (1866), completed by Father Bucceroni, Ferraris Supplementum (Rome, 1899).
This office, however, he was soon obliged to resign, owing to his alleged atheistic tendencies, but he was subsequently nominated a member of the legislative commission.
The forms are varied, and have few points in common; but the following tendencies are indicated.
In fact, during the seventeen and a half years of the reign of Louis Philippe, Cousin mainly moulded the philosophical and even the literary tendencies of the cultivated class in France.
William Lamb (as Lord Melbourne then was) joined the opposition under Fox, of whom he was an ardent admirer; but his Liberal tendencies were never decided, and he not infrequently supported Lord Liverpool during that statesman's long tenure of office.
Rawles, Centralizing Tendencies in the Administration of Indiana (New York and London,1903),Columbia Univ.
There are marked pantheistic tendencies, e.g.
In the last few years a reaction against it had arisen especially in the universities, and those who adopted an unpopular creed, and who at the same time showed tendencies to I more ceremonial form of worship, naturally fell back on the fupport of the crown.
But so far as it was the result of general tendencies, it could never be obliterated.
It is seldom that one nation under Th stands the tendencies and difficulties of another; and French the mere fact that power was being transferred from Revolu- an absolute monarch to a representative assembly tiOfl,, h led superficial observers to imagine that they were ~ witnessing a mere repetition of the victory of the English parliament over the Stuart kings.
He had neither Foxs sympathy for popular movements, nor Burkes intellectual appreciation of the immediate tendencies of the Revolution.
The sympathies of the Whigs, and especially of the Whig prime minister, Lord John Russell, were with the people; and Lord John displayed his dislike to the Romanizing tendencies of the Tractarians by appointing Renn Dickson Hampdenwhose views had been formally condemned by the Hebdomadal Board at Oxfordto the bishopric of Hereford.
It was understood, indeed, that the relations between the two men were not always harmonious; that Lor4 Palmerstoii disapproved the resolute conduct of Gladstone, and that Gladstone deplored the Conservative tendencies of Lord Palmerston.
afterwards as Lord Salisburydiscovered that the bill had more democratic tendencies than he had originally supposed, and refused to be a party to it.
Along with the change in system went high-handed and absolutist tendencies in policy.
Beginning with the earliest known lemur, Anaptomorphus, this genus shows tendencies towards the anthropoids, and, when we pass up into the Oligocene of the Old World, Adapis is a decidedly mixed type, and probably not far from the common stem-form which gave origin to both suborders of the Primates.
History, There is good reasonto regard the Druses as, racially, a mixture of refugee stocks, in which the Arab largely predominates, grafted on to an original mountain population of Aramaic blood and Incarnationist tendencies.
On the other hand, in 1621 a new sect arose, the Sabbatarii, with strong Judaic tendencies; though excluded from toleration they maintained an existence till 5848.
He was also responsible during 1708 and 1709 for a monthly periodical entitled Censura temporum, or Good" and Ill Tendencies of Books.
And they would lose a great part of their significance if they did not testify to the continued existence in a man's personality of motives and tendencies likely to influence his conduct in the future as they have already influenced it in the past.
It can easily be shown that men do attach moral adjectives to environment, temperamental tendencies, natural endowments, instinctive desires, in a word to all or most of those forces moulding character.
The belief that libertarianism denies the binding force of habit or the gradual development of unchecked tendencies in character depends upon a similar misconception.
And the existence of penitence and remorse is not merely a sign of the emergence in consciousness of elements in character nobler than and opposed to those tendencies which once held sway.
The Federalist party gradually showed broad-construction, nationalistic tendencies; the Anti-Federalist party became a strict-construction party and advocated popular rights against the asserted aristocratic, centralizing tendencies of its opponent, and gradually was transformed into the Democratic-Republican party, mustered and led by Thomas Jefferson, who, however, had approved the ratification of the Constitution and was not, therefore, an Anti-Federalist in the original sense of that term.
Even in this negative use of the notion it is necessarily implied that whatever active tendencies in man are found to be " natural " - that is, independent of and uncorrupted by social customs and conventions - will properly take effect in outward acts, but the adoption of " conformity to nature " as a general positive rule for outward conduct seems to have been due to the influence on Zeno of Academic teaching.
But by such changes their system lost the support that it had had in the pleasureseeking tendencies of ordinary men.
In Plutarch, however, we see the same tendencies of change that we have noticed in later Stoicism.
This feeling is exhibited in the value set on fasting in the Christian church from the earliest times, and in an extreme form in the self-torments of later monasticism; while both tendencies, anti-worldliness and antisensualism, seem to have combined in causing the preference of celibacy over marriage which is common to most early Christian writers.'
Thus, for example, the anti-secular tendencies of the new creed, to which Tertullian (160-220) gave violent and rigid expression, were exaggerated in the Montanist heresy which he ultimately joined; on the other hand, Clement of Alexandria, in opposition to the general tone of his age, maintained the value of pagan philosophy for the development of Christian faith into true knowledge (Gnosis), and the value of the natural development of man through marriage for the normal perfecting of the Christian life.
Accordingly his treatment of external rights and duties, though decidedly inferior in methodical clearness and precision, does not differ in principle from that of Paley or Bentham, except that he lays greater stress on the immediate conduciveness of actions to the happiness of individuals, and more often refers in a merely supplementary or restrictive way to their tendencies in respect of general happiness.
In this way the utilitarian method is freed from the subversive tendencies which Butler and others had discerned in it; as used by Paley, it merely explains the current moral and jural distinctions, exhibits the obvious basis of expediency which supports most of the received rules of law and morality and furnishes a simple solution, in harmony with common sense, of some perplexing casuistical questions.
Sorley, Recent Tendencies in Ethics (1904).
Of his poems may be mentioned The Oath, a series of most beautiful ballads, with a tragical love-story of the 17th century as their base, but with many and happy satirical allusions to modern life; JOrundr, a long poem about the convict king, the Danish pirate Jorgensen, who nearly succeeded in making himself the master of Iceland, and The Fate of the Gods and The Men of the West (the Americans), two poems which, with their anti-clerical and half-socialistic tendencies, have caused strong protests from orthodox Lutheran clergy.
It was founded at Frankfort-on-theMain in 1863 by a number of distinguished clergymen and laymen of liberal tendencies, representing the freer parties of the Lutheran and Reformed Churches of the various German states, amongst whom were the statesmen Bluntschli and Von Bennigsen and the professors R.
The more special objects of the association are the following: the development of the Churches on the basis of a representative parochial and synodal system of government in which the laity shall enjoy their full rights; the promotion of a federation of all the Churches in one national Church; resistance to all hierarchical tendencies both within and without the Protestant Churches; the promotion of Christian.
In this they did not succeed, and the situation became hopelessly entangled by the fact that the national assembly was Radical, the government Liberal, and the regency practically in all its tendencies Conservative.
It was the period of revolt against the Aristotelianism of the schools, and Gassendi shared to the full the empirical tendencies of the age.
Since 1851 these tendencies have not been so marked.
The earl of Desmond having shown rebellious tendencies was detained for six years in London.
The present J and E reflect a reshaping and readjustment of earlier tradition which is found elsewhere, and the suggestion that they are not far removed from the age of the priestly writers and redactors does not conflict with what is known of language, forms of religious thought, or tendencies of tradition.
These two tendencies, were destined to strive ~against one another during an entire century (613714), and to occasion two periods of violent conflict, which, divided by a kind of renascence of royalty, were to end at last in the triumphant substitution of the Austrasian mayors for royalty and aristocracy alike.
Owing to their mental qualities, their tendencies and their resources, the bourgeoisie had been, if not alone, at least most apt in profiting by the development of industry, ly the extension of commerce, and by the formation of a new and mobile means of enriching themselves.
The settlement had, in fact, settled nothing; it had, indeed, merely intensified the profound cleavage between the opposing tendencies; for if the democrats were alienated by the narrow franchise, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, which cut at the very roots of the Catholic system, drove into opposition to the Revolution not only the clergy themselves but a vast number of their flocks.
reactionary and clerical tendencies until 1807, when the emperor Napoleon obliged Charles IV.
His failure is made obvious by the attack of Ghazali on the tendencies and results of speculation.
He denies the intrinsic tendencies, or souls, by which the Aristotelians explained the motion of the spheres, because he ascribes their motion to God.
The work called The Tendencies of the Philosophers, translated in 1506, with the title Logica et Philosophia Algazelis Arabis, contains neither the logic nor the philosophy of Ghazali.
By the 14th century Averroism was the common leaven of philosophy; John Baconthorpe is the chief of Averroists, and Walter Burley has similar tendencies.
In many cases the heretical movement was due less to foreign example than to the indwelling tendencies of the dominant school of realism.
Nevertheless Tarnowski was emphatically an aristocrat and an oligarch, proud of his ancient lineage and intensely opposed to the democratic tendencies of the szlachta.
The socialistic tendencies of subsequent thinkers have emphasized the ethical importance of altruistic action, but it must be remembered always that it is ultimately only a form of action, that it may be commended in all types of ethical theory, and that it is a practical guide only when it is applied in accordance with a definite theory of "the good."
His first work, published in 1828, as an answer to Hugh James Rose's Cambridge lectures on rationalist tendencies in German theology, showed a good deal of sympathy with the German "pietists," who had striven to deliver Protestantism from its decadence; this sympathy was misunderstood, and Pusey was himself accused of holding rationalist views.
Theodoret groundlessly accuses them of Manichean tendencies.
At the same time his inheritance of the Netherlands brought him into collision with their inhabitants who feared his absolutist tendencies, and with the Reformation The revolt in the Low Countries was inevitably favored by both France and England.
With his absolutist tendencies he was bound to wish to govern them as he did Castile, and the principle of religious toleration, which was not understood by any prince in Europe with the exception of the prince of Orange, \Villiam the Silent (q.v.), was peculiarly impossible for him.
The opposition which these innovations produced encouraged the separatist tendencies of the eastern portion of the Peninsula.
and all liberal tendencies in Spain were suppressed.
The old separatist tendencies were increased by the widening gulf between the interests of the industrial north and those of the agricultural south.
This law the congregations, hotbeds of reactionary tendencies, had ignored; and on the i9th of July 1901, the queen-regent issued a decree, countersigned by Sagasta, for enforcing its provisions.
The result of the new elections to the Cortes, declared on the 26th of April, revealed tendencies unfavourable to the government and even to the dynasty; the large towns returned 34 Republicans.
Her father, possibly influenced by Cowper's melancholy tendencies, perhaps possessed by prejudices against the marriage of cousins, interposed, and the lovers were separated - as it turned out for ever.
After about 1890 the national tendencies towards a re-alignment of political parties on socialeconomic issues were sharply displayed in Nebraska.
He throws a flood of light upon the manners and ideas of his own age; he sometimes comments with surprising shrewdness upon the broader aspects and tendencies of history.
His strong naturalist tendencies are not, however, properly to be realized without a glance at the history of his younger brothers.
Lloyd was an indefatigable opponent of the Roman Catholic tendencies of James II., and was one of the seven bishops who for refusing to have the Declaration of Indulgence read in his diocese was charged with publishing a seditious libel against the king and acquitted (1688).
After the change in tiry u- Russian policy and the failure of the powers to secure reforms, the advanced party amongst the Armenians, some of whom had been educated in Europe and been deeply affected by the free thought and Nihilistic tendencies of the day, determined to secure their object by the production of disturbances such as those that had given birth to Bulgaria.
19, 21, 23), and, in general, carries out, though from a later standpoint, tendencies already manifest in Samuel.
In letters of 1779-1780' he correctly diagnoses the ills of the Confederation, and suggests with admirable prescience the necessity of centralization in its governmental powers; he was, indeed, one of the first, if not to conceive, at least to suggest adequate checks on the anarchic tendencies of the time.
2 Hamilton's thinking, however, did carry him foul of current democratic philosophy; as he said, he presented his plan in 1787 " not as attainable, but as a model to which we ought to approach as far as possible "; moreover, he held through life his belief in its principles, and in its superiority over the government actually created; and though its inconsistency with American tendencies was yearly more apparent, he never ceased to avow on all occasions his aristocratic-monarchical partialities.
In the Mennonite church they represent the rigid, conservative party, as opposed to the Galenists, who inclined towards the Arminian latitudinarianism and admitted into their community all those who led a virtuous life, whatever their doctrinal tendencies.
During the two critical years which followed the withdrawal of Leicester, it was the statesmanship of the advocate which kept the United Provinces from falling asunder through their own inherent separatist tendencies, and prevented them from becoming an easy conquest to the formidable army of Alexander of Parma.
Following the economic tendencies of the time he issued sumptuary laws and encouraged manufactures; while to suppress the rivalry among the towns he established an order of precedence for them.
His strong conservative tendencies led him to oppose the doctrine of free trade, and disposed him to hail the coup d'etat and the new empire.
amplifyangers of Mr Blair's authoritarian tendencies are amplified by the nature of those about him.
I want to appropriate this terminology in order to identify two general tendencies within contemporary anarchism.
authoritarian tendencies are amplified by the nature of those about him.
PS then avers, " the anarchist movement is...a current that still has much to learn from other radical tendencies and social movements.
Abnormal clotting tendencies of the blood and/or blocked blood vessels.
centrist tendencies have brought about a split in the Party.
conceivable that a man serving in the British army could have hidden deep pathological tendencies for a full fifteen years?
Donna tendencies can be helped to adopt this view.
generalitythese tendencies, Christianity brings only ' the broadest generalities ' to bear on large areas of contemporary ethical debate.
latent tendencies have been accumulated from life to life.
Similarly, both parties have socially libertarian tendencies, which are a minority in each party.
becoming more nuanced about such constitutive dynamics will not guarantee that we can interrupt the tendencies upon which he focuses here.
potentiality does not possess potentialities for change which would not be directly related to the tendencies emerging from its nature.
Prima donna rainmakers The potential 'prima donna ' tendencies that these small number of rainmakers display can be very damaging to the recruiting firm.
retardation of the economic development of Spain inevitably weakened the centralist tendencies inherent in capitalism.
Generally, given the emphasis on formalistic ritualism, we may call these tendencies of the Moscow Patriarchate a ' High Church ' .
schizoid tendencies such as I have and any intimate encounter becomes a challenge.
self-destructive tendencies, which might mean wiping out the civilization.
I just lost someone really special to me because I upset them with my Aspie tendencies.
tendencyst way to counteract tendencies toward bureaucratism is unrestricted criticism.
tendencys, after all, a government with one of the most centralizing tendencies in recent history.
tendencypasses created by the EU's present strategic choices reinforce these tendencies.
tendencyk I still had depressive and suicidal tendencies but never did anything again.
tendencya can purify the mind, but it cannot eradicate unwholesome latent tendencies.
tendencyngers of Mr Blair's authoritarian tendencies are amplified by the nature of those about him.
tendencyly, by avoiding protectionist tendencies when trade imbalances begin to appear.
tendencykers with prima Donna tendencies can be helped to adopt this view.
tendencyches his piece, most basically, as a comparison of two viewpoints, " two anarchist tendencies.
tendencyn turn predisposes to certain types of perceptions and action tendencies.
unwholesome tendencies we accumulate today condition future moments of kusala citta and akusala citta.
worrisome tendencies and musical dexterity.
The main proof of the objective value of the view we may gain will rather lie in the degree in which it succeeds in assigning to every element of culture its due position, or in which it is able to appreciate and combine different and apparently opposite tendencies and interests, in the sort of justice with which it weighs our manifold desires and aspirations, balancing them in due proportions, refusing to sacrifice to a one-sided principle any truth or conviction which experience has proven to be useful and necessary.
As to this point there are two schools, or rather two tendencies, among Catholics: some extend the privilege of infallibility to all official exercise of the supreme magisterium, and declare infallible, e.g.
Throughout the revolutionary period he represented in cabinets with Prim, Serrano and Ruiz Zorilla, and lastly under King Amadeus, the advanced Radical tendencies of the men who wanted to give Spain a democratic monarchy.
First he attempted to hold Vienna against the imperial troops, and, after the capitulation, hastened to Pressburg to offer his services to Kossuth, first defending himself, in a long memorial, from the accusations of treachery to the Polish cause and of aristocratic tendencies which the more fanatical section of the Polish emigrant Radicals repeatedly brought against him.
The revolution was but temporary, and was rather a symptom of democratic tendencies in the state than the sign of any capacity for government on the part of the working classes.
Charles Albert felt a certain interest in Liberal ideas and was always surrounded by young nobles of Carbonarist and anti-Austrian tendencies, and was therefore regarded with suspicion by his royal relatives, Metter nich, too, had an instinctive dislike for him, and proposed to exclude him from the succession by marrying one of the kings daughters to Francis of Modena, and getting the Salic law abolished so that the succession would pass to the duke and Austria would thus dominate Piedmont.
So great was Bismarcks distrust of Italian parliamentary instability, his doubts of Italian capacity for offensive warfare and his fear of the Francophil tendencies of Depretis, that fof many weeks the Italian ambassador at Berlin was unable te obtain audience of the chancellor.
(4) The difficulty with the lastmentioned position is that it under-estimates the speculative tendencies of the errorists and ignores the direct influence of oriental theosophy.
In a small but influential section of the educated classes there was a conviction that the revolutionary tendencies, which culminated in Nihilism and Anarchism, proceeded from the adoption of cosmopolitan rather than national principles in all spheres of educational and administrative activity, and that the best remedy for the evils from which the country was suffering was to be found in a return to the three great principles of Nationality, Orthodoxy and Autocracy.
He ventures into a more disputable region when he penetrates into the obscure realm of the Abrahamic migration and finds in the Abrahamic traditions of Genesis the higher Canaanite monotheistic tendencies evolved out of Babylonian astral religion, and reflected in the name El `Elyon (Gen.
The conflicting tendencies were incompatible, but Judaism retained the 2 See Hebrew Religion, § 8 seq., and the relevant portions of the histories of Israel.
By arbitrary divisions and rearrangements the doctrinal statements of this "science of faith" could be made to serve the most diverse dogmatic tendencies.
are of uncertain date and authorship, and moreover are often so vague and mystical that they are of doubtful scientific value, beyond reflecting the tendencies of the age.
1813) for seditious libel in 1800, drove the lawyers for the defence from the court, and evoked the wrath of the Republicans, who were stirred to action by a political harangue on the evil tendencies of democracy which he delivered as a charge to a grand jury at Baltimore in 1803.
It will be more appropriate here, without giving what would be a needless repetition of considerations, both historical and theoretical, which appear in other articles, to confine ourselves to two general questions, (I) the history of the various schemes of classification, or Morphography, and (2) the consideration of the main tendencies iii the study of zoology since Darwin.
The fact, moreover, that although he had some speculative tendencies in favour of popular liberties, and even perhaps of republicanism, he represented no real political principle, inevitably weakened his position, and when the break up of the Fronde came he was left in the lurch, having more than once in the meanwhile been in no small danger from his own party.
Other early metropolitan foundations have been moved in accordance with modern tendencies either into the country or to sites aloof from the heart of London.
In common with other Stoics of the middle period, he displayed eclectic tendencies, following the older Stoics, Panaetius, Plato and Aristotle.
The Constantinopolitan Acoemeti took a prominent part in the Christological controversies of the 5th and 6th centuries, at first strenuously opposing Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, in his attempted compromise with the monophysites; but afterwards, in Justinian's reign, falling under ecclesiastical censure for Nestorian tendencies.
The Gheel system is regarded as the most humane method of dealing with the insane who have no homicidal tendencies, as it keeps up as long as possible their interest in life.
He also assumes that" Evolution "is a real, nay, an ultimate law of nature, but his evidence only goes to show that it is a result, in some cases, of the complex interaction of laws, which, like Rhythm, Segregation, &c., are in their turn only tendencies, and may be, and often are, counteracted.
There was talk of instituting a central Italian kingdom with Leopold as king, to form part of a larger Italian federation, but in the meanwhile the grand-duke, alarmed at the revolutionary and republican agitations in Tuscany and encouraged by the success of the Austrian arms, was, according to Montanelli, negotiating with Field-Marshal Radetzky and with Pius IX., who had now abandoned his Liberal tendencies, and fled to Gaeta.
It is entirely independent of the real Prosper, and in parts even shows Pelagian tendencies and sympathies.
It is difficult to form a clear idea of this, first, because his influence was perpetually traversed by opposite tendencies; in the second place, because the force of circumstances compelled him, again and again, to shift his standpoint; and finally because personal considerations largely intermingled with his foreign policy, and made it more elusive and ambiguous than it need have been.
He was above all concerned to nip in the bud any tendencies in the bureaucracy to revolt, and it was on his initiative that, on the 4th of January 1882, a royal ordinance laid it down as the duty of all officials to give the government their unconditional support at political elections.
More than all, perhaps, since his conception of ancient Roman story made laws and manners of more account than shadowy lawgivers, he undesignedly influenced history by popularizing that conception of it which lays stress on institutions, tendencies and social traits to the neglect of individuals.
Spencer widens the empirical theory of the origin of knowledge by his brilliant hypothesis of inherited organized tendencies, which has influenced all later psychology and epistemology, and tends to a kind of compromise between Hume and Kant.
This document annulled the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, with its schismatic tendencies, but at the same time confirmed the preponderating influence of the king upon the Gallican Church - a concession which in spite of its many dubious aspects at least made the sovereign the natural defender of the Church and gave him the strongest motive for remaining Catholic. The war for the duchy of Urbino (1516-17) entailed disastrous consequences, as from it dates the complete disorganization of papal finance.
The open protection it accorded to the Old Catholic movement contributed in no small measure to estrange those influential elements which, whilst favouring the suppression of Ultramontane tendencies, desired no schism in the Church, and viewed with horror the idea of a National Church in Bismarck's sense (see OLD Catholics).
This weakness was due not to attacks from without - for orthodox Protestantism had long since lost its aggressive force - but to disruptive tendencies within the Church; the Enlightenment of the 18th century had sapped the foundations of the faith among the world of intellect and fashion; the development of Gallicanism and Febronianism threatened to leave the Holy See but a shadowy pre-eminence over a series of national churches, and even to obliterate the frontier line between Catholicism and Protestantism.
He makes the apostle prophesy, vaguely of course, the evil tendencies which were to come upon the church; but the internal evidence, W.
Cast iron railroad carwheels, the tread or rim of which must be intensely hard so as to endure the grinding action of the brakeshoe while their central parts must have good shock-resisting power, are given such moderate silicon-content, preferably between o 50 and o 80%, as in and by itself leaves the tendencies toward graphite-forming and toward cementite-forming nearly in balance, so that they are easily controlled by the rate of cooling.
He felt, no doubt, that the object of epic poetry was not to teach moral lessons or doctrines of faith, but to depict the good and bad tendencies of the human mind, the struggles and passions of men; and indeed in the whole range of Persian literature only Firdusi and Fakhr-uddin As`ad Jorjani, the author of the older epopee Wis u.
Mystical tendencies in Mahommedanism arose mainly on Persian soil (see SuFiism), and Von Kremer has shown that these Eastern tendencies fell in with a disposition to asceticism and flight from the world which had arisen among the Arabs before Islam under Christian influence.
Of his numerous publications in book form, the chief during his lifetime were Charles Elwood, or the Infidel Converted (1840, autobiographical), in which he strongly favoured the Roman Catholic Church; and The American Republic: its Constitution, Tendencies and Destiny (1865), in which he based government on ethics, declaring the national existence to be a moral and even a theocratic entity, not depending for validity upon the sovereignty of the people.