"We're interested in one of the tenants," Fred finally broke in.
The duties of the king towards his tenants are prominent in the assises.
Fitzherbert, in deploring the gradual discontinuance of the practice of marling land, had alluded to the grievance familiar in modern times of tenants "who, if they should marl and make their holdings much better, fear lest they should be put out, or make a great fine or else pay more rent."
The borrowers may have been tenants.
In 1340 there were no merchants there, only tenants of lands, but its prosperity increased during the 15th and 16th centuries, and it was assessed at £6:12:8 in 1534.
The landlord was bound to keep his tenants' dwellings.
Mr. Levy was one of my best tenants.
We cannot be certain, indeed, how far the Frankish lords oppressed their Syrian tenants: the stories of such oppression have been discredited; while if we may trust the evidence of a Mahommedan traveller, Ibn Jubair, the lot of the Mahommedan who lived on Frankish manors was better than it had been under their native lords.'
Between you and me, I think he chased out some of the earlier tenants with the volume.
The cultivators, whether owners of the plantations, as is usual in some districts, or tenants, as is customary in others, are financed as a rule by commission agents.
owners, part owners, owners and tenants, and managers) fell from 64.8 to 42.1% from 1880 to 1900, and the percentage operated by cash tenants increased from 13.8 in 1880 to 24.9 in 1900, and by share tenants from 21.5 in 1880 to 33 o in 190o; the percentage of farms operated by white farmers was 49.8 in 1900.
The ancient royal tenants became the feudatories of the great nobles, and fell naturally into two classes, the nobiles bene possessionati, and the nobiles unius sessionis, in other words the richer and the poorer gentry.
This change led to the gradual disappearance of tenants in villeinage - the villeins and cottiers - and the rise on the one hand of the small independent farmer, on the other of the hired labourer.
The author, writing from the landowner's point of view, ascribes the rise in rents and the rise in the price of corn' to the " emulation " of tenants in competing for holdings, a practice implying that the agriculture of the period was prosperous.
granted the tenants of Penzance whatever profits might accrue from the "ankerage, kylage and busselage" of ships resorting thither, so long as they should repair and maintain the quay and bulwarks for the safeguard of the ships and town.
Assisted no doubt by their judicial control, the Eupatridae also tended to become sole owners of the land, reducing the original freeholders or tenants to the position of serfs.
At the latter date besides seventy-three villeins, bordars and serfs there were forty cervisarii, a species of unfree tenants who rendered their custom in the form of beer.
We have seen that free persons had all along been to some extent employed in the cultivation of land as hired labourers, and, as we shall presently find, also as tenants on the great estates.
So long as they were fulfilled, he, and his heir after him, held the fief as his property, practically and in relation to all under tenants as if precarium and patrocinium were lacking.
Of these 41,661 cultivate their own land, 15,408 are fixed tenants, 24,031 are regular labourers, and no less than 72,753 day labourers; while there are 35,056 shepherds.
The class of coloni appears to have been composed partly of tenants by contract who had incurred large arrears of rent and were detained on the estates as debtors (obaerati), partly of foreign captives or immigrants who were settled in this condition on the land, and partly of small proprietors and other poor men who voluntarily adopted the status as an improvement in their position.
At one time the land was held on the "runrig" system - that is, different tenants held alternate ridges - but now as a rule each holding is separate.
In 1190 tenants of Wisbech Barton acquired an exemption from tolls throughout England, confirmed by John, Henry IV.
The men of Lowestoft as tenants on ancient demesne of the crown possessed many privileges, but had no definite burghal rights until 1885.
(casale) the rustici were grouped in families (foci): the tenants paid from 4 to a of the crop, besides a poll-tax and labour-dues.
granted two fairs to his tenants and residents in the borough, to be held on the vigils, feasts and morrows of St Matthew and of SS.
The god of a city was originally owner of its land, which encircled it with an inner ring of irrigable arable land and an outer fringe of pasture, and the citizens were his tenants.
The town was a borough by prescription, and its privileges began with the grants made to the priory and its tenants.
Should he desire to sell his estates, the right of pre-emption belonged to the tenants, or, in default, to the neighbours.
The Vakuf tenants were at that time extremely prosperous, for their rent had been fixed for ten years in advance on the basis of the year's harvest, and so had not risen proportionately to the value of their holdings.
The first charter was not obtained until 1573, when it was incorporated by Elizabeth under the title of a "guardian and free tenants" of the town of Sittingbourne.
At first all counts were reckoned as princes of the Empire (Reichsfiirsten); but since the end of the 12th century this rank was restricted to those who were immediate tenants of the crown,' the other counts of the Empire (Reichsgrafen) being placed among the free lords (harones, liberi domini).
He protests against Peel's Income Tax Bill of 1842; against the Aberdeen Act 1843, as conferring undue power on church courts; against the perpetuation of diocesan courts for probate and administration; against Lord Stanley's absurd bill providing compensation for the destruction of fences to dispossessed Irish tenants; and against the Parliamentary Proceedings Bill, which proposed that all bills, except money bills, having reached a certain stage or having passed one House, should be continued to next session.
The duties which the count should perform passed to the proprietor, who now represented the government for all his tenants free and unfree.
Even in Roman days the proprietor had exercised a jurisdiction over the disputes of his unfree tenants.
Whether this could by its own growth have been extended over his free tenants and carried so far as to absorb a local court, like that of the hundred, into private possession, is not certain.
He forced them to become his dependants in return under a great variety of forms, but especially developing thereby the precarium land tenure and the patrocinium personal service, and organizing a private jurisdiction over his tenants, and a private army for defence.
The taxation of the tsar's slyuzhnuie lyudi, or military tenants, was a first step towards the proportional taxation of the hitherto privileged classes.
About onefourth of the area is under cultivation by private owners and tenants.
Although Macao is de facto a colonial possession of Portugal, the Chinese government persistently refused to recognize the claim of the Portuguese to territorial rights, alleging that they were merely lessees or tenants at will, and until 1849 the Portuguese paid to the Chinese an annual rent of X71 per annum.
As they were dependent on the protection of the landlords, the Mahommedans were docile tenants, and their competition weighed heavily on the Christians.
The word is also used of the body of tenants attending a manorial court, or of the court in a court baron (consisting of the tenants that do homage and make inquiries and presentments, termed a homage jury).
Of the farms 65.1% were cultivated by owners in 1900, a decrease from 76.2% in 1880; and 19.5% were cultivated by cash tenants, an increase from 4.5% in 1880.
After 1880 the percentage of farms operated by share tenants slowly but steadily decreased, falling from 19.4% in 1880 to 15.4% in 1900.
When it had become known that the colony was within the territory of the New England Council, John Pierce, in 1621, procured from that body a grant which made the colonists its tenants.
Demesne of the crown, or royal demesne, was that part of the crown lands not granted out to feudal tenants, but which remained under the management of stewards appointed by the crown.
The class of peasant proprietors being restricted to a small number of wealthy peasants, the bulk have remained tenants at will; they are very miserable, and about one-fourth of them are continually wandering in search of work.
More than two-thirds of the farms (152,956) were operated by owners, or part owners, 29,900 were operated by share tenants, and 24,303 by cash tenants.
Besides rent, many of the tenants were required to render certain services to the proprietor, and in case a tenant sold his interest in a farm to another he was required to pay the proprietor one-tenth to one-third of the amount received as an alienation fine.
Stephen van Rensselaer, the proprietor of Rensselaerwyck, had suffered the rents, especially those of his poorer tenants, to fall much in arrears, and when after his death (1839) the agents of his heirs attempted to collect them they encountered violent opposition.
Governor Seward called out the militia to preserve order but asked the legislature to consider the tenants' grievances.
The increase of copyhold under Abbot John de Rutherwyk led to discontent, the tenants in 1381 rising and burning the rolls.
The tenants (who had been favoured with good years) were with very few exceptions prospering.
Crown tenants under this system had no right of purchase.
In the same year there were 13,370 farms exclusive of those on Indian reservations; of these, 6665 contained less than 175 acres each; 1289 contained more than moo acres each; 8043 contained some irrigated land, the average amount being 118 acres; 11,592 were worked by owners or part owners, 624 by cash tenants, and 606 by share tenants.
In 1900 share tenants worked 18.4% of the farms and cash tenants, 3.4%.
The one may enter into contract with the other respecting property, and they may hold property as joint tenants.
In the case of small and irregular consumers, such as the inhabitants of model dwellings and flats inhabited chiefly by working-class tenants, coin-in-the-slot meters are much employed.
With regard to tenure, 74.7% of the farms were operated by their owners, 15.2% by part owners and 7.2% by share tenants.
A special enactment protects tenants against arbitrary treatment at the hands of landlords in respect of notice to quit and raising of rents.
Furia, in feudal law, was the right granted to tenants having major jurisdiction to erect a gallows within the limits of their fief.
In 1890, 69% of the farms were worked by the owners or their managers, in 1900 only 66.4%; but share tenants outnumber cash tenants by almost three to one.
Farms in the more sterile parts of New Hampshire were abandoned when the depleted soil and the old methods of agriculture made it impossible for owners or tenants to compete with western farmers.
Of the total number of farms in 1900, 26,344, or 89.8%, were operated by owners or part owners, 1639 by cash tenants and 546 by share tenants.
Mason presented no claim to the right of government, and as to the title to the lands claimed by him the court decided that this was a question between him and the several tenants to be determined by the local court having jurisdiction in such matters.
This was the principal outcome of Mason's persistent efforts to establish his rights to the land; for although he succeeded in procuring the appointment of officers who supported his claims, and although decrees were issued in his favour, the tenants, who contended that they had profited nothing from what his grandfather had done or that they were on lands which Wheelwright had bought from the Indians, resisted the enforcement of those decrees.
Here the tenants of the church lands were accustomed to pay their rents.
A new system of management and high rents were imposed, in consequence of which numbers of the tacksmen, or large tenants, emigrated to North America.
As to method of cultivation, 36.3 per cent of the farms were in 1900 managed by the owners, 33.3% by cash renters, 24.4% by share tenants, and the remaining 6% by other methods.
The National government, until the administration of President Jackson, regarded the Indian tribes as sovereign nations with whom it alone had the power to treat, while Georgia held that the tribes were dependent communities with no other right to the soil than that of tenants at will.
in Marylebone for poor tenants.
The two chief items of the ministerial parliamentary programme were the extension of the new Education Act to London and Mr Wyndham's Irish Land Purchase Act, by which the British exchequer should advance the capital for enabling the tenants in Ireland to buy out the landlords.
More than seven-tenths (160,105) were worked by owners or part owners, and onl y 34,529 by share tenants, and 2 3,737 by cash tenants.
The club was suppressed by the dominant "Caps," who also sought to ruin Sprengtporten financially by inciting his tenants in Finland to bring actions against him for alleged extortion, not in the ordinary courts but in the riksdag itself, where Sprengtporten's political adversaries would be his judges.
But in any event it is manifest that their condition was in many respects similar to that of a vast number of unquestionably feudal and military tenants who made their appearance after the Norman Conquest.
And if the designation of knights was first applied to the military tenants of the earls, bishops and barons - who although they held their lands of mesne lords owed their services to the king - the extension of that designation to the whole body of military tenants need not have been a very violent or prolonged process.
in direct taxation; were householders or lodgers as defined in 1887, or tenants of a vessel of, at least, 24 tons; were the recipients of certain salaries or had certain deposits in the public funds or savings banks.
During his pontificate the estates increased in value, while at the same time the real grievances of the tenants were redressed and their general position was materially improved.
The tenants, or "barons," elected themselves a mayor and coroners, but the constable received the assize of ale.
A custom by the religious to obtain exemption for lands let to their tenants by means of bulls from the pope was put an end to by a statute of Henry IV.
As already indicated above, certain lands are exempt from payment of tithes while in the occupation of their owners, either by reason of their having been parcel of the possessions of any privileged order, or by reason of their being of the tenure of ancient demesne and exempt whilst in the tenure, occupation or manurance of the Crown, its tenants, farmers and lessees or under-tenants, although they are subject to tithes when aliened or occupied by subjects not being such; and in these and in all such cases, with the consent of such owners, a fixed rent charge may be substituted for any contingent rent charge imposed on them (2 & 3 Vict.
The class to which Hutten and his friend, Franz von Sickingen, a daring and ambitious Rhenish baron, belonged, was that of the small feudal tenants in chief, the Ritterschaft or knights of the Empire.
GODIVA, a Saxon lady, who, according to the legend, rode naked through the streets of Coventry to gain from her husband a remission of the oppressive toll imposed on his tenants.
All tenants are under obligation to guard or repair the banks of the Nile in times of flood, or in any case of sudden emergency.
This he did by recovering the alienated royal demesnes in every direction, and from henceforth the annual landgilde, or rent, paid by the royal tenants, became the monarch's principal source of revenue.
Lord Maxwell, earl of Morton, as a Roman Catholic, mustered his tenants here to act in concert with the Armada; but on the approach of King James VI.
In 1459 Ralph, Lord Greystock, is said to have granted a charter, no longer extant, to his tenants in the manor, and in 1674 the freeholders, "borough-holders" and copyholders, of Wem brought an action against Daniel Wicherley, then lord of the manor, for the establishment of customs and privileges chiefly connected with the tenure of their lands and tenements, which was decided in their favour.
A large amount of capital was lost by tenants, and a few farms were thrown here and there upon the landlords' hands, but in no district was rent extinguished or were holdings abandoned.
They were kept in repair by the tenants and cotters, and, when their labour was not sufficient, by the landlords, who were required to " stent " (assess) themselves, customs also being sometimes levied at bridges, ferries and causeways.
Further to encourage the trade it was enacted in 1686 that the bodies of all persons, excepting poor tenants and cotters, should be buried in plain linen only, spun and made within the kingdom.
Beneath the freeholders and noblesse were free tenants, farmers paying rents, mainly in kind, and in services of labour and of war.
The gentry, who had proclaimed their inability to suppress conventicles, were ordered to sign a bond making them responsible for their tenants, and were bound over to keep the king's peace by " law burrows," a method common in private life but unheard of between monarch and people.
But the hereditable jurisdictions and feudal powers, as of calling out tenants by the fiery cross and punishing the peaceful by burning their cottages, had never been abolished; the chief's will was law, and if the chiefs headed a rising, their clansmen would follow them, willingly or " forced out."
The prevailing form of tenure is that of owners, 60 7% of the farms being so operated in 190o; but during the decade1890-1900the number of farms cultivated by cash tenants increased 30.8%, and the number by share tenants 24.5%, while the increase of cultivation by owners was only I %.
His ancestors in the 18th century had sent recruits to the famous brigade of Irish exiles in the service of France,' and those who remained at home either lived as tenants on the possessions of which they had once been lords, or gradually made money by smuggling, a very general calling in that wild region.
On the 15th of October 1604 Chichester was appointed lorddeputy of Ireland He announced his policy in a proclamation wherein he abolished the semi-feudal rights of the native Irish chieftains, substituting for them fixed dues, while their tenants were to become dependent "wholly and immediately upon his majesty."
The cultivators, including landowners, tenants, hired labourers and slaves, represent the working population of the country, and as industrious and successful agriculturists they are unsurpassed in Asia.
While the claim of Government against the zamindars was thus fixed for ever, it was intended that the rights of the zamindars over their own tenants should be equally restricted.
At the same time the operation of the revenue sale law had introduced a new race of zamindars, who were bound to their tenants by no traditions of hereditary sympathy, but whose sole object was to make a profit out of their newly purchased property.
Later the Bengal Tenancy Act of 1885, since amended by an act of 1898, created various classes of privileged tenants, including one class known as " settled ryots," in which the qualifying condition is holding land, not necessarily the same land, for twelve years continuously in one village.
Outside the privileged classes of tenants the act gives valuable protection to tenants-at-will.
The progress in the acquisition of occupancy rights by tenants may be judged from the fact that, whereas in 1877 it was stated of the Champaran district that the cultivator had hardly acquired any permanent interest in the soil, the settlement officer in 1900 reported that 87% of the occupied area was in the possession of tenants with occupancy rights or holding at fixed rates.
That in the same areas the State has not objected, and does not hesitate, to interfere by legislation to protect the interests of the tenants against oppression at the hands of the landlord.
More than four-fifths of them were worked by owners, and the remainder chiefly by share tenants.
These commoners might be the several owners, the inhabitants of a parish, freemen of a borough, tenants of a manor, &c. The opening of the fields by throwing down the fences took place on Lammas Day (12th of August) for corn-lands and on Old Midsummer Day (6th of July) for grass.
Its tenants were obliged to render careful accounts of their administration of the property entrusted to their care, which were preserved in the archives of the temple.
On the one hand, the Saxon ceorls (twihyndemen), although considered as including the typical freemen in the earlier laws (1Ethelberht, Hlothhere and Edric, Ine), gradually became differentiated through the action of political and economic causes, and many of them had to recognize the patronage of magnates or to seek livelihood as tenants on the estates of the latter.
The protection of the assizes was tendered in civil matters to free tenants and refused to villeins.
This exceptional procedure does not simply go back to the rule that persons who had been tenants of the king ought not to have their condition altered for the worse in consequence of a royal grant.
In the Benares division, which was the first portion to come under British administration, the land revenue was permanently fixed in 1795, on the same principles that had been previously adopted in Bengal; and there a special class of tenants, as well as the landlords, enjoy a privileged status.
The only privileged class of tenants are those possessing " occupancy " rights, as defined by statute.
All other tenants are merely tenants-at-will.
His civil reforms include the abolition of the system of prepaying taxes which had weighed heavily upon the wealthier proprietors, the elevation of the serfs into a class of free tenants, the remodelling of family and of maritime law.
In actual numbers the white farmers heavily predominate, whether as owners, tenants for cash or tenants on shares; but if we look at the numbers within each race holding by these respective tenures (65.
(I) The first, which occurs in old law, is from a Law-Latin averagium, and is connected with the Domesday Book avera, the "day's work which the king's tenants gave to the sheriff"; it is supposed to be a form of the O.
As meaning some form of feudal service rendered by tenants to their superiors, it survived for a long time in the Scottish phrase "arriage and carriage," this form of the word being due to a contraction into "arage."
As regards tenure, 90.6% of the farms in 1900 were operated by owners, 2.2% by cash tenants, and 7.2% by share tenants.
For the danger now was that some gentlemen were already cruel in exactions of their tenants, "requiring of them whatever before they paid to the Church, so that the papistical tyranny shall only be changed into the tyranny of the lords or of the laird."
The greater part of the land has always been held by small independent farmers (only about 15% of the farms are worked by tenants), but until late in the 18th century a curious method of parcelling the land resulted in each man's property consisting of a number of detached plots or strips, the divisions often becoming so minute that dissension was inevitable.
Thus there was the rusthall tenure, under which the tenants, instead of paying rent, were obliged to equip and maintain a cavalry soldier and horse, while the knektkallarer supplied duly equipped foot soldiers.
But in the middle of the century the natural beds had been almost exhausted and the system of government control, letting "parks" to private tenants, and artificial cultivation was instituted.
Its representatives continued for some time to claim the sovereignty; but the country was practically very much in the condition of Germany at about the same time - chieftains of almost independent power ruled from their castles on the hill-tops over the adjacent valleys, engaged in petty wars, and conducted plundering expeditions against the neighbouring tenants, whilst the great abbeys were places of refuge for the studious or religious, and their heads were the only rivals to the barons in social state, and in many respects the only protectors and friends of the people.
Cultivation by owners is the prevailing form of tenure, 91.3% of the farms being so operated in 1900 (2.3% by cash tenants and 6.4% by share tenants).
Of the total number of farms 168,814 were operated by the owners (in 1904, 161,037 by owners and 914 by managers), 22,482 (in 1904, 19,525) by share tenants, 973 1 (in 1904, 7685) by cash tenants; and 312,462 of the inhabitants of the state, or 34 5% of all who were engaged in gainful occupations, were farmers.
A mesne lord is one who has tenants holding under him, while himself holding of a superior lord.
In 1461 the men of the town, tenants of the manor which had been granted by the monks of Bury St Edmunds to Gilbert, earl of Clare, and had passed to the Crown with the honour of Clare, claimed exemption from toll, pontage and similar dues as their prescriptive right.
Thus in some lands bronze may have continued to be a substance of extreme value until the Iron Age was reached, and in tumuli in - which more than one body was interred, as was frequently the case, it would only be with the remains of the richer tenants of the tomb that the more valuable objects would be placed.
centage of cash tenants increased from 10 5 to 15.3; and that of share tenants remained about stationary, being 14.1 in 1880 and 14.6 in 1900.
Of these the first is that the owner may be rated instead of the occupier, at the option of the urban authority, where the value of the premises is under Rio, where the premises are let to weekly or monthly tenants, or where the premises are let in separate apartments, or the rents become payable or are collected at any shorter period than quarterly.
The number of farms in 1900 was 59,299; of these 18,644 contained between 50 and 100 acres and 17,191 contained between Ioo and 175 acres, the average size being 106.2 acres; 54,263 (or 91.5%) were operated by their owners, 775 were operated by part owners, 2030 by cash tenants, and only 745 by share tenants.
The proportion of farms operated by owners decreased from 95.4% (9019 farms) in 1880 to 91.2% (17,674 farms) in 190o; those operated by cash tenants increased from o.6% (60 farms) in 1880 to 2.6% (506 farms) in 1900, and those operated by share tenants from 4% (373 farms) in 1880 to 6.2% (1207 farms) in 1900.
The state, for instance, could perhaps more usefully engage in some great works, such as establishing reservoirs of water for the use of town populations on a systematic plan, or making a tunnel under one of the channels between Ireland and Great Britain, or a sea-canal across Scotland between the Clyde and the Forth, or purchasing land from Irish landlords and transferring it to tenants, than allow money to fructify or not fructify, as the case may be, in the pockets of individuals.
By the Court of Probate Act 1857 the college was empowered to sell its real and personal estate and to surrender its charter, and it was enacted that on such surrender the college should be dissolved and the property thereof belong to the then existing members as tenants in common for their own use and benefit.
The average size of a farm was 119.3 acres; 39.9% of all farm families owned a home clear of all incumbrance; and the percentages of farms operated by owners, cash tenants and share tenants were respectively 69.5, 11.
A great stimulus was given to the improvement of land by the passing in England of a series of acts of parliament, which removed certain obstacles that effectually hindered tenants with limited interests from investing capital in works of drainage and kindred amelioration.
Nearly four-fifths of the farms (28,636) were operated by owners or part owners, 3729 were operated by share tenants, 2637 by cash tenants and 835 by owners and tenants or managers.
A flaith by arranging that his tenants should make their payments at different periods of the year, secured a constant and copious supply without an inconvenient surplus.
To the French or Norman knight all peasants on his manor seemed to be villeins, and he failed to understand the distinction between freemen who had personally commended themselves to his English predecessor but still owned their land, and the mass of ordinary servile tenants.
Henry at once issued a proclamation and charter promising the redress of all the grievances with which his brother had afflicted his feudal tenants, the clergy and the whole nation.
The landowners found thousands of the crofts on which their villeins had been wont to dwell vacant, and could not fill them with new tenants.
Gradually the landowners discovered that the only practical way out of their difficulties was to give up the old custom of working the manorial demesne by the forced labor of their villeins, and to cut it up into farms which were rented out to free tenants, and cultivated by them.
In the toWns the new 10 household franchise secured a democratic constituency; in the counties the inclusion of tenants at will (of 50 annual rent), as well as of copyholders and leaseholders, only tended to increase the influence of the landlords.
He increased the grant which was made to the Roman Catholic College at Maynooth; he established three colleges in the north, south and west of Ireland for the undenominational education of the middle classes; he appointed a commissionthe Devon commission, as it was called, from the name of the nobleman who presided over itto investigate the conditions on which Irish land was held; and, after the report of the commission, he introduced, though he failed to carry, a measure for remedying some of the grievances of the Irish tenants.
The encumbered estates act, though it substituted a solvent for an insolvent proprietary, placed the Irish tenants at the mercy of landlords of whom they had no previous knowledge, who were frequently absentees, who bought the land as a matter of business, and who dealt with it on business principles by raising the rent.
The new poor law, by throwing the maintenance of the poor on the soil, encouraged landlords to extricate themselves from their responsibilities by evicting their tenants.
The largef tenantry, who were supposed to be able to look after their own interests, were entirely debarred, and tenants enjoying leases were excluded from claiming compensation, except for tillages, buildings and reclamation of lands.
SUBINFEUDATION, in English law, the practice by which tenants, holding land under the king or other superior lord, carved out in their turn by subletting or alienating a part of their lands new and distinct tenures.
The tenants were termed "mesne-lords," with regard to those holding from them, the immediate tenant being tenant in capite.
But the Berlin Treaty (1878) stipulated that Servia should construct part of the international railway to Constantinople and to Salonica, and should pay the Turkish landowners an indemnity for the estates which had been taken from them and divided among their Servian tenants.
In1226-1227when it belonged to Hugh Despenser he obtained various privileges for himself and his men and tenants there, among which were quittance from suits at the county and hundred courts, of sheriffs' aids and of view of frankpledge, and also a market every Thursday and a fair on the vigil, day and morrow of St Peter ad vincula.
In 1900, 59,367 (or a little more than one-half of all) farms were worked by owners or part owners, 33,347 were worked by share tenants, and 13,903 were worked by cash tenants.
The hieromnemones were required periodically to inspect the lands belonging to this god, to punish those who encroached, and to see that the tenants rendered their quota of produce; and the council held the states responsible for the right performance of such duties by their respective deputies (CIA.
Another outstanding feature has been the effect of the Land Purchase Acts in transferring the ownership of the land from the landlords to the tenants.
Under the act of 1881, down to the 31st of March 1906, the rents of 360,135 holdings, representing nearly 11,000,000 acres, had been fixed for the first statutory term of 15 years either by the land commissioners or by agreements between landlords and tenants, the aggregate reduction being over 20% as compared with the old rents.
Although the acts of 1870 and 1881 provided facilities for the purchase of holdings by the tenants, it was only after the passing of the Ashbourne Act in 1885 that the transfer of ownership to the occupying tenants began on an extended scale.
Under the Wyndham Act of 1903 the process was greatly extended., The following tables give summarized particulars, for the period from the 1st of November 1903 to the 31st of March 1906, of (1) estates for which purchase agreements were lodged in cases of sale direct from landlords to tenants; (2) estates for the purchase of which the Land Commission entered into agreements under sects.
It will be seen further that the act operated almost entirely by means of direct sales by landlords to tenants.
The religious sept or family consisted in the first instance not only of the ecclesiastical persons to whom the gift was made, but of all the celi or vassals, tenants and slaves, connected with the land bestowed.
The good lands were let to a class of tenants called fuidirs, of whom there were several kinds, some grazing the land with their own cattle, others receiving both land and cattle from the lord.
It is probable that in the neglect of the grantees to give proper leases to their tenants arose the Ulster tenant-right custom which attracted so much notice in more modern times.
The Irish Catholic gentry were removed bodily with their servants and such tenants as consented to follow them, and with what remained of their cattle.
g g Y protected the tenants' improvements and provided compensation for disturbance within certain limits, but not where the ejectment was for non-payment of rent.
For refusing to receive rents at figures fixed by the tenants, Captain Boycott (1832-1897), Lord Erne's agent in Mayo, was severely " boycotted," the name of the first victim being given to the new system.
By the first tenants at will were empowered to sell their occupation interests, the landlord retaining a right of pre-emption.
When the bill became law in August he could not prevent the tenants from using it, but he did what he could to discourage them in order to please his American paymasters, who repudiated all parliamentary remedies.
In September a convention was held in Dublin, and Parnell reported its action to the American Land League: " Resolutions were adopted for national self-government, the unconditional liberation of the land for the people, tenants not to use the rent-fixing clauses of the Land Act, but follow old Land League lines, and rely on the old methods to reach justice.
The executive of the League is empowered to select test cases, in order that tenants in surrounding districts may realize, by the results of cases decided, the hollowness of the act" (Barry O'Brien, Life of C. S.
The Land League having retorted by ordering the tenants to pay no rent, it was declared illegal, " Treaty.
Money enough was advanced out of the surplus property of the Irish Church to pay for tenants of holdings under X30 one year's rent upon all arrears accruing before November 1880, giving them a clear receipt to that date on condition of their paying another year themselves; of the many reasons against the measure the most important was that it was a concession to agrarian violence.
" Tenants," to quote the Cowper Commission again, " who have paid even the judicial rents have been summoned to appear before self-constituted tribunals, and if they failed to do so, or on appearing failed to satisfy those tribunals, have been fined or boycotted."
He introduced a Land Bill to relieve tenants from legal process if they paid half their rent, and foretold disorder in consequence of its rejection.
The " dissentient Liberals," as Gladstone always called them, were not converted by the abandonment of the Purchase Bill, and on the 7th of June 93 of them voted against the second reading, [From Anglo-Norman Invasion] of this movement was that tenants should offer what, , they were pleased to consider a fair rent, and if it was refused, should pay the money into the hands of a committee.
Lord Barrymore) for his exertions in favour of a brother landlord, his tenants in Tipperary were ordered to give up their holdings.
We are the only Protestant tenants on the Cashel estate.
The remainder of the tenants, about thirty, are clearing everything off their land, and say they will allow themselves to be evicted."
In the end the attack on Mr Smith-Barry completely failed, and he took back his misguided tenants.
30,000,000 were provided to convert tenants into proprietors, the instalments paid being again available, so that all the tenanted land in Ireland might ultimately be passed through if desired.
Owners, however, could not with any pretence of justice be forced to sell at ruinous prices, nor tenants be forced to give more than they thought fair.
The lord-lieutenant, on taking up his quarters in Dublin, refused a loyal address because of its Unionist tone; and in October the government issued a commission, with Mr Justice Mathew as chairman, which had the restoration of the evicted tenants as its avowed object.
It was given in evidence that out of X234,431 collected under the plan of campaign only £125,000 had been given to evicted tenants.
The bill to restore the evicted tenants, which resulted from the Mathew Commission, was rejected in the Lords by 249 to 30.
The general effect was to decide most disputed points in favour of the tenants, and to repeal the exceptions made by former acts in the landlord's 1896.
The 40th clause introduced the principle of compulsory sale to the tenants of estates in the hands of receivers.
In their opinion it unsettled the agricultural mind, and encouraged judicial tenants to go to law at the expiration of the first fifteen years' term instead of bargaining amicably with their landlords.
The poor-rate and the county cess, which latter was mostly paid by the tenants, were consolidated, and an agricultural grant of £730,000 was voted by parliament in order to relieve both parties.
It was argued that no one else's tenants could be expected to pay more.
Lord Dunraven presided, and it was agreed to recommend a great extension of the Land Purchase system with a view to give the vendor as good an income as before, while decreasing the tenants' annual burden.
This was attempted in Mr Wyndham's Land Purchase Act of 1903, which gave the tenants a material reduction, a bonus of 12% on the purchase-money being granted to vendors from funds provided by parliament.
A judicial decision made it doubtful whether this percentage became the private property of tenants for life on settled estates, but a further act passed in 1904 answered the question in the affirmative.
An Evicted Tenants Bill was however passed at the end of the session, which gave the Estates Commissioners unprecedented powers to take land compulsorily.
Farms worked by owners numbered 46,645 in 1880 and 60,471 in 1900; by cash tenants, 21,974 in 1880 and 57,046 in 1900; by share tenants, 25,245 in 1880 and 37,838 in 1900.
Unable to take Milan, Conrad issued in May 1037 an edictum de beneficiis, by which he decreed that the principle of heredity should apply in Italy to lands held by sub vassals,, and that this class of tenants should not be deprived e;f their lands except by the sentence of their peers, and should retain the right of appeal to the emperor.
In order to farm these, the Church and the rich landowners granted back the holdings on the temporary and conditional terms of tenancy-at-will or of the beneficium, thus multiplying endlessly the land subject to their overlordship and the men who were dependent upon them as tenants.
The great landowner tended to become not only lord over his tenants, but also himself a vassal of the king.
Arbitrary taxation, scandalous intervention in elections, forced candidatures, confusion in their financial administration, bankruptcy and revolt on the part of the tenants: all formed an anticipation of the personal rule of Richelieu and Louis XIV.
The landlords were compelled to replace them by free tenants.
The landlords who found the Moriscoes useful tenants, and the commercial authorities of towns like Barcelona, who knew the value of the converted Jews, endeavoured to moderate the zeal of the inquisitors.
In the years 1880-1900 the number of farms operated by cash tenants rose from 3.1 to 9.6%; of share tenants from 14.9 to 27.3% of the total.
She supported various schemes of emigration to the colonies; and in Ireland helped to promote the fishing industry by starting schools, and providing boats, besides advancing £250,000 in 1880 for supplying seed to the impoverished tenants.
The whole settlement soon came to be called "De Jonkheer's Land" or "De Jonkheers" - meaning the estate of the young lord, as Van der Donck was called by his tenants - and afterwards Yonkers.
Yet the fact that the long, soft Conchoderma auritum stands exposed on the Coronula, sometimes ten on one, indicates that the whale can have little chance of evicting its tenants, even at the expense of rubbing off the eighteen flattened horns of its own skin embedded in cavities round the domed base of the Coronula shell.
The lord of the manor still holds the ancient court-leet and court-baron halfyearly in May and November, in which cognizance is taken of breaches of agreement among the tenants, especially concerning the repair of roads and cultivation of lands.
Before the process of subinfeudation became prevalent, the most ancient manors were the districts which we call by that name when speaking of the tenants, or "townships" when we regard the inhabitants, or "parishes" as to matters ecclesiastical.
by cash tenants, 17.4 per cent.
by share tenants, and the remainder under miscellaneous tenure.
None of the prospective tenants were therefore able to assess how easy or difficult it would be to afford a housing association rent.
admittances of villein tenants.
antisocial tenants who are ruining things for everyone else.
antisocial behavior order is in place against you or your proposed tenants.
The sums due from individual tenants, for instance, might represent the annual rental, or the rent plus accumulated arrears.
assured tenants do not have the right to buy.
N.B. All duvets and pillows provided - tenants require bed linen, towels and tea towels.
Tenants are also responsible for the accidental breakage of landlord fixtures, for example, sanitary ware.
These have now been converted into 8 one-bedroom bungalows, creating more space for tenants.
burgage holdings, occupied by more than 80 tenants.
This often led to friction between the free burghers and the tenants of the Bishop.
Choice has not increased overall capacity; no more social housing is available to tenants.
There is a small cesspool, one of which had been closed by the tenants because of the offensive smell.
Newly elected chairperson, Marian, says, " I'm really looking forward to being chair to the Tenants ' Panel.
Landlords could also refuse to let their tenants have land on which to build nonconformist chapels and meeting houses.
We reject the philosophy that tenants are second-class citizens.
There is an earth closet with doors for each six tenants.
closet with doors for each six tenants.
The motion was passed nem. con Some clearance work had been done in the Vicarage Garden by the tenants.
copyhold tenants in the manor of Bisley, with the amount of their fines.
tenancy deposits The Housing Act 2004 included provision for a compulsory scheme to safeguard tenants ' deposits.
dispossessed tenants free of subsidized passages to North America, or attempted to encourage local industry.
Leave of the court is required to levy distress against residential tenants.
The tenants are supplied with metal dustbins, which are emptied every day or two.
Is this a valid reason when tenants have had easement to these areas for forty years.
Some landlords resorted to forced emigration of their tenants in an effort to'solve ' the problem in Ireland.
A transient association with owners, lodgers or tenants, however eminent, will not normally be considered important.
A slow start led to fears the area would fail to attract tenants, with most office space lying empty.
enfranchised the tenants.
That doubt should be cast upon the readiness of his tenants to pay fealty to Edward I may indicate that his sympathies were liberal.
feeling of great insecurity among tenants given their few legal rights.
Some tenants are choosing to fit laminated flooring in their homes.
Why did housing officers from Knowsley Council/Housing Trust move heroin addicts into decent tower blocks populated by elderly folk and decent tenants?
Tenants outdoor futon cover to accept authorities and issues to great lengths.
gamekeeper employed by the tenants of Earl Howe's Acton estate, resides in the old house in a portion of Acton Place.
A landlord must issue tenants with a gas safety certificate provided by a CORGI registered gas fitter.
The community and its tenants took sides, and the abbey granges were looted and destroyed by rival factions.
From time to time we need to ask prospective tenants to provide a guarantor for the rent.
hacienda tenants who didn't join the Insurgent army refused to pay their rents once the landlords lost their coercive power.
Introduction Tenants have important rights which prevent them being evicted or unlawfully harassed by a landlord.
Examples of these tenants are the brigade rear CP and the support battalion company headquarters.
Home Improvement Agencies assist vulnerable homeowners or private sector tenants who tend to be older, disabled or on a low income.
These loans are ideal for tenants and other non homeowners as they have no property to pledge.
housing association tenants may sometimes qualify for Disabled Facilities Grants or Home Repair Assistance Grants.
At last he grew so impudent as by his influence to get tenants turned out of their farms.
included provision for a compulsory scheme to safeguard tenants ' deposits.
insuresame normally goes for tenants with full repairing and insuring leases.
The Lord of the Manor also exercised jurisdiction over his tenants by a system of manorial courts.
It was Labor hopeful Nathan Oley who was thoroughly lacerated at the Columbia Road Tenants & Residents Association's hustings last night.
Nearby is a watchtower built by the lairds to spy on tenants fishing offshore and also to watch out for the Customs.
Eviction Information about the Council's powers to prosecute landlords who illegally harass or evict their tenants.
latifundium needed to work these latifundia (estates) was provided by transforming free peasants into unfree tenants tied to the land.
levy distress against residential tenants.
Tenants will be advised of a private locksmith who will charge the tenant directly for this service.
The same messuages and land can be identified as the names of the 1341 tenants are given.
These studies indicate that residential mortgagors are more likely to lose their home than residential tenants.
Working within a council housing department can also be a satisfying career move with many striving to achieve excellent service for their tenants.
As Highland tenants now mull over the pros and cons before making their decision, the two opposing sides outline their arguments.
Despite the colorful murals now painted on all the internal walls, there is still evidence of the previous ' tenants ' .
It is also described as ' fully mutual ' - meaning that all the members are tenants, and all the tenants are members.
Whole streets are being bought up by Hebrew syndicates, whose first act is to serve notice on all Gentile tenants.
However, those families who were council tenants often said that their authorities obliged them to move rather than adapting their present property.
occupyiscovered that her English property, Jeffs, was occupied by longstanding tenants who paid an almost negligible rent.
The council is also working with the 16 most severely overcrowded council tenants in the boro who are lacking three or more bedrooms.
The problem is to reduce costs and have a financial payback for tenants.
These monthly mortgage payments are covered by the properties tenants who are paying our borrower rent every month.
The high quality and satisfaction of Pennine tenants was equally persuasive.
I would have hoped your tenants would be sensible enough not to want burst pipes damaging their goods.
Port Welcomes New Tenants The Port's thriving property portfolio has seen strong demand for its wide range of units in early 2004.
promulgated to protect tenants, slum dwellers.
In England and Wales tenants of commercial leasehold property have various statutory protections.
Nothing about the blinds was mention by the then prospective tenants when the rental offer was made.
General and supplementary provisions Duty of tenants and landlords of business premises to give information to each other.
Tenants were then asked to complete a questionnaire, which asked them to indicate which option they would prefer.
Tenants have a six-month assured shorthold tenancies and renewal of the tenancy is conditional upon them retaining their key worker job.
The tolls claimed by the hospital on all victuals bought for sale in Chester were particularly resented by the tenants of the abbey.
Landowners switched tenants and retooled live-in servants as short-term hires.
serve notice on all Gentile tenants.
The monks of Strata Florida had sheepwalks here, and the higher ground was common for the cattle of their tenants.
Even if shopping streets lose tenants, they will be replaced, says Mallen.
Because of the shortage of animal feeding stuffs, stock activities were severely curtailed, and most tenants were forced to take temporary employment.
taxis lord could impose taxes on his tenants at will.
The Act gives tenants the right to renew a business tenancy, which the landlord can only resist on certain grounds.
tenancyer I of Part V creates insecure ' introductory tenancies ', which councils can give to new tenants.
Of course all temporarily evicted tenants would have the promise of being restored to better rooms at the same rent.
He discovered that her English property, Jeffs, was occupied by longstanding tenants who paid an almost negligible rent.
Whether you are joint tenants or have separate tenancies, your benefit may go down.
Help from Right to Buy Scheme The Right to Buy scheme has helped almost 2 million council tenants in England buy their own home.
They are the anchor tenants and account for 35 per cent of the retail space.
Should social housing tenants be encouraged to become home owners?
Its main task, however, was recording the surrenders and admittances of villein tenants.
tenants of the manor and describe their individual holdings.
These original tenants could then recruit petty tenant farmers to cultivate their lands or even sell their permanent tenancy rights.
The arbitration tribunal deals with more than 600 cases each year, most involving complaints by tenants about disrepair.
The problems with these units is that their very ubiquity forces landlords to compete with each other for tenants driving down rents and yields.
At one time the tenants of an estate became unruly.
These people then became the king's vassals, rather like tenants renting land from the owner.
villein tenants of the manor, some with considerable holdings.
wharf building was still to be taken by tenants.
They will need strong willpower to resist selling tenants ' rights.
Burgesses in Kendal are mentioned in 1345, and the borough with "court housez" and the fee-farm of free tenants is included in a confirmation charter to Sir William Parr in 1472.
himself in August 1461 of wrongful exaction of manorial rights from the tenants of the episcopal manor of East Meon, Hants, were decided in the bishop's favour in parliament in the December following (Rot.
Of the 33,104 farms in the state in 1900, 25,982 were farmed by their owners, 1373 by part owners, 314 by owners and tenants, 2424 by cash tenants, 2396 by share tenants, and 615 by managers; 637 farms had more than 500 acres, 3431 were between 260 and 500 acres, 5512 between 175 and 260 acres, 10,215 between 100 and 175 acres, 6513 between 50 and 100 acres, 3511 between 20 and 50 acres, and 3285 less than 20 acres; and dairy produce was the principal source of income of more than one-half of these (16,700), live stock the principal source of income of 7323 farms, and hay and grain of 2519 farms. The general sterility of the soil except along rivers and the bases of hills has made intensive cultivation always necessary, and the competition of new and rich western farm lands has made the agriculture of Vermont develop further toward specialization in dairying and raising live stock.
Greatly needing money for his campaign, John ordered another scutage to be taken from his tenants; this, moreover, was to be at the unprecedented rate of three marks on the knight's fee, not as on previous occasions of two marks, although this latter sum had hitherto been regarded as a very high rate.
" Four maner of commens " are described; several kinds of mills for corn and other purposes, and also " quernes that goo with hand "; different orders of tenants, down to the " boundmen," who " in some places contynue as yet "; " and many tymes, by colour thereof, there be many freemen taken as boundmen, and their lands and goods is taken from them."
Fitzherbert, in deploring the gradual discontinuance of the practice of marling land, had alluded to the grievance familiar in modern times of tenants " who, if they should marl and make their holdings much better, fear lest they should be put out, or make a great fine or else pay more rent."
by small tenants on the old common-field system, which made it impossible for the individual to adopt a new crop rotation and hindered innovation of every kind.
A bill to provide compensation for tenants who had been evicted by Irish landlords passed the Commons, but was shipwrecked in the Lords, and a ghastly record of outrage and murder stained the following winter.
According to the Sallade and the Division du Monde, as cited by Selden, bannerets were clearly in the beginning feudal tenants of a certain magnitude and importance and nothing more, and different forms for their creation are given in time of peace and in time of war.'
It is under Christopher that we first hear, for instance, of the Vornedskab, or patriarchal control of the landlords over their tenants, a system which degenerated into rank slavery.
After the Cloptons, the house saw a succession of owners and tenants before being requisitioned by the Army in the Second World War.
Most tenants are not allowed to sublet the whole of their home.
The houses were let by the freeholder Mr. Robert Reid to tenants who in turn sublet the rooms to the families.
The lord could impose taxes on his tenants at will.
Chapter I of Part V creates insecure ' introductory tenancies ', which councils can give to new tenants.
Rentals and surveys also name the tenants of the manor and describe their individual holdings.
These people then became the king 's vassals, rather like tenants renting land from the owner.
Most of the land was rented by the villein tenants of the manor, some with considerable holdings.
The old restored wharf building was still to be taken by tenants.
If you already have self-storage facilities and require more room for tenants or for your business's own stock, this would be a perfect reason to expand your company's reach and profits.
Hill, 675 So. 2d 168 (Fla. 5th DCA 1996), the husband told the Court that he had designated the matrimonial home as being owned by himself and his wife as joint tenants.
They are working on having deals with their "tenants" for online mall shoppers, so bookmark the site and keep checking back.
There are a few tenants of storing wine that will help to protect your investment in the wine you purchase.
This is not true for those whose marketing duties are limited to renting residential space to community tenants.
Find out if you have to evict the previous tenants of the property.
As Heep and the apartment building tenants struggle to help The Lady, they discover they too are bedtime story characters, and Heep loses his heart to the woman he has rescued.
Sydney's involvement with the new tenants was explored following the discovery of her murdered body in the complex swimming pool.
Hell's Kitchen may evoke images of poor tenants, gangs, and crime.
Sometimes apartment managers want apartments cleaned after tenants move out.
If dual grantees are listed as "joint tenants" the property passes automatically to the surviving grantee or grantees should death occur.
However, if dual grantees are listed as "tenants in common" the property may pass to the deceased's heirs rather than the remaining grantee or grantees.
AIG is an international company offering renter's insurance to tenants in Ireland as well as other parts of the globe.
Insurance is available for homeowners, renters, condominiums, and for people who own their homes but rent them out to tenants.
This can be very useful because not all landlords cover adequate liability insurance to protect tenants from the costs associated with lawsuits as the result of medical expenses and other damages to injured visitors.
Geico offers special insurance policies for people who own their homes and rent the homes out to tenants.
The cost of this coverage rests solely on the landlord and is generally not passed along to the tenants.
Homeowners who rent out their homes to tenants need a different type of policy.
They may elect to not cover the personal property of tenants, but should have ample liability insurance on the home to avoid potential huge costs associated with lawsuits.
Tenants do not buy building insurance since they do not own the structure.
Tenants sometimes assume that if their landlord has insurance on the building, they don't have to buy their own policy.
Home contents insurance for tenants is more commonly referred to as renters insurance.
Most insurance companies that offer homeowners policies also have home contents insurance for tenants.
One thing you should do is speak with your tenants before they move in and advise them that they should have their own personal renter's insurance.
Your coverage is designed to protect you as the landlord, and is not designed to cover the personal property of your tenants.
Allstate renters insurance is designed to protect tenants from significant financial loss as the result of fire, theft, or other covered losses.
It is a common misconception that a landlord's homeowners insurance covers the cost of repairing or replacing their tenants' belongings when something happens; this responsibility instead typically falls on the tenant.
Allstate renters insurance provides tenants with coverage for a variety of incidents.
Tenants are responsible for protecting their own belongings and finding affordable renters insurance is a good solution.
The amount of money an insurance company charges for renters insurance varies depending on several different factors, many of which the tenants can manipulate in order the bring the total cost of the coverage down.
Web hosting is very similar to property - you can rent, you can own, you can share space with many other tenants or you can have your own private domain.
granted it to Sir John Ramsey, whose brother and heir, Sir George Ramsey, sold it in 1633 to thirteen inhabitants of the town on behalf of all the tenants of the manor.
The greater part of the district consists of state land, the cultivators being tenants of government, but there is a certain amount of hereditary freehold.
confirmed to his tenants and the residents within the borough the market that they had always held every Thursday.
Other forms of contract are the piccola mezzadria, or sub-letting by tenants to under-tenants, on the half-and-half system; enfiteusi, or perpetual leases at low rentsa form which has almost died out; and mezzadria (in the provinces of Caserta and Benevento).
extends the concessions obtained by the greater barons for themselves to the lesser landholders, the tenants of the tenants-in-chief.
In connexion with a railway many bridges have also to be constructed to carry public roads and other railways over the line, and for the use of owners or tenants whose land it has cut through (" accommodation bridges ").
Of the total number of farms 128,978 were operated by owners or part owners, of whom 17,434 were coloured (including Indians); 19,916, by cash tenants, of whom 10,331 were coloured; and 73,092 by share tenants, of whom 26,892 were coloured.
from Domesday tenants.
of the Pharaohs was a country of great estates farmed Egypt either by tenants or by slaves or labourers under the superintendence of stewards.
Free tenants and, after the Norman Conquest, slaves formed small proportions of the population.
It is probable that no great change had taken place in Scotland from the end of the i 5th century, except that tenants gradually became possessed of a little stock of their own, instead of having their farm stocked by the landlord.
The unlimited issues of government paper and the security afforded by these leases induced the Scottish banks to afford every facility to landlords and tenants to embark capital in the improvement of the land.
(iv.) Covenants by the tenants to insure the premises and keep them insured are also common; and if the premises are left uninsured for the smallest portion of the term, though there is no damage by fire, the covenant is broken.
(3) A similar right is very generally recognized by custom in tenants whose term expires in the ordinary way.
The requisites of the statutory leases, last mentioned, are similar to those imposed in England upon tenants for life by the Settled Land Acts (v.
But the modern Land Acts have readjusted the relation between landlords and tenants, while the Land Purchase Acts have aimed at abolishing those relations by enabling the tenant to become the owner of his holding.
The legal distinction between the coloni and the slave tenants continued to exist after the invasions; but the practical difference was greatly attenuated.
16 1920); (b) about 40,000 owners of small holdings, averaging from 26 to 150 ac., formed the backbone of the Lettish middle class, and the liberal professions (nicknamed the " grey barons ") were partly supported by about 10,000 tenants of small farms; (c) the owners of very small holdings in Latgalia and Courland numbered some 10,600.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.