How to use Temperatures in a sentence

temperatures
  • At low temperatures SA predominates, but as the temperature is raised S, increases; the transformation, however, is retarded by some gases, e.g.

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  • He wondered about the different temperatures of their bodies.

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  • The runners might encounter any kind of weather, including freezing temperatures, fog, rain, or snow.

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  • The pod was well-insulated; she didn't feel the three-thousand-degree temperatures a foot from her.

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  • Ouray County was perfect for invigorating outdoor activity, with its crystal clear air and dry, windless temperatures just below freezing.

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  • It is a bluish-black powder which at high temperatures decomposes into the metal, dioxide and oxygen.

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  • Hansen showed that the microscopic appearance of film cells of the same species of Saccharomycetes varies according to the temperature of growth; the limiting temperatures of film formation, as well as the time of its appearance for the different species, also vary.

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  • Rice is cultivated in low-lying, moist lands, where spring and summer temperatures are high.

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  • Equally disastrous are those climatic or seasonal changes which involve temperatures in themselves not excessive but in wrong sequence; how many more useful plants could be grown in the open in the United Kingdom if the deceptively mild springs were not so often followed by frosts in May and June!

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  • It does not react with the alkali metals, but combines with magnesium at a low red heat to form a boride, and with other metals at more or less elevated temperatures.

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  • It also possesses the power of combining with most metallic oxides at high temperatures, forming borates, which in many cases show characteristic colours.

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  • Beyond this parallel the gradient is directed towards the north-west, and temperatures are much higher on the European than on the American side.

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  • Below 500 fathoms the western centres of maximum disappear, and higher temperatures occur in the eastern Atlantic off the Iberian peninsula and north-western Africa down to at least 1000 fathoms; at still greater depths temperature gradually becomes more and more uniform.

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  • The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where the distribution is modified by the surface circulation.

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  • The isothermals of mean surface temperature in the South Atlantic are in the lower latitudes of an cn- shape, temperatures being higher on the American than on the African side.

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  • The climate is hot and humid in the lowlands and along the lower Parnahyba, but in the uplands it is dry with high sun temperatures and cool nights.

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  • The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rule, act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prevailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of land forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and so determines the kind and arrangement of soil.

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  • It is unstable at ordinary temperatures and rapidly decomposes into its generators on warming.

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  • The aqueous solution of the acid is fairly stable at ordinary temperatures.

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  • A " perfect engine " receiving and rejecting steam at the same temperatures as the actual engine of the locomotive, would develop about twice this power, say 1400 I.H.P. This figure represents the ideal but unattainable standard of performance.

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  • Table Xxi It is instructive to inquire into the limiting efficiency of an engine consistent with the conditions under which it is working, because in no case can the efficiency of a steam-engine exceed a certain value which depends upon the temperatures at which it receives and rejects heat.

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  • If h is the water heat at the lower temperature, h l the water heat at the higher temperature, and L the latent heat at the higher temperature, the heat supply per pound of steam is equal to h1 - h2+L1, which, from the steam tables, with the values of the temperatures given, is equal to 1013 B.Th.U.

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  • Compound working permits of a greater range of expansion than is possible with a simple engine, and incidentally there is less range of pressure per cylinder, so that the pressures and temperatures per cylinder have not such a wide range of variation.

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  • In spite of the high temperatures of summer, however, the low humidity prevents the heat from being oppressive, and cases of sunstroke are unknown.

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  • The spleen continues to enlarge; the urine is now scanty and high-coloured; the body temperature is high, but the highest temperatures occur during the chill; there is considerable thirst; and there is the usual intellectual unfitness, and it may be confusion, of the feverish state.

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  • But during the summer, temperatures are affected as much by altitude as by latitude, and the coast is cooled at night by breezes from the Gulf.

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  • The climate of Minas Geraes is characterized by high sun temperatures and cool nights, the latter often dropping below the freezing point on the higher campos.

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  • These figures sufficiently indicate the main characteristics of the air temperatures of Asia.

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  • The very high summer temperatures of the area north of the tropic of Cancer are sufficiently accounted for, when compared with those observed south of the tropic, by the increased length of the day in the higher latitude, which more than compensates for the loss of heat due to the smaller mid-day altitude of the sun.

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  • Although the foregoing account of the temperatures of Asia supplies the main outline of the observed phenomena, a very important modifying cause, of which more will be said hereafter, comes into operation over the whole of the tropical region, namely, the periodical summer rains.

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  • The arboreous forms which least require the humid and equable heat of the more truly tropical and equatorial climates, and are best able to resist the high temperatures and excessive drought of the northern Indian hot months from April to June, are certain Leguminosae, Bauhinia, Acacia, Butea and Dalbergia, Bombax, Shorea, Nauclea, Lagerstroemia, and Bignonia, a few bamboos and palms, with others which extend far beyond the tropic, and give a tropical aspect to the forest to the extreme northern border of the Indian plain.

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  • Thus its non-liability to freeze (when not absolutely anhydrous, which it practically never is when freely exposed to the air) and its nonvolatility at ordinary temperatures, combined with its power of always keeping fluid and not drying up and hardening, render it valuable as a lubricating agent for clockwork, watches, &c., as a substitute for water in wet gas-meters, and as an ingredient in cataplasms, plasters, modelling clay, pasty colouring matters, dyeing materials, moist colours for artists, and numerous other analogous substances which are required to be kept in a permanently soft condition.

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  • From 1879 to 1888 he was engaged on difficult experimental investigations, which began with an inquiry into the corrections required, owing to the great pressures to which the instruments had been subjected, in the readings of the thermometers employed by the "Challenger" expedition for observing deep-sea temperatures, and which were extended to include the compressibility of water, glass and mercury.

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  • In 1879, at Kilburn, the competition was of railway waggons to convey perishable goods long distances at low temperatures.

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  • It is often taught that gneisses are the further stages of the crystallization of schists and belong to a deeper zone where the pressures and the temperatures were greater.

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  • The boiling point, being determined by the character of the constituents of the oil, necessarily varies greatly in different oils, as do the amounts of distillate obtained from them at specified temperatures.

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  • Other theories of a like nature were brought forward by various chemists, Mendeleeff, for example, ascribing the formation of petroleum to the action of water at high temperatures on iron carbide in the interior of the earth.

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  • Similarly there is a difference of opinion as to the conditions under which the organisms have been mineralized, some holding that the process has taken place at a high temperature and under great pressure; but the lack of practical evidence in nature in support of these views has led many to conclude that petroleum, like coal, has been formed at moderate temperatures, and under pressures varying with the depth of the containing rocks.

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  • They found that the paraffin was thus converted, with the evolution of but little gas, into hydrocarbons which were liquid at ordinary temperatures.

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  • Under such conditions, distillation takes place at higher temperatures than the normal boiling-points of the constituent hydrocarbons of the oil, and a partial cracking results.

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  • The earliest form of testing instrument employed for this purpose was that of Giuseppe Tagliabue of New York, which consists of a glass cup placed in a copper water bath heated by a spirit lamp. The cup is filled with the oil to be tested, a thermometer placed in it and heat applied, the temperatures being noted at which, on passing a lighted splinter of wood over the surface of the oil, a flash occurs, and after further heating, the oil ignites.

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  • The processes of soap manufacture may be classified (a) according to the temperatures employed into (I) cold processes and (2) boiling processes, or (b) according to the nature of the starting material - acid or oil and fat - and the relative amount of alkali, into (1) direct saturation of the fatty acid with alkali, (2) treating the fat with a definite amount of alkali with no removal of unused lye, (3) treating the fat with an indefinite amount of alkali, also with no separation of unused lye, (4) treating the fat with an indefinite amount of alkali with separation of waste lye.

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  • All the metals are solids at ordinary temperatures with the exception of mercury, which is liquid.

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  • Wollaston discovered palladium, especially interesting for its striking property of absorbing (" occluding ") as much as 376 volumes of hydrogen at ordinary temperatures, and 643 volumes at 90 0.

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  • Intermolecular transformations-migrations of substituent groups from one carbon atom to anotherare of fairly common occurrence among oxy compounds at elevated temperatures.

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  • Obviously, therefore, liquids are comparable when the pressures, volumes and temperatures are equal fractions of the critical constants.

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  • Other metals were tested in order to determine if their atomic heats approximated to this value at low temperatures, but with negative results.

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  • As a general rule the modification stable at higher temperatures possesses a lower density; but this is by no means always the case, since the converse is true for antimonious and arsenious oxides, silver iodide and some other substances.

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  • It is remarkable that a great many polymorphous substances assume more symmetrical forms at higher temperatures, and a possible explanation of the increase in density of such compounds as silver iodide, &c., may be sought for in the theory that the formation of a more symmetrical configuration would involve a drawing together of the molecules, and consequently an increase in density.

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  • He was distinguished as the discoverer of radioactivity, having found in 1896 that uranium at ordinary temperatures emits an invisible radiation which in many respects resembles Rntgen rays, and can affect a photographic plate after passing through thin plates of metal.

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  • On an average the coast-belt temperatures are some 10 0 higher than those of the plateau.

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  • In consequence of the elevation of the plateau and the dryness of the air, the heat is less oppressive than is indicated by the temperatures recorded.

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  • It is very unstable, decomposing slowly even at ordinary temperatures.

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  • Here we may probably find the lowest temperatures of the northern hemisphere.

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  • The probability also is that there is more precipitation, and that the mean temperatures are lower.

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  • The former is produced at temperatures below, the latter at temperatures above the fusing-point of the oxide.

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  • When heated with hydriodic acid and phosphorus it forms phenylacetic acid; whilst concentrated hydrobromic acid and hydrochloric acid at moderate temperatures convert it into phenylbromand phenylchlor-acetic acids.

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  • Specimens of curves showing the relation of induction to magnetic field at various temperatures, and of permeability to temperature with fields of different intensities, are given in figs.

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  • Experiments were made at several constant temperatures with varying magnetic fields, and also at constant fields with rising and falling temperatures.

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  • The paper contains tables and curves showing details of the magnetic changes, sometimes very complex, at different temperatures and with different fields.

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  • As thus defined the critical temperatures for iron, nickel and cobalt were 1 Journ.

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  • After this operation had been repeated a few times the iron was found to have acquired a stable condition, and the curves corresponding to the two temperatures became perfectly definite.

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  • The values of the permeability corresponding to the highest and lowest temperatures are given in the following table.

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  • If, however, this non-magnetic substance is cooled to a temperature a few degrees below freezing-point, it becomes as strongly magnetic as average cast-iron (µ = 62 for H = 40), and retains its magnetic properties indefinitely at ordinary temperatures.

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  • Alloys containing different proportions of nickel were found to exhibit the phenomenon, but the two critical temperatures were less widely separated.

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  • They found that the hysteresis-loss, which at ordinary temperatures is very small, was increased in liquid air, the increase for the alloys containing less than 30% of nickel being enormous.

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  • Now iron, nickel and cobalt all lose their magnetic quality when heated above certain critical temperatures which vary greatly for the three metals, and it was suspected by Faraday 3 as early as 1845 that manganese might really be a ferromagnetic metal having a critical temperature much below the ordinary temperature of the air.

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  • The lower members of the series are neutral liquids possessing a characteristic smell; they are soluble in water and are readily volatile (formaldehyde, however, is a gas at ordinary temperatures).

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  • The forest-covered, lowland valley of the Amazon is a region of high temperatures which vary little throughout the year, and of heavy rainfall.

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  • The coastal plain as far south as Santos is a region of high temperatures and great humidity.

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  • The higher valleys of the Parana and its tributaries, and of the rivers which flow northward, are sub-tropical in character, having high sun temperatures and cool nights.

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  • Above these, the chapadas lie open to the sun and wind and have a cool, bracing atmosphere even where high sun temperatures prevail.

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  • It is a region of lakes and morasses, of arid plains and high temperatures, but experiments with irrigation toward the end of the 19th century were highly successful and considerable tracts have since been brought under cultivation.

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  • Recent investigations point to the conclusion that the immediate cause of the arrest of vitality, in the first place, and of its destruction, in the second, is the coagulation of certain substances in the protoplasm, and that the latter contains various coagulable matters, which solidify at different temperatures.

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  • The more nearly the composition of guncotton approaches that represented by C6H702(N03)3, the more stable is it as regards storing at ordinary temperatures, and the higher the igniting temperature.

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  • The low temperatures of the night in these regions lower the mean annual temperatures.

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  • It behaves as a strong acid and on treatment with phosphorus pentachloride at high temperatures gives triazole.

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  • Ammonium hydroxide has no appreciable action at ordinary temperatures, but strong solutions of sodium or potassium hydroxides start a decomposition, with rise of temperature, in which some nitrate and always some nitrite is produced.

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  • Long experience has fixed the mixtures, so far as ordinary furnace temperatures are concerned, which produce the varieties of glass in common use.

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  • In all mercurial thermometers there is a slight depression of the ice-point after exposure to high temperatures; it is also not uncommon to find that the readings of two thermometers between the iceand boiling-points fail to agree at any intermediate temperature, although the iceand boiling-points of both have been determined together with perfect accuracy, and the intervening spaces have been equally divided.

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  • These liquids, when exposed to higher temperatures, some sooner than others, pass into vapours.

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  • What these vapours are like is not known in many cases, since, as a rule, they can be produced only at very high temperatures, precluding the use of transparent vessels.

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  • The liquid metals, when cooled down sufficiently, some at lower, others at higher, temperatures freeze into compact solids, endowed with the (relative) non-transparency and the lustre of their liquids.

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  • As liquidity might be looked upon as the ne plus ultra of softness, this is the right place for stating that, while most metals, when heated up to their melting points, pass pretty abruptly from the solid to the liquid state, platinum and iron first assume, and throughout a long range of temperatures retain, a condition of viscous semi-solidity which enables two pieces of them to be "welded" together by pressure into one continuous mass.

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  • Water, at ordinary or slightly elevated temperatures, is decomposed more or less readily, with evolution of hydrogen gas and formation of a basic hydrate, by (I) potassium (formation of KHO), sodium (NaHO), lithium (LiOH), barium, strontium, calcium (BaH 2 O 2, &c.); (2) magnesium, zinc, manganese (MgO 2 H 2, &c.).

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  • Mercury, within XVIII.7 a a certain range of temperatures situated close to its boiling point, combines slowly with oxygen into the red oxide, which, however, breaks up again at higher temperatures.

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  • Tin, at high temperatures, passes slowly into oxide, Sn02.

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  • Chlorine.-All metals, when treated with chlorine gas at the proper temperatures, pass into chlorides.

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  • All the rest, when heated by themselves, volatilize, some at lower, others at higher temperatures.

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  • All chlorides, except those of silver and mercury (and, of course, those of gold and platinum), are oxidized by steam at high temperatures, with elimination of hydrochloric acid.

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  • Nor was he long in providing means for securing these lower temperatures.

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  • Soil whose temperature remains low, whether from its northerly aspect or from its high water content or other cause, is unsatisfactory, because the germination of seeds and the general life processes of plants cannot go on satisfactorily except at certain temperatures well above freezing-point.

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  • Owing to the fact that at temperatures between its melting and boiling point zinc has a strong affinity for iron, it is often contaminated by the scraper while being drawn from the condenser, as is shown by the fact that the scraper wears away rapidly.

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  • At higher temperatures, or with stronger acid, nitric oxide, NO, is produced besides or instead of nitrous.

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  • At a boiling heat, zinc chloride dissolves in any proportion of water, and highly concentrated solutions, of course, boil at high temperatures; hence they afford a convenient medium for the maintenance of high temperatures.

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  • The present article, as explained under Electrochemistry, treats only of those processes in which electricity is applied to the production of chemical reactions or molecular changes at furnace temperatures.

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  • The furnace used by Henri Moissan in his experiments on reactions at high temperatures, on the fusion and volatilization of refractory materials, and on the formation of carbides, suicides and borides of various metals, consisted, in its simplest form, of two superposed blocks of lime or of limestone with a central cavity cut in the lower block, and with a corresponding but much shallower inverted cavity in the upper block, which thus formed the lid of the furnace.

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  • The fact that energy is being used at so high a rate as Too H.P. on so small a charge of material sufficiently indicates that the furnace is only used for experimental work, or for the fusion of metals which, like tungsten or chromium, can only be melted at temperatures attainable by electrical means.

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  • But in some cases in which the current is used for electrolysis and for the production of extremely high temperatures, for which the calorific intensity of ordinary fuel is insufficient, the electric furnace is employed with advantage.

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  • It is not necessary that all electric furnaces shall be run at these high temperatures; obviously, those of the incandescence or resistance type may be worked at any convenient temperature below the maximum.

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  • This advantage is especially observed in some cases in which the charge of the furnace is liable to attack the containing vessel at high temperatures, as it is often possible to maintain the outer walls of the electric furnace relatively cool, and even to keep them lined with a protecting crust of unfused charge.

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  • Ordinarily carbon is used as the electrode material, but when carbon comes in contact at high temperatures with any metal that is capable of forming a carbide a certain amount of combination between them is inevitable, and the carbon thus introduced impairs the mechanical properties of the ultimate metallic product.

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  • Borchers predicted that, at the high temperatures available with the electric furnace, every oxide would prove to be reducible by the action of carbon, and this prediction has in most instances been justified.

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  • Alumina and lime, for example, which cannot be reduced at ordinary furnace temperatures, readily give up their oxygen to carbon in the electric furnace, and then combine with an excess of carbon to form metallic carbides.

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  • When prolonged heating is required at very high temperatures it is found necessary to line the furnace-cavity with alternate layers of magnesia and carbon, taking care that the lamina next to the lime is of magnesia; if this were not done the lime in contact with the carbon crucible would form calcium carbide and would slag down, but magnesia does not yield a carbide in this way.

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  • By fractional distillation is meant the separation of a mixture having components which boil at neighbouring temperatures.

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  • The chlorine reacts with the caustic soda, forming sodium hypochlorite, and this in turn, with an excess of chlorine and at higher temperatures, becomes for the most part converted into chlorate, whilst any simultaneous electrolysis of a hydroxide or water and a chloride (so that hydroxyl and chlorine are simultaneously liberated at the anode) also produces oxygen-chlorine compounds direct.

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  • Hypochlorites were made, at ordinary temperatures, and chlorates at higher temperatures, in a cell without a partition in which the cathode was placed horizontally immediately above the anode, to favour the mixing of the ascending chlorine with the descending caustic solution.

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  • The substances which we at present term anhydrous acids (acid oxides) only become, for the most part, capable of forming salts with metallic oxides after the addition of water, or they are compounds which decompose these oxides at somewhat high temperatures."

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  • In such a diagram, a point P defines a particular mixture, both as to percentage, composition and temperature; a vertical line through P corresponds to the mixture at all possible temperatures, the point Q being its freezing-point.

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  • All mixtures whose temperature lies above the line ACB are wholly liquid, hence this line is often called the "liquidus "; all mixtures at temperatures below that of the horizontal line through C are wholly solid, hence this line is sometimes called the " solidus," but in more complex cases the solidus is often curved.

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  • At temperatures between the solidus and the liquidus a mixture is partly solid and partly liquid.

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  • This alloy, if allowed to solidify completely before chilling, turns into a uniform solid solution, and at still lower temperatures the solid solution breaks up into a pearlite complex.

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  • We then extract one ingot after another at successively lower temperatures and chill each ingot by dropping it into water or by some other method of very rapid cooling.

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  • We learn also that solid solutions which exist at high temperatures often break up into two materials as they cool; for example, the bronze of fig.

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  • The object of the present article is to illustrate the practical application of the two general principles - (I) Joule's law of the equivalence of heat and work, and (2) Carnot's principle, that the efficiency of a reversible engine depends only on the temperatures between which it works; these principles are commonly known as the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

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  • The area ABCD, representing the work, W, per cycle, is the difference (H' - H") of the quantities of heat absorbed and rejected at the temperatures 0 and 0".

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  • He remarks that ” the law according to which the motive power of heat varies at different points of the thermometric scale is intimately connected with that of the variations of the specific heats of gases at different temperatures - a law which experiment has not yet made known to us with sufficient exactness."

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  • An ideal gas is a substance possessing very simple thermodynamic properties to which actual gases and vapours appear to approximate indefinitely at low pressures and high temperatures.

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  • It has the characteristic equation pv=Re, and obeys Boyle's law at all temperatures.

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  • The most natural method of procedure is to observe the deviations from Boyle's law by measuring the changes of pv at various constant temperatures.

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  • But this procedure in itself is not sufficient, because, although it would be highly probable that a gas obeying Boyle's law at all temperatures was practically an ideal gas, it is evident that Boyle's law would be satisfied by any substance having the characteristic equation pv = f (0), where f (0) is any arbitrary function of 0, and that the scale of temperatures given by such a substance would not necessarily coincide with the absolute scale.

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  • Putting d0/dp=A/0 2 in equation (15), and integrating on the assumption that the small variations of S could be neglected over the range of the experiment, they found a solution of the type, v/0 =f(p) - SA /30 3, in which f(p) is an arbitrary function of p. Assuming that the gas should approximate indefinitely to the ideal state pv = R0 at high temperatures, they put f(p)=Rip, which gives a characteristic equation of the form v= Re/p - SA /30 2 .

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  • The introduction of the covolume, b, into the equation is required in order to enable it to represent the behaviour of hydrogen and other gases at high temperatures and pressures according to the experiments of Amagat.

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  • Gold is permanent in both dry and moist air at ordinary or high temperatures.

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  • The metal oxidizes very slowly in dry air at ordinary temperatures, but somewhat more rapidly in moist air or when heated.

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  • By varying the material of the bulb, this apparatus is rendered available for exceptionally high temperatures.

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  • For higher temperatures the bulb of the vapour density tube is made of porcelain or platinum, and is heated in a gas furnace.

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  • It forms colourless, very hygroscopic prisms, which attack glass, slowly at ordinary temperatures, more rapidly when heated (Ber., 1909, 4 2, p. 49 2).

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  • The figures quoted above are differences between the average surface temperatures of the warmest and of the coldest month.

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  • Curve B shows the typical distribution of temperature in an enclosed sea, in this case the Sulu Basin of the Malay Sea, where from the level of the barrier to the bottom the temperature remains uniform or homothermic. Curve C shows a typical summer condition in the polar seas, where layers of sea-water at different temperatures are superimposed, the arrangement from the surface to 200 fathoms is termed FIG.

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  • Pure crystalline calcium carbide yields 5.8 cubic feet of acetylene per pound at ordinary temperatures, but the carbide as sold commercially, being a mixture of the pure crystalline material with the crust which in the electric furnace surrounds the ingot, yields at the best 5 cubic feet of gas per pound under proper conditions of generation.

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  • While the majority of his researches bear on one or other of the subjects just mentioned, others deal with such widely different topics as the birds of Greenland, ocean temperatures, the Gulf Stream, barometric measurement of heights, arcs of meridian, glacier transport of rocks, the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands, and various points of meteorology.

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  • The winters are long and marked by exceedingly low temperatures, but as they are the driest season of the year, the extremes are not so disagreeable as they would be in a more humid region.

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  • The season, however, on account of the dryness of the climate, is not so harsh as the low temperatures would seem to indicate.

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  • By the addition of sodium amalgam to a concentrated solution of ammonium chloride, the so-called ammonium amalgam is obtained as a spongy mass which floats on the surface of the liquid; it decomposes readily at ordinary temperatures into ammonia and hydrogen; it does not reduce silver and gold salts, a behaviour which distinguishes it from the amalgams of the alkali metals, and for this reason it is regarded by some chemists as being merely mercury inflated by gaseous ammonia and hydrogen.

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  • At ordinary temperatures the metal has the consistency of wax and can be readily cut; on cooling it hardens.

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  • We may here notice the "percarbonates" obtained by Wolffenstein and Peltner (Ber., 1908, 41, pp. 2 75, 280) on acting with gaseous or solid carbon dioxide on Na202, Na203 and NaHO 2 at low temperatures; the same authors obtained a perborate by adding sodium metaborate solution to a 50% solution of sodium peroxide previously saturated with carbon dioxide.

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  • Cholera and typhoid organisms are less resistant, and are killed more quickly than tubercle bacilli at the above temperatures.

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  • When made at higher temperatures it is much more dense, and its ignition point is considerably higher.

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  • At ordinary temperatures it is a colourless gas, possessing a penetrating and suffocating smell.

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  • It is a powerful reducing agent, especially at high temperatures.

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  • The weight of a cubic decimetre of water reaches 1000 grammes under a pressure of four atmospheres; but in vacuo, at all temperatures, the weight of water is less than a kilogram.

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  • Even here the high sun temperatures give a sub-tropical character to the country.

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  • A fertile soil, abundant rainfall and high temperatures have covered these mountain slopes and lowland plains with a wealth of vegetation.

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  • It volatilizes slowly at ordinary temperatures, but rapidly on heating.

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  • The average temperatures for these months at places of different altitudes, as given by Dr Karl Sapper, are shown on the following page.

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  • Two leading features, from which many others follow, are the intermediate value of the mean annual temperatures and the prevalence of westerly winds, with which drift the areas of high and low pressurecyclonic and anticyclonic areascontrolling the short-lived, non-periodic weather changes.

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  • In virtue of these physical characteristics, the air over the land becomes much warmer in summer and much colder in winter than the air over the oceans in corresponding latitudes; hence the seasonal changes of temperature in the central United States are strong; the high temperatures appropriate to the torrid zone advance northward to middle latitudes in summer, and the low temperatures appropriate to the Arctic regions descend almost to middle latitudes in winter.

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  • Indeed the contrast between the moderate temperatures of the Pacific coast and the overheated areas of the next interior deserts is so great that the isotherms trend almost parallel to the coast, and are even overturned somewhat in southern California, where the most rapid increase of temperatures in July is found not by moving southward over the ocean toward the equator, but north-eastward over the land to the deserts of Nevada and Arizona.

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  • So strong is the displacement of the area of highest interior temperatures westward from the middle of the continent that the Gulf of California almost rivals the Red Sea as an ocean-arm under a desert-hot atmosphere.

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  • The strong changes of temperature with the seasons are indicated also by the distribution of summer maxima and winter minima; summer temperatures above 112 are known in the south-western deserts, and temperatures of 100 are sometimes carried far northward on the Great Plains by the hot winds nearly to the Canadian boundary; while in winter, temperatures of 40 occur along the mid-northern boundary and freezing winds sometimes sweep down to the border of the Gulf of Mexico.

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  • The climatic effects of relief are seen directly in the ascent of the higher mountain ranges to altitudes where low temperatures prevail, thus preserving snow patches through the summer on the high summits (over 12,000 ft.) in the south, and maintaining snowfields and moderate-sized glaciers on the ranges in the north.

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  • There is a much lighter snowfall in winter than in northern Ontario and Quebec, with somewhat lower temperatures.

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  • Northwards chinooks become less frequent and the winter's cold increases, but the coming of spring is not much later, and the summer temperatures, with sunshine for twenty hours out of twenty-four in June, are almost the same as for hundreds of miles to the south, so that most kinds of grain and vegetables ripen far to the north in the Peace river valley.

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  • The slider upon the rule serves to adjust the scale for different temperatures, and then indicates the strength of the spirit in percentages over or under proof.

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  • A table provides the necessary corrections for other temperatures.

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  • The metal as obtained in this process is lustrous and takes a polish, does not melt in the oxyhydrogen flame, but liquefies in the electric arc, and is not affected by air at ordinary temperatures.

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  • Chromium as prepared by the Goldschmidt process is in a passive condition as regards dilute sulphuric acid and dilute hydrochloric acid at ordinary temperatures; but by heating the metal with the acid it passes into the active condition, the same effect being produced by heating the inactive form with a solution.

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  • If the violet solution is allowed to evaporate slowly at ordinary temperatures the sulphate crystallizes out as Cr2(S04)3.15H20, but the green solution on evaporation leaves only an amorphous mass.

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  • Although he had previously published meritorious researches on piezoelectricity, the magnetic properties of bodies at different temperatures, and other topics, he was chiefly known for his work on radium carried out jointly with his wife, Marie Sklodowska, who was born at Warsaw on the 7th of November 1867.

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  • Adopting the definition we should have no difficulty in proving that in a vacuum tube gases may be luminous at very low temperatures, but we are doubtful whether such a conclusion is very helpful towards the elucidation of our problem.

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  • The lines of the trunk seem to appear at lower temperatures, which may account for the fact that it can be observed as absorption lines.

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  • The experiment proves only the transparency of the gases experimented upon, and this is confirmed by the fact that bodies like bromine and iodine give on heating an emission spectrum corresponding to the absorption spectrum seen at ordinary temperatures.

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  • The problem of magnesium reduction is in many respects similar to that of aluminium extraction, bait the lightness of the metal as compared, bulk for bulk, with its fused salts, and the readiness with which it burns when exposed to air at high temperatures, render the problem somewhat more difficult.

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  • Grignard (Comptes rendus, 1900 et seq.) observed that magnesium and alkyl or aryl halides combined together in presence of anhydrous ether at ordinary R temperatures (with the appearance of brisk boiling) to form compounds of the type RMgX(R = an alkyl or aryl group and X = halogen).

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  • Fleming, of University College, London, in the investigation of the electrical behaviour of substances cooled to very low temperatures.

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  • His name is most widely known in connexion with his work on the liquefaction of the so-called permanent gases and his researches at temperatures approaching the zero of absolute temperature.

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  • He next experimented with a highpressure hydrogen jet by which low temperatures were realized through the Thomson-Joule effect, and the successful results thus obtained led him to build at the Royal Institution the large refrigerating machine by which in 1898 hydrogen was for the first time collected in the liquid state, its solidification following in 1899.

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  • The Royal Society in 1894 bestowed the Rumford medal upon him for his work in the production of low temperatures, and in 1899 he became the first recipient of the Hodgkins gold medal of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, for his contributions to our knowledge of the nature and properties of atmospheric air.

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  • Low temperatures are prevalent throughout these western regions, whose bleak desolation is unrelieved by the existence of trees or vegetation of any size, and where the wind sweeps unchecked across vast expanses of arid plain.

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  • This relation does not hold for very soluble gases, such as ammonia, at low temperatures.

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  • As a general rule gases are less soluble at high than at low temperatures - unlike the majority of solids.

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  • If the two substances are soluble in each other in all proportions at all temperatures above their melting points we get a diagram reduced to the two fusion curves cutting each other at a nonvariant point.

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  • The resistance of lichens is extraordinary; they may be cooled to very low temperatures and heated to high temperatures without being killed.

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  • In 1800 he became a secretary of the society, and in the following year he presented the important paper or series of papers, entitled "Experimental Essays on the constitution of mixed gases; on the force of steam or vapour of water and other liquids in different temperatures, both in Torricellian vacuum and in air; on evaporation; and on the expansion of gases by heat."

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  • The bath is heated internally with the current rather than by means of external fuel, because this arrangement permits the vessel itself to be kept comparatively cool; if it were fired from without, it would be hotter than the electrolyte, and no material suitable for the construction of the cell is competent to withstand the attack of nascent aluminium at high temperatures.

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  • At elevated temperatures the metal decomposes nearly all other metallic oxides, wherefore it is most serviceable as a metallurgical reagent.

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  • Its vapour density at temperatures above 750 corresponds to the formula AlCl 3 j below this point the molecules are associated.

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  • In connexion with these experiments he developed the electric furnace as a convenient means of obtaining very high temperatures in the laboratory; and by its aid he prepared many new compounds, especially carbides, silicides and borides, and melted and volatilized substances which had previously been regarded as infusible.

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  • The art of retarding the period of flowering in certain plants consists, in principle, in the artificial application of cold temperatures whereby the resting condition induced by low winter temperature is prolonged.

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  • When required for use they are removed to cool sheds to thaw, and are then gradually inured to higher temperatures.

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  • Night temperatures also should always be allowed to drop somewhat, the heat being increased again in the morning.

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  • Continue the usual operations of disbudding and thinning of fruit, and take care to keep up the proper temperatures.

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  • Keep up the necessary temperatures for the ripening of the various fruits.

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  • Keep up moderate temperatures in the stove, and merely repel frosts in the greenhouse, guarding against damp, by ventilation and by the cautious use of water.

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  • Similar results have been obtained by using diazotized para-anisidine, a synand an anticompound being formed, as well as a third isomeric cyanide, obtained by evaporating para-methoxybenzenediazonium hydroxide in the presence of an excess of hydrocyanic acid at ordinary temperatures.

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  • It is probable that the whole phenomenon of isomerism is due to the possibility that compounds or systems which in reality are unstable yet persist, or so slowly change that practically one can speak of their stability; for instance, such systems as explosives and a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, where the stable form is water, and in which, according to some, a slow but until now undetected change takes place even at ordinary temperatures.

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  • Consequently, of each pair of isomers we may establish beforehand which is the more stable; either in particular circumstances, a direct change taking place, as, for instance, with maleic acid, which when exposed to sunlight in presence of a trace of bromine, yields the isomeric fumaric acid almost at once, or, indirectly, one may conclude that the isomer which forms under greater heat-development is the more stable, at least at lower temperatures.

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  • Now these modifications show hardly any tendency to persist, the one stable at high temperatures being formed at elevated temperatures, but changing in the reverse sense on cooling.

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  • In the case of the quadrivalent carbon, diamond seems to be the stable form at ordinary temperatures, but one may wait long before it is formed from graphite.

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  • To take the simple case of the " wall " or flat plate considered by Fourier for the definition of thermal conductivity, suppose that a quantity of heat Q passes in the time T through an area A of a plate of conductivity k and thickness x, the sides of which are constantly maintained at temperatures B' and 8".

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  • If the plate is thin, it is necessary to measure the thickness with great care, and it is necessary to assume that the temperatures of the surfaces are the same as those of the media with which they are in contact, since there is no room to insert thermometers in the plate itself.

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  • The temperatures indicated by the different pairs of wires differed by as much as 10 %, but the mean of the whole would probably give a fair average.

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  • This gives an average value of the conductivity over the range, but it is better to observe the temperatures at three distances, and to assume k to be a linear function of the temperature, in which case the solution of the equation is still very simple, namely, 0+Ze6 2 =a log r+b, (3) where e is the temperature-coefficient of the conductivity.

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  • Some of these results have been widely quoted, but they are far from consistent, and it may be doubted whether the difficulties of observing rapidly varying temperatures have been duly appreciated in many cases.

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  • The external heat-loss was eliminated by comparing observations taken at the same mean temperatures during heating and during cooling, assuming that the rate of loss of heat f(S) would be the same in the two cases.

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  • It was also tacitly assumed that the thermo-electric power of the couples for the gradient was the same as that of the couples for the mean temperature, although the temperatures were different.

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  • The thermal capacity and electrical conductivity were measured at various temperatures on the same specimens of metal.

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  • Similarly if A is hotter than B, or if there is a gradient of temperature between adjacent layers, the diffusion of molecules from A to B tends to equalize the temperatures, or to conduct heat through the gas at a rate proportional to the temperature gradient, and depending also on the rate of interchange of molecules in the same way as the viscosity effect.

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  • Experiments by the capillary tube method have shown that the viscosity varies more nearly as 0 1, but indicate that the rate of increase diminishes at high temperatures.

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  • In a fine state of division it takes fire on heating in air, but is permanent at ordinary temperatures in oxygen or air; it is readily attacked by hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, but scarcely acted on by nitric acid.

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  • In Alsace-Lorraine the Vosges and the plateau of Lorraine are also remarkable for low temperatures.

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  • The city has a monument (1900) to John Gorrie (1803-1855), a physician who discovered the cold-air process of refrigeration in 1849 (and patented an ice-machine in 1850), as the result of experiments to lower the temperatures of fever patients.

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  • The mode of preparation is to calcine the gypsum at temperatures which depend on the class of cement to be produced.

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  • There is hardly any seasonal change to be observed, and the dampness of the climate causes the heat to be more oppressive than are higher temperatures in drier climates.

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  • Oxygen may be prepared by heating mercuric oxide; by strongly heating manganese dioxide and many other peroxides; by heating the oxides of precious metals; and by heating many oxy-acids and oxy-salts to high temperatures, for example, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, nitre, lead nitrate, zinc sulphate, potassium chlorate, &c. Potassium chlorate is generally used and the reaction is accelerated and carried out at a lower temperature by previously mixing the salt with about one-third of its weight of manganese dioxide, which acts as a catalytic agent.

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  • These serve to modify the temperatures of the plateau, which is swept by cold winds at all seasons of the year.

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  • Bleaching-powder is a compound obtained by the action of free chlorine on hydrated lime, containing a slight excess of water at ordinary temperatures or slightly above these.

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  • He became professor at Leiden in 1882, and devoted himself especially to the study of properties of matter at low temperatures.

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  • The greater part of the Deccan and the Central Provinces are included within the hottest area, though in May the highest temperatures are found in Upper Sind, north-west Rajputana, and south-west Punjab.

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  • He also studied the alkaloids and organic acids, introduced a classification of the metals according to the facility with which they or their sulphides are oxidized by steam at high temperatures, and effected a comparison of the chemical composition of atmospheric air from all parts of the world.

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  • It Appears Probable That His Values For Higher Temperatures May Be Adopted With This Reduction, Which Is Further Confirmed By The Results Of Reynolds And Moorby, And By Those Of Liidin.

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  • The Atomic Heat Of A Metal In The Solid State Is In Most Cases Larger Than Six Calories At Ordinary Temperatures.

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  • Considering The Wide Variations In The Physical Condition And Melting Points, The Comparatively Close Agreement Of The Atomic Heats Of The Metals At Ordinary Temperatures, Known As Dulong And Petit'S Law, Is Very Remarkable.

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  • Evaporation of a solution at ordinary temperatures gives colourless monoclinic prisms of Th(SO 4) 2.9H 2 O, which is isomorphous with uranium sulphate, U(S04)2.9H20.

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  • Another method, which is suitable for volatile liquids or low temperatures, is to allow the liquid to evaporate in a calorimeter, and to measure the quantity of heat required for the evaporation of the liquid at the temperature of the calorimeter and at saturation-pressure.

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  • Taking the difference between the values of H for any two temperatures 1 " Latent Heat of Steam," Phil.

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  • He suggested that the high value for S found by Regnault might be due to the presence of damp in his superheated steam, or, on the other hand, that the assumption that steam at low temperatures followed the law pv = R0 might be erroneous.

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  • In order to correct this equation for the deviations of the vapour from the ideal state at higher temperatures and pressures, the simplest method is to assume a modified equation of the Joule-Thomson type (Thermodynamics, equation (17)), which has been shown to represent satisfactorily the behaviour of other gases and vapours at moderate pressures.

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  • Since the specific heat of the liquid increases rapidly at high temperatures, while dH/d0 diminishes, it is clear that the latent heat must diminish more and more rapidly as the critical point is approached.

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  • If we assume formulae of the simple type A+B/0 for two different substances which have the same vapour-pressure p at the absolute temperatures 0' and 0" respectively, we may write log p=A'+B'/0'= A"+B"/0", .

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  • The errcrs from both causes increase more rapidly at higher temperatures.

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  • At any rate it may be said that generally speaking the maximum, minimum and mean temperatures of points of approximately equal altitude are respectively but slightly different in northern or southern California.2 Death Valley surpasses for combined heat and aridity any meteorological stations on earth where regular observations are taken, although for extremes of heat it is exceeded by places in the Colorado desert.

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  • This salt is obtained by roasting wolfram with sodium carbonate, lixiviating, neutralizing the boiling filtrate with hydrochloric acid and crystallizing at ordinary temperatures.

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  • The salt forms large monoclinic prisms; molecules containing 25 and 21 H 2 O separate from solutions crystallized at higher temperatures.

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  • All four of the halogens unite with hydrogen, but the affinity for hydrogen decreases as the atomic weight increases, hydrogen and fluorine uniting explosively at very low temperatures and in the dark, whilst hydrogen and iodine unite only at high temperatures, and even then the resulting compound is very readily decomposed by heat.

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  • On the other hand the stability of the known oxygen compounds increases with the atomic weight, thus iodine pentoxide is, at ordinary temperatures, a well-defined crystalline solid, which is only decomposed on heating strongly, whilst chlorine monoxide, chlorine peroxide, and chlorine heptoxide are very unstable, even at ordinary temperatures, decomposing at the slightest shock.

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  • At ordinary temperatures it unites directly with many other elements; thus with hydrogen, combination takes place in direct sunlight with explosive violence; arsenic, antimony, thin copper foil and phosphorus take fire in an atmosphere of chlorine, forming the corresponding chlorides.

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  • In 1830 he published a research, undertaken with Arago for the academy of sciences, on the elastic force of steam at high temperatures.

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  • The quantity of work whic produces a British unit of heat (or so much heat as elevates the temperature of one pound of pure water, at or near ordinary atmospheric temperatures, by 1 F.) is 772 foot-pounds.

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  • The fact is that the constitution of average grape juice and the temperatures of fermentation which generally prevail are particularly well suited to the life action of wine yeast, and are inimical to the development of the other organisms. When these conditions fail, as is, for instance, the case when the must is lacking in acidity, or when the weather during the fermentation period is very hot and means are not at hand to cool the must, bacterial side fermentations may, and do, often take place.

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  • The mannitic disease, which is due to high temperatures during fermentation and lack of acid in the must, is rarely of serious consequence in temperate countries.

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  • Thus in parts of California, where high temperatures are liable to prevail during the vintage, the system - first employed in Algeria - of cooling the must during fermentation to the proper temperature by means of a series of pipes in which iced water circulates is now largely employed.

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  • The molten metal is sea-green in colour, and at higher temperatures (in the electric arc) it vaporizes and burns with a green flame.

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  • Sulphuric and hydrochloric acids have little or no action upon it at ordinary temperatures, even when in a fine state of division; but on heating, copper sulphate and sulphur dioxide are formed in the first case, and cuprous chloride and hydrogen in the second.

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  • At ordinary temperatures it rapidly polymerizes (probably to a tetramethylcylobutanedione).

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  • But the local variations thus indicated are brought out more fully by a consideration of seasonal, and especially winter, temperatures.

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  • The almost continual cloudiness is undoubtedly a principal cause, not only of the low summer temperatures, but also of the comparatively high winter temperatures.

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  • It is a greyish coloured solid, which combines very energetically with water to form the hydroxide, much heat being evolved during the combination; on heating to redness in a current of oxygen it combines with the oxygen to form the dioxide, which at higher temperatures breaks up again into the monoxide and oxygen.

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  • From a supersaturated aqueous solution of borax, the pentahydrate, Na2B407.5H20, is deposited when evaporation takes place at somewhat high temperatures.

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  • Pure antimony is quite permanent in air at ordinary temperatures, but when heated in air or oxygen it burns, forming the trioxide.

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  • This assumption, however, does not appear to be verified by the experiments of Brunner and Wolff on the rise of water in tubes at different temperatures.

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  • Wolf that at ordinary temperatures the latent heat of extension of the surface of water is dynamically equivalent to about half the mechanical work done in producing the surface-extension.

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  • And of all Arizona it should be said that owing to the extreme dryness of the air, evaporation from moist surfaces is very rapid,' so that the high temperatures here are decidedly less oppressive than much lower temperatures in a humid atmosphere.

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  • Apart from the resolution of doubts as to the power of spores to withstand such temperatures for long periods, the discoveries of Miguel, Globig and others have shown that there are numerous bacteria which will grow and divide at such temperatures, e.g.

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  • As we have seen, thermophilous bacteria can grow at high temperatures, and it has long been known that some forms develop on ice.

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  • Manna of good quality dissolves at ordinary temperatures in about 6 parts of water, forming a clear liquid.

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  • It reacts with sulphuric acid only at high temperatures, yielding a sulphonic acid.

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  • The climate of the islands is oceanic, with moderate and fairly uniform temperatures and heavy rainfall.

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  • Bromine at ordinary temperatures is a mobile liquid of fine red colour, which appears almost black in thick layers.

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  • At ordinary temperatures hydrobromic acid is a colourless gas which fumes strongly in moist air, and has an acid taste and reaction.

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  • As a class, the metallic bromides are solids at ordinary temperatures, which fuse readily and volatilize on heating.

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  • The first is formed when 30% hydrogen peroxide reacts with phosphorus pentoxide or metaor pyrophosphoric acids at low temperatures and the mixture diluted with ice-cold water.

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  • It decomposes slowly at ordinary temperatures.

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  • P. Joule had assumed to be the same at all temperatures.

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  • The south-east winds blow from the arid lands and carry rising temperatures across the state; and the winter anti-cyclones from the north-west carry low temperatures even to the southern border.

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  • The confines of the sun are visibly in a state of turmoil, for which a sufficient cause can be assigned in the relative readiness with which the outer portions part with heat to space, and so condensing produce a state of static instability, so that the outer surface of the sun in place of being fixed is continually circulating, portions at high temperatures rising rapidly from the depths to positions where they will part rapidly with their heat, and then, whether perceived or not, descending again.

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  • The elevated plateaus and summits of the Andes are responsible, however, for many important and profound modifications in climate, not only in respect to the lower temperatures of the higher elevations, but also in respect to the higher temperatures of the sheltered lowland valleys and the varying climatic conditions of the neighbouring plains.

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  • Farther north, on the open llanos of the Orinoco tributaries, the year is divided into equal parts, an alternating wet and dry season, the sun temperatures being high followed by cool nights, and the temperatures of the rainy season being even higher.

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  • High temperatures prevail throughout the greater part of the Magdalena and Cauca valleys, because the mountain ranges which enclose them shut out the prevailing winds.

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  • These lowland plains and valleys comprise the climatic tropical zone of Colombia, which is characterized by high temperatures, and by excessive humidity and dense forests, an exception to the last-named characteristic being the open llanos where dry summers prevail.

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  • There is no satisfactory record of temperatures and rainfall in these widely different climatic zones from which correct averages can be drawn and compared.

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  • Nevertheless, the west coast north of the Olifants river is practically rainless and there is great difference between day and night temperatures, this part of the coast sharing the characteristics of the interior plateau.

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  • But given time, all such compounds, if they contain enough bitumen to render them water-tight, appear to settle down even at ordinary temperatures as heavy viscous fluids, retaining their fluidity permanently if not exposed to the air.

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  • By reason of the constantly changing temperatures and the frequent filling and emptying of the reservoir, expansion and contraction, which are always at work tending to produce relative movements wherever one portion of a structure is weaker than another, must have assisted the water-pressure in the extension of the horizontal cracks, which, growing slowly during the fifteen years, provided at last the area required to enable the intrusive water to overbalance the little remaining stability of the dam.

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  • This fact is probably due partly to the actual intrusion of warm water from the Mascarene current east of Madagascar, and partly to the circumstance that the different temperatures of the waters are so compensated by their differences of salinity that they have almost precisely the same specific gravity in situ.

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  • The greater part of the state has a sub-tropical climate, with high sun temperatures, moderate rainfall and mild, healthful conditions.

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  • This method of firing results in the saving of about one-third the weight of coke used in the old form of furnace per ton of coal carbonized, and enables higher temperatures to be obtained, the heat being also more equally distributed.

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  • The winters, especially in the central and north-western sections, are long and severe, and the summers in the central and south-western sections are very warm; but the air is so dry that cold and heat are less felt here than they are in some humid climates with less extreme temperatures.

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  • The perfectly pure metal may be prepared by heating the oxide or oxalate in a current of hydrogen; when obtained at a low temperature it is a black powder which oxidizes in air with incandescence; produced at higher temperatures the metal is not pyrophoric. Peligot obtained it as minute tetragonal octahedra and cubes by reducing ferrous chloride in hydrogen.

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  • It is the most tenacious of all the ductile metals at ordinary temperatures with the exception of cobalt and nickel; it becomes brittle, however, at the temperature of liquid air.

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  • Heated in air it at first partially oxidizes to ferrous sulphate, and at higher temperatures it yields sulphur dioxide and ferric oxide.

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  • The normal alcohols containing r to 16 carbon atoms are liquids at the ordinary temperatures; the higher members are crystalline, odourless and tasteless solids, closely resembling the fats in appearance.

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  • According to Plucker, the coefficient of cubical dilatation at moderately low temperatures is 0.0001585.

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  • Seebeck (1822), employing a galvanometer then recently invented, which was more suited for the detection of small electromotive forces, found that a current was produced if the junctions of the two metals were at different temperatures.

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  • Cumming shortly afterwards discovered the phenomenon of Thermoelectric Inversion, or the change of the order of the metals in the thermoelectric series at different temperatures.

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  • Copper, for instance, is negative to iron at ordinary temperatures, but is positive to it at 300 C. or above.

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  • More accurately it may be stated that the thermoelectromotive force in any given circuit containing a series of different metals is a function of the temperatures of the junctions only, and is independent of the distribution of the temperature at any intermediate points, provided that each of the metals in the series is of uniform quality.

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  • The effects produced by abrupt changes of temperature or section, or by pressing 'together pieces of the same metal at different temperatures, are probably to be explained as effects of strain.

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  • The junctions of the magnetic and the non-magnetic steel are therefore at different temperatures if the flame is moved, and a current is produced just as if a piece of different metal with junctions at different temperatures had been introduced into the circuit.

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  • In the majority of cases it is found that the observations can be represented within the limits of experimental error by a fairly simple empirical formula, at least for moderate ranges of temperatures.

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  • Dewar and Fleming, working at very low temperatures, were compelled to use the platinum thermometer, and expressed their results in terms of the platinum scale.

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  • If C is the intensity of the current through a simple thermocouple, the junctions of which are at temperatures t and 1', a quantity of heat, P X C, is absorbed by the passage of the current per second at the hot junction, t, and a quantity, P X C, is evolved at the cold junction, t'.

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  • The signs of the Peltier and Thomson effects will be the same as the signs of the coefficients given in Table I., if we suppose the metal s to be lead, and assume that the value of s may be taken as zero at all temperatures.

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  • At ordinary temperatures the value is negative, increasing rapidly in the negative direction as the temperature rises.

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  • Even in winter, however, the day temperatures are high.

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  • It melts readily, and on cooling resolidifies to a brown mass, which at moderately high temperatures gives off oxygen and leaves a residue of a basic lead salt; for this reason fused lead chromate is sometimes made use of in the analysis of organic compounds.

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  • There are, however, an increasingly large number of cases in which temperatures below that of any available natural cooling agent are required, and in these it is necessary to resort to machines which are capable of producing the required cooling effect by taking in heat at low temperatures and rejecting it at temperatures somewhat above that of the natural cooling agent, which for obvious reasons is generally water.

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  • The relation then between the work expended and the actual cooling work performed denotes the efficiency of the process, and this is expressed by Qt/(Q2-Q1); but as in a perfect refrigerating machine it is understood that the whole of the heat Q i is taken in at the absolute temperature T 11 and the whole of the heat Q2, is rejected at the absolute temperature T2, the heat quantities are proportional to the temperatures, and the expression T,/(T 2 -T,) gives the ideal coefficient of performance for any stated temperature range, whatever working substance is used.

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  • If r represents the latent heat of the vapour, and q 2 and q1 the amounts of heat contained in the liquid at the respective temperatures of T2 and T11 then the loss from the heat carried from the condenser into the refrigerator is shown by (q2-q1)/r and the useful refrigerating effect produced in the refrigerator is r-(q 2 -q i).

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  • At higher condenser temperatures the results are even much more favourable to ammonia.

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  • Usually the highest temperatures of the year are in July and the lowest in January.

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  • Wislicenus (Berichte, 1892, 25, p. 2084) has prepared the sodium salt by passing nitrous oxide over sodamide at high temperatures.

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  • They are intended for use at the extreme temperatures obtainable in steel furnaces, or for the melting of platinum before the oxy-hydrogen blowpipe.

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  • Petroleum, or rather the heavy oils obtained in tar refineries, having an equal or superior heating power to coal-gas, may also be used in laboratories for producing high temperatures.

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  • These different air masses do not mix because they have different temperatures and densities.

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  • The sample window is double-glazed to prevent condensation of moisture when working at temperatures above or below ambient.

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  • The usual approach is to investigate the effect of the enzyme amylase on the breakdown of starch solution at various temperatures.

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  • In 1911 he constructed a special calorimeter that measured specific heats at very low temperatures.

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  • The cracking reaction can be induced using high temperatures (about 500 C) in the presence of steam or a zeolite catalyst.

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  • New types of Viton® are versatile, offering improved capabilities in steam, solvents, highly caustic environments and low temperatures.

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  • The high temperatures generated fuse the ore particles and fluxes together to form a porous clinker called sinter.

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  • Weather During our 2-week holiday, apart from 1 day, we had mostly cloudless skies, and temperatures were generally in the 80's.

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  • Both of these temperatures, of course, are completely wrong for an ionic compound - they are much too low.

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  • At temperatures a long way below T m the polymer behaves like a solid, although it is not crystalline.

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  • Some highly toxic dioxin is also formed despite careful control of the flue gas temperatures.

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  • Fcc metals, however, generally remain ductile at low temperatures.

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  • Zinc becomes more ductile at temperatures above room temperature.

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  • Blackbody lamps have a higher emissivity (0.99) and therefore can be used over a wider wavelength range and to higher radiance temperatures.

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  • Thus, there is an overall positive enthalpy of unfolding at higher temperatures.

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  • Even at higher temperatures, there may be problems of having enough time for the solid to fully equilibrate as the system is cooling.

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  • The rabbit flea can live for nine months at temperatures around the freezing point without feeding.

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  • Fluid inclusion studies will tell us about the pressures and temperatures of the pore fluid inclusion studies will tell us about the pressures and temperatures of the pore fluids during flow.

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  • Unlike their cousins they do not hibernate due to the all round high temperatures of their native land.

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  • The climate in Bentota is fairly humid with temperatures ranging between 16 to 27 degrees centigrade.

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  • In standard efficiency boilers, the flue gases leave the boiler at high enough temperatures for the water vapor to appear invisible.

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  • This helps manage underbonnet temperatures without using lagging which can lead to corrosion.

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  • Used when temperatures are not high and when the maximum power output is required such as in stock car qualifying laps.

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  • Temperatures remained relatively mild throughout the month, with only four mornings later in the month where ground frost delayed course openings.

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  • Cryogenic milling is used to break down some metals which become brittle at low temperatures.

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  • This " optical molasses " can slow millions of atoms to temperatures just millionths of a degree above absolute zero.

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  • Phase Transitions The difficulties in imaging organic monolayers are increased by instabilities at elevated temperatures.

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  • The combination of ground temperatures only slightly below zero, high ice contents and steep slopes, makes mountain permafrost particularly vulnerable to changes.

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  • At higher temperatures the increased thermal vibrations cause the permittivity to drop again.

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  • They found themselves near Maiwand, an Afghan village on a desiccated dusty open plain with shade temperatures approaching 120 degrees.

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  • It seems mad in these temperatures, almost as mad as the polar plunge.

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  • We find extremely long-lived modes of spin precession, named ' persistent precessing domains ' (PPD) at the lowest achievable temperatures.

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  • This was altogether an incredibly productive week despite the hangovers and temperatures over 90 degrees.

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  • For a full temperature readout, follow the links which display temperatures in text files.

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  • We are investigating the nature of how IgE binds to its receptors using surface plasmon resonance, studying binding over a range of temperatures.

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  • High water temperatures and freshwater runoff caused the coral to be bleached.