Temperature sentence example

temperature
  • They can't keep her temperature down.
    738
    324
  • The nights were still cold into April, but the temperature climbed into the 60's during the day.
    353
    157
  • The temperature of his tent seemed to drop by ten degrees.
    259
    107
  • May was less than a week old and the temperature was still volatile.
    225
    111
  • The temperature was in the high teens but as the sun began its ascent it felt far warmer.
    150
    75
    Advertisement
  • The temperature hovered around twenty-five and the sun was brilliant.
    88
    58
  • Yes, my metabolism is a lot faster than a human, so my temperature runs about a hundred and two degrees.
    89
    62
  • What was supposed to be sunshine, mild temperature and puffy white clouds turned out to be intermittent showers and a sky as gray as Dean's sweat socks.
    94
    68
  • Dean felt the temperature climbing in his face.
    57
    42
  • Robots can work without ceasing in environments where the temperature is a thousand degrees.
    64
    51
    Advertisement
  • In the Ohio Valley and eastern Panhandle the summer mean temperature is 74°, the winter mean 31° to 34°.
    29
    17
  • These natural philosophers suggested that equal volumes of all gaseous substances must contain, at the same temperature and pressure, the same number of molecules.
    32
    23
  • Specimens of curves showing the relation of induction to magnetic field at various temperatures, and of permeability to temperature with fields of different intensities, are given in figs.
    4
    0
  • There was no humidity, an ideal temperature and enough of a breeze to perfume the air with the zillion flowers recently wakened after a tough winter or per­haps just planted to welcome the approaching summer season.
    34
    32
  • This difference amounts to about at the temperature of liquid oxygen, and about -k° at that of liquid hydrogen.
    23
    21
    Advertisement
  • A closed stove acts mainly by convection; though when heated to a high temperature it gives out radiant heat.
    38
    36
  • The following are the chief results of Hopkinson's experiments: For small magnetizing forces the magnetization of iron steadily increases with rise of temperature till the critical temperature is approached, when the rate of increase becomes very high, the permeability in some cases attaining a value of about i i,000; the magnetization then with remarkable suddenness almost entirely disappears, the permeability falling to about 1.14.
    1
    0
  • The most striking feature presented by these is the enormous value, 12,660, which, with H =0.153, is, attained by the permeability at 765° C., followed by a drop so precipitous that when the temperature is only 15° higher, the value of the permeability has become quite insignificant.
    1
    0
  • Above these temperatures the little permeability that remained was found to be independent of the magnetizing force, but it /1, appeared to vary a little with the temperature, one specimen showing a permeability of 100 at 820°, 2.3 at 950°, and 17 at 1050°.
    1
    0
  • The effects of temperature upon hysteresis were also care fully studied, and many hysteresis loops were plotted.
    1
    0
    Advertisement
  • Hydriodic acid and phosphorus at high temperature give a dihydro-compound, whilst sodium and alcohol give hexaand octo-hydro derivatives.
    0
    0
  • With bromine in acetic acid solution at ordinary temperature, nicotine yields a perbromide, C10H10Br2N20 HBr 3, which with sulphur dioxide, followed by potash, gives dibromcotinine, C10H10Br2N20, from which cotinine, C10H12N20, is obtained by distillation over zinc dust.
    0
    0
  • In describing the mean distribution of temperature in the waters of the Atlantic it is necessary to treat the northern and southern divisions separately.
    0
    0
  • Below 500 fathoms the western centres of maximum disappear, and higher temperatures occur in the eastern Atlantic off the Iberian peninsula and north-western Africa down to at least 1000 fathoms; at still greater depths temperature gradually becomes more and more uniform.
    0
    0
  • The isothermals of mean surface temperature in the South Atlantic are in the lower latitudes of an cn- shape, temperatures being higher on the American than on the African side.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • The second part of the circulation in the depth is the slow " creep " of water of very low temperature along the bottom.
    0
    0
  • The dry wind from the Sahara called harmattan, which carries great quantities of fine red sand, causes a fall of temperature in the (European) summer.
    0
    0
  • By this means the mean temperature of the brass was raised through about 70° Fahr., while the amount of metal abraded was only 837 grains.
    0
    0
  • The temperature of the water at the commencement of the experiment was 60° Fahr., and after two horses had turned the lathe for 22 hours the water boiled.
    0
    0
  • About the same time Davy showed that two pieces of ice could be melted by rubbing them together in a vacuum, although everything surrounding them was at a temperature below the freezing point.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • The quantity of energy which, if entirely converted into heat, is capable of raising the temperature of the unit mass of water from C. to 1° C. is called the mechanical equivalent of heat.
    0
    0
  • The paddle was driven by weights, and the temperature of the water was observed by thermometers which could indicate 2 kuth of a degree Fahrenheit.
    0
    0
  • Thus the principle of Carnot involves the conclusion that a greater proportion of the heat possessed by a body at a high temperature can be converted into work than in the case of an equal quantity of heat possessed by a body at a low temperature, so that the availability of heat increases with the temperature.
    0
    0
  • Clerk Maxwell supposed two compartments, A and B, to be filled with gas at the same temperature, and to be separated by an ideal, infinitely thin partition containing a number of exceedingly small trap-doors, each of which could be opened or closed without any expenditure of energy.
    0
    0
  • By continuing this process every unit of mass which enters B will carry with it more energy than each unit which leaves B, and hence the temperature of the gas in B will be raised and that of the gas in A lowered, while no heat is lost and no energy expended; so that by the application of intelligence alone a portion of gas of uniform pressure and temperature may be sifted into two parts, in which both the temperature and the pressure are different, and from which, therefore, work can be obtained at the expense of heat.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • In the preface he states the position that "whenever, then, two gases are allowed to mix without the performance of work, there is dissipation of energy, and an opportunity of doing work at the expense of low temperature heat has been for ever lost."
    0
    0
  • It is then placed in a tank of water and kept at a certain fixed temperature, usually 75° F., until it assumes approximately a constant electrical state.
    0
    0
  • As the cable is sheathed it is stored in large water-tight tanks and kept at a nearly uniform temperature by means of water.
    0
    0
  • Hence this part of the country has a cold winter climate, so that while the mean summer temperature of Milan is higher than that of Sassari, and equal to that of Naples, and the extremes reached at Milan and Bologna are a good deal higher than those of Naples, the mean winter temperature of Turin is actually lower than that of Copenhagen.
    0
    0
  • Central Italy also presents striking differences of climate and temperature according to the greater or less proximity to the mountains.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • It is rapidly oxidized on heating to a temperature of 500°-600° C., and also when fused with nitre or potassium chlorate.
    0
    0
  • Molybdenum trichloride, MoC1 31 is obtained when the pentachloride is heated to a temperature of about 250° C. in a current of hydrogen.
    0
    0
  • The climate is exceptionally moist and warm (annual rainfall 52.79 in.; mean temperature in summer 75° F., in winter 40°), and fosters the growth of even Indian species of vegetation.
    0
    0
  • The apparently structureless substance is saturated with it; and if once a cell is completely dried, even at a low temperature, in the enormous majority of cases its life iS gone and the restoration of water fails to enable it to recover.
    0
    0
  • Photosynthesis commences in the presence of light, carbon dioxide and when the plant is subjected to a suitable temperature.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • The liberated energy takes the form of heat, which raises the temperature of the fermenting wort.
    0
    0
  • (4) The cell must have a certain temperature, for the activity of a protoplast is only possible within certain limits, which differ in the case of different plants.
    0
    0
  • The most constantly occurring changes that beset a plant are connected with illumination, temperature, moisture, and contact with foreign bodies.
    0
    0
  • The yellowing and subsequent casting of leaves, for instance, is a very general symptom of disease in plants, and may be induced by drought, extremes of temperature, insufficient or excessive illumination, excess of water at the roots, the action of parasitic Fungi, insects, worms, &c., or of poisonous gases, and so forth; and extreme caution is necessary in.
    0
    0
  • For instance, a Fungus epidemic is impossible unless the climatic conditions are such as to favor the dispersal and germination of the spores; and when plants are killed off owi~ig to the supersaturation of the soil with water, it is by no means obvious whether the excess of water and dissolved materials, or the exclusion of oxygen from the root-hairs, or the lowering of the temperature, or the accumulation of foul products of decomposition should be put into the foreground.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • Turning to the non-material external agents, probably no factor, are more responsible for ill-health in plants than temperature anc light.
    0
    0
  • For instance, suppose the effect of a falling temperature is to so modify the metabolism of the cells that they fill up more and more with watery sap; as the freezing-point is reached this may result in destructive changes, and death from cold may result.
    0
    0
  • False etiolation may occur from too low a temperature, often seen in young wheat in cold springs.
    0
    0
  • The water content of the soil, its mineral content, its humus content, its temperature, and its physical characteristics, such as its depth and the size of its component particles are all edaphic factors.
    0
    0
  • Climatic factors include all those relating to atmospheric temperature, rainfall, atmospheric humidity, and light and shade.
    0
    0
  • The difficulty of sharply delimiting edaphic and climatic factors is seen in the case of temperature.
    0
    0
  • Soil temperature is partly dependent on the direct rays of the sun, partly on the color and constitution of the soil, and partly on the water content of the soil.
    0
    0
  • Again, the temperature of the air is affected by radiation from the soil; and radiation differs in various soils.
    0
    0
  • It is probable that most, if not all, the metabolic changes which take place in a cell, such as the transformation of starch, proteids, sugar, cellulose; and the decomposition -of numerous other organic substances which would otherwise require a high temperature or powerful reagents is also due to their activity.
    0
    0
  • Common experience shows that temperature is the most important condition which controls the distribution of plants.
    0
    0
  • Temperature, then, is the fundamental limit which nature opposes to the indefinite extension of any one species.
    0
    0
  • Buffon remarked that the same temperature might have been expected, all other circumstances being equal, to produce the same beings in different parts of the globe, both in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Yet lawns in the United States are destitute of the common English daisy, the wild hyacinth of the woods of the United Kingdom is absent from Germany, and the foxglove from Switzerland.
    0
    0
  • In the southern hemisphere the Palaeozoic flora appears ultimately to have been profoundly modified by a lowering of temperature and the existence of glacial conditions over a wide area.
    0
    0
  • Arctic plants make their brief growth and flower at a temperature little above freezing-point, and are dependent for their heat on the direct rays of the sun.
    0
    0
  • Ball found the temperature one inch below the surface to be 83, and he collected over forty species in flower.
    0
    0
  • Other symptoms of undue absorption are vertigo, deafness, sounds in the ears, stupefaction, a subnormal temperature, nausea, vomiting and a weak pulse (Sir Thomas Fraser).
    0
    0
  • There are six in all, of which the Kaiserquelle, with a temperature of 136° F., is the chief.
    0
    0
  • In the neighbouring Burtscheid (incorporated in 1897 with Aix-la-Chapelle) are also springs of far higher temperature, and this suburb, which has also a Kurgarten, is largely frequented during the season.
    0
    0
  • The coldest month is January, with a mean temperature of about 32° F., while the hottest month is July, with a mean of 78°.
    0
    0
  • Some require the hot, moist temperature of a stove; such are C. amabile, a native of Sumatra, C. amoenum (India), C. Balfourii (Socotra), C. giganteum (West tropical Africa), C. Kirkii (Zanzibar), C. latifolium (India), C. zeylanicum (tropical Asia and Africa), and others.
    0
    0
  • Built on the border of a low plain and having a mean annual temperature of 82° F., the town has the reputation of being unhealthy.
    0
    0
  • Climate.-Uruguay enjoys the reputation of possessing one of the most healthy climates in the world The geographical position ensures uniformity of temperature throughout the year, the summer heat being tempered by the Atlantic breezes, and severe cold in the winter season being unknown.
    0
    0
  • The retorts are charged with molten sulphur from an upper reservoir, which is kept at the requisite temperature by means of the lost heat of the retort fires.
    0
    0
  • By conducting the distillation slowly, so that the temperature within the chamber remains at a sufficiently low degree, it is possible to obtain the whole of the product in the form of "flowers."
    0
    0
  • Biltz (Ber., 1888, 21, p. 2013; 1901, 34, p. 2490) showed that the vapour density decreased with the temperature, and also depended on the pressure.
    0
    0
  • At low temperatures SA predominates, but as the temperature is raised S, increases; the transformation, however, is retarded by some gases, e.g.
    0
    0
  • It is a yellowish-brown liquid which dissociates rapidly with rise of temperature.
    0
    0
  • This solution is yellow in colour, and is very unstable decomposing at ordinary temperature into sulphur and sulphur dioxide.
    0
    0
  • The temperature, which rises at times to over 120° Fahr., is also very changeable, often sinking from 100° during the day to under 60° at night.
    0
    0
  • Close to the last-named in the centre of the town, are the public baths with hot springs (temperature 117° F).
    0
    0
  • Everywhere the winter is cold and the summer hot, both varying in their duration, but differing relatively little in the extremes of temperature recorded.
    0
    0
  • It is only on the Black Sea coast that the absolute range of temperature does not exceed 108°, while in the remainder of Russia it reaches 126° to 144°, the oscillations being between - 22° and - 31°, occasionally going down as low as - 54°, and rising as high as 86° to 104°, or even 109°.
    0
    0
  • The temperature drops so rapidly that a month later, about October the oth on the middle Urals and November the 15th throughout Russia, the thermometer ceases to rise above the freezing-point.
    0
    0
  • The rail-failures mentioned above also drew renewed attention to the importance of the thermal treatment of the steel from the time of melting to the last passage through the rolling mill and to the necessity of the finishing temperature being sufficiently low if the product is to be fine grained, homogeneous and tough; and to permit of this requirement being met there was a tendency to increase the thickness of the metal in the web and flanges of the rails.
    0
    0
  • - One pound of good Welsh coal properly burned in the fire-box of a locomotive yields about 15,000 British thermal units of heat at a temperature high enough to enable from 50 to 80% to flow across the boiler-heating surface to the water, the rest escaping up the chimney with the furnace gases.
    0
    0
  • Using this and the temperature 673° in the expression, it will be found that U =185 B.Th.U.
    0
    0
  • If h is the water heat at the lower temperature, h l the water heat at the higher temperature, and L the latent heat at the higher temperature, the heat supply per pound of steam is equal to h1 - h2+L1, which, from the steam tables, with the values of the temperatures given, is equal to 1013 B.Th.U.
    0
    0
  • That is to say, a perfect engine working between the limits of temperature assigned would convert only 18% of the total heat supply into work.
    0
    0
  • The initial temperature of the standard engine of comparison must be the temperature of the steam taken in the steam-pipe.
    0
    0
  • The temperature is equable, the average of the two midsummer months being about 47° Fahr., and that of the two midwinter months 37° Fahr.
    0
    0
  • The temperature is equable - at Apia the mean annual temperature is 78° F., the warmest month being December (80°) and the coldest July (75°-76°).
    0
    0
  • The mean annual temperature for the state is 49° F., but varies from 54° in the S.V.
    0
    0
  • At Elko, Elko county, in the N.E., the mean temperature for the year is 46° F.; for the winter (December, January and February) it is 26°, with extremes reported of 73° and - 42°; the mean temperature for the summer (June, July and August) is 69°, with extremes of 108° and 20°.
    0
    0
  • At Hawthorne, Esmeralda county, in the S.W., the mean temperature for the year is 54 0; for the winter it is 36°, with extremes of 69° and - 6°; the mean temperature for the summer is 72°, with extremes of 102° and 32°.
    0
    0
  • The annual range of temperature is about 124°; the highest temperature ever recorded being 119°, and the lowest -42°.
    0
    0
  • In this way we can reconcile the fact that the sun is certainly losing heat with the fact that the change in temperature has not been large enough to be perceived within historic times.
    0
    0
  • The spleen continues to enlarge; the urine is now scanty and high-coloured; the body temperature is high, but the highest temperatures occur during the chill; there is considerable thirst; and there is the usual intellectual unfitness, and it may be confusion, of the feverish state.
    0
    0
  • Sleep may overtake the patient in the midst of the sweating stage, and he awakes, not without some feeling of what he has passed through, but on the whole well, with the temperature fallen almost or altogether to the normal, or it may be even below the normal; the pulse moderate and full; the spleen again of its ordinary size; the urine that is passed after the paroxysm deposits a thick brick-red sediment of urates.
    0
    0
  • The mean annual temperature at Laibach is 48.4° F., and the rainfall amounts to 72 ins.
    0
    0
  • (5) The influence of temperature on the thermal effect of a chemical action is sometimes considerable, but.
    0
    0
  • Known quantities of the solutions are taken, and the temperature of each is accurately measured before mixing, the solutions having been allowed as far as possible to adjust themselves to the same temperature.
    0
    0
  • The change of temperature of the solutions after the mixing has taken place is then observed with the usual precautions.
    0
    0
  • In the above instance the sulphur is supposed to be in the solid rhombic modification, the oxygen and sulphur dioxide being in the gaseous state, and the initial and final systems being at the ordinary temperature.
    0
    0
  • The temperature of the water varies from 98° to 130° Fahr.; in all cases it gives off carbonic acid gas and contains lime, magnesium and sodium products.
    0
    0
  • There are frequent alternations of temperature, which averages 75° to 77° F., though considerably higher in the wet season.
    0
    0
  • The climate is extreme, the mean temperature for the year being 58° F., for January 38°, for July 80°; annual rainfall 9.4 in.
    0
    0
  • They have a temperature of 45 6° F., and contain a large proportion of bicarbonate of soda.
    0
    0
  • There is much malaria in the wooded districts of the east and on the higher campos, where the daily extremes of temperature are great, lung and bronchial diseases are common.
    0
    0
  • The rainfall, though not heavy, is sufficient to maintain such vegetation as is compatible with the conditions of temperature, and the surface is often swampy or peaty.
    0
    0
  • The isothermals of mean annual temperature lie over northern Asia on curves tolerably regular in their outline, having their western branches in a somewhat higher latitude than their eastern; a reduction of I° of latitude corresponds approximately - and irrespective of modifications due to elevation - to a rise of 2 ° Fahr., as far say as 30° N., where the mean temperature is about 75° Fahr.
    0
    0
  • Farther south the increase is slower, and the highest mean temperature anywhere attained in southern Asia is not much above 82 ° Fahr.
    0
    0
  • The variations of temperature are very great in Siberia, amounting near the coast to more than 100° Fahr., between the mean of the hottest and coldest months, and to still more between the extreme temperatures of those months.
    0
    0
  • The south-westerly winds which prevail north of the equator during the hot half of the year, to which navigators have given the name of the south-west monsoon (the latter word being a corruption of the Indian name for season), arise from the great diminution of atmospheric pressure over Asia, which begins to be strongly marked with the great rise of temperature in April and May, and the simultaneous relatively higher pressure over the equator and the regions south of it.
    0
    0
  • This diminution of pressure, which continues as the heat increases till it reaches its maximum in July soon after the solstice, is followed by the corresponding development of the south-west monsoon; and as the barometric pressure is gradually restored, and becomes equalized within the tropics soon after the equinox in October, with the general fall of temperature north of the equator, the south-west winds fall off, and are succeeded by a north-east monsoon, which is developed during the winter months by the relatively greater atmospheric pressure which then occurs over Asia, as compared with the equatorial region.
    0
    0
  • The heated body of air carried from the Indian Ocean over southern Asia by the south-west monsoon comes up highly charged with watery vapour, and hence in a condition to release a large body of water as rain upon the land, whenever it is brought into circumstances which reduce its temperature in a notable degree.
    0
    0
  • Such a reduction of temperature is brought about along the greater part of the coasts of India and of the BurmoSiamese peninsula by the interruption of the wind current by continuous ranges of mountains, which force the mass of air to rise over them, whereby the air being rarefied, its specific capacity for heat is increased and its temperature falls, with a corresponding condensation of the vapour originally held in suspension.
    0
    0
  • The following table gives particulars of temperature averages at a few typical places: In respect of precipitation the entire region of Caucasia may be divided into two strikingly contrasted regions, a wet and a dry.
    0
    0
  • At Buxton, at an elevation of about 1000 ft., the mean temperature in January is 34.9° F., and in July 57.50, the mean annual being 45.4°.
    0
    0
  • The acid melts at 132° C., and at a higher temperature it rapidly decomposes into acetic acid and carbon dioxide.
    0
    0
  • The mean annual temperature of Ohio is about 51° F.; in the N., 49.5°, and in the S., 53.5° But except where influenced by Lake Erie the temperature is subject to great extremes; at Coalton, Jackson county, in the S.E.
    0
    0
  • The prevailing winds in most parts are westerly, but sudden changes, as well as the extremes of temperature, are caused mainly by the frequent shifting of the wind from N.W.
    0
    0
  • The climate is moderate, the average temperature of the year at Kamenets being 48.3° (24.5° in January, 69° in July).
    0
    0
  • Therefore the flesh, especially of the larger kinds, is of a red colour; and the energy of their muscular action causes the temperature of their blood to be several degrees higher than in other fishes.
    0
    0
  • At a depth of 500 fathoms there is a nearly uniform temperature of 38°.
    0
    0
  • A higher temperature decomposes this body into carbon dioxide and itaconic acid, C 5 H 6 0 4, which, again, by the expulsion of a molecule of water, yields citraconic anhydride, C 5 H 4 0 3.
    0
    0
  • Citric acid digested at a temperature below 40° C. with concentrated sulphuric acid gives off carbon monoxide and forms acetone dicarboxylic acid.
    0
    0
  • Similarly there is a difference of opinion as to the conditions under which the organisms have been mineralized, some holding that the process has taken place at a high temperature and under great pressure; but the lack of practical evidence in nature in support of these views has led many to conclude that petroleum, like coal, has been formed at moderate temperatures, and under pressures varying with the depth of the containing rocks.
    0
    0
  • Others are deprived of a part of their more volatile constituents by spontaneous evaporation, or by distillation, in vacuo or otherwise, at the lowest possible temperature.
    0
    0
  • The cracking process practically consists in distilling the oils at a temperature higher than the normal boiling point of the constituents which it is desired to decompose.
    0
    0
  • The steam is superheated and may thus be heated to any desired temperature without increase of pressure, which would be liable to damage the still.
    0
    0
  • The first temperature is known as the flash-point, the second as the " fire-test."
    0
    0
  • Testing is begun when the temperature reaches 66° by slowly drawing the slide open and reclosing it, the speed being regulated by the swing of a pendulum supplied with the instrument.
    0
    0
  • This instrument is so constructed that the higher temperature needed can be readily applied, and it is fitted with a stirrer to equalize the heating of the contents of the oil-cup.
    0
    0
  • By means of this instrument the time occupied in the flow of a measured quantity of the oil through a small orifice at a given temperature is measured.
    0
    0
  • Except for Jerusalem, we have hardly any accurate meteorological observations; there the mean annual temperature is about 63° F.; in Beirut it is about 68°.
    0
    0
  • Even the steppe exhibits great contrasts of temperature; there the rainfall is slight and the air exceedingly exhilarating and healthy.
    0
    0
  • It is, however, requisite to make provision for the effect of changes in atmospheric temperature.
    0
    0
  • Then no changes of external temperature can affect the sag of the wire, and the only thing which can alter its length relatively to the supporting bar is the passage of a current through it.
    0
    0
  • The reason is that the heat produced in a given time in a wire is proportional to the square of the strength of the current passing through it, and hence the rate at which the heat is produced in the wire, and therefore its temperature, increases much faster than the current itself increases.
    0
    0
  • Changes of atmospheric temperature affect both wires equally and do not tilt the mirror.
    0
    0
  • The mean annual temperature of the state is 70.8° F., greater in the sub-tropical than in the other climate zones, and the Atlantic coast is in general warmer than the Gulf Coast.
    0
    0
  • By blending the coco-nut oil with other less saponifiable substances such as tallow, lard, cotton-seed oil, &c., and effecting the mixing and saponification at a slightly higher temperature, soaps are obtained which resemble milled toilet soaps.
    0
    0
  • The temperature of the Andean region is cold even in summer, but on the lower plains it is hot in summer, and only moderately cold in winter.
    0
    0
  • The crude product is very impure and possesses an offensive smell; it may be purified by forcing a fine spray of lime water through the liquid until the escaping water is quite clear, the washed bisulphide being then mixed with a little colourless oil and distilled at a low temperature.
    0
    0
  • Its critical temperature is 2 77.7° C., and its critical pressure is 78.1 atmos.
    0
    0
  • The sound, which has been heard by modern travellers, is generally attributed to the passage of the air through the pores of the stone, chiefly due to the change of temperature at sunrise.
    0
    0
  • The climate is temperate, but liable to sudden changes; the mean temperature is 63° I F., the maximum (in July) 99° 01, the minimum (in January) 31°.
    0
    0
  • It is insoluble in acids and decomposes when heated to a sufficiently high temperature.
    0
    0
  • The temperature is moderated by the north-east trade winds, which, somewhat modified by local conditions, blow throughout the year, briskly during the day and more mildly during the night.
    0
    0
  • The Hot Springs, Which Are Of Sulphureous Quality, And Have A Temperature Of From 109° To 113° F., Are Still Much Frequented, Attracting Annually Many Thousands Of Visitors.
    0
    0
  • With Sydney Young and others he investigated the critical state and properties of liquids and the relationship between their vapour pressures and temperature, and with John Shields he applied measurements of the surface tension of liquids to the determination of their molecular complexity.
    0
    0
  • The meal can be baked into "cake" or biscuit, as the Passover cake of the Jews; but it cannot be made into loaves in consequence of the great difficulty in rupturing the starch grains, unless the temperature be raised to a considerable height.
    0
    0
  • In the latter division are comprised the two Vindhyan districts of Saugor and Damoh, Jubbulpore at the head of the Nerbudda valley, and the four Satpura districts of Mandla, Seoni, Betul and Chhindwara, which enjoy, owing to their greater elevation, a distinctly lower average temperature than the rest of the province.
    0
    0
  • In the cold weather the temperature in Nagpur and the other hot districts is about the same as in Calcutta and substantially higher than that of northern India.
    0
    0
  • In the autumn months malarial fever is prevalent in all thickly forested tracts and also in the rice country; but on the whole the province is considered to be healthy, and as the rains break fairly regularly in June and produce an immediate fall in the temperature, severe heat is only experienced for a period of from two to three months.
    0
    0
  • From a study of the free elements Cannizzaro showed that an element may have more than one molecular weight; for example, the molecular weight of sulphur varied with the temperature.
    0
    0
  • Thus, the equation 2112+02 =2H20 not only represents that certain definite weights of hydrogen and oxygen furnish a certain definite weight of the compound which we term water, but that if the water in the state of gas, the hydrogen and the oxygen are all measured at the same temperature and pressure, the volume occupied by the oxygen is only half that occupied by the hydrogen, whilst the resulting water-gas will only occupy the same volume as the hydrogen.
    0
    0
  • This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.
    0
    0
  • Having replaced the oxygen in the absorption vessels by air, they are disconnected and weighed, after having cooled down to the temperature of the room.
    0
    0
  • The oxidation with nitric acid in sealed tubes at a temperature of 150° to 200° for aliphatic compounds, and 250° to 260° for aromatic compounds, is in common use, for both the sulphur and phosphorus can be estimated, the former being oxidized to sulphuric acid and the latter to phosphoric acid.
    0
    0
  • The limiting law expressing the behaviour of gases under varying temperature and pressure assumes the form pv= RT; so stated, this law is independent of chemical composition and may be regarded as a true physical law, just as much as the law of universal gravitation is a true law of physics.
    0
    0
  • According to the law of Avogadro, equal volumes of different gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules; therefore, since the density depends upon the number of molecules present in unit volume, it follows that for a comparison of the densities of gases, the determinations must be made under coincident conditions, or the observations reduced or re-computed for coincident conditions.
    0
    0
  • If we denote the critical volume, pressure and temperature by Vk, Pk and Tk, then it may be shown, either by considering the characteristic equation as a perfect cube in v or by using the relations that dp/dv=o, d 2 p/dv 2 =o at the critical point, that Vk = 3b, Pk= a/27b2, T ic = 8a/27b.
    0
    0
  • If we express the pressure, volume and temperature as fractions of the critical constants, then, calling these fractions the " reduced " pressure, volume and temperature, and denoting them by 7r, 0 and 0 respectively, the characteristic equation becomes (7+3/0 2)(30-i) =80; which has the same form for all substances.
    0
    0
  • Guldberg pointed out that for the most diverse substances the absolute boiling-point is about two-thirds of the critical temperature.
    0
    0
  • In the article Thermodynamics it is shown that the amount of heat required to raise a given weight of a gas through a certain range of temperature is different according as the gas is maintained at constant pressure, the volume in creasing, or at constant volume, the pressure increasing.
    0
    0
  • He regarded these anomalies as solely due to the chemical nature of the elements, and ignored or regarded as insignificant such factors as the state of aggregation and change of specific heat with temperature.
    0
    0
  • Weber, who showed that with rise of temperature the specific (and atomic) heat increases, finally attaining a fairly constant value; diamond, graphite and the various amorphous forms of carbon having the value about 5.6 at moo°, and silicon 5.68 at 232°; while he concluded that boron attained a constant value of 5.5.
    0
    0
  • Nilson and Pettersson's observations on beryllium and germanium have shown that the atomic heats of these metals increase with rise of temperature, finally becoming constant with a value 5.6.
    0
    0
  • Since the atomic heat of the same element varies with its state of aggregation, it must be concluded that some factor taking this into account must be introduced; moreover, the variation of specific heat with temperature introduces another factor.
    0
    0
  • In general, isomers boil at about the same temperature, as is shown by the isomeric esters CH1802: Methyl octoate..
    0
    0
  • Fora similar reason secondary alcohols boil at a lower temperature than the corresponding primary, the difference being about 19°.
    0
    0
  • A similar depression is presented by methyl alcohol (67°) and methyl ether (-23 °) Among the aromatic di-substitution derivatives the ortho compounds have the highest boiling-point, and the meta boil at a higher, or about the same temperature as the para compounds.
    0
    0
  • An ethylenic or double carbon union in the aliphatic hydrocarbons has, apparently, the same effect on the boiling-point as two hydrogen atoms, since the compounds C 0 H 2 „ +2 and CoH2n boil at about the same temperature.
    0
    0
  • Laplace is due the theoretical proof that this function is independent of temperature and pressure, and apparent experimental confirmation was provided by Biot and Arago's, and by Dulong's observations on gases and vapours.
    0
    0
  • P. Dale; the more simple formula (n - i)/d, which remained constant for gases and vapours, but exhibited slight discrepancies when liquids were examined over a wide range of temperature, being adopted.
    0
    0
  • Since a/d is the real specific volume of the molecule, it is therefore a constant; hence (N2-I)/(N2+2)d is also a constant and is independent of all changes of temperature, pressure, and of the state of aggregation.
    0
    0
  • This is shown by the following observations of Riihlmann on water, the light used being the D line of the spectrum: Eykmann's observations also support the approximate constancy of the Lorenz-Lorentz formula over wide temperature differences, but in some cases the deviation exceeds the errors of observation.
    0
    0
  • The values are for the Ha line: The empirical formula (n2-I)/(n2-1-o 4)d apparently gives more constant values with change of temperature than the LorenzLorentz form.
    0
    0
  • Since molecular refractions are independent of temperature and of the state of aggregation, it follows that molecular dispersions must be also independent of these conditions; and hence quantitative measurements should give an indication as to the chemical composition of substances.
    0
    0
  • At the critical point liquid and vapour become identical, and, consequently, as was pointed out by Frankenheim in 1841, the surface tension is zero at the critical temperature.
    0
    0
  • The relation they suspected to be of the form -yS = KT, where K is a constant analogous to R, and S the surface containing one gramme-molecule, y and T being the surface tension and temperature respectively.
    0
    0
  • Ramsay and Shields found from investigations of the temperature coefficient of the surface energy that Tin the equation y(Mv) 3 = KT must be counted downwards from the critical temperature T less about 6°.
    0
    0
  • The whole is enclosed in a jacket connected with a boiler containing a liquid, the vapour of which serves to keep the inner tube at any desired temperature.
    0
    0
  • In general, polysymmetric and polymorphous modifications suffer transformation when submitted to variations in either temperature or pressure, or both.
    0
    0
  • At the same time there may be conditions of temperature and pressure at which polymorphs may exist side by side.
    0
    0
  • Lehmann it melts at 168° (or at a slightly lower temperature in its water of crystallization) and on cooling forms optically isotropic crystals; at 125.6° the mass becomes doubly refracting, and from a solution rhombohedral (optically uniaxial) crystals are deposited; by further cooling acicular rhombic crystals are produced at 82.8°, and at 32.4° other rhombic forms are obtained, identical with the product obtained by crystallizing at ordinary temperatures.
    0
    0
  • The first and third transformations (reckoned in order with increasing temperature of the transition point) are attended by an increase in volume, the second with a contraction; the solubility follows the same direction, increasing up to 82.8°, then diminishing up to 125.6°, and then increasing from this temperature upwards.
    0
    0
  • We have already seen that temperature and pressure exercise considerable influence in this direction.
    0
    0
  • From supersaturated solutions the form unstable at the temperature of the experiment is, as a rule, separated, especially on the introduction of a crystal of the unstable form; and, in some cases, similar inoculation of the fused substance is attended by the same result.
    0
    0
  • The days are usually hot and the nights cold, the variations in temperature being a fruitful cause of bronchial and pulmonary diseases.
    0
    0
  • Hydriodic acid at high temperature reduces pyrrol to pyrrolidine (tetra-hydropyrrol), C 4 H 8 NH.
    0
    0
  • Sodium phenolate is heated in a stream of carbon dioxide in an iron retort at a temperature of 180-220° C., when half the phenol distils over and a basic sodium salicylate is left.
    0
    0
  • It is to be noted in the Kolbe method of synthesis that potassium phenolate may be used in place of the sodium salt, provided that the temperature be kept low (about 150° C.), for at the higher temperature (220° C.) the isomeric para-oxybenzoic acid is produced.
    0
    0
  • Ethyl salicylate, C 6 H 4 (OH) CO 2 C 2 H 5j is obtained by boiling salicylic acid with alcohol and a little sulphuric acid, or by dropping an alcoholic solution of salicylic acid into 13-naphthalene sulphonic acid at a temperature of 140-150° C. (German Patent 76,574).
    0
    0
  • The drug is not a true specific, as quinine is for malaria, since it rarely, if ever, prevents the cardiac damage usually done by rheumatic fever; but it entirely removes the agonizing pain, shortly after its administration, and, an hour or two later, brings down the temperature to normal.
    0
    0
  • At first 20 grains of sodium salicylate should be given every hour: the interval being doubled as soon as the pain disappears, and extended to three hours when the temperature becomes normal.
    0
    0
  • Saturated steam is steam in contact with liquid water at a temperature which is the boiling point of the water and condensing point of the steam; superheated steam is steam out of contact with water heated above this temperature.
    0
    0
  • The yearly mean temperature is 25° Fahr., the maximum cold being 4.7°.
    0
    0
  • While elevating the temperature they bring more moisture into the air and produce a change not entirely desirable.
    0
    0
  • This while averaging a lower temperature than (A) is not so subject to change; it retains the snow for sleighing, which is a boon to the farmer.
    0
    0
  • Climate (C), that of Fort Chipewyan, having a mean winter temperature of.
    0
    0
  • It is the region in winter of constant ice and snow, but its lower altitude gives it a summer climate with a mean temperature of only 1.6° less than Calgary, and i � 8° less than Edmonton.
    0
    0
  • Observations in temperature and salinity have only been taken during summer.
    0
    0
  • The temperature is rather remarkable, there being an intermediate cold layer between 25 and 50 fathoms. This is due to the sinking of the cold surface water (which in winter reaches freezing-point) on to the top of the denser more saline water of the greater depths.
    0
    0
  • There is thus a minimum circulation in the greater depths causing there uniformity of temperature, an absence of the circulation of oxygen by other means than diffusion, and a protection of the sulphuretted hydrogen from the oxidation which takes place in homologous situations in the open ocean.
    0
    0
  • Some daily variation in the temperature of adjoining localities is caused by a dark soil in the one and a light soil in the other, but the differences of mean annual temperature are almost wholly due to differences of latitude and elevation.
    0
    0
  • The mean temperature of July, the hottest month, is comparatively uniform over the state, varying only from 81° to 83°; the mean for January, the coldest month, varies from 46° in the extreme north to 56° in the extreme south.
    0
    0
  • Heavy rainfall, high temperature and fertile soil combine to cover the greater part of the state, and particularly the alluvial regions and the coast swamps, with a most luxuriant subtropical vegetation, both arborescent and herbaceous.
    0
    0
  • The range of temperature is not sufficient to give the variety of annual wild flowers of more northern climates; nevertheless flowers cover the bottom lands and uplands in great profusion.
    0
    0
  • The climate of Cuba is tropical and distinctively insular in characteristics of humidity, equability and high mean temperature.
    0
    0
  • It behaves as a powerful reducing agent, and on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids is decomposed into formaldehyde and hydroxylamine, together with some formic acid and ammonia, the amount of each product formed varying with temperature, time of reaction, amount of water present, &c. This latter reaction is probably due to some of the oxime existing in the form of the isomeric formamide HCO NH 2.
    0
    0
  • Observations conducted during several months have shown that, whilst the mean temperature at Fort William was 57° F., at the summit of Ben Nevis it was 41° F., and that though the rainfall at the fort amounted to 24 in., it was as much as 43 in.
    0
    0
  • Howles, who, employing a high tension alternating arc, showed that the effectiveness depended upon the temperature.
    0
    0
  • The conversion of nitrogen into ammonia by electricity has received much attention, but the commercial aspect appears to have been first worked out by de Hemptinne in 1900, who used both the spark and silent discharge on mixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen, and found that the pressure and temperature must be kept low and the spark gap narrow.
    0
    0
  • It may be liquefied, its critical temperature being -93, 5°, and the liquid boils at -153.6° C. It is not a supporter of combustion, unless the sustance introduced is at a sufficiently high temperature to decompose the gas, when combustion will continue at the expense of the liberated oxygen.
    0
    0
  • The liquid prepared by Baker is green in colour, and has a specific gravity III at ordinary temperature, but below -2° C. becomes of a deep indigo blue colour.
    0
    0
  • It forms a mass of deep blue crystals at the temperature of liquid air.
    0
    0
  • As the temperature increases the liquid becomes yellowish, the colour deepening with rise of temperature until at +15° C. it has a deep orange tint.
    0
    0
  • Nitrogen has been liquefied, the critical temperature being -149° C. and the critical pressure 27.54 atmospheres.
    0
    0
  • It is a gas at ordinary temperature; when liquefied it boils at -63.5° C. and on solidification melts at -139° C. Water decomposes it into nitric and hydrofluoric acids.
    0
    0
  • It is somewhat volatile at ordinary temperature, and its aqueous solution possesses a strongly acid reaction.
    0
    0
  • The mean temperature of the hottest months (June to September) is 88° F., and that of the coldest (January to March) 66°.
    0
    0
  • In Serajevo the mean annual temperature is 50° Fahr.
    0
    0
  • Sometimes, in the months of June, July and August, when the sherki or south wind is blowing, the thermometer at break of day is known to stand at 112° F., while at noon it rises to 1 19° and a little before two o'clock to 122°, standing at sunset at 114°, but this scale of temperature is exceptional.
    0
    0
  • Owing to the extreme dryness of the atmosphere and the fact that there is always a breeze, usually from the N.W., this heat is felt much less than a greatly lower temperature in a more humid atmosphere.
    0
    0
  • These icebergs float away, and are gradually melted in the sea, the temperature of which is thus lowered by cold stored up in the interior of Greenland.
    0
    0
  • At Julianehaab in the extreme south-west the winter is not much colder than that of Norway and Sweden in the same locality; but its mean temperature for the whole year probably approximates to that on the Norwegian coast 600 m.
    0
    0
  • The climate of the interior has been found to be of a continental character, with large ranges of temperature, and with an almost permanent anti-cyclonic region over the interior of the inland ice, from which the prevailing winds radiate towards the coasts.
    0
    0
  • On the 64th parallel the mean annual temperature at an elevation of 6560 ft.
    0
    0
  • The mean temperature of the warmest month, July, in the interior should be, reduced to sea-level, on the 64th parallel 32° F., and that of the coldest month, January, about - 22° F., while in North Greenland it is probably - 40° reduced to sea-level.
    0
    0
  • The daily range of temperature is therefore very considerable, sometimes amounting to 40°.
    0
    0
  • During the southwest monsoon, from the middle of April to the middle of October, rain falls daily and the temperature varies between 85° and 95°.
    0
    0
  • The trees must be got to start growth very C - ---- - gradually, and at first the house should be merely kept closed at a temperature of about 45°, but the heat should gradually increase to 50° at night by the time the trees are in flower, and to 60° when the fruit is set, after which the house should be kept moist by sprinkling the walls and paths, or by placing water troughs on the return pipes, and the temperature should range from 65° by day to 70° or more with sun heat.
    0
    0
  • When the fruit has stoned - that is, as soon as the kernels have been formed - the temperature should be raised to about 65° as a minimum, and to 70°, with 75° by sun heat, as a maximum.
    0
    0
  • Minnesota has the characteristic climate of the North Central group of states, with a low mean annual temperature, a notably rarefied atmosphere that results in an almost complete absence of damp foggy weather, and an unusual dryness which during the rather long winters considerably neutralizes the excessive cold.
    0
    0
  • The empirical data on which the hydrodynamical investigations are based are: (I) observed velocities and directions of oceanic currents and drifts; (2) salinity; (3) density; (4) temperature of the sea water in situ; (5) oceanic soundings.
    0
    0
  • So also any exhaustive survey of the temperature and salinity of the sea at a great number of points on and below the surface reveals a complexity of conditions that may defy mathematical analysis and could not easily be predicted.
    0
    0
  • A very large amount of local detailed observation in the various sea-areas must be the next important work to be undertaken: this means currentobservations b y direct readings of metres, by the employment of drift-bottles and numerous determinations of temperature and salinity at all seasons.
    0
    0
  • At the same time temperature observations are made.
    0
    0
  • These show the magnitudes of the layers of different salinity and temperature beneath the surface, and when a number of sections are compared the differences from season to season and from year to year can be seen.
    0
    0
  • The proportion varies with the temperature.
    0
    0
  • The spring outburst of plant life in the sea culminates about April, just about the time when the temperature of the water begins to rise rapidly.
    0
    0
  • The increasing temperature raises the rate of animal metabolism, while the higher alkalinity is a stimulus to cell-division.
    0
    0
  • Following that again is a less well-marked maximum of phyto-plankton in the autumn, occurring just after the period of highest sea temperature.
    0
    0
  • The temperature is, however, only an indirect cause of this variation and the direct cause is now known to be the activity of the nitrogen-bacteria.
    0
    0
  • If this is admitted the poverty of tropical sea-water in mineral nitrogen compounds is explained by the higher temperature, which accelerates the activity of denitrifying bacteria.
    0
    0
  • The regional differences, as we have seen, can De explained by the regional difference of temperature.
    0
    0
  • Differences of temperature and atmospheric pressure must disturb this equilibrium, but the movements of both ocean and atmosphere lead to a high degree of uniformity in both envelopes as regards their gaseous constitutions.
    0
    0
  • Therefore a reduction in the partial pressure of the gas in the atmosphere, or a rise in the temperature of the water, or a violent agitation of the sea itself, will lead to precipitation of calcium carbonate.
    0
    0
  • In Pleistocene times, then, when there were prolonged glacial ages, the sea-level was lowered and at the same time there was a reduction in sea temperature, so that the rate of reproduction of the coral polypes, and so the growth of reefs, was diminished.
    0
    0
  • Corals would now grow luxuriantly in these shallow coastal waters of increasing temperature, forming reefs and extensive coral flats.
    0
    0
  • " Serumalbumin," or " blood-albumin," possibly C450H720N116S60140,, occurs in blood-serum, lymph, chyle, milk, &c.; its coagulation temperature is about 67°.
    0
    0
  • In the same way artificial glass can be devitrified if it be kept at a temperature slightly below the fusing point for some days.
    0
    0
  • (I) The bulk of the solution is unaltered, except that its temperature may be raised owing to the usual heating effect which is proportional to the square of the strength of the current.
    0
    0
  • The temperature coefficient of conductivity has approximately the same value for most aqueous salt solutions.
    0
    0
  • The influence of temperature on the conductivity of solutions depends on (I) the ionization, and (2) the frictional resistance of the liquid to the passage of the ions, the reciprocal of which is called the ionic fluidity.
    0
    0
  • At extreme dilution, when the ionization is complete, a variation in temperature cannot change its amount.
    0
    0
  • The rise of conductivity with temperature, therefore, shows that the fluidity becomes greater when the solution is heated.
    0
    0
  • As the concentration is increased and un-ionized molecules are formed, a change in temperature begins to affect the ionization as well as the fluidity.
    0
    0
  • But the temperature coefficient of conductivity is now generally less than before; thus the effect of temperature on ionization must be of opposite sign to its effect on fluidity.
    0
    0
  • The ionization of a solution, then, is usually diminished by raising the temperature, the rise in conductivity being due to the greater increase in fluidity.
    0
    0
  • We can calculate the heat of formation from its ions for any substance dissolved in a given liquid, from a knowledge of the temperature coefficient of ionization, by means of an application of the well-known thermodynamical process, which also gives the latent heat of evaporation of a liquid when the temperature coefficient of its vapour pressure is known.
    0
    0
  • It will be noticed that when dE/dT is zero, that is, when the electromotive force of the cell does not change with temperature.
    0
    0
  • The earliest formulation of the subject, due to Lord Kelvin, assumed that this relation was true in all cases, and, calculated in this way, the electromotive force of Daniell's cell, which happens to possess a very small temperature coefficient, was found to agree with observation.
    0
    0
  • For cells in which the electromotive force varies with temperature, the full equation given by Gibbs and Helmholtz has also been confirmed experimentally.
    0
    0
  • Again, we may calculate the osmotic work done, and, if the whole cycle of operations be supposed to occur at the same temperature, the osmotic work must be equal and opposite to the electrical work of the first operation.
    0
    0
  • When the solutions may be taken as effectively dilute, so that the gas laws apply to the osmotic pressure, this relation reduces to E _ nrRT to c1 ey gE c2 where n is the number of ions given by one molecule of the salt, r the transport ratio of the anion, R the gas constant, T the absolute temperature, y the total valency of the anions obtained from one molecule, and c i and c 2 the concentrations of the two solutions.
    0
    0
  • Hence, if we assume that, in the Daniell's cell, the temperature coefficients are negligible at the individual contacts as well as in the cell as a whole, the sign of the potential-difference ought to be the same at the surface of the zinc as it is at the surface of the copper.
    0
    0
  • The nature of the soil appears, however, to be of secondary importance, provided that it is able to hold moisture and that climatic conditions of high and even temperature with considerable rainfall and absence of wind are satisfied.
    0
    0
  • The coagulated rubber separated from the watery fluid is cut up into small pieces and passed through the grooved rollers of the washing machine, from which it issues in sheets, long crinkled ribbons or " crepe," which are then dried in hot air chambers or in a vacuum dryer, by which means the water is dissipated at a lower temperature.
    0
    0
  • When caoutchouc is heated slightly above the temperature of boiling water it becomes softer and loses much of its elasticity, which, however, it recoveres on cooling.
    0
    0
  • If an article made of cut sheet be immersed for a few minutes in a bath of melted sulphur, maintained at a temperature of 120 0 C., the rubber absorbs about one-tenth of its weight of that element, and, although somewhat yellowish in colour from the presence of free sulphur, it is still unvulcanized, and unaltered as regards general properties.
    0
    0
  • If, however, it be now subjected for an hour or so to a temperature of 140° C., a combination occurs, and vulcanized caoutchouc is the result.
    0
    0
  • Vulcanization takes place in this instance without the action of heat; but it is usual to subject the goods for a short time to a temperature of 40° C. after their removal from the solution, in order to drive off the liquid which has been absorbed, and to ensure a sufficient action of the chloride of sulphur.
    0
    0
  • Another very excellent method of vulcanizing cut sheet goods consists in placing them in a solution of the polysulphides of calcium at a temperature of 140° C. Rubber employed for the manufacture of cut sheets is often coloured by such pigments as vermilion, oxide of chromium, ultramarine, orpiment, antimony, lamp black, or oxide of zinc, incorporation being effected either by means of the masticator or by a pair of rollers heated internally by steam, and so geared as to move in contrary directions at unequal FIG.
    0
    0
  • In order to make spongy or porous rubber, some material is incorporated which will give off gas or vapour at the vulcanizing temperature, - such as carbonate of ammonia, crystallized alum, and finely ground damp sawdust.
    0
    0
  • For example, a rise in temperature of the bath causes an increase in its conductivity, so that a lower E.M.F.
    0
    0
  • The air, after being chilled on the plateaus during the winter, drifts, owing to its greater density, down upon the lowlands; hence in the region of the lower Lena there obtains an exceedingly low temperature throughout the winter, and Verkhoyansk, in 67°N., is the pole of cold of the eastern hemisphere.
    0
    0
  • The average temperature of winter (December to February) at Yakutsk is - 40.2° F., at Verkhoyansk - 53.1°.
    0
    0
  • On account of its transparency and its resistance to fire and sudden changes of temperature, mica has been much used for the windows of stoves and lanterns, for the peep-holes of furnaces, and the chimneys of lamps and gas-burners.
    0
    0
  • The temperature in the hot season is very oppressive and relaxing.
    0
    0
  • In general the climate, which varies with the configuration of the surface, is moderate and healthy, although subject to rapid changes of temperature.
    0
    0
  • While by the English and Carinthian processes as much lead as possible is extracted in the furnace, with the Silesian method a very low temperature is used, thus taking out about one-half of the lead and leaving very rich slags (50% lead) to be smelted in the blast-furnace, the ultimate result being a very much higher yield than by either of the other processes.
    0
    0
  • A stick of green wood is forced into it, and the vapours and gases set free expose new surfaces to the air, which at this temperature has only a mildly oxidizing effect.
    0
    0
  • The lead is melted down at a low temperature and drossed.
    0
    0
  • The temperature is then raised, and the scum which forms on the surface is withdrawn until pure litharge forms, which only takes place after all the tin, arsenic and antimony have been eliminated.
    0
    0
  • When kept fused in the presence of air lead readily takes up oxygen, with the formation at first of a dark-coloured scum, and then of monoxide PbO, the rate of oxidation increasing with the temperature.
    0
    0
  • Strong acid does act, the more so the greater its concentration and the higher its temperature.
    0
    0
  • Tin unites with lead in any proportion with slight expansion, the alloy fusing at a lower temperature than either component.
    0
    0
  • The Kassner process for the manufacture of oxygen depends upon the formation of calcium plumbate, Ca2Pb04, by heating a mixture of lime and litharge in a current of air, decomposing this substance into calcium carbonate and lead dioxide by heating in a current of carbon dioxide, and then decomposing these compounds with the evolution of carbon dioxide and oxygen by raising the temperature.
    0
    0
  • The average yearly temperature is 60°.
    0
    0
  • The most careful determinations are affected by systematic errors arising from those diurnal and annual changes of temperature, the effect of which cannot be wholly eliminated in astronomical observation; and the recently discovered variation of latitude has introduced a new element of uncertainty into the determination.
    0
    0
  • On the other hand, the magnetic properties of a substance are affected by such causes as mechanical stress and changes of temperature.
    0
    0
  • Wills 1 has made successful use of it in a research on the effects of temperature, a matter of great industrial importance.
    0
    0
  • Shimizu 3 indicate that Steinmetz's formula holds for nickel and annealed cobalt up to B =3000, for cast cobalt and tungsten steel up to B =8000, and for Swedish iron up to B =18,000, the range being in all cases extended at the temperature of liquid air.
    0
    0
  • Unfortunately the effects of magnetization upon the specific resistance of bismuth vary enormously with changes of temperature; it is therefore necessary to take two readings of the resistance, one when the spiral is in the magnetic field, the other when it is outside.
    0
    0
  • For soft iron, tungsten-steel and nickel little difference appeared to result from lowering the temperature down to - 186° C. (the temperature of liquid air); at sufficiently high temperatures, 600 to 1000° or more, it was remarked that the changes of length in iron, steel and cobalt tended in every case to become proportional to the magnetic force, the curves being nearly straight lines entirely above the axis.
    0
    0
  • The influence of high temperature on cobalt was very remarkable, completely altering the character of the change of length: the curves for annealed cobalt show that at 45 this metal behaves just like iron at ordinary temperatures, lengthening in fields up to about 300 and contracting in stronger ones.
    0
    0
  • - It has long been known that iron, when raised to a certain " critical temperature " corresponding to dull red heat, loses its susceptibility and becomes magnetically indifferent, or, more accurately, is transformed from a ferromagnetic into a paramagnetic body.
    0
    0
  • Recent researches have shown that other imporant changes in its properties occur at the same critical temperature.
    0
    0
  • Ordinary magnetizable iron is in many respects an essentially different substance from the non-magnetizable metal into which it is transformed when its temperature is raised above a certain point.
    0
    0
  • The primary coil carried the magnetizing current; the secondary, which was wound inside the other, could be connected either with a ballistic galvanometer for determining the induction, or with a Wheatstone's bridge for measuring the resistance, whence the temperature was calculated.
    0
    0
  • For strong magnetizing forces (which in these experiments did not exceed II= 48.9) the permeability remains almost constant at its initial value (about 400), until the temperature is within nearly i oo of the critical point; then the permeability diminishes more and more rapidly until the critical point is reached and the magnetization vanishes.
    0
    0
  • The critical temperature for various samples of iron and steel ranges from 690° C. to 870° C.; it is the temperature at which Barrett's " recalescence " occurs.
    0
    0
  • The results of a typical experiment are given in the annexed table, which shows how greatly the hysteresis loss is diminished as the critical temperature is approached.
    0
    0
  • The temperature was determined by a platinum-rhodium and platinum thermo-j unction in contact with the metal.
    0
    0
  • For ordinary steel the critical temperature, at which magnetization practically disappeared, was found to be about 830°, and the curious fact was revealed that, on cooling, magnetization did not begin to reappear until the temperature had fallen 40° below the critical value.
    0
    0
  • The behaviour of cobalt is particularly noticeable; its permeability increased with rising temperature up to a maximum at 500°, when it was about twice as great as at ordinary temperatures, while at 1600°, corresponding to white heat, there was still some magnetization remaining.
    0
    0
  • As regards the higher temperatures, the chief point of interest is the observation that the curve of magnetization for annealed cobalt shows a small depression at about 450°, the temperature at which they had found the sign of the length-change to be reversed for all fields.
    0
    0
  • In the case of all the metals tested a small but measurable trace of magnetization remained after the so-called critical temperature had been exceeded; this decreased very slightly up to the highest temperature reached (1200°) without undergoing any such variation as had been suspected by Morris.
    0
    0
  • When the curve after its steep descent has almost reached the axis, it bends aside sharply and becomes a nearly horizontal straight line; the authors suggest that the critical temperature should be defined as that corresponding to the point of maximum curvature.
    0
    0
  • Induction curves of an annealed soft-iron ring were taken first at a temperature of 15° C., and afterwards when the ring was immersed in liquid air, the magnetizing force ranging from about o'8 to 22.
    0
    0
  • They showed that the permeability of this sample of iron was considerably diminished at the lower temperature.
    0
    0
  • Observations were also made of the changes of permeability which took place as the temperature of the sample slowly rose from - 186° to 15°, the magnetizing force being kept constant throughout an experiment.
    0
    0
  • Most of the permeability-temperature curves were more or less convex towards the axis of temperature, and in all the experiments except those with annealed iron and steel wire, the permeability was greatest at the lowest temperature.
    0
    0
  • Honda and Shimizu have made similar experiments at the temperature of liquid air, employing a much wider range of magnetizing forces (up to about 700 C.G.S.) and testing a greater variety of metals.
    0
    0
  • The permeability of cobalt, both annealed and unannealed, was always diminished at the low temperature.
    0
    0
  • The range of + B within which Steinmetz's formula is applicable becomes notably increased at low temperature.
    0
    0
  • Claude (C. R., 1899, 129, 409) found that for considerable inductions (B =15,000) the permeability and hysteresis-loss remained nearly constant down to - 186°; for weak inductions both notably diminished with temperature.
    0
    0
  • The first immersion into liquid air generally produced a permanent decrease of magnetic moment, and there was sometimes a further decrease when the metal was warmed up again; but after a few alternations of temperature the changes of moment.
    0
    0
  • If, however, this non-magnetic substance is cooled to a temperature a few degrees below freezing-point, it becomes as strongly magnetic as average cast-iron (µ = 62 for H = 40), and retains its magnetic properties indefinitely at ordinary temperatures.
    0
    0
  • Steinmetz's formula applies only for very weak inductions when the alloys are at the ordinary temperature, but at the temperature of liquid air it becomes applicable through a wide range of inductions.
    0
    0
  • Guillaume' the temperature at which the magnetic susceptibility of nickel-steel is recovered is lowered by the presence of chromium; a certain alloy containing chromium was not rendered magnetic even by immersion in liquid air.
    0
    0
  • He invented magnets that could withstand the effects of percussion and ordinary temperature variations.
    0
    0
  • Now iron, nickel and cobalt all lose their magnetic quality when heated above certain critical temperatures which vary greatly for the three metals, and it was suspected by Faraday 3 as early as 1845 that manganese might really be a ferromagnetic metal having a critical temperature much below the ordinary temperature of the air.
    0
    0
  • He therefore cooled a piece of the metal to-105° C., the lowest temperature then attainable, but failed to produce any change in its magnetic quality.
    0
    0
  • The critical temperature (if there is one) was not reached in Faraday's experiment; possibly even the temperature of -250 C., which by the use of liquid hydrogen has now become accessible, might still be too high.
    0
    0
  • Guillaume 6 explains the ferromagnetism of Heusler's alloy by supposing that the naturally low critical temperature of the manganese contained in it is greatly raised by the admixture of another appropriate metal, such as aluminium or tin; thus the alloy as a whole becomes magnetizable at the ordinary temperature.
    0
    0
  • 4 No record can be found of experiments with manganese at the temperature of liquid air or hydrogen; probably, however, negative results would not be published.
    0
    0
  • The critical temperature of iron, for instance, is raised more than ioo° by the addition of, a little carbon and tungsten.
    0
    0
  • At constant temperature the resistance increased with the field; the changes in the resistance of the spiral when the temperature was 18° C. are indicated in the annexed table, from which it will be seen that in the strongest transverse field reached the resistance was increased more than threefold.
    0
    0
  • Other experiments showed the relation of resistance to temperature (from o° to about 90°) in different constant fields.
    0
    0
  • For H =11,500 the temperature of minimum resistance was about 50°; for much lower or higher values of H the actual minimum did not occur within the range of temperature dealt with.
    0
    0
  • At the temperature of liquid air (-185°) the application of a field of 21,800 multiplied the resistance of the bismuth no less than 150 times.
    0
    0
  • 29 shows the variations of resistance in relation to temperature for fields of different constant values.
    0
    0
  • He found that the susceptibility for unit of mass,.K, was independent of both pressure and magnetizing force, but varied inversely as the absolute temperature,.
    0
    0
  • It is pointed out that this formula may be used as a temperature correction in magnetic determinations carried out in air.
    0
    0
  • The magnetic properties of the metal at different temperatures and in fields up to 1350 units have been studied by P. Curie (loc. cit.), who found that its " specific susceptibility " (K) was independent of the strength of the field, but decreased with rise of temperature up to the melting-point, 273° C. His results appear to show the relation - K X10 6 = I'381 - O'o0155t°.
    0
    0
  • As the temperature was raised up to 273°, gradually fell to-9.38 X 10 -6, rising suddenly when fusion occurred to - o 37X 10 -6, at which value it remained constant when the fluid metal was further heated.
    0
    0
  • Putting t°= - 182 in the equation given above for Curie's results, we get K X Io 6 = - 1.66, a value sufficiently near that obtained by Fleming and Dewar to suggest the probability that the diamagnetic susceptibility varies inversely as the temperature between-182° and the melting-point.
    0
    0
  • For all diamagnetic substances, except antimony and the value of K was found to be independent of the temperature.
    0
    0
  • 74'9W Fe2(N03)6.61.5w Susceptibility was found to diminish greatly with rise of temperature.
    0
    0
  • Curie has shown, for many paramagnetic bodies, that the specific susceptibility K is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature 0.
    0
    0
  • Hence may be deduced an explanation of the fact that, while the susceptibility of all known diamagnetics (except bismuth and antimony) is independent of the temperature, that of paramagnetics varies inversely as the absolute temperature, in accordance with the law of Curie.
    0
    0
  • It is found (Bourne, 24) that some species of scorpion faint at a temperature of 4 0 0 Cent.
    0
    0
  • The temperature of Cutch during the hot season is high, the thermometer frequently rising to roo° or 105° F.; and in the months of April and May clouds of dust and sand, blown about by hurricanes, envelop the houses, the glass windows scarcely affording any protection.
    0
    0
  • He investigated also the variations of temperature in the atmosphere and ocean.
    0
    0
  • His published works include: Etudes geologiques sur les Iles de Tenerife et de Fogo (1848); Voyage geologique aux Antilles et aux Iles de TeneAife et de Fogo (1848-1859); Recherches sur les principaux phenomz nes de meteorologie et de physique generale aux Antilles (1849); Sur les variations periodiques de la temperature (1866), and Coup d'cell historique sur la geologie (1878).