How to use Telegraphs in a sentence
The other ministries with the largest outgoings were the ministry of war (the expenditure of which rose from 254 millions in 1895 to over 30 millions in 1995), the ministry of marine (103/4 millions in 1895, over 123/4 millionsin 1905), the ministry of public works (with an expenditure in 1905 of over 20 millions, 10 millions of which was assigned to posts, telegraphs and telephones) and the ministry of public instruction, fine arts and public worship, the expenditure on education having risen from 73/4 millions in 1895 to 93/4 millions in 1905.
The postal services and the telegraphs are administered by the federal government.
In the aerial or overground system of land telegraphs the use of copper wire has become very general.
The instruments used for land telegraphs on this system are of two types - " sounders," which indicate by sound, and " recorders," which record the signals.
In Hughes's instrument almost perfect accuracy and certainty have been attained; and in actual practice it has proved to be decidedly superior to all previous type-printing telegraphs, not only in speed and accuracy, but in less liability to mechanical derangement from wear and tear and from accident.Advertisement
The Murray automatic system is not regarded as suitable for short telegraph lines or moderate traffic, printing telegraphs on the multiplex principle being considered preferable in such circumstances.
For some time it restricted its operations to constructing and maintaining railway telegraphs and was not commercially successful.
After about five years great improvements were made in the working of the telegraphs and the industry began to make progress.
In 1856 the Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce began an agitation for the purchase by the government of the telegraphs, and other chambers of commerce in Great Britain joined the agitation, which was strongly supported by the Press.
The Belgian state telegraphs were started in 1850 and were at first very profitable, but for the years 1866-9 they yielded an average profit of only 2.8 per cent., and subsequently failed to earn operating expenses, the reasons for the steady decline of the profits being the opening of relatively unprofitable lines and offices, increases in wages, and a diminution in growth of the foreign and transit messages which had constituted the most profitable part of the whole business.Advertisement
Similar experience was adduced by the working of the state telegraphs in Switzerland and in France.
By 1868 both political parties in the House of Commons had committed themselves to the policy of state purchase of the telegraphs.
There are several reasons for the unsatisfactory financial results apart from the high price paid for the acquisition of the telegraphs.
The unprofitable extension of the telegraphs has largely contributed to the loss.
Another reason assigned by the committee appointed by the Treasury in 1875 " to investigate the causes of the increased cost of the telegraphic service since the acquisition of the telegraphs by the state " is the loss on the business of transmitting Press messages, which has been estimated as at least £300,000 a year.Advertisement
The following table shows the financial results of the business in the year immediately following the purchase of the telegraphs by the state, in the two years preceding and the two years following the introduction of the 6d.
The submarine telegraphs are mainly controlled by companies, the amount of issued capital of the existing British telegraph companies (twenty-four in number) being £3 0, 447, 1 9 1, but a certain number of lines are in government hands.
In the case of inland telegraphs and of cable communication with the continent of Europe government control has entirely superseded private companies.
The total lengths of the land lines of the telegraphs throughout the world in 1907 were 1,015,894 m.
Reports to the Postmaster-General upon proposals for transferring to the Post Of f ice the Telegraphs throughout the United Kingdom (1868); Special Reports from Select Committee on the Electric Telegraphs Bills (1868, 1869); Report by Mr Scudamore on the reorganization of the Telegraph system of the United Kingdom (1871); Journ.Advertisement
Other noteworthy sources of revenue are trade licences, direct taxes on lands and forests, stamp duties, posts and telegraphs, indirect taxes on tobacco, sugar and other commodities, the crown forests, and land redemption payable annually by the peasants since 1861.
Revenue is derived chiefly from customs and excise, railways, land sales, posts and telegraphs and a capitation tax.
The chief sources of revenue are customs, mining royalties, railways, native revenue (poll tax and passes), posts and telegraphs, stamp and transfer duties, land revenue and taxes on trades and professions.
The principal heads of expenditure are on railways and other public works, including posts and telegraphs, justice, education, police, land settlement and agriculture generally, mines and native affairs.
The department of fomento is charged with the supervision of all matters relating to agriculture, stock-raising, mines, industries, commerce, statistics, immigration, public lands, posts, telegraphs and telephones.Advertisement
There are also a deputy postmaster-general, chief superintendent and four superintendents of telegraphs, a chief collector of customs, three collectors and four port officers, and an inspector-general of jails.
Bourgeois ministry of 1895-1896 as minister of commerce, industry, post and telegraphs, was vice-president of the Chamber from 1898 to 1902, and presided over the Budget Commission of 1899, 1901 and 1902.
From 1879 till 1885 he was minister of posts and telegraphs, and in January 1888 he was elected to the senate.
The public revenues are derived from customs, taxes, various inland and consumption taxes, state monopolies, the government wharves, posts and telegraphs, &c. The customs taxes include import and export duties, surcharges, harbour dues, warehouse charges, &c.; the inland taxes comprise consumption taxes on alcohol, tobacco, sugar and matches, stamps and stamped paper, capital and mining properties, licences, transfers of property, &c.; and the state monopolies cover opium and salt.
The money has chiefly been spent on railways, telegraphs, roads, bridges, land purchase from the native tribes and private estate owners, on loans to settlers and on native wars.
Peace, railways, telegraphs (including cable connexion with Europe), agricultural machinery and a larger population had carried New Zealand beyond the primitive stage.
The national debt, incurred almost wholly in making and buying railways and telegraphs, and carrying out other public works, amounted at the end of 1909 to £44841,880.
It was in favour of creating in central Europe a new political and economic system by which permanent peace would be secured - a definite understanding between all the " Succession States " of the former AustroHungarian monarchy in the matter of communications, post, telegraphs, navigation, finance and banking, exchange of goods and commercial treaties generally, opening up the way to a system of unfettered economics and freer trade - but at the same time jealously guarding the economic and political sovereignty of the Czechoslovak Republic.
He succeeded in imposing an organized government upon the fiercest and most unruly population in Asia; he availed himself of European inventions for strengthening his armament, while he sternly set his face against all innovations which, like railways and telegraphs, might give Europeans a foothold within his country.
The heaviest item of expenditure chargeable on the Algerian budget is on public works, posts and telegraphs and agriculture.
The institution by Diaz of the guardias rurales, a mounted gendarmerie composed of the class who in former days drifted into revolution and brigandage, was a potent means of maintaining order, and the extension of railways and telegraphs enabled the government to cope at once with any disturbance.
Although he was classed in Canada as a Liberal, his tendencies would in England have been considered strongly conservative; an individualist rather than a collectivist, he opposed the intrusion of the state into the sphere of private enterprise, and showed no sympathy with the movement for state operation of railways, telegraphs and telephones, or with any kindred proposal looking to the extension of the obligations of the central government.
A convention for a similar union for telegraphs was signed in Paris in 1875 (revised at St Petersburg and replaced by another the same year).
Giolitti became premier, the Marquis di San Giuliano was selected as undersecretary for agriculture, while in the Pelloux ministry (1899-1900) he held the portfolio of posts and telegraphs.
The ministers represent departments for finance, foreign affairs, colonies, justice, the interior, science and arts, war, railways, posts and telegraphs, agriculture, public works, and industry and labour.
Posts, telegraphs and telephones are exclusively under state management and form a government department.
There are no statistics of posts and telegraphs before 1867, for it was only when the North German union was formed that the lesser states resigned their right of carrying mails in favor of the central authority.
As regards its legislative functions, the empire has supreme and independent control in matters relating to military affairs and the navy, to the imperial finances, to German commerce, to posts and telegraphs, and also to railways, in so far as these affect the common defence of the country.
All the important towns are connected by telegraph, the telegraphs being state-owned and worked by the railway administration.
The revenue assigned to the service of the debt, namely, that derived from the railway, telegraphs, port of Alexandria, customs (including tobacco) and from four of the provinces, remained as before.
Besides the Caisse there was the Railway Board, which administered the railways, telegraphs and port of Alexandria for the benefit of the bondholders, and the DaIra and Domains commissions, which administered the estates mortgaged to the holders of those loans.
By this means Egypt gained cornplete control of its railways, telegraphs, the port of Alexandria and the customs, and as a consequence the mixed administration known as the Railway Board ceased to exist.
Railways, telegraphs, lighthouses, the harbour works at Suez, the breakwater at Alexandria, were carried out by some of the best contractors of Europe.
But wherever he was allowed a free hand he introduced epoch-making reforms in all the branches of his department, including posts, telegraphs, &c. A man of such strength of character was not to be turned from his course by any amount of opposition, and he rather enjoyed to be alluded to as "the iron-handed minister."
The chief sources of revenue were licences (which include the farms let for the collection of import duties in opium, wine and spirits) $4,248,856, nearly half the revenue of the settlement; post and telegraphs $424,645; railway receipts $196,683; and land revenue $104,482.
These public services are under the general supervision of the Minister of Public Instruction, Posts and Telegraphs.
Telegraphs.-The inception of the Persian Gulf telegraphs, which formed the first links in an intercontinental chain, was dictated not by local interests, but by broad considerations of national advantage.
Telegraphs radiate to all parts of the island; a submarine cable to Key West forms part of the line of communication between Colon and New York, and by other cables the island has connexion with various parts of the West Indies and with South America.
From the British government he accepted supplies of arms and subsidies of money; but he would make no concessions in return, and all projects of a strategical or commercial nature, such as railways and telegraphs, proposed either for the defence or the development of his possessions, seem to have been regarded by the amir with extreme distrust, as methods of what has been called pacific penetration - so that on these points he was immovable.
The international position of the Ottoman empire was strengthened by the able, if Machiavellian, statecraft of the sultan; while the danger of disruption from within was lessened by the more effective central control made possible by railways, telegraphs, and the other mechanical improvements borrowed from western civilization.
With reference to their objects, treaties may perhaps be conveniently classified as (r) political, including treaties of peace, of alliance, of cession, of boundary, for creation of international servitudes, of neutralization, of guarantee, for the submission of a controversy to arbitration; (2) commercial, including consular and fishery conventions, and slave trade and navigation treaties; (3) confederations for special social objects, such as the Zollverein, the Latin monetary union, and the still wider unions with reference to posts, telegraphs, submarine cables and weights and measures; (4) relating to criminal justice, e.g.
Faraday's copper disk rotated between the poles of a magnet, and producing thereby an electric current, became the parent of 1 See also his Submarine Telegraphs (London, 1898).
The principal sources of income in the ordinary revenue are railways, forests, telegraphs and rent from Crown lands; and those in the revenue voted (bevillningar), which is about seven-eighths of the whole, customs, the taxes on spirits and beetsugar, and income from the post office.
Internal development was promoted by the working of the silver mines of Copiapo and the coal mines of Lota, by the building of railways and erection of telegraphs, and by the colonization of the rich Valdivia province with German settlers.
The revenues from rents and leases of state monopolies are derived from posts, telegraphs, mines, mint, forests, banks, fisheries, factories, &c., and amount to about 110,000 per annum.
Fifteen or sixteen years later it was repeatedly pointed out to the authorities that the revenues from the customs of the Persian Gulf would be much increased if control were exercised at all the ports, particularly the small ones where smuggling was being carried on on a large scale, and in 1883 the shah decided upon the acquisition of four or five steamers, one to be purchased yearly, and instructed the late Au Kuli Khan, Mukhber ad-daulah, minister of telegraphs, to obtain designs and estimates from British and German firms. The tender of a well-known German firm at Bremerhaven was finally accepted, and one of the ministers sons then residing in Berlin made the necessary contracts for the first steamer.
The province of Bengazi, being still without telegraphs or roads, is one of the most backward in the Ottoman empire.
British troops were to be located in the khan's country; Quetta was founded; telegraphs and railways were projected; roads were made; and the reign of law and order established.
Roads and telegraphs are in process of construction, and the province is being gradually opened to trade.
A state Board of Railroad Commissioners (three appointed by the governor), created in 1907, became in 1910 a Board of Public Utility Commissioners with jurisdiction over all public utilities (including telephones and telegraphs); its approval is necessary for the issue of stock or bonds, but it has no power to fix rates.
The Rumanian government made a platonic protest against the crossing of the frontier, and the Rumanian troops fell back as the Russians advanced; provisions and stores of all kinds were supplied to the invading army against cash payments in gold, and the railways and telegraphs were freely placed at its disposal.
He favoured Government ownership of armour plate plants as well as of telephones and telegraphs.
The highest executive is in the hands of a ministry of state (Staatsministerium), consisting of six ministers respectively of justice, foreign affairs (with the royal household, railways, posts and telegraphs), the interior, public worship and education, war and finance.
In 1871 Wurttemberg became a member of the new German empire, but retained control of her own post office, telegraphs and railways.
This instrument determines the functions of the ban; the control of common interests, such as railways, posts, telegraphs, telephones, commerce, industry, agriculture or forests; and the choice of delegates by the chamber, to sit in the Hungarian parliament.
Revenue is derived from land, house and capitation taxes, from customs, posts and telegraphs, ferries, licences and other indirect imposts.
Several ingenious applications of his method were proposed and practically worked, as, for example, the copying telegraph of Bakewell and of Cros, by means of which a telegram may be transmitted in the sender's own handwriting; the pantelegraph of Caselli; the autographic telegraphs of Meyer, Lenoir, Sawyer and others; and the autographic typo-telegraph of Bonelli; all forms of the apparatus have, however, fallen into disuse.
Mr Scudamore, who was regarded as the author of the bill for the acquisition of the telegraph systems, reported that the charges made by the telegraph companies were too high and tended to check the growth of telegraphy; that there were frequent delays of messages; that many important districts were unprovided with facilities; that in many places the telegraph office was inconveniently remote from the centre of business and was open for too small a portion of the day;' that little or no improvement could be expected so long as the working of the telegraphs was conducted by commercial companies striving chiefly to earn a dividend and engaged in wasteful competition with each other; that the growth of telegraphy had been greatly stimulated in Belgium and Switzerland by the annexation of the telegraphs to the Post Offices of those countries and the consequent adoption of a low scale of charges; that in Great Britain like results would follow the adoption of like means, and that the association of the telegraphs with the Post Office would produce great advantage to the public and ultimately a large revenue to the state.
The Chancellor of the Exchequer described the terms as " very liberal but not more liberal than they should be under the circumstances," and stated that Mr Scudamore had estimated that £6,000,000 was the maximum price which the government would have to pay, and that the Postmaster-General would obtain from the telegraphs a net annual revenue of £203,000 at least.
The telegraphs were transferred to the Post Office on the 5th of February 1870.
The railways showed an increase of 351,685; registration transfer and succession, 295,560; direct taxation, 42,136 (mainly from income tax, which more than made up for the remission of the house tax in the districts of Calabria visited by the earthquake of 1906); customs and excise, 1,036,742; government monopolies, 291,027; posts, 4I,3fo; telegraphs, 23,364; telephones, 65,771.
Revenue from taxation had risen in a decade from 7,000,000 to 20,200,000; profit on state monopolies had increased from 7,000,000 to 9,400,000; exports had grown to exceed imports; income from the working of telegraphs had tripled itself; railways had been extended from 2200 to 6200 kilometres, and the annual travelling public had augmented from 15,000,000 to 25,000,000 persons.
The company is then free to proceed with the work of construction, and at once becomes subject to various general acts, such as the Companies Clauses Act, which affects all joint-stock companies incorporated by any special act; the Land Clauses Act, which has reference to all companies having powers to acquire land compulsorily; the Railway Clauses Act, which imposes certain conditions on all railways alike (except light railways); the various Regulation of Railways Acts; the Carriers Protection Act; acts for the conveyance of mails, parcels, troops; acts relating to telegraphs, to the conveyance of workmen and to the housing of the labouring classes; and several others which it is unnecessary to specify.
Telephones, when they first appeared, were called "talking telegraphs."