How to use Teheran in a sentence
Meshed had formerly a great transit trade to Central Asia, of European manufactures, mostly Manchester goods, which came by way of Trebizond, Tabriz and Teheran; and of Indian goods and produce, mostly muslins and Indian and green teas, which came by way of Bander Abbasi.
The above sixty districts are grouped into eighteen subprovinces under governors appointed by the governor-general of Fars, but the towns of Bushire, Lingah and Bander Abbasi, together with the villages in their immediate neighbourhood, form a separate government known as that of the "Persian Gulf Ports" (Benadir i Khalij i Fars), under a governor appointed from Teheran.
In Persia Jews are often the victims of popular outbursts as well as of official extortion, but there are fairly prosperous communities at Bushire, Isfahan, Teheran and Kashan (in Shiraz they are in low estate).
The only element of uncertainty was caused by the retardation of the current, which between Potsdam and Teheran (3000 m.) took 0 8.20 to travel; but it is probable that the final value can be accepted as correct to within os 05.
Epiphanes (163) he conquered Media, where he refounded the town"of Rhagae (Rai near Teheran) under the name of Arsacia; and about 141 he invaded Babylonia.Advertisement
The part of the Elburz immediately north of Teheran is known as the Kuh i Shimran (mountain of Shimran, from the name of the Shimran district on its southern slopes) and culminates in the Sar i Tochal (12,600 ft.).
The quatrains have been edited at Calcutta (1836) and Teheran (1857 and i862); text and French translation by 3.
After spending six years in Constantinople, where he published a Turkish-German Dictionary and various linguistic works, and where he acquired some twenty Oriental languages and dialects, he visited Teheran; and then, disguised as a dervish, joined a band of pilgrims from Mecca, and spent several months with them in rough and squalid travel through the deserts of Asia.
He then reluctantly turned back by way of Herat, where he took leave of the dervishes, and returned with a caravan to Teheran, and subsequently, in March 1864, through Trebizond and Erzerum to Constantinople.
A good carriage road constructed and worked by a Russian company and opened to traffic in 1899 connects Resht with Teheran via Kazvin.Advertisement
There are also mints at Osaka, Bangkok and Teheran, and the Seoul mint was at work in 1904.
Sometimes it is under the governor-general of the Isfahan province, at others it forms part of the province of Irak, and at times, as in 1906, is under a governor appointed from Teheran.
There are many more localities with this name (Turkish, meaning "cold stream," or "cold spring") in Persia, the most notable, after the above-mentioned Kurdish city, being a district of the province of Teheran, with many villages.
He suggests that the other and larger diamond of antiquity which was given to Shah Jahan may be one which is now in the treasury of Teheran, and that this is the true Great Mogul which was confused by Tavernier with the one he saw.
Mail Communications.-The Persian Gulf was at the end of the 18th century the most rapid route between Europe and India, and it was not until 1833 that the Red Sea route was adopted by the East India Co.; from this date until 1862 the Gulf fell into an extraordinary state of inaccessibility-letters for India being sent from Bagdad and Basra via Damascus, and correspondence from Bushire for Bagdad via Teheran.Advertisement
It is occasionally joined to the province of Teheran to facilitate the governor's arrangements for supplying the capital of Persia with grain.
Telegraphic communication with Europe is maintained by the cable of the Eastern Telegraph Company via Aden, and by the IndoEuropean system, of which the eastern portion from Teheran and Fao to Karachi belongs to the government of India.
The second section, known as the Persian section, consists of land lines running from Bushire to Teheran.
A connexion for extending the system through Persia was signed in 1901, the route to be followed being from Kashan near Teheran to the Baluchistan frontier via Yezd and Kerman.
Arriving at Teheran in December 1800, he was successful in negotiating favourable treaties, both political and commercial, and returned to Bombay by way of Bagdad in May 1801.Advertisement
Zaid, gained possession of Tabaristan and occupied the great city of Rai (Rey) near Teheran.
According to the Babylonian account, the resting-place of the Ark was "on the Mountain of Nizir," which some writers have identified with Mount Rowanduz, and others with Mount Elburz, near Teheran.
There is more than one meaning of Teheran discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
These ranges lie for the most part north-east and southeast, as do those in the interior, with a marked exception between Teheran and Bujnurd, and in Baluchistan, where they lie rather north-east and south-west, or, in the latter case, sometimes east and west.
The fourth is a comparatively small area on the western frontier containing the basin of Lake Urmia, shut off from the rest of the inland drainage, and the fifth area takes in a part of Baluchistan, most of Kermgn, a part of Fars, all Yezd, Isfahan, Kashan, Kum, Irak, Khamseh, Kazvin, Teheran, Samnan, Damghan, Shahrud, Khorasan and the central desert regions.Advertisement
If all the trade between Russia and Teheran were to pass over this road, the tolls would no doubt pay a fair dividend on the capital, but much of it goes by way of the TeherAnMeshed--i-Sar route, which is much shorter and has no tolls.
The second section formed part of the Ahvaz road concession which was obtained by the Imperial Bank of Persia in 1890 with the object of connecting Teheran with Ahvaz on the Karun by a direct cart road via Sultanabad, Burujird, Khorremabad (Luristan), Dizful and Shushter.
The railway consists of a single line, one-metre gauge, from Teheran to Shah-abdul-Azim, south of TeherAn, and of two branch lines which connect the main line with some limestone quarries in the hills south-east of the city.
The tramway also is a single line of one-metre gauge, and runs through some of the principal streets of TeherAn.
In 1879 the Persian government was induced to spend 30,000 on the erection of a gas factory in Teheran, but work was soon stopped for want of good coal.
In 1890 a Russian company started a match factory near Teheran with an initial outlay, it is said, of about 20,000, but could not successfully compete with Austrian and Swedish matches and ceased operations very soon.
A Persian gentleman erected a cotton-spinning factory at Teheran in 1894 with expensive machinery; it turned out some excellent yarn but could not compete in price with imported yarns.
The most important rice-growing districts which produce more than they require for local consumption and supply other districts, or export great quantities, are Astarabad, Mazandaran, Gilan, Veramin, (near Teheran).
A small step in the right direction was made in 1900 by engaging the services of an official of the Prussian forest department, but unfortunately, beyond sending him to inspect the Mazandaran forests belonging to the Crown, and employing him to lay out a small plantation in the Jajrud valley, east of Teheran, nothing was done.
Commerce.The principal centres of commerce are Tabriz, Teheran, Resht, Meshed and Yezd; the principal, ports Bander Abbasi, Lingah, Bushire and Muhamrah on the Persian Gulf, and Astara, Enzeli, Meshed i Sar and Bander i Gez on the Caspian.
By an ordinance of the 10th of September the number of members was fixed at 162 (60 for Teheran, 102 for the provinces) to be raised to 200 if necessary, and elections were held soon after.
Its sanction is required for all territorial changes, for the alienation of state property, for the granting of concessions, for the contracting of loans, for the construction of roads and railways, for the ratification of treaties, &c. There was to be a senate of 60 members of whom 3d were to be appointed to represent the shah and 30 to be elected on behalf of the national council, 15 of each class being from Teheran and 15 from the provinces (the senate, however, was not immediately formed).
About three-fifths of this number belong to the diocese of Azerbaijan, with a bishop at Tabriz, and reside in the cities of Tabriz, KhoI, Selmas, Urmia and Maragha, and in about thirty villages close to the north-western frontier; the other two-fifths, under the diocese of Isfahan, with a bishop in Julfa, reside in Teheran, Hamadan, Julfa, Shiraz, Bushire, Resht, Enzeli and other towns, and in some villages in the districts of Chahar Mahal, Feridan, Barbarud, Kamareh, Kazaz, Kharakan, &c. Many Persian Armenians are engaged in trade and commerce, and some of their merchants dispose of much capital, but the bulk live on the proceeds of agriculture and are poor.
The Greek Orthodox Catholics are represented by Russians, who reside in northern Persia; they have a church at the Russian legation in Teheran, and another at the Russian consulate in Tabriz.
The Roman Catholics in Persia, Europeans and natives (mostly Armenians), number about three or four thousand, and have churches in Teheran, Julfa and Azerbaijan, served by members of the French Lazarist Mission.
The establishments of Tabriz and Urmia form the Western Persia Mission, those of Teheran, Hamadan, Resht and Kazvin the Eastern Persia Mission.
It has in Teheran a church and a school, at Isfahan a school and at Hamadan a small school.
The Jews in Persia number about 36,000, and are found in nearly all cities of the country, but communities with synagogues and priests exist only in the larger cities like Teheran, Isfahan, Yezd, Shiraz, Hamadan, &c.
The Zoroastrians, commonly called gabrs, numbering about 9000, reside principally in the cities and villages of Yezd and Kerman, and only three or four hundred live in Teheran, Kashan, Isfahan and Shiraz, some engaged in trade and commerce, but most of them employed in agricultural work and gardening.
Their interests are attended to by a delegate who is appointed by the Bombay Parsis and resides at Teheran.
At the beginning of Nnlrud-Din Shahs reign, a public school on the lines of a French lyce was opened in Teheran, principally with the object of educating officers for the army, but also of introducing a knowledge of Western.
Soon afVcr his accession in 1896 Muzaffar-ud-DIn Shah expressed a desire that something more should be done for public instruction, and in the following year a number of Persian notables formed a committee and opened some schools in Teheran and other places in the beginning of 1898.
The new schools at Teheran have from 1000 to 1400 pupils.
A German school with an annual grant of 2400 from Persia and qf 1000 from Germany was opened at Teheran in 1907.
The Alliance Israelite has opened a school in Teheran.
In Teheran the board of merchants is presided over by the malik ut tujjar, King of Merchants, in the provincial cities by a person called malik amin, and mum of merchants.
There is also a Tribunal of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, presided over at Teheran by an official of the foreign office, and in the provincial cities by the karguzars, agents, of that department.
If, however, circumstances should be of a nature to require a second inquiry, it shall not take place without previous notice given to the minister, or the charg daffaires, or the consul, and in this case the business shall only be proceeded with at the supreme chancery of the shah at Tabriz or Teheran, likewise in the presence of a dragoman of the mission, or, of the consulate.
A company was formed in the same year and started business at Teheran in 1890 as the Banque des Prts de Perse.
After confining its operations for some years to ordinary pawnbroking, without profits, it obtained the aid of the Russian State Bank, acquired large premises in Teheran, made advances to the Persian government (since 1898), and in January 1900 and March 1902 financed the loans of 2,400,000 and 1,000,000 to Persia.
Various Armenian firms, one with branches at many places in Persia and Russia, also do banking business, while various European firms at Tabriz, Teheran, Isfahan, Shiraz and Bushire, facilitate remittances between Europe and Persia.
In his absence Abd-ul-Munim Khan, the lJzbeg commander, attacked the sacred city, obtained possession of it while the shah lay helplessly ill at Teheran, and allowed his savage soldiers full licence to kill and plunder.
This chief, encamped at Teheran when the communication reached him, submitted the matter to his men, who decided against Zaki, but put forward their own captain as the only master they would acknowledge.
Ali Murad reigned over Persia until 1785, and carried on a successful war with Aga Mahommed in Mazandaran, defeating him in several engagements, and occupying Teheran a,nd Sari.
Lutf All Khan bad not been many months on the throne when Aga Mahommed advanced to attack him, and invested the city of Shiraz, but retreated soon afterwards to Teheran, which he had made the capital of his dominions.
The most hideous indignities and atrocities were committed upon his person by the cruel Kajar, and finally he was sent to Teheran and murdered, when only in his twentysixth year.
Then he returned triumphant to Teheran, where (or at Ardebil on the way) he was publicly crowned shah of Persia.
Aga Mahommed determined to restore the whole province to Persia, and, after a brief residence in Teheran on his return from the Georgian expedition, he set out for Meshed.
Aga Mahommed had now fairly established his capital at Teheran.
The second closed the gates of Teheran to all corners until Fath Ali Shah came himself from Shiraz.
Peace having been further cemented by an alliance between a Kajar general and the princes daughter, the shah returned to Teheran.
Some five years afterwards Jaubert, after detention and imprisonment on the road, arrived at Teheran and went back to Europe with a duly accredited Persian ambassador, who concluded a treaty with the French emperor at Finkenstein.
On the death of the emperor Alexander in December 1825 Prince Menshikov was sent to Teheran to settle a dispute which had arisen between the two governments regarding the prescribed frontier.
Yezd and Kerman were the first points of attack; Khorasan was afterwards entered by Samnan, or the main road from Teheran.
Sir Gore Ouseley returned to England in 1814, in which year Mr Ellis, assisted by Mr Morierwhose Hajji Baba is the unfailing proof of his ability and deep knowledge of Persian character negotiated on the part of Great Britain the Treaty of Teheran.
Among the remarkable occurrences may be noted the murder at Teheran in 1828 of M - Grebayadov, the Russian envoy, whose conduct in forcibly retaining two women of Erivan provoked the interference of the mullas and people.
Owing to the steps taken by the British envoy, Sir John Campbell, assisted by Colonel Bethune, at the head of a considerable force, supplied with artiller the opposition of the first was neutralized, and Mahommed Sha entering Teheran on the 2nd of January, was proclaimed king on the 31st of the same month.
This event, and the prevalence of plague and cholera at Teheran, marked somewhat gloomily the new monarchs first year.
Such counter-proposals as Ellis had suggested for consideration had been politely put aside, and the case was now more than ever complicated by the action of the Barakzai chiefs of Kandahar, who had sent a mission to Teheran to offer assistance against their Saduzai rival at Herat.
About the close of the summer the force moved from Teheran.
Accordingly the troops dispersed, and the sovereigns presence at Teheran was taken advantage of by the British minister to renew his attem?ts in the cause of peace.
On the I I th of October 1841 a new mission arrived at Teheran from London, under John (afterwards Sir John) MNcill, to renew diplomatic relations.
Colonel Farrant, then charg d affaires on shh the part of the British government, in the absence of - a Colonel Sheil, who had succeeded Sir John MNeill, had, in anticipation of the shahs decease and consequent trouhle, sent a messenger to summon him instantly to Teheran.
The old minister, Hajji Mirza Aghasi, shut himself up in the royal palace with 1200 followers, arid had to take refuge in the sanctuary of Shah Abdul- Azim near Teheran.
While revolution prevailed in the city, robbery was rife in the province of Yezd; and from Kazvin the son of Au Mirza otherwise called the zulus-sultan, the prince-governor of Teheran, who disputed the succession of Mahommed Shah, came forth to contest the crown with his cousin, the heir-apparent.
In the summer of 1852 the shah was attacked, while riding in the vicinity of Teheran, by four Babis, one of whom fired a pistol and slightly wounded him.
Some relations of the deceased chief made their escape to Teheran, and the shah, listening to their complaint, directed the prince-governor of Meshed to march across to the eastern frontier and occupy Herat, declaring that an invasion of Persia was imminent.
Three years later a more formal convention, including a second wire, was signed by the British envoy Charles Alison and the Persian foreign minister; meantime the work had been actively carried on, and communication opened on the one side between Bushire and Karachi and the Makran coast by cable, and on the other between Bushire and Bagdad via Teheran.
The untrustworthy character of the line through Asiatic Turkey caused a subsequent change of direction; and an alternative linethe Indo-Europeanfrom London to Teheran, through Russia and along the eastern shores of the Black Sea, was constructed, and has worked well since 1872, in conjunction with the Persian land telegraph system and the Bushire-Karachi line.
The Seistan mission, under Major-General (afterwards Sir Frederic) Goldsmid, left England in August 1870, and reached Teheran on the 3rd of October.
Complications ther ensued by the determined refusal of the two native officials to meet in conference; and the arbitrator had no course available but to take advantage of the notes already obtained on the spot, and return with them to Teheran, there to deliver his decision.
Sir Ronald Thomson, the British representative in Persia, having at the same time induced the shah to consider the advantages to Persia of opening the Karun River and connecting it with Teheran by a carriageable road, a small river steamer for controlling the shipping on the Karun was ordered as well, and the construction of the road was decided upon.
Frequent interruptions occurred on the telegraph line between Teheran and Meshed in 1885, at the time of the Panjdeh incident, when the Russians were advancing towards Afghanistan and Sir Peter Lumsden was on the Afghan frontier; and Sir Ronald Thomson concluded an agreement with the Persian government for the line to be kept in working order by an English inspector, the Indian government paying a share not exceeding 20,000 rupees per annum of the cost of maintenance, and an English signaller being stationed at Meshed.
In the same year (June 25) the first railway in Persia, a small line of 51/8 miles from Teheran to Shah-abdul-Azim, was opened under the auspices of a Belgian company.
In 1890 the scheme of a carriageable road from Teheran to Ahvaz was taken up again; the Imperial Bank of Persia obtained a concession, and work of construction was begun in the same year, and continued until 1893.
Sir Frank Lascelles, who had been appointed minister to Persia in July, arrived at Teheran in the late autumn of 1891.
In Teheran and surrounding villages the number of fatal cases exceeded 28,000, or about 8% of the population.
Sir Frank Lascelles left Persia in the early part of 1894, and was succeeded by Sir Mortimer Durand, who was appointed in July and arrived in Teheran in November.
The new shah, Muzaffarud-Din (born March 25, 1853), then governor-general of Azerbaijan, residing at Tabriz, was enthroned there on the day of his fathers death, and proceeded a few days later, accompanied by the British and Russian consuls, to Teheran, where he arrived on the 8th of June.
The Imperial Bank of Persia, which had already advanced a large sum of money, and thereby greatly facilitated the shahs early departure from Tabriz and enabled the grand vizier at Teheran to carry on the government, started buying up the copper coinage at all its branches and agencies.
On the 9th of July the former grand vizier, Amin-es-Sultan, was recalled from Kum, where he had resided since November 1896, arrived at Teheran three days later, and was reinstated as grand vizier on the 10th of August.
Sir Mortimer Durand, left Teheran in the early spring, and proceeded to Europe on leave.
A mission headed by Viscount Downe was afterwards despatched to Persia, to invest the shah with the order of the Garter, a ceremony which took place in Teheran on the 2nd of February 1903.
Russian concessionnaires were given the right to build roads from Tabriz to Teheran (1902) and from Tabriz to Kazvin (1903); and the Russian Bank opened new branches in Seistanan example followed in 1903 by the Bank of Persia.
The Persian officials were at first hostile, but their opposition, which was attributed to Russian influence at Teheran, was eventually overcome, and Colonel MacMahon (who was knighted in 1906) delivered his final award, sustaining the Persian contention, in February 1905.
The Revolution.On the 12th of November the shah visited the Majlis, and repeated his pledge, but during December a riot in Teheran developed into a political crisis, in which the shahs troops were employed against the civil population.
These concessions allayed the prevailing unrest for a time, but the Royalist and Nationalist parties continued secretly to intrigue against one another, and in February 1908, while the shah was driving in Teheran, two bombs were exploded under his motor-car.
Mahommed Ali consented, but withdrew from Teheran; and on his departure the royal bodyguard of so-called Cossacks Persian soldiers officered by Russians in the shahs serviceat once came into conflict with the Nationalists.
The house of parliament was bombarded, and when the Majlis appointed commissioners to discuss terms, the shah issued a manifesto dissolving the Majlis, and entrusted the restoration of order in Teheran to military administrators.
In May and June the shah issued proclamations declaring his fidelity to the constitution, and promising an amnesty to all political offenders; but he was powerless to stay the advance of the combined Bakhtiari and Nationalist troops, who entered Teheran.
Smaller quantities grown in Teheran, Tabriz and Kermanshah find their way to Smyrna, where it is said to be mixed with the local drug for the European market, the same practice being carried on at Constantinople with the Persian opium that arrives there from Samsun and Trebizond.
The revenues (cash and kind) of the province amount to about £180,000 a year, but very little of this amount reaches the Teheran treasury.
Situated on the highroad to Tabriz and Teheran, Nakhichevan has a large transit trade.
Great quantities of rice are also exported to the interior of Persia, principally to Teheran and Kazvin.
Two routes, however, lead to Teheran, one by Firuz Kuh, 180 m.
In 1874 he was attached to the British Embassy in Berlin, and after occupying a succession of minor diplomatic posts became in 1885 chargé d'affaires at Teheran.
The system of irrigation formerly carried on by these canals rendered the plain of Kazvin one of the most fertile regions in Persia; now most of the canals are choked up. The city has a population of about 50,000 and a thriving transit trade, particularly since 1899 when the carriage road between Resht and Teheran with Kazvin as a half-way stage was opened under the auspices of the Russian "Enzeli-Teheran Road Company."
Gardane, whose family was well known in the Levant, had a long and dangerous journey overland, but was cordially received at Teheran in December 1807.
For a time French influence completely replaced that of England at Teheran, and the mission of Sir John Malcolm to that court was not allowed to proceed.
In 1855, after refusing the post of minister at Teheran, he was employed in the foreign office at Paris, and acted as secretary to the congress at Paris (1855-1856).
Teheran has been given steady attention since it renewed its uranium enrichment program - and thereby abrogated a commitment not to do so.
He subsequently settled at Rai, in the vicinity of the modern Teheran, where a son of the last amir, Majd Addaula, was nominal ruler, under the regency of his mother.
Forwarded under escort to Teheran, they were, according to Watson, ordered to be sent on thence as state prisoners to Ardebil, but the farman-farma died on the way, and his brother was blinded before incarceration.
The Russian and British ministers in Teheran urged Mahommed All to maintain the constitution, and he sent a message to the Majlis, promising compliance with its demands and agreeing to place the whole army under the control of the ministry of war.