When they took office there were in Prussia sixty different tariffs, with a total of nearly 2800 classes of taxable goods: in some parts importation was free, or all but free; in others there was absolute prohibition, or duties so heavy as to amount to practical prohibition.
The transit trade with Montenegro is impeded by high tariffs on both sides of the frontier.
The conseil colonial, besides its advisory functions, discusses and votes the budget, determines the nature of the taxes, has supreme control over the tariffs, and extensive powers in the administration of colonial domains.
Another disturbing influence has been the high protective tariffs, adopted during the closing years of the century, which increased the costs of living more rapidly than the wages for labour, and compelled thousands of immigrants to seek employment elsewhere.
The rise of the industry has been favored by protective tariffs and by a system of excise which allows a considerable premium to manufacturers.
- In such circumstances the negotiations for the new commercial treaty could but fail, and though the old treaty was prolonged by special arrangement for two months, differential tariffs were put in force on both side~
West of the city, connected with it by railway, and formerly called La Boca), the port of Panama and the actual terminus of the canal, is in the Canal Zone and is a port under the jurisdiction of the United States, the commercial future of Panama is dependent upon American tariffs and the degree to which Panama and Balboa may be identified.
There are few manufacturing industries in Venezuela, and these usually of the parasitic type, created by official favour and protected by high tariffs on imports in competition.
Of the criminal law clauses, as many as 238 are taken up with tariffs of fines, while 80 treat of capital and corporal punishment, outlawry and confiscation, and to' include rules of procedure.
The older law of real property, of succession, of contracts, the customary tariffs of fines, were mainly regulated by folk-right; the reeves employed by the king and great men were supposed to take care of local and rural affairs according to folk-right.
Chapman, History of Trade between the United Kingdom and the United States, with special reference to the Effect of Tariffs (London, 1899); G.
He also advocated the homestead law and low tariffs, opposed the policy of " internal improvements," and was a zealous worker for budget economies.
The development and expansion of silk manufacture, owing to the importance and extent of the home market, coupled with high protective tariffs, has been enormous.
The more aggressive protectionists among Mr Chamberlain's supporters had lately become very confident, and Mr Balfour plainly repudiated "protection" in so far as it meant a policy aiming at supporting or creating home industries by raising home prices; but he introduced a new point by declaring that an Imperial Conference would be called to discuss with the colonies the question of preferential tariffs if the Unionist government obtained a majority at the next general election.
Inscriptions mention altars of stone and bronze, and from the sacrificial tariffs which have survived we learn that the chief types of sacrifice among the Phoenicians were analogous to those which we find in the Old Testament (ibid.
The spinning and weaving of wool, cotton and silk are the principal industries, but the enterprising spirit of the Catalans has compelled them to try almost every industry in which native capital could attempt to compete with foreign, especially since the institution of the protectionist tariffs of 1892.
The Bundesrat, acting under the direction of the chancellor of the empire, is also a supreme administrative and consultative board, and as such it has nine standing committees, viz.: for army and fortresses; for naval purposes; for tariffs, excise and taxes; for trade and commerce; for railways, posts and telegraphs; for civil and criminal law; for financial accounts; for foreign affairs; and for Alsace-Lorraine.
The imperial railway board (Reichseisenbahnamt), the chief official of which has the title of president, deals exclusively with the management of the railways throughout the empire, in so far as they fall under the control of the imperial authorities in respect of laws passed for their harmonious interworking, their tariffs and the safety of passengers conveyed.
Nearly every state had its own system; there was the greatest variety in the methods of working and in the tariffs, and W8YS~ the through traffic, so important for the commercial prosperity of the country, was very ineffective.
Bismarck always attached great importance to the improvement of the railway service, and he saw that uniformity of working and of tariffs was very desirable.
The first of these tariffs, which in order to overcome Socialist obstruction was passed en bloc on December 13-14, 1902, led to an alarming alteration in the balance of parties ~~ in the new Reichstag of 1903, the Socialistswho had previously numbered 58winning 81 seats, a gain of 23.
The peril from the infiltration of " revolutionary " ideas from without was met by the erection round the Austrian dominions of a Chinese wall of tariffs and censors, which had, however, no more success than is usual with such expedients.
Agriculture languished, hampered, as in France before the Revolution, by the feudal privileges of a noble caste which no longer gave any equivalent service to the state; trade was strangled by the system of high tariffs at the frontier and internal octrois; and finally public credit was shaken to its foundations by lavish issues of paper money and the neglect to publish the budget.
In 1892 Austria-Hungary joined with Germany, Italy, Belgium, and Switzerland in commercial treaties to last for twelve years, the object being to secure to the states of central Europe a stable and extended market; for the introduction of high tariffs in Russia and America had crippled industry.
This was done in the teeth of the expressed wish of Russia; it roused the helpless resentment of Servia, whose economic dependence upon the Dual Monarchy was emphasized by the outcome of the war of tariffs into which she had plunged in 1906, and who saw in this scheme another link in the chain forged for her by the Habsburg empire; it 1 Alois, Count Lexa von Aerenthal, was born on the 27th of September 1854 at Gross-Skal in Bohemia, studied at Bonn and Prague, was attache at Paris (1877) and afterwards at St Petersburg, envoy extraordinary at Bucharest (1895) and ambassador at St Petersburg (1896).
In spite of high tariffs and civil wars, and the competition of Matanzas, Cardenas, Cienfuegos and other Cuban ports opened to foreign trade in modern times, the commerce of Havana has steadily increased.
The opposite party, led by Clay, Adams, Biddle, &c., had schemes for banks and tariffs, enterprises which were open to severe criticism.
Sir Edward Hertslet also commenced in 1875 a series of volumes containing Treaties and Tariffs regulating the Trade between Britain and Foreign Nations, and Extracts of Treaties between Foreign Powers, containing the Most Favoured Nation Clauses applicable to Great Britain.
With regard to international commerce Colbert was equally unfortunate in not being in advance of his age; the tariffs he published were protective to an extreme.
Rhodes was also a firm believer in the federation of the South African states and colonies, and he sought to promote this end by the development of inter-state and inter-colonial railway systems, and the establishment of common customs, tariffs, and inter-colonial free trade under a customs union?
The geographical position limits the exports to mineral, forest and some pastoral products, owing to cost of transportation and the tariffs of neighbouring countries.
If I might put it to you, I would say the principles of tariffs, the principle of railway connexion, the principle of appeal in law, the principle of coinage, and in fact all those principles which exist at the present moment in the United States, irrespective of the local assemblies which exist in each separate state in that country."
This went on almost continuously as long as the rgime of moderate tariffs and commercial treatises lasted, ie.
Notwithstanding the wealth of the country in minerals and metals of all kinds, and the endeavours made by government to encourage mining, including the imposition of protective Mining tariffs even against Finland (in 1885), this and the related and re- industries are still at a low stage of development.
Although the protective tariffs thus imposed have resulted in a large increase in manufacturing industries, some of them have been antagonistic to the productive interests of the country, as in the case of weaving mills which use imported yarns.
The principle of this system is to offer cheap fares and relatively low tariffs for greater distances, and to promote, therefore, long-distance travelling.
Whether the improvement will be profitable or not to the planter or manufacturer depends on the market for the sugar, and on the conditions of foreign tariffs, which are not infrequently hostile.
The evil rose to alarming proportions during Grant's presidency, partly because of the immense extension of the civil service, partly because of the growing tendency to alliance between spoilsmen and the persons benefited by protective tariffs, and partly because the public attention was still so much absorbed in Southern affairs that little energy was left for curbing rascality in the North.
Instead of discoursing on the corporate conscience of the state and the endowments of the Church, the importance of Christian education, and the theological unfitness of the Jews to sit in parliament, he is solving business-like problems about foreign tariffs and the exportation of machinery; waxing eloquent over the regulation of railways, and a graduated tax on corn; subtle on the monetary merits of half-farthings, and great in the mysterious lore of quassia and cocculus indicus.
The statistical work includes compiling abstracts, memoranda, tables and charts relating to the trade and industrial conditions of the United Kingdom, the colonies and foreign countries, the supervision of the trade accounts, the preparation of monthly and annual accounts of shipping and navigation, statistics as to labour, cotton, emigration and foreign and colonial customs, tariffs and regulations.
Resort is made to tariffs, or duties on imports, partly to secure revenue, partly to affect the course of industry within a country.
The first important step was taken in 1881, when a new general tariff was established, in which specific duties replaced the ad valorem duties chiefly applied in the treaty tariffs of 1860-66.
The tariff of the Zollverein was, in essentials, the Prussian tariff of 1818, and was moderate as compared with most of the separate tariffs previously existing.
The era of moderated tariffs, which began with the great treaty of 1860, lasted for about twenty years, and was followed in Italy, Austria, Belgium, Switzerland and Spain by a reversion to protection, although usually to a less high system of protection than had prevailed before 1860.
The tariff system of the United States at the beginning of the 20th century thus remained rigidly and unqualifiedly protective, with rates higher than those of even the most restrictive tariffs of the countries of the European continent.
Root, Colonial Tariffs (Liverpool, 1906); E.
P g to develop native manufactures by protective tariffs; to introduce new industries, e.g.
A tariff commission was, however, created by statute in 1909, the reports of which may have some influence on the framing of tariffs in future.
After the raising of the duty on barley under the McKinley and Dingley tariffs that trade was practically destroyed and Canadian farmers were obliged to find other uses for this crop. Owing to the development of the trade with the mother-country in dairying and meat products, barley as a home feeding material has become more indispensable than ever.
The system it inaugurated has now extended its scope to telegraphs, copyright, industrial property, railway, traffic, the publication of customs tariffs, metric measures,) monetary systems and agriculture.
Customs tariffs and the monetary unions, however, are centralized at Brussels, France - Sweden and Norway, July 9, 1904.
Under the convention creating the customs tariffs union, signed in 1890, thirty states, including Great Britain and most British colonies, are associated for the purpose of prompt publication of custom tariffs and their modifications.
Entering politics as a Jacksonian Democrat, Mason was throughout his career a consistent strict constructionist, opposing protective tariffs, internal improvements by the national government, and all attempts to restrict or control the spread of slavery, which he sincerely believed to be essential to the social and political welfare of the South.
Despite American competition and Austro-Hungarian tariffs the export of swine remains the principal branch of Servian commerce.
This convention, which tended to neutralize the dependence of Servia upon Austria-Hungary by facilitating the export of Servian goods through the Bulgarian ports on the Black Sea, brought about a war of tariffs between Servia and the Dual Monarchy.
External trade, owing to high protective tariffs, was mainly with Portugal; in the period of 1910-20 it was valued at from L3,500,- 000 to L4,500,000 yearly, with a tendency for exports to decrease.
In order to do this, :mmems. he sometimes figured as a free-trader and sometimes as a protectionist, but always in a practical sense; if he imposed prohibitive tariffs, in 1664 and 1667, he also opened the free ports of Marseilles and Dunkirk, and engineered the Canal du midi.
All these laws may in general be described as codes of procedure and tariffs of compositions.